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Sample records for sodium hydroxide treatment

  1. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  3. The Structure of Lignin of Corn Stover and its Changes Induced by Mild Sodium Hydroxide Treatment

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    Dou-yong Min

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover is an abundant feedstock in the US that can be used for second generation bioethanol production. However, there is little useful data on structure of the lignin of corn stover. The following principal tasks will be addressed to profile the structure of corn stover: (1 separation of corn stover into stem, cob, and leaf; (2 isolation of cellulolytic enzyme lignins (CEL from extractive-free and the alkali-treated fractions; (3 quantification of p-coumarate and ferulate of fractions by HPLC. The results of alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and 1H-13C HSQC NMR indicated: (1 the structure of lignin varied in the fractions; (2 a remarkable amount of p-coumarate and ferulate was identified and determined; (3 the remarkable structural changes of lignin induced by alkaline treatment were elucidated.

  4. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C, formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate respectively. Statistical significance through methods like analysis of variance (ANOVA of some parameters on various concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was investigated. The effect of the varying compositions of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was also determined by using a gray scale (GS test, and also subjecting surfaces heavily stained with crude oil to determine and characterize the cleansing action of the degreaser. It was found that as the concentration of sodium hydroxide increases, the cleansing ability also increases, whereas the increase in concentration of sodium carbonate had no effect on the cleansing ability. The work would enable production of effective, useful and property controlled degreasers at moderate cost.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of.... 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  6. Comparison of the Winograd method and chemical cauterization with 10% sodium hydroxide for treating ingrown toenails

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    Nebahat Demet Akpolat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: This study was performed to assess the therapeutic outcomes of the surgical method, described by Winograd and chemical cauterization with sodium hydroxide in patients with Heifetz stage 2 and 3 ingrown toenail (recurrence, complication, improvement and time to regain activity. Materials and Methods: One-hundred patients who presented to the outpatient clinics of orthopedics, general surgery and dermatology with the complaints of pain, redness and discharge in the toenail between January 2010 and January 2012 and who failed to respond to conservative treatment and were diagnosed with Heifetz stage 2 and 3 ingrown toenail. Fifty patients underwent chemical cauterization with sodium hydroxide while 50 underwent Winograd surgery. Results: The patients were followed up for a year at 2-month intervals. While no recurrence was observed in patients who received chemical cauterization, five patients who underwent Winograd surgery had recurrence (p=0.022. Three patients receiving Winograd surgery were found to have superficial wound side infection on postoperative follow-up (p=0.08. Patients, who underwent chemical cauterization with sodium hydroxide, were detected to improve and return to normal activity in a shorter period. Conclusion: Chemical cauterization of the germinal matrix with 10% sodium hydroxide is a convenient method with a low rate of complication and recurrence compared to the Winograd surgery in the treatment of ingrown toenails.

  7. Leaching kinetics of gibbsitic bauxite with sodium hydroxide

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    Abdel-Aal El-Sayed A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a leaching kinetics study of bauxite ore with sodium hydroxide are presented. The effect of ore particle size, sodium hydroxide concentration and reaction temperature on the Al2O3 extraction rate was determined. The results obtained showed that 99% of Al2O3 was leached out using −200+270 mesh ore particle size at a reaction temperature of 105 °C for 60 min reaction time with 250 g/L NaOH. The solid-to-liquid ratio was maintained constant at 1:20. The results indicated that leaching of bauxite is the rate controlling process. The activation energy was determined to be 46.04 kJ/mole, which was characteristic for a chemically controlled process.

  8. Cementing properties of steel slag activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ni; En Wang; Jianping Li; Han Sun

    2005-01-01

    Steel slag which is mainly composed of γ-CasSiO4 and other silicates or alumino-silicates is activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide. The powders of such steel slag are usually inert to hydrate and subsequently have very low ability of cementing. But when sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide are used as activators the steel slag shows very good properties of cementing. When activated with NaOH solution the hardened slurry of the steel slag has a compressive strength of 11.13 MPa after being cured for 28 days. When activated with Na2SiO3 solution the samples after being cured for 28 days have an average compressive strength of 40.23 MPa. While the steel slag slurry which is only mixed with water has a compressive of 0.88 MPa after being cured for 28 days.

  9. Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

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    Pavlović Ljubica J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite γ-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

  10. Mechanical and physical characterization of sodium hydroxide treated Borassus fruit fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obi Reddy K; Shukla M; Uma Maheswari C; Varada Rajulu A

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the properties by chemical modification and to optimize the alkali concentration,we treated Borassus fruit fine fibers with aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations.In each case,the tensile properties of the fibers were determined.The morphology of the untreated and alkali treated fibers was observed using scanning electron microscope.The surface of the fibers became rough on alkali treatment.The tensile properties of the fibers improved on alkali treatment.The fibers attained maximum tensile properties when treated with 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and decreased thereafter.The crystallinity index of the fibers showed a similar trend.The thermal stability of the alkali treated fibers was found to be higher than that of untreated fibers.Further,the char content was maximum for fibers treated with alkali having concentration of 15% and above.The chemical composition indicated that the percentageof α-cellulose was maximum when the fibers were treated with 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and then decreased thereafter thus indicating the beginning of degradation of the fibers at higher concentrations.Thus,the optimum concentration of NaOH was established as 15% for alkali treatment of the Borassus fibers.

  11. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  12. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  13. Mechanochemical Reaction of Lanthanum Carbonate with Sodium Hydroxide and Preparation of Lanthanum Oxide Nanoparticle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永绣; 周雪珍; 王志强

    2002-01-01

    The preparation of nano sized La2O3 powder by mechanochemical reaction of lanthanum carbonate with sodium hydroxide and subsequent heat treatment was studied using X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermo gravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the mechanochemical reaction process can be divided into two steps: the first step is the multi-phases mechanochemical reaction of lanthanum carbonate with NaOH to form amorphous lanthanum basic carbonate and lanthanum hydroxide, and the second step is the crystallization of basic lanthanum carbonate with the formula of La2(OH)2(CO3)2*H2O under a quasi-hydrothermal synthesis condition caused by the mechanical ball-milling. The synthesized La2O3 powder appears clearly separated spherical-like monodisperse nano-size particles in which particle size ranges from 30 to 50 nm.

  14. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The optimum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liquid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  15. Reactions of cumene hydroperoxide mixed with sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hung-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min; Tsai, Tung-Lin

    2008-04-15

    Decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was undertaken in a free radical chain reaction. The peroxyl group is very active and unstable, while the remainder of the molecule is inert. CHP reacted with various concentrations of dilute sodium hydroxide as a catalyst to cleave at ambient and decomposition temperature. The products were verified by GC/MS, and were quantitatively analyzed by chromatography. CHP cleaved heterolytic with NaOH at 250 degrees C, whose major product was dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC); however, the main products become acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene by cleaved homolytic pathway. The catalytic concentrations of NaOH significantly affected the branch ratios of DMPC under decomposition. Based on the experimental results, a radical cleavage mechanism was proposed. To sum up, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, Lewis base, etc., could affect the incompatibilities and decomposition pathways for proper CHP cleavage process. In addition, exothermic onset temperatures (T0) and heat of decomposition (Delta Hd) of incompatible mixtures and CHP itself were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Comparisons of T0, Delta Hd and peak power were assessed to corroborate the severity of thermal hazards. From the decay rate of CHP concentration, the reaction order was determined to be 0.5, and the Arrhenius parameters were measured as Ea=92.1 kJ/mol and frequency factor A=2.42 x 10(10)min(-1).

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium hydroxide for dogs, cats and ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive consists, by specification, of a minimum of 98.0 % sodium hydroxide or alkali in the solid form, the content of solutions scaled accordingly, based on the stated or labelled concentration. No data have been provided that would support the specification of the solid form, only a 50.0 % w/w solution of sodium hydroxide in water, which is the final product of the production process described in the dossier. Sodium hydroxide is considered safe for the target animals, provided that the resulting total sodium concentration in feed does not compromise the overall electrolyte balance. Sodium hydroxide in solid form and in aqueous solution at concentrations > 8.0 % is corrosive. At lower concentrations it is irritant to skin and eyes (0.5 % and 0.2 %, respectively and the respiratory tract (0.5 %. Exposure via inhalation is likely to be minimal. Sodium hydroxide is not considered to be a skin sensitiser. As sodium hydroxide is used in food as an acidity regulator, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  17. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

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    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  18. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU GaoXiang; ZHENG ShuiLin; DING Hao

    2009-01-01

    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The op-timum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liq-uid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  19. Study of Zinc Leaching of EAF Flue Dust Using Sodium Hydroxide

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    Ahsan Abdul Ghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the production of steel from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, large amount of by-product called EAF flue dust is generated. The major proportion of flue dust is comprised of Zn (41.5 % wt.. Different phases identified by XRD analysis are zincite, franklinite and magnetite with zincite being dominant. In this study, we have performed flue dust treatment using sodium hydroxide as leaching medium. Different concentrations of alkali were used to optimize maximum recovery of Zn. XRF and Wet Chemical method were used to characterize the dust samples both before and after leaching. The optimum alkali concentration for selective leaching of zinc was found to be 4 M with a zinc recovery of 90 %.

  20. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  1. Sulfur removal from Gediz lignite using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions under mild oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1999-11-01

    Sulfur removal from a high-sulfur Turkish lignite (Gediz) using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions having dissolved oxygen was investigated under mild oxidative conditions. Effects of the parameters such as sodium hydroxide/lignite weight ratio, temperature, and partial pressure of oxygen were investigated within the ranges of 0.05--0.8, 423--498 K, and 1--2 MPa, respectively. Optimum values of these parameters were determined regarding sulfur removal and coal recovery. Influences of dry oxidation of the lignite sample as a pretreatment at 573 K and subsequent washing of some treated lignite samples with 1 N HCl were investigated.

  2. An empirical model to estimate density of sodium hydroxide solution: An activator of geopolymer concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geopolymer concrete is zero-Portland cement concrete containing alumino-silicate based inorganic polymer as binder. The polymer is obtained by chemical activation of alumina and silica bearing materials, blast furnace slag by highly alkaline solutions such as hydroxide and silicates of alkali metals. Sodium hydroxide solutions of different concentrations are commonly used in making GPC mixes. Often, it is seen that sodium hydroxide solution of very high concentration is diluted with water to obtain SHS of desired concentration. While doing so it was observed that the solute particles of NaOH in SHS tend to occupy lower volumes as the degree of dilution increases. This aspect is discussed in this paper. The observed phenomenon needs to be understood while formulating the GPC mixes since this influences considerably the relationship between concentration and density of SHS. This paper suggests an empirical formula to relate density of SHS directly to concentration expressed by w/w.

  3. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not m

  4. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  5. Comparison of the Winograd method and chemical cauterization with 10% sodium hydroxide for treating ingrown toenails

    OpenAIRE

    Nebahat Demet Akpolat; Ahmet Onur Akpolat; Ozan Namdaroğlu; Ayşe Akkuş

    2016-01-01

    Background and Design: This study was performed to assess the therapeutic outcomes of the surgical method, described by Winograd and chemical cauterization with sodium hydroxide in patients with Heifetz stage 2 and 3 ingrown toenail (recurrence, complication, improvement and time to regain activity). Materials and Methods: One-hundred patients who presented to the outpatient clinics of orthopedics, general surgery and dermatology with the complaints of pain, redness and discharge in the to...

  6. Role of sodium hydroxide in the production of hydrogen gas from the hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The role of sodium hydroxide as a promoter of hydrogen gas production during the hydrothermal gasification of glucose and other biomass samples has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor with glucose and also in the presence of the alkali from 200 C, 2 MPa to 450 C, 34 MPa at constant water loading. Without sodium hydroxide, glucose decomposed to produce mainly carbon dioxide, water, char and tar. Furfural, its derivatives and reaction products dominated the ethyl acetate extract of the water (organic fraction) at lower reaction conditions. This indicated that the dehydration of glucose to yield these products was unfavourable to hydrogen gas production. In the presence of sodium hydroxide however, glucose initially decomposed to form mostly alkylated and hydroxylated carbonyl compounds, whose further decomposition yielded hydrogen gas. It was observed that at 350 C, 21.5 MPa, half of the optimum hydrogen gas yield had formed and at 450 C, 34 MPa, more than 80 volume percent of the gaseous effluent was hydrogen gas, while the balance was hydrocarbon gases, mostly methane ({>=}10 volume percent). Other biomass samples were also comparably reacted at the optimum conditions observed for glucose. The rate of hydrogen production for the biomass samples was in the following order; glucose > cellulose, starch, rice straw > potato > rice husk. (author)

  7. Nutritional value of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardoso de Araújo Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing consumption of green coconut - fresh and industrialized - in Brazil generates a large volume of wastes and coproducts that justifies the search for alternatives for their use in animal feeding. The most limiting factor to the inclusion of these coproducts in ruminant diets is their high fiber content, which may restrict intake and performance. The present study determined the composition and in vitro dry matter degradability of whole coconut, coconut powder, and coconut fiber treated with sodium hydroxide (0%, 3%, and 6% and the effect of including whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% sodium hydroxide at different concentrations (25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% in the diet on apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and feeding behavior of sheep. Alkalinization decreased the hemicellulose, NDF, and ADF contents of the evaluated coproducts. Whole coconut and coconut powder provided greater in vitro degradation of DM compared with coconut fiber, with highest values obtained with the inclusion of 6% sodium hydroxide. Inclusion of whole coconut in the diets did not affect the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF, but influenced weight gain, feed conversion, and apparent digestibility of DM and NDF. Regarding the feeding behavior of the animals, the inclusion of whole coconut in the diet only affected their rumination time. Whole coconut hydrolyzed with 6% NAOH can be included in diets for feedlot sheep at up to 35% without reducing intake or weight gain.

  8. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

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    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  9. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  10. Combined Effect of Water Retting and Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on Properties of Luffa Cylindrica Fibres

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    Charles Wetaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luffa cylindrica is an annual climbing plant whose fruit has a vascular network of fibres. These fibres are held together by pectins which degrade during water retting to release the fibres. In this paper, the extraction of luffa cylindrica fibres together with the combined effect of water retting and alkali treatment on its tensile properties are reported. The fibres were extracted from mature fruits of Luffa cylindrica through aerobic water retting process over a duration of 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The extracted fibres were oven dried to a moisture content of 9.74±1.1% and tested in tension at gauge lengths of 10 mm. The fibres were characterized in terms of moisture regain, lignin content, hemicellulose content, and cellulose content. The combined effect of water retting and sodium hydroxide (NaOH concentration on the fibre’s breaking load, elongation, tenacity and linear density was also investigated. The luffa cylindrica fibres had a moisture regain of 10.81%, lignin content of 12.03%, cellulose content of 65.69%, and hemicellulose content of 19%. The linear density of the fibres retted for 2-8 weeks was 572–470 dTex .The determined breaking load of the fibres retted for 2-8 weeks was 1444.19-417.04 cN and 997.81-298.05 cN after treatments with 0% -16% NaOH. The fibre elongation was 4.0-24% after 2-8 weeks of retting and 4.3-14.5 % after treatments with 0% -16% NaOH. Tenacity of luffa cylindrica fibres was 6.0-25.25 cN/Tex after 2-8 weeks of retting and 5.9-20.22 cN/Tex after treatments with 0% -16% NaOH. From the study, an increase in aerobic water retting and concentration of NaOH had a positive effect on the tensile properties of the luffa cylindrica fibres.

  11. Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.

  12. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF PERIAPICALLY INFECTED TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Alma Farah Adang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An inadequate endodontic treatment may affect the root canal system and spread beyond its apical foramina that elicit periodontal tissue developing into abscess, granuloma and radicular cyst. Periodical lesions can be treated with non surgical endodontic treatment using calcium hydroxide dressing. This case study is reporting teeth 11 with periodical lesions and infection. Evidence of a clinical healing and radiographic assessments were followed by a non surgical endodontic therapy. Successful treatment outcome is related to the elimination of infection agents from the root canal. This can activate a stimulation zone to promote regeneration. Calcium hydroxide used as a root canal dressing may promote alkalinity at the adjacent tissue , create favourable environmental condition in which hard tissue formation can occur, interfere the bactericidal activity, increase mineralization, and induce healing.

  13. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  14. Oxidation states of molybdenum in oxide films formed in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo, I.A.; Doff, J.; Baron-Wiechec, A. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jones, G. [Waters Corporation, Floats Rd, Roundthorn Ind. Est., Manchester M23 9LZ (United Kingdom); Koroleva, E.V. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-31

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states of molybdenum in thin films formed potentiostatically, over a range of potentials, in either 1 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or 10 mol dm{sup -3} NaOH at 20 Degree-Sign C. Mo 3d spectra suggested that MoO{sub 2} and Mo(OH){sub 2} were the main components of the films, with smaller amounts of MoO{sub 3} and possibly Mo{sub 2}O{sub 5}. O 1s spectra indicated the presence of oxygen as oxide and hydroxide species and as bound water. Ion beam analysis revealed the formation of thin films at all potentials, with significant losses of oxidized molybdenum to the electrolyte. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxides are formed on molybdenum in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum IV and VI are identified by XPS, with MoO2 species dominating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thicknesses of films are determined by ion beam analysis for a range of potentials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films form at low efficiency due to loss of molybdenum species to electrolyte.

  15. Investigation of Nanoparticles Dispersion in Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Sia Chee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the study on nanoparticles application in enhanced oil recovery (EOR starts to growth. Nanoparticles have given better indication for EOR development such as in foam stability as its nano size particles can be feasibly dispersed in aqueous solution and easily flow through porous media. Aggregation of nanoparticles are said to be a major contributor for paralyzing nanoparticles dispersion deep into the formation. Hence, in this research sodium hydroxide (NaOH is used as stabilizing solvents or carrier fluids in enhancing nanoparticles properties to prevent coagulation of nanoparticles when mixed to create a nanofluid. The dispersion of various concentration of silica oxide (SiO2 and aluminium oxide (Al2O3 are examined by using turbidity test. Results from this research show that the silicon dioxide nanoparticles are at best to be mixed in NaOH solvent to retain longer retention time.

  16. An Improved Blue Polymer Light-Emitting Diode by Using Sodium Hydroxide/Ca/Al Cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liang; XIE Zhi-Yuan; LIU Jun; YANG Jun-Wei; CHENG Yan-Xiang; WANG Li-Xiang; WANG Fo-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The performance of blue polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is improved by introducing a thin layer of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) between the calcium cathode and the PFO emissive layer. By replacing the commonly used Ca/Al cathode by a NaOH (2.5nm)/Ca (10 nm)/Al cathode,the driving voltage is reduced from 8.3 V to 5.4 V and the light-emitting efficiency is enhanced from 0.46cd/A to 0. 72 cd/A for achieving a luminance of 500 cd/m2, respectively. Moreover, the device with NaOH/Ca/Al cathode shows a pure blue emission of (0.17, 0. 12) at high brightnesses. These improvements are attributed to introduction of a thin layer of NaOH that can lower the interfacial barrier and facilitate electron injection.

  17. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  18. Experimental investigation of CO{sub 2} capture using sodium hydroxide particles in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeem, Sareh; Ghaemi, Ahad; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    CO{sub 2} capture from air using sodium hydroxide solid sorbent in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor was investigated experimentally. The influence of three parameters of temperature, inlet CO{sub 2} volume percentage and inlet air flow rate on the CO{sub 2} removal rate was studied. Experimental results showed that the optimum rate was at 25 oC when the inlet CO{sub 2} volume percentage was 1%. The results also showed that the adsorption process was reactive, and the reaction mechanism depended on the reaction temperature. In addition, empirical observation revealed only one adsorption cycle happened at low temperatures (25-30 oC). As the temperature increased, the second adsorption cycle occurred and, finally, CO{sub 2} desorption cycle took place in the range of 90-115 .deg. C.

  19. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer catalyzed with sodium hydroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qingling Wang; Yingmo Hu; Jianhua Zhu; Yang Liu; Xue Yang; Jing Bian

    2012-06-01

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction temperature and reaction time on the grafting degree were also investigated and the results showed that the highest grafting degree of starch could reach 33.60% when the graft copolymerization was carried out in 0.40 mol l-1 NaOH aqueous solution for 9 h at 90°C with 1: 6 ratio of starch and lactic acid.

  20. Sodium hydroxide-mediated hydrogel of citrus pectin for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin

    2014-11-01

    The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future.

  1. Decomposition of acid dissolved titanium slag from Australia by sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yang; WANG Jinggang; WANG Lina; QI Tao; XUE Tianyan; CHU Jinglong

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of the decomposition of acid dissolved titanium slag with a sodium hydroxide system under atmospheric pressure was studied. The effect of reaction temperature, particle size and NaOH-to-slag mass ratio on titanium extraction was investigated. The results show that temperature and particle size have significant influence on titanium extraction. The experimental data of titanium extraction show that the shrinking core model with chemical reaction controlled process is most applicable for the decomposition of slag, with an apparent activation energy of 62.4 kJ·mol~(-1). Approximately 85 wt.%-90 wt.% of the titanium can be extracted from the slag under the optimal conditions. In addition, the purity of titanium dioxide obtained in the product is up to 98.5 wt.%.

  2. Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-06-01

    The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

  3. From Zn-Al layered double hydroxide to ZnO nanostructure:Gradually etching by sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Qiang Wan; Dong Xiang Li; Chun Fang Li; Jie Xu; Wan Guo Hou

    2012-01-01

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as precursor to produce ZnO nanostructures through dissolution of aluminum hydroxide in caustic soda.The Zn-Al LDH could transform into different nanostructures of ZnO on LDH nanosheets and even pure ZnO nanorods under various NaOH concentration.The formed ZnO nanorods vertically aligned on both LDH sides.UV-vis diverse reflectance spectra show that the obtained ZnO nanorods have a band gap of approximately 3.05 eV.Such ZnO/LDH nanostructures might be used as photocatalyst in the organic pollutant decomposition.

  4. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  5. Effect of Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide and Degree of Heat Curing on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash V. Patankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer concrete/mortar is the new development in the field of building constructions in which cement is totally replaced by pozzolanic material like fly ash and activated by alkaline solution. This paper presented the effect of concentration of sodium hydroxide, temperature, and duration of oven heating on compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar. Sodium silicate solution containing Na2O of 16.45%, SiO2 of 34.35%, and H2O of 49.20% and sodium hydroxide solution of 2.91, 5.60, 8.10, 11.01, 13.11, and 15.08. Moles concentrations were used as alkaline activators. Geopolymer mortar mixes were prepared by considering solution-to-fly ash ratio of 0.35, 0.40, and 0.45. The temperature of oven curing was maintained at 40, 60, 90, and 120°C each for a heating period of 24 hours and tested for compressive strength at the age of 3 days as test period after specified degree of heating. Test results show that the workability and compressive strength both increase with increase in concentration of sodium hydroxide solution for all solution-to-fly ash ratios. Degree of heating also plays vital role in accelerating the strength; however there is no large change in compressive strength beyond test period of three days after specified period of oven heating.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  7. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年

    2015-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  8. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  9. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  10. Hydrothermal decomposition of pentachlorophenol in subcritical and supercritical water with sodium hydroxide addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRABOWO Benedictus; VERIANSYAH Bambang; KIM Jae-Duck

    2007-01-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition of pentachlorophenol (PCP), (C6HCl5O), as the probable human carcinogen, was investigated in a tubular reactor under subcritical and supercritical water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) addition. The experiments were conducted at a temperature of 300-420℃ and a fixed pressure of 25 MPa, with a residence time that ranged from 10 s to 70 s. Under the reaction conditions, the initial PCP concentrations were varied from 0.25 to 1.39 mmol/L and the NaOH concentrations were varied from 2.5 to 25 times of the concentrations of PCP. The result of this study showed that PCP conversion in supercritical water is highly dependent on the reaction temperature, residence times, and NaOH concentration. PCP conversion in subcritical water is, however, only dependent on reaction temperature. NaOH concentration and residence times were found to have little effect on PCP conversion in subcritical condition. It was found that NaOH concentration affected the dechlorinations of PCP in the supercritical water. The intermediates detected products were proposed to be tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol, respectively.

  11. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  12. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  13. Antigen retrieval using sodium hydroxide for prion immunohistochemistry in bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, H; Sato, Y; Sata, T; Sakurai, M; Endo, J; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2011-05-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections are usually used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses in prion diseases in animals and man. However, formalin fixation cross-links proteins, reducing disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) immunolabelling. To detect PrP(Sc) in animals naturally affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie, we applied minimal pretreatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This simple pretreatment, combined with enzymatic digestion using proteinase K (PK), was equally effective in the detection of PrP(Sc) in FFPE tissue, and superior in terms of speed, compared with the usual autoclaving method. The most effective results, without any section loss, were obtained with 10 μg/ml PK in phosphate buffered saline containing 0.1% Triton-X at room temperature for 10 min and 150 mM NaOH at 60 °C for 10 min. By this simple procedure, PrP(Sc) was visualized in the brain of animals with BSE and scrapie using a range of anti-PrP primary antibodies.

  14. A Green and Facile Solid-state Synthesis Method for the Preparation of Diazenecarboxamide Azo Compounds with Potassium Ferricyanide and Sodium Hydroxide System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xin XUE; Jian Ping LI; Yu Lu WANG

    2004-01-01

    Eleven new-typed azo compounds were synthesized in good yields by dehydrogenating the corresponding aryl substituted semicarbazides using potassium ferricyanide and sodium hydroxide system under solid-state conditions.

  15. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  16. Influence of Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Silicate on Dispersion of Ultrafine Hematite%3种调整剂对微细粒赤铁矿分散行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左倩; 张芹; 邓冰; 王飞

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate on dispersion of hematite fines were studied. The results showed that hematite was better dispersed by sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate, compared with sodium carbonate; Tbere is a synergistic action between the sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate on the dispersion of ultra - fine hematite. The hematite can be better dispersed with the increase of stirring speed in a range, but the dispersion becomes worse when the stirring speed exceed a critical value.%通过单矿物沉降试验,研究了碳酸钠,氧氧化钠和硅酸钠对微细粒赤铁矿分散行为的影响.试验结果表明:与碳酸钠相比,氢氧化钠和硅酸钠对徽细粒赤铁矿有更好的分散效果;氢氧化钠和硅酸钠对微细粒赤铁矿的分散具有协同作用;在一定范围内增强搅拌强度有利于微细粒赤铁矿的分散,但搅拌强度超过某一临界值后分散效果变差.

  17. Sodium Hydroxide Pinpoint Pressing Permeation Method for the Animal Modeling of Sick Sinus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Naizhi; Jiang, Ning; Peng, Cailiang; Wang, Huaiping; Zhang, Shuoxin; Chen, Tianyu; Liu, Lixia; Wu, Yaping; Liu, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide pinpoint pressing permeation (SHPPP) was investigated in order to build a rat model of sick sinus syndrome (SSS), which is easy to operate and control the degree of damage, with fewer complications and applicable for large and small animals.Thirty healthy Wistar rats (15 males and 15 females, weighing 250-350 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely a formaldehyde thoracotomy wet compressing group (FTWC), formaldehyde pinpoint pressing permeation group (FPPP) group, and SHPPP group. The number of surviving rats, heart rate (HR), sinoatrial node recovery time (SNRT), corrected SNRT (CSNRT), and sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) were recorded 3 days, one week, and two weeks after modeling.The achievement ratio of modeling was 10% in the FTWC group, 40% in the FPPP group, and 70% in the SHPPP group, and the differences were statistically significant (χ(2) = 7.250, P = 0.007). Meanwhile, the HR was reduced by about 37% in these 3 groups 3 days after modeling, while the reduction was maintained only in SHPPP (P > 0.05) and the HR was re-elevated in the FTWC and FPPP groups 2 weeks after modeling (P < 0.05). Additionally, the SNRT, cS-NRT, and SACT were significantly prolonged compared with pre-modeling in all 3 groups (P < 0.01).SHPPP was the best method with which to build an SSS model with stable and lasting low HR and high success rate of modeling, which might be helpful for further studies on the SSS mechanisms and drugs.

  18. Efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio sobre a fração fibrosa, digestibilidade e tanino do feno de jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild Effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on fiber fraction, digestibility and tannin of jurema-preta hay (Mimosa tenuiflora. Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Morais Pereira Filho

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tratamento com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH na fração fibrosa, no teor de tanino e na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do feno de jurema-preta. As folhas foram colhidas manualmente e desidratadas à sombra. O tratamento químico consistiu na pulverização do feno com solução de 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8% de NaOH, na proporção de 1 litro da solução para 1 kg de feno. Amostras do feno foram submetidas à determinação da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, tanino e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, que se constituíram nas variáveis analisadas. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento com NaOH proporcionou efeito linear decrescente nos teores de MS, hemicelulose e tanino, enquanto, para FDN e FDA, ocorreu efeito quadrático. A PB não foi afetada e a DIVMS melhorou com o aumento da concentração de NaOH. A estimativa da DIVMS pelo teor de tanino, apesar de significativa, carece de mais estudos.Experiment was carried out with the goal to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on fiber fraction, tannin level and dry matter in vitro digestibility of jurema-preta hay. Leaves were harvested by hand and dried under shadow. Chemical treatment was done by pulverization of hay with 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8% NaOH solution following the proportion of 1 liter of solution to 1 kg of hay. Samples of hay were submitted to determinations of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, tannin and DM in vitro digestibility which were the variables analyzed. Design completely randomized was used with five treatments and four repetitions. NaOH treatment caused linear effect in DM, hemicellulose and tannin contents; while for NDF and ADF was observed quadratic effect. CP was not affected and DMIVD was

  19. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW...... studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy...

  20. Ecological comparison of calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate as sorbents; Oekologischer Vergleich der Sorptionsmittel Calciumhydroxid und Natriumhydrogencarbonat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, Christian; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie; Mocker, Mario [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing

    2009-07-01

    Lime products have long been used with success for flue gas purification in waste incineration plants, where they serve to eliminate acid gas pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. This article presents excerpts of a study commissioned by the German lime industry association for the purpose of obtaining an unbiased well-founded comparison of the environmental impact of the two sorbents calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The following questions were addressed by the study: Which of the two flue gas additives provides greater environmental benefit under specified conditions? What parameters influence the outcome? How can the results be viewed in regard to different plant configurations?.

  1. Study of Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Mangifera Indica Seed (Mango in Presence of Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by pyrolysis of seeds mango in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities. Seeds mango from Colombian Mango cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of NaOH and KOH following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 3:1 (weight terms. Activation was carried out under argon flow by heating to 823 K with 1 h soaking time. The porous texture of the obtained ACs was characterized by physical adsorptions of N2 at 77 K and CO2 at 273 K. The impregnation ration and hydroxide type had a strong influence on the pore structure of these ACs, which could be easily controlled by simply varying the proportion of the hydroxides used in the activation. Thus, the development of porosity for precursors with low structural order (high reactivity is better with NaOH than KOH, whereas the opposite is observed for the highly ordered ones. Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. In general, KOH produces activated carbons with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  3. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  4. Enhancement of In Situ Enzymatic Saccharification of Corn Stover by a Stepwise Sodium Hydroxide and Organic Acid Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    A stepwise pretreatment method that combines sodium hydroxide and organic acid pretreatments was proposed and investigated to maximize the recovery of main constituents of lignocellulose. The sodium hydroxide pretreatment was firstly optimized by a designed orthogonal experiment with the optimum pretreatment conditions determined as 1 wt% NaOH at 70 °C for 1 h, and 60.42 % of lignin was successfully removed during this stage. In the second stage, 0.5 % acetic acid was selected to pretreat the first-stage solid residue at 80 °C for 40 min in order to decompose hemicelluloses to soluble oligomers or monomers. Then, the whole slurry was subjected to in situ enzymatic saccharification by cellullase with a supplementation of xylanase to further degrade the xylooligosaccharides generated during the acetic acid pretreatment. The maximum reducing sugar and glucose yields achieved were 20.74 and 12.03 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, rapid ethanol fermentation and a yield of 80.3 % also testified this pretreatment method, and the in situ saccharification did not bring any negative impact on ethanol fermentation and has a broad application prospect.

  5. Effects of Sodium hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Silicate on the Dispersion Behavior of Ultrafine Collophanite%3种调整剂对微细粒胶磷矿分散行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 张芹; 邓冰; 左倩

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate on the dispersion behavior of ultrafine collophanite were investigated by adopting the sedimentation and liquid removal method. The results showed that comparing with sodium carbonate, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide had no obvious effects on dispersion of ultrafine collophanite; The dispersion of collophanite was effective at a higher pH value; And the collophanite was better dispersed by improving the stirring speed to be a certain extent, but more stirring had no benefit on the dispersion.%采用沉降抽液法研究了碳酸钠、氧氧化钠和硅酸钠对微细粒胶磷矿分散行为的影响.研究结果表明:相对于碳酸钠,氢氧化钠和硅酸钠对提高微细粒胶磷矿分散效果的作用不明显;在较高的pH条件下,胶磷矿的分散效果较好;在一定程度上提高搅拌速度有利于胶磷矿的分散,但过分提高则无益.

  6. 不同浓度氢氧化钠消融胆道的研究%Preliminary screening of sodium hydroxide for selective bile duct ablation and embolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱军; 董家鸿

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the pathological changes after ablation with sodium hydroxide in intrahepatic bile ducts in rabbits. Methods Twenty-four rabbits were divided into group A (5% sodium hydroxide,n=6) , group B (2. 5% sodium hydroxide,n =6), group C (1.5% sodium hydroxide,n =6) , group D (1% sodium hydroxide,n=6). The hepatic histopathology and the survival rate of the rabbits were observed. Results No rabbits were dead after the ablation. In the group A, right external lobe liver was totally necrotized after ablation with 5% sodium hydroxide (6/6). In the group B, right external lobe liver was barely completely necrotized after ablation with 2. 5% sodium hydroxide (5/6). In the group C, liver tissues were massively necrotized (1/6). In the group D, portal areas were necrotized(0/6). The biliary tracts were necrotized at the edge of lobe and there was no obvious necrosis in hepatic tissues. Conclusion 1% is the proper concentration of sodium hydroxide for selective bile duct ablation.%目的 观察氢氧化钠溶液消融家兔胆道后肝脏病理及肝功能改变.方法 观察家兔右外叶胆道于5%至1%浓度氢氧化钠溶液消融后肝脏功能状态、组织病理改变和术后存活情况.结果 动物存活率100%(24/24).各组间肝功能改变差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但均与术前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).5%氢氧化钠溶液组右外叶肝脏完全坏死(6/6).2.5%氢氧化钠组右外叶肝脏几乎完全坏死(5/6).1.5%氢氧化钠组右外叶以汇管区为中心的大片坏死(1/6).1%氢氧化钠组右外叶以汇管区为中心的点片状坏死,肝叶边缘仅胆管坏死(0/6).结论 1%为氢氧化钠溶液消融胆道的较理想浓度.

  7. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  8. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  9. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  10. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10, and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning

  11. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  12. Structural and surface functionality changes in reticulated vitreous carbon produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with sodium hydroxide additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Silvia Sizuka; Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira; Ferreira, Neidenêi Gomes

    2017-02-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the acid catalyst increases the storage life of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin avoiding its continuous polymerization. In this work, a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) was added directly to the PFA resin in order to minimize the production of wastes generated when PFA is washed with diluted basic solution. Thus, different amounts of this concentrated basic solution were added to the resin up to reaching pH values of around 3, 5, 7, and 9. From these four types of modified PFA two sample sets of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) were processed and heat treated at two different temperatures (1000 and 1700 °C). A correlation among cross-link density of PFA and RVC morphology, structural ordering and surface functionalities was systematically studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The PFA neutralization (pH 7) led to its higher polymerization degree, promoting a crystallinity decrease on RVC treated at 1000 °C as well as its highest percentages of carboxylic groups on surface. A NaOH excess (pH 9) substantially increased the RVC oxygen content, but its crystallinity remained similar to those for samples from pH 3 and 5 treated at 1000 °C, probably due to the reduced presence of carboxylic group and the lower polymerization degree of its cured resin. Samples with pH 3 and 5 heat treated at 1000 and 1700 °C can be considered the most ordered which indicated that small quantities of NaOH may be advantageous to minimize continuous polymerization of PFA resin increasing its storage life and improving RVC microstructure.

  13. Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

  14. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%.

  15. The Comparison of Rumen Fungi Quantification in the Medium Containing Sunflower Meal Treated with Formaldehyde and or Sodium Hydroxide by Using Quantitative Competitive PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadabadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR was conducted to compare the number of rumen anaerobic fungi in pure culture of fungi containing high fat sunflower meal (165 g fat/kg DM processed with formaldehyde and NaOH. Twenty one multiparous early lactating Holstein cows (30±5 days of lactation selected and fed experimental diets for 7 weaks. The diets were including untreated sunflower meal (control, n=3 and treated 4 % sodium hydroxide (n=3 and treated with 0.3 and 0.6 % formaldehyde (n=3. Competitive PCR technique was used to evaluate quantitative difference of anaerobic fungal population in the rumen under the dietary treatments. Standard control DNA was constructed from lambda phage for use in the competitive PCR and was shown to amplify under the same reaction condition and with the same amplification efficiency as the target DNA. The relative intensities of PCR products were used to evaluate variety of fungal population under fed treatments. The analysis of data of present study showed that NaOH treated sunflower meal increased and formaldehyde treated sunflower meal decreased number of fungi in medium compared to control. Therefore it seems that QC-PCR method has appropriate efficacy for enumerating rumen fungal population under the effect of dietary treatments.

  16. Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

  17. Corrosion behavior of 6061/Al-15 vol. pct. SiC(p composite and the base alloy in sodium hydroxide solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Reena Kumari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of 6061/Al-15 vol. pct. SiC(p composite and 6061 Al base alloy was investigated in a sodium hydroxide solution. The electrochemical parameters were derived from potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS techniques. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of the composite was lower than that of the base alloy in selected corrosion media. The corrosion rates of both the composite and the base alloy increased with the increase in the concentration of sodium hydroxide and also with the increase in temperature. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Activation energy was evaluated using Arrhenius equation, and enthalpy of activation and entropy of activation values were calculated using transition state equation.

  18. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  19. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  20. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning; Enforcement... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved...

  1. Production of Biodiesel (B100 from Jatropha Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Folaranmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is about the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Other oils can also be used for the production, but jatropha was chosen because it is not edible therefore, it will not pose a problem to humans in terms of food competition. Before the transesterification process was carried out, some basic tests such as free fatty acid content, iodine value, and moisture content were carried out. This was done so as to ascertain quality yield of the biodiesel after the reaction. The production of the biodiesel was done with standard materials and under standard conditions which made the production a hitch-free one. The jatropha oil was heated to 60°C, and a solution of sodium methoxide (at 60°C was added to the oil and stirred for 45 minutes using a magnetic stirrer. The mixture was then left to settle for 24 hours. Glycerin, which is the byproduct, was filtered off. The biodiesel was then thoroughly washed to ensure that it was free from excess methanol and soap. The characterization was done at NNPC Kaduna refinery and petrochemicals. The result shows that the product meets the set standard for biodiesel.

  2. Microcrystalline Cellulose from Plant Wastes through Sodium Hydroxide-Anthraquinone-Ethanol Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Oludayo Oluwasina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose was prepared from wastes of Tithonia diversifolia, inflorescence stems of Musa sapientum, and Musa paradisiaca by soda-anthraquinone–ethanol pulping method. They were bleached by sodium chlorite and then alpha-cellulose was isolated, followed by preparation of microcrystalline cellulose. The study revealed the effect of various processing stages on the properties of the cellulose obtained. Yields of more than 80% of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid state 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR confirmed the presence of the major expected peaks in microcrystalline cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that Musa species had short fiber length and mixtures of non-aggregated spherical, rod-shaped and thread like microcrystalline cellulose, but Tithonia diversifolia had aggregate crystal packed formation. The results compared well with those of other authors and were able to meet most of the requirements specified in British Pharmacopoeia. The study revealed that a drug excipient like microcrystalline cellulose that could protect thermo-labile active ingredients could be successfully obtained from abundant non-woody agricultural wastes.

  3. Effects of airborne-particle abrasion, sodium hydroxide anodization, and electrical discharge machining on porcelain adherence to cast commercially pure titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Asli; Inan, Ozgür; Halkaci, Selçuk

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of airborne-particle abrasion (APA), sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA), and electrical discharge machining (EDM) on cast titanium surfaces and titanium-porcelain adhesion. Ninety titanium specimens were cast with pure titanium and the alpha-case layer was removed. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Ten specimens from each group were subjected to APA. SHA was applied to the second subgroups, and the remaining specimens were subjected to the EDM. For the control group, 10 specimens were cast using NiCr alloy and subjected to only APA. Surfaces were examined by using scanning electron microscope and a surface profilometer. Three titanium porcelains were fused on the titanium surfaces, whereas NiCr specimens were covered with conventional porcelain. Titanium-porcelain adhesion was characterized by a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed that the porcelain-metal bond strength of the control group was higher than that of the titanium-porcelain system (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the bond strengths of titanium groups (p 0.05), except the bond strengths of Noritake Super Porcelain TI-22 groups on which APA and SHA were applied (p < 0.05). SHA and EDM as surface treatment did not improve titanium-porcelain adhesion when compared to APA.

  4. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  5. Waste activated sludge hydrolysis and acidification: A comparison between sodium hydroxide and steel slag addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhang, Xuan; Feng, Leiyu; Li, Yongmei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline treatment with steel slag and NaOH addition were investigated under different pH conditions for the fermentation of waste activated sludge. Better performance was achieved in steel slag addition scenarios for both sludge hydrolysis and acidification. More solubilization of organic matters and much production of higher VFA (volatile fatty acid) in a shorter time can be achieved at pH10 when adjusted by steel slag. Higher enzyme activities were also observed in steel slag addition scenarios under the same pH conditions. Phosphorus concentration in the supernatant increased with fermentation time and pH in NaOH addition scenarios, while in contrast most phosphorus was released and captured by steel slag simultaneously in steel slag addition scenarios. These results suggest that steel slag can be used as a substitute for NaOH in sludge alkaline treatment.

  6. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  7. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine Mixture for Treatment of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Lesions: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donyavi, Zakiyeh; Ghahari, Parastoo; Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad; Kharazifard, Mohammadjavad; Yousefi-Mashouf, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the root canal microbial count of necrotic teeth after irrigation with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (single session treatment) and two-session root canal treatment with two-week application of calcium hydroxide (CH) mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as intracanal medicament. Methods and Materials: In this randomized clinical trial, single-rooted necrotic teeth were divided into two groups. Root canal was irrigated with 2 mL of 6% NaOCl in one group, and a mixture of 0.2% CHX and CH powder as an intracanal medicament for two weeks, in the other group. Root canal samples were obtained before and after the intervention and number of colony forming units (CFUs) was counted in each phase. Results: The reduction of Enterococcus faecalis CFU was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.233) but the CFU of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was significantly lower in CH+CHX group (Pfaecalis colony counts. Thus, it may be beneficial to carry out primary root canal treatment of necrotic teeth with endodontic lesions in two sessions with intracanal medicaments to achieve predictable results. PMID:27790252

  8. Raman Study on Pompeii Potteries: The Role of Calcium Hydroxide on the Surface Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Chiriu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pottery samples from the Pompeii archaeological site were investigated by IR Raman spectroscopy and EDAX measurements. The analysis of the Raman spectra of the surfaces reveals the presence calcium hydroxide (peak at about 780 cm−1 while the calcium carbonate is totally absent. The comparative studies on the carbonation effect of the surfaces were performed on laboratory grown samples of calcium hydroxide. The samples were treated at high temperature and exposed to different ambient conditions, and the analysis suggests that the original surfaces of Roman pottery were scattered by calcium hydroxide (limewash before the cooking process in the furnace. The result of this surface treatment not only permits a vitrification of the surfaces but also seems to reduce the content of CO2 in the furnace atmosphere and then obtain a more oxidant ambient during the cooking of the pottery. These results give new insights on the real degree of knowledge of the Romans about the art of ceramics and more generally about chemistry and technologies.

  9. Production of zeolite A come from rio Capim Kaolin: Study on recycle of sodium hydroxide solution; Producao de zeolita A, a partir de caulim do rio Capim: estudo do reciclo da solucao de hidroxido de sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, C.G.; Rodrigues, E.C.; Rocha Junior, C.A.F.; Macedo, E.N.; Neves, R.F., E-mail: crisqi02@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The kaolin processing industry is an important economic sector in the State of Para, but produces huge amounts of wastes composed essentially of kaolinite. The production processes of zeolites typically use sodium hydroxide in excess, are discarded. So the objective is the development process for production of zeolite A which allows the reuse of the solution of sodium hydroxide used in excess through your recycling. Presents the results of XRD, SEM of the zeolites produced in five consecutive cycles performed at a temperature of 110°C/24h as a source of sodium hydroxide solution of sodium 5 M, using a molar ratio of Si/Al = 1 and Na/Al = 1,26. (author)

  10. Sodium hydroxide digestion of wolframite by reactive extrusion%反应挤出法碱分解黑钨矿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中伟; 梁勇; 刘旭恒; 李洪桂; 陈爱良; 梁新星

    2011-01-01

    A novel process was proposed to solve the current disadvantages of high reaction temperature and low productivity in the process of NaOH digestion of wolframite. With a reactor of twin screw extruder, the process of sodium hydroxide digestion of high-viscosity wolframite by reactive extrusion was investigated. The effects of leaching time, temperature, screw rotating speed and NaOH dosage on digestion of wolframite were systematically evaluated. Under the conditions of mass ratio of ore to water 2.67:1, NaOH dosage 1.5 times to stoichiometry, temperature 120 °C, screw rotating speed 180 r/min and reaction time 2.5 h, the content of WO3 in the residue and the WO3 extraction are 2.54% and 99.13%, respectively.%针对目前黑钨矿碱法分解工艺中存在的反应温度高、生产效率低等问题,开发了一种黑钨矿碱分解新工艺,以双螺杆挤出机为反应器,采用反应挤出法对高黏度黑钨矿的碱分解过程进行了研究,系统考察浸出时间、温度、螺杆转速和碱用量对钨矿浸出效果的影响.在矿水质量比为2.67∶1、碱用量为理论量的1.5倍、温度为120℃,螺杆转速为180 r/min和反应时间为2.5 h的条件下,浸出渣中WO3的含量为2.54%,钨矿的浸出率达99.13%.

  11. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after cramophatyrgioma stagery.Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op-erative days. Hypematremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/l, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 nmml/L.Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients,simple hypematremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodium disorder was 11 patients. Condusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com-plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna-tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  12. Industrial technology of preparing sodium sulfide from absorption of hydrogen sulfide with sodium hydroxide solution%用氢氧化钠溶液吸收硫化氢制取硫化钠工业技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚方毓

    2012-01-01

    An industrial technology of using sodium hydroxide solution to absorb hydrogen sulfide generated from barium chloride production to produce sodium sulfide was introduced and its feasibility was discussed from technical and economic perspectives respectively:sodium hydroxide solution with 380-420 g/L absorbed hydrogen sulfide in the packed tower,the reaction was end when mass concentration of sodium sulfide was at 330~350 g/L and the absorption rate of hydrogen sulfide reached at 95%~98%.It not only protects the environment, but also creates benefits for enterprises.%详细阐述了在氯化钡生产过程中,将产生的硫化氢用氢氧化钠溶液吸收并制取硫化钠的生产工艺,分别从技术和经济的角度讨论其可行性:用380~420 g/L氢氧化钠溶液在填料塔中吸收硫化氢,反应终点控制硫化钠质量浓度为330~350 g/L,硫化氢吸收率达95%~98%.该工艺不仅可有效保护环境,而且可为企业创造效益.

  13. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: oamendoz@unal.edu.co [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  14. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after craniopharyngioma surgery. Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op erative days. Hypernatremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/1, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 mmol/L. Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients, simple hypernatremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodiu m disorder was 11 patients. Conclusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  15. One-pot synthesis of cyclic aldol tetramer and,β-unsaturated aldol from linear aldehydes using quaternary ammonium combined with sodium hydroxide as catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海峰; 钟宏; 王帅; 李方旭

    2015-01-01

    One-pot synthesis of cyclic aldol tetramer anda,β-unsaturated aldol from C3−C8 linear aldehydes using phase-transfer catalyst (PTC), quaternary ammonium, combined with sodium hydroxide as catalysts was investigated. Butanal was subjected for detail investigations to study the effect of parameters. It was found that the selectivity of cyclic aldol tetramer depends greatly on the operating conditions of the reaction, especially the PTC/butanal molar ratio. The average selectivity of 2-hydroxy-6-propyl-l, 3, 5-triethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HPTECHCA) was 54.41% using tetrabutylammonium chloride combined with 14% (mass fraction) NaOH as catalysts at 60 °C for 2 h with a PTC-to-butanal molar ratio of 0.09:1. Pentanal was more likely to generate cyclic aldol tetramer compared with other aldehydes under the optimum experimental conditions. Recovery of the PTC through water washing followed by adding enough sodium hydroxide from the washings was also demonstrated.

  16. 电位滴定法测定烧碱中微量氯含量%The Determination of Chlorine Ion in Sodium Hydroxides Using Potentionetry Titrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正梅; 张忠瑞

    2011-01-01

    The potentiometry titration can be used to determine the content of chlorine ion in sodium hydroxides. The pracess was that neutralize sodium hydroxides with excessive concentrated nitric acids, using the standard liquor of silver nitrate as the titrant,%采用电位滴定分析法测定烧碱中氯含量:以浓硝酸中和烧碱并过量,用硝酸银作标准溶液为滴定剂,在乙醇介质中,以Ag—Ag2S电极作指示电极,双液接型甘汞电极为参比电极进行电位滴定,根据电位突跃确定滴定终点,方法相对误差0.047%,相对标准偏差0.00025%;平均回收率为99.80%。

  17. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat......Amorphous iron (hydr)oxides are used to remove heavy metals from wastewater and in the treatment of air pollution control residues generated in waste incineration. In this study, iron oxides containing heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Hg, Cr, and Cd) were treated at 50, 600, and 900 °C to simulate...... their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron...

  18. RESEARCH ON MECHANISM OF LEACHING ANTIMONOUS OXIDE BY AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND GLYCERIN%NaOH、甘油的水溶液浸出三氧化二锑的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘朝群; 邓先和; 宾万达; 杨天足

    2001-01-01

    Antimonous oxide can be dissolved in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and glycerin and the new product is sodium antimonite containing glycerin.The solution is stable under a certain concentration of sodium hydroxide.The mechanism of the reaction and the stability of sodium antimonite containing glycerin solution have been studied.%NaOH、甘油或木糖醇的水溶液浸出锑氧粉得到双金属醇盐,溶液在一定的碱性条件下能保持稳定;本文对NaOH、甘油的水溶液浸出三氧化二锑生成甘油亚锑酸钠的机理及其稳定性作了一系列的研究。

  19. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  20. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  1. 2-氯酚在超临界水-NaOH体系中的脱氯特性%Dechlorination characteristics of o-chlorophenol in supercritical water-sodium hydroxide system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙治荣; 马林; 韩延波

    2012-01-01

    The dechlorination characteristics of o-chlorophenol in supercritical water-sodium hydroxide system were studied.The conversion of o-chlorophenol,the yield of chloride ion and the dechlorination selectivity were investigated in the presence of sodium hydroxide.Results indicated that sodium hydroxide could significantly improve the conversion of o-chlorophenol,the yield of chloride ion and the dechlorination selectivity.The conversion of o-chlorophenol was improved with the increase of the additive amount of sodium hydroxide.o-chlorophenol conversed completely at residence time of 27 s under the conditions of 460 ℃,25 MPa,and the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to o-chlorophenol of 1 to 1.%研究了2-氯酚在超临界水-NaOH体系中的脱氯特性,考察了NaOH添加对2-氯酚转化率、Cl-生成率、脱氯选择性等的影响。实验结果表明,NaOH的添加能够显著提高2-氯酚的转化率、Cl-的生成率和脱氯选择性。2-氯酚的转化率随着NaOH添加量的增大而增大,460℃、25 MPa条件下,NaOH添加量与2-氯酚的摩尔比为1∶1时,停留时间27 s时可实现2-氯酚的完全转化。

  2. Sodium valproate in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D G; Johnson, R H; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1980-09-01

    The value of sodium valproate in the management of patients during withdrawal from alcohol dependence has been assessed. Alcoholic inpatients were randomly allocated to two groups - one treated with sodium valproate and the other acting as a control. All patients received multivitamins and fluid and electrolyte replacement, and some received chlormethiazole or other tranquillisers. Treatment with sodium valproate (1200 mg daily) was continued for one week. The occurrence of seizures and other withdrawal symptoms (tremulousness, nausea, sweating, disorientation) were noted daily. Forty-nine episodes of withdrawal have been included in the trial - 22 in the sodium valproate group and 27 in the control group. Five patients, all in the control group, had seizures. Other withdrawal symptoms disappeared more quickly in the sodium valproate group even though fewer patients were receiving chlormethiazole.

  3. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

    2005-08-19

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  4. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  5. Treatment with coated layer double hydroxide clays decreases the toxicity of copper-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Deanne; Nar, Mangesh; D'Souza, Nandika Anne; Glenn, J Brad; Klaine, Stephen J; Roberts, Aaron P

    2014-05-01

    Copper is a common pollutant found in watersheds that exerts toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Layer double hydroxide (LDH) clays are able to adsorb a wide range of contaminants through ion-exchange mechanisms. Coating LDH clays with various materials alters the aggregation of clay particles into the nano-size range, thus increasing relative surface area and offering great potential for contaminant remediation. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment with coated LDH clays decreases the toxicity of copper-containing solutions to Daphnia magna. Four LDH clays with different coatings used to alter hydrophobicity were as follows: used: Na(+) montmorillonite, Zn-Al LDH-nitrate, Zn-Al LDH-stearate, and Zn-Al LDH-carbonate. It was determined that coated LDH clays decreased copper toxicity by decreasing bioavailability and that smaller aggregate sizes decreased bioavailability the most. 96 h LC50 values increased by as much as 4.2 times with the treatment of the solutions with 100 mg/L LDH clay. Copper analysis of the clay and solutions indicated that the clays work by decreasing copper bioavailability by way of a binding mechanism. Coated LDH clays hold promise as a small-scale remediation tool or as an innovative tool for toxicity identification and evaluation characterization of metals.

  6. NSAIDs in the Treatment of Adult Asthma: Sodium Cromoglycate and Nedocromil Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel-Y Rouleau

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of adult asthma, sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are the most frequently prescribed. These medications have a similar efficacy profile in asthma although it has been suggested that nedocromil is more powerful than cromoglycate, particularly in its steroid sparing effects. Both drugs have been recommended as alternatives to steroids in the treatment of mild asthma. They are useful in the prevention of bronchospasm induced by exposure to allergens or to a variety of other stimuli. In comparison with theophylline or low dose inhaled steroids, cromoglycate and nedocromil have shown a similar antiasthmatic efficacy, although this is variable among patients.

  7. Accidental injury of the inferior alveolar nerve due to the extrusion of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yooseok; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Kim, Yemi; Kim, Taehyeon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-02-01

    During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronan Jacques Rezende Delgado; Thaís Helena Gasparoto; Carla Renata Sipert; Claudia Ramos Pinheiro; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Roberto Brandāo Garcia; Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Ana Paula Campanelli; Norberti Bernardineli

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0-100 and 100-200 μm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicanscolony forming units at a depth of 0-100 lzm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100-200 μm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans.

  9. [Sodium azide--clinical course of the poisoning and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopaciński, Bogdan; Kołacinski, Zbigniew; Winnicka, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Sodium azide poisonings occur very rarely. The mechanism of sodium azide toxic effect has not yet been fully explained. Despite the lack of an explicit procedure for the cases of sodium azide poisonings, in vitro tests and rare case reports suggest that treatment with antidotes for cyanide poisoning victims can be effective. This study describes two cases of suicidal sodium azide ingestion. Case 1. 30-year-old male ingested ca. 180 mg of sodium azide. On admission to hospital, within 4 hours from poisoning, the man complained of dizziness and anxiety. Physical examination revealed horizontal nystagmus, flapping tremor, HR 135/min. In laboratory tests, higher blood concentration of lactates (3 mmol/l) was detected, as well as lower potassium concentration (3.4 mmol/L) and increased transaminase activity (ALT 74 U/l, AST 90 U/l). Electrocardiographic tests showed a negative T wave in limb lead III. Other results were within normal. As the patient ingested a toxic dose of sodium azide, he was treated according to the therapy prescription for cyanide poisoning (amyl nitrite inhalation followed by intravenous administration of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulphate). ECG record of the last day of hospitalization (7th day of treatment) showed negative T waves in lead III, V4-V6. He was discharged from hospital in good condition. Case 2.23-year-old male ingested 10 g of sodium azide 1.5 hours prior to admission to hospital. At the beginning, the patient's condition was good, but it changed to critical state within the first hours of hospitalization. He developed a deep coma, respiratory and circulatory insufficiency, metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrrhythmias and anuria. Cardiac activity monitoring showed alternating tachycardia (140 beats per minute) and bradycardia (48 beats per minute), numerous additional supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles and sinus dysrrhythmia. Cardiac arrest (asystolia) occurred twice, the second incident with fatal outcome. The patient

  10. Ionic association of hydroperoxide anion HO2- in the binding mean spherical approximation. Spectroscopic study of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy; Simonin, Jean-Pierre

    2006-12-28

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy of hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions was studied. The peroxide band in the UV range shifts from approximately 214 nm to approximately 236 nm as the NaOH concentration increases from 0.338 mol dm-3 to 13.1 mol dm-3. The band originates from an intramolecular electronic transition of the hydroperoxide anion HO2-, as indicated by the negligible temperature effect on the band position and confirmed by ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. It is postulated that the bathochromic shift of the peroxide band that accompanies the increase in NaOH concentration originates from the formation of the ion pair (Na+HO2-). The equilibrium constant for the ion association reaction (0.048 mol-1 dm3) and the characteristics of the individual absorption bands of the hydroperoxide anion and its associate with Na+ were determined from the numerical modeling of the absorbance data, using the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA).

  11. Sorbents based on asbestos with a layer of an hydroxyethylcyclam derivative of PVC containing aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Novikov, A. K.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    Aquacomplexes of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide with aza-crown groups are synthesized in cavities of a sorbent from the porous layer of a PVC cyclam-derivative grafted onto fibers of asbestos fabric. The structure of sorbents with complexes is studied and their adsorption characteristics are determined. It is shown that the affinity of the developed surface toward ethanol, benzene, and hexane depends on the nature of complexes in the pore walls, and the volume of cavities formed as a result of the pores on the developed asbestos surface being coated with networks of aza-crown groups is larger than that of cavities with walls of aza-crown groups in the layers of a PVC cyclam derivative. Indicators of H+- and OH--conductivity of sorbents with complexes as electrochemical bridges are determined. It is shown that the major part of H+- and OH--ions moves through complexes with aza-crown groups in the region of cavities formed of pores on the surface of asbestos.

  12. ICP-AES与分光光度法测定高纯氢氧化钠中三氧化二铁含量%ICP-AES and spectrophotometric determination of high purity sodium hydroxide content sodium hydroxide content of Fe2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德化; 马文雁

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces thc use of AtomScan Advantage type inductively coupled piasma emission spectrometer analysis of high purity sodium hydroxide in the Fe2O3 content, and compared with conventional spectrophotomctry, show that the LCP-AES method in the production of the supenority of the analysis.%本文着重介绍利用 AtomScan Advantage 型电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪分析高纯氢氧化钠中 Fe2O3 含量,并与传统分光光度法相比较,表明 ICP-AES 法在生产分析中的优越性.

  13. 鱿鱼、海参、鲜奶中非法添加工业火碱的辅助检测%Determination of illegal adding of industrial sodium hydroxide in sleeve-fish, sea cucumber and raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗义辉; 陈江; 王国民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the illegal using of industrial sodium hydroxide during the food produc-tion, such as squid, sea cucumber, fresh milk.Method The protein denaturation in squid and sea cucumber caused by the illegally added industrial sodium hydroxide was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The change of heavy metal element content in squid, sea cucumber and fresh milk was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).Results Adding industrial sodium hydroxide could cause protein de-naturation as well as the increasing of heavy metal content including Pb, As and Hg in food.Conclusion Both DSC and AAS can be employed as auxiliary methods in monitoring the industrial sodium hydroxide using in food industry.%目的:检测制作鱿鱼、海参、鲜奶等食品时是否违法使用工业火碱。方法利用差示扫描量热法测定鱿鱼、海参中非法添加工业火碱可能引起的蛋白质变性,用原子吸收光谱法测定鱿鱼、海参和鲜奶中非法添加工业火碱可能引起的重金属元素含量的变化。结果添加工业火碱会引起该类食品蛋白质变性和Pb、As、Hg等重金属含量的升高。结论差示扫描量热法和原子吸收光谱法均可辅助用于检测该类食品是否添加工业火碱。

  14. 氢氧化钠梯度浓度浸泡制备乌鸡皮蛋工艺研究%Study on the Major Factors for Making Preserved Dark Eggs with Gradient Concentration Sodium Hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中科; 黄姝洁; 卢晓黎

    2011-01-01

    以乌鸡蛋为原料,以感官评价为指标,采用正交试验研究了氢氧化钠梯度浓度浸泡制备乌鸡皮蛋的工艺方法,优化出的关键工艺参数为:食盐4%、红茶末2.5%、硫酸锌0.4%,浸泡初期温度25℃~27℃、氢氧化钠6%;进入转色期后,温度21℃~23℃、氢氧化钠浓度2.5%.%Dark egg was taken as the research object, taking the sense organs assess as the test indices, the orthogonal experiment as the means of analyzing, the level of main factors for making preserved dark eggs with gradient concentration sodium hydroxide have been selected. The results show that optimum conditions were: salt concentration was 4%, black tea amount was 2.5%, zinc sulfate concentration was 0.4%, the initial curing temperature was 25-27℃, the initial sodium hydroxide concentration was 6%, the temperature of turning stage was 21-23℃, the sodium hydroxide concentration of turning stage was 2.5%.

  15. Optical and Thermal Properties of Zn/Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite Intercalated with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn/Al-LDH-SDS nanocomposites have been prepared using a coprecipitation method in different molar ratio of Zn2+/Al3+ = 2, 3, and 4 at pH = 10 and different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M. The XRD and FTIR data show the successful intercalation of SDS into the LDH interlayer. The XRD diffractogram showed that the basal spacing for Zn/Al–NO3- is 0.89 nm compared to 2.54–2.61 nm for the Zn/Al-SDS nanocomposite. Optical band gap of the samples was calculated using Kubelka-Munk model. Due to the presence of LDH phase, two band gap energies (Eg1 and Eg2 were observed. The values of Eg1 and Eg2 were found around 4.8 eV and 3.75 eV for Zn/Al-LDH (r = 2, 3, and 4. The values of band gap of LDH-SDS nanocomposites were found to increase to around 4.2 eV and 5.2 eV. For Zn4Al-LDH-SDS with 0.4 M and 0.8 M of SDS, only one energy gap at around 3.23 eV was observed. The optical band gap of SO42- phase increased as the amount of SDS increases. Thermal diffusivity of the resulted nanocomposite was also investigated.

  16. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.

    2000-10-30

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  17. Nedocromil sodium versus sodium cromoglycate in treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K D; Spooner, C H; Rowe, B H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare the effects of prophylactic doses of nedocromil sodium (NCS) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on postexercise lung function, in persons diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Randomized controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Asthma Register, plus hand searching for trials in journals, bibliographies of relevant studies and review articles. Randomized controlled trials comparing NCS to SCG in prophylactic treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction were eligible. Studies were pooled using odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous outcomes or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for continuous outcomes. No significant differences were noted between NCS and SCG with respect to the maximum per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (WMD=-0.88; 95% CI -4.50-2.74), complete protection (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.50-1.81), clinical protection (OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.36-1.39), unpleasant taste (OR=6.85; 95% CI 0.77-60.73), or sore throat (OR=3.46; 95% CI 0.32-37.48). Subgroup analyses based on age, dosages of medications and timing of exercise postinhalation were consistent with the overall pooled analyses. No significant differences were evident between the effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate during the immediate postexercise period in adults and children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, with regards to maximum per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second, complete protection, or clinical protection. Side-effect profiles were similar.

  18. The effectiveness of various chelates used alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Uzunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of various chelates used alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl in the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 from root canals. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 72 mandibular incisors were prepared up to the ProTaper F2 file. Among these, six randomly selected teeth were used as negative and positive controls, while the root canals of the remaining 66 were filled with Ca(OH2 paste for 1 week. Then, the experimental group specimens were divided into six groups (n = 11. The access cavities were reopened and the Ca(OH2 paste in each group was removed using the following solutions: 2.5 mL ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; Group 1, 2.5 mL peracetic acid (PAA; Group 2, 2.5 mL QMix (Group 3, 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL EDTA (Group 4, 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL PAA (Group 5, and 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL QMix (Group 6. Digital photographs of longitudinally split specimens were imported into image analyzer software, and the amount of residual Ca (OH 2 was recorded as a percentage of the overall canal surface area. The results were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Conover–Dunn tests. Results: The canal walls in the positive control group were completely covered with Ca(OH 2 compared with those in the negative control group. The lowest Ca(OH2 removal efficiency was observed for Group 4 (P < 0.001, while Group 6 showed favorable results (P < 0.05. Conclusions: QMix combined with NaOCl can remove Ca(OH2 from root canals as effectively as 17% EDTA and 1% PAA. The type and sequence of irrigants are more important than the total irrigant volume for effective Ca(OH 2 removal.

  19. 废碳酸锶制备八水氢氧化锶联产硝酸钠研究%STUDY ON PREPARATION OF STRONTIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE FROM WASTE STRONTIUM CARBONATE.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志余

    2001-01-01

    The process for preparation of strontium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from waste strontium, which comes from industrial strontium carbonate production, is introduced. It provides a new way for utilizing waste strontium carbonate.%介绍了利用工业SCO3生产过程中产生的废次碳酸锶生产八水氢氧化锶及硝酸钠的工艺,为废锶的综合利用提出了一条新的途径。

  20. 多金属金矿氢氧化钠焙烧热力学研究%Thermodynamics study of sodium hydroxide roasting in a poly-metallic gold mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞祥; 曾斌; 余攀; 毛继勇; 谢博毅; 王志刚; 阮建国

    2013-01-01

    Roasting is an effective pre-treatment technology to improve gold and silver recovery rate for poly-metallic gold mine. ΔG0T-T function of the main chemical reaction during NaOH roasting process in the poly-metallic gold mine by thermodynamic calculations. ΔG0T-T is drawn accordingly. Thermodynamics calculation results show that NaOH roasting lowers the generating chances of copper ferrite, zinc ferrite, zinc silicate and lead silicate, whose binding forces to Au and Ag decreases accordingly. The appropriate temperature of roasting sodium hydroxide is higher than 834.33 K.%焙烧是一种提高多金属金矿中金、银回收率的有效预处理方法,通过热力学计算,得到了多金属金矿NaOH焙烧过程主要化学反应的△G0T-T函数,并绘制了△G0T-T图.热力学分析结果表明NaOH焙烧能降低CuO· Fe2O3、ZnO·Fe2O3、PbO· SiO2、2ZnO·SiO2的生成几率,从而降低了以上物质对Au、Ag的包裹作用.多金属金矿NaOH焙烧的适宜温度为T≥834.33 K.

  1. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  2. 碱性锌-镍合金镀液中氢氧化钠的分析方法%Analytical Method of Sodium Hydroxide in an Alkaline Zinc-nickel Alloy Plating Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2012-01-01

    改进了碱性锌-镍合金镀液中氢氧化钠的分析方法.用麝香草酚酞代替酚酞作指示剂,用盐酸标准溶液滴定氢氧化钠,可以消除镀液中三乙醇胺等络合剂对测定的影响.实验表明,本法相对平均偏差为0.24%.方法简单而准确,优于传统方法.%The analytical method of sodium hydroxide in an alkaline zinc-nickel alloy plating bath was improved. The influences of complexing agents .like triethanolamine ,etc,on the determination could be eliminated by using thymolphthalein instead of phenolphthalein as the indicator, and hydrochloric acid as standard solution for titrating sodium hydroxide. The results showed that the relative average deviation of the determination result was 0. 23%. The method is simple,exact,and superior to the conventional method.

  3. 采用ICP-AES测定高纯氢氧化钠中Ca、Al、Si的含量%Using ICP-AES to determine the concentration of Ca, Al and Si in high-purity sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珺

    2012-01-01

    介绍了等离子体原子发射光谱,采用标准加入法测定高纯氢氧化钠中痕量Ca、Al、Si含量的方法,该方法的准确度和精密度都符合定量要求。目前,该方法已应用于高纯氢氧化钠中杂质氧化钙、氧化铝、氧化硅含量的测定,且具有操作简便、省时、省材和高灵敏度等特点,适用于批量样品的测定。%This report introduces a novel method to determine the concentration of trace impurities in high- purity sodium hydroxide. The method uses ICP-AES combined with standard addition, thus its accuracy and precision fits the requirement of quantitative measurement. This method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of calcium oxide (CaO), aluminum oxide (A1203) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) in high-purity sodium hydroxide. The method is not only convenient, fast but also very sensitive, therefore is suitable for batch analysis.

  4. The Solubility of Cellulose in Sodium Hydroxide/Thiourea/Urea Solution and its Rheological Properties%棉浆粕在NaOH/硫脲/尿素溶剂体系中的溶解及流变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵君粉; 江峰; 李倩; 尹翠玉

    2012-01-01

    研究了棉浆粕在NaOH/硫脲/尿素溶剂体系中的溶解特性,并对溶解得到的棉浆粕溶液的流变性能进行了研究.结果表明:当溶解温度为-10℃,混合溶剂中NaOH、硫脲、尿素、水的质量比为7∶9∶9∶75,溶解时间为30 min时,棉浆粕的溶解程度较大;该种溶液为假塑性流体,溶液的黏度随剪切速率的增大而降低.%The solubility of cellulose in sodium hydroxide/thiourea/urea solution and its rheological properties were studied. The results indicated that when the temperature was -10 ℃, the blending ratio of sodium hydroxide/thiourea/urea/water was 7/9/9/75 and the dissolved time was thirty minutes, the cellulose was dissolved well. The blend was pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity decreased with the increase of the shear rate.

  5. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  7. Development of inactivation procedure for virus in chitosan by sodium hydroxide ethanol solution and γirradiation%NaOH乙醇溶液和γ射线辐照两步法灭活壳聚糖中病毒工艺的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 张家骊; 夏文水

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立NaOH乙醇溶液和γ射线辐照两步法灭活壳聚糖中病毒的工艺.方法 以牛病毒性腹泻病毒(Bovine viral diarrhoea virus,BVDV)和猪细小病毒(Porcine parvovirus,PPV)为指示病毒,分别采用NaOH乙醇溶液和γ射线辐照法灭活壳聚糖中的BVDV和PPV,并对两种方法进行优化.以优化的灭活条件建立两步法灭活工艺,测定病毒滴度、壳聚糖相对分子质量、脱乙酰度和乙醇含量.结果 含8 mol/L NaOH的10%乙醇溶液,35℃处理1h后冻干,再采用γ射线辐照(5 kGy),BVDV和PPV的滴度均下降4 lgTCID50以上,同时,壳聚糖的相对分子质量仅降低8.4%,脱乙酰度无显著变化,未检出残留乙醇.结论 NaOH乙醇溶液和γ射线辐照两步法可有效灭活壳聚糖中的指示病毒,同时对壳聚糖质量影响较小,为保证壳聚糖作为生物材料及药用辅料使用的安全性提供了保障.%Objective To develop an inactivation procedure for virus in chitosan by sodium hydroxide ethanol solution and 7 irradiation. Methods Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) as indicators in chitosan were inactivated by sodium hydroxide ethanol solution and γ irradiation separately, and the two methods were optimized. A two-step inactivation procedure was developed under optimized condition, by which the inactivated samples were determined for virus titer, relative molecular mass of chitosan, degree of deacetylation and ethanol content. Results After treatment with 10% ethanol solution containing 8 mol / L sodium hydroxide at 35℃ for 1 h followed by lyophilization and irradiation with γ-ray at a dosage of 5 kGy, both BVDV and PPV titers in chitosan decreased by more than 4 lgTCID50, while the relative molecular mass of chitosan decreased by only 8. 4%, the degree of deacetylation showed no significant change, and no residual ethanol was detected. Conclusion The two-step inactivation procedure consisting of treatment with sodium hydroxide

  8. Comparative evaluation of topical 10% potassium hydroxide and 30% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of plane warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhaya Jayaprasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV. Plane warts are caused by HPV types 3, 10, 28, and 41, occurring mostly in children and young adults. Among the treatment modalities, topical application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA is age old. Potassium hydroxide (KOH has a keratolytic effect on virus-infected cells. It is less irritating, less painful, less scar forming, and can be safely used in children too. Hence, it could be a better topical agent in the treatment of plane warts. Aims and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of topical 10% KOH with 30% TCA in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with plane warts were randomly assigned into two arms of thirty patients each; arm A received topical 10% KOH and arm B received topical 30% TCA as a once weekly application until the complete clearance of warts or a maximum period of 12 weeks. Results: Statistically no significant difference (P = 0.07 was found between the objective therapeutic response to 10% KOH and 30% TCA at the end of study (12 weeks. However, subjective response to 10% KOH was better and statistically significant (P = 0.03. There was no recurrence of warts seen on follow-up for 3 months of complete responders in both the arms. Conclusion: 10% KOH is found to be equally effective in the treatment of plane warts compared to 30% TCA with the advantage of faster onset of action and tendency of completely clearing warts with fewer side effects.

  9. A double blind placebo controlled group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hennawi, M

    1994-05-01

    In a 4 week double masked comparative study, patients received 2% nedocromil sodium (48), 2% sodium cromoglycate (48), or placebo eye drops (42), four times daily, for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Clinical examinations of eye condition and symptom severity were made before and after a 1 week baseline before starting test treatment, and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. Patients kept daily diary card records of symptom severity and concomitant therapy. At the clinic, significant improvements were seen with both active treatments after 2-4 weeks. During the final visit, significant benefits over placebo were recorded for five ocular signs with nedocromil sodium and three with sodium cromoglycate, bulbar and lower tarsal chemosis being better controlled by nedocromil sodium (p sodium cromoglycate). Diary card trends showed improvement with all three treatments, which was greatest with nedocromil sodium and least with placebo. Compared with placebo, both the active drugs produced statistically significant improvements in general eye condition during weeks 1-2, and nedocromil sodium significantly reduced itching within the first week. Overall, nedocromil sodium had the greatest effect on symptoms, although diary card data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two active drugs. In conclusion, both 2% nedocromil sodium and 2% sodium cromoglycate were effective in controlling VKC when administered four times daily into the eyes, while the marked anti-inflammatory activity of nedocromil sodium was apparent in its more pronounced overall therapeutic effect.

  10. Anticancer Drug-Incorporated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids and Their Enhanced Anticancer Therapeutic Efficacy in Combination Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles have been studied as cellular delivery carriers for anionic anticancer agents. As MTX and 5-FU are clinically utilized anticancer drugs in combination therapy, we aimed to enhance the therapeutic performance with the help of LDH nanoparticles. Method. Anticancer drugs, MTX and 5-FU, and their combination, were incorporated into LDH by reconstruction method. Simply, LDHs were thermally pretreated at 400°C, and then reacted with drug solution to simultaneously form drug-incorporated LDH. Thus prepared MTX/LDH (ML, 5-FU/LDH (FL, and (MTX + 5-FU/LDH (MFL nanohybrids were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, and so forth. The nanohybrids were administrated to the human cervical adenocarcinoma, HeLa cells, in concentration-dependent manner, comparing with drug itself to verify the enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion. All the nanohybrids successfully accommodated intended drug molecules in their house-of-card-like structures during reconstruction reaction. It was found that the anticancer efficacy of MFL nanohybrid was higher than other nanohybrids, free drugs, or their mixtures, which means the multidrug-incorporated LDH nanohybrids could be potential drug delivery carriers for efficient cancer treatment via combination therapy.

  11. Low temperature calcium hydroxide treatment enhances anaerobic methane production from (extruded) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Way Cern; Rabaey, Korneel; Vervaeren, Han

    2015-01-01

    Ca(OH)2 treatment was applied to enhance methane yield. Different alkali concentration, incubation temperature and duration were evaluated for their effect on methane production and COD conversion efficiency from (non-)extruded biomass during mesophilic anaerobic digestion at lab-scale. An optimum Ca(OH)2 pretreatment for grass is found at 7.5% lime loading at 10°C for 20h (37.3% surplus), while mild (50°C) and high temperatures perform sub-optimal. Ca(OH)2 post-treatment after fast extrusion gives an additional surplus compared to extruded material of 15.2% (grass), 11.2% (maize straw) and 8.2% (sprout stem) regarding methane production. COD conversion improves accordingly, with additional improvements of 10.3% (grass), 9.0% (maize straw) and 6.8% (sprout stem) by Ca(OH)2 post-treatment. Therefore, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and post-treatment at low temperature generate an additional effect regarding methane production and COD conversion efficiency. Fast extrusion gives a higher energy efficiency ratio compared to slow extrusion.

  12. In-situ precipitation and flocculation of iron hydroxides. A novel alternative to gel treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. [Miskolch Univ. (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Kosztin, B.; Palasthy, Gy. [Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Szolnok (Hungary)

    2002-01-01

    Development of a new well treatment method was stimulated by recognizing that some inorganic compounds, particularly Fe(III) compounds, can be transformed into gel-like precipitate by in-situ hydrolysis which is then immobilized by flocculation or spontaneous aging. These blocking materials have excellent stability under field conditions, but in case of technological failure the gel phase can easily be broken up into mobile sols. Further, the novel method is characterized by outstanding placement selectivity; self-controlling chemical mechanism and injectivity problems may not arise even in low permeable porous systems. During a field tests, extending over four years, 10 oil producing and 7 water injection wells were treated. The well responses were different: ration of the technical success was about 60%, while 40% of treatment was definitely profitable. In special reservoir blocks the injectors were simultaneously treated with the oil producing wells. The primary aim of these projects was to enhance the effect of profile correction around the producers and to improve the frontal displacement mechanism. The novel method proved to be compatible with the reservoir system and technical failure was not encountered during the past five years. The positive results contributed significantly to a recent decision of the operator that, parallel with other profile correction and water shut-off (e.g. polymer/silicate) techniques, application of the novel method will be extended to other reservoirs of the Algyo field, Hungary. (orig.)

  13. Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Gisela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

  14. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants.

  15. 氢氧化钠溶液对硼硅酸盐玻璃光学和润湿性能的影响%Influence of Sodium Hydroxide Solution on the Optical and Wetting Properties of Borate Silicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥曼; 王亮; 陈宇; 王波; 张永哲; 严辉

    2015-01-01

    To improve the optical and wetting properties of the boron silicate glass with lowcost, a thin layer of anti-reflection and self-cleaning properties was prepared by chemical etching method on glass surface. Chemical corrosion of glass after pretreatment with sodium hydroxide solution,scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the glass before and after etching. By adjusting the concentration of etching solution, the variation trend of the transmittance and the contact angle of the glass surface were measured with the spectrophotometer and the contact angle meter. Results show that the micro groove is formed on the surface after etching by 0. 05 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, the length is about 100 nm, the width is about 10 nm, and the distribution is uniform and the transmittance of the glass is up to 94. 85%, which is 4. 15% higher than that of the original substrate. The contact angle is reduced from 53. 13 ° to 3. 25 ° . The optical properties and the self-cleaning performanceof the glasshave been effectively improved.%为低成本提高硼硅酸盐玻璃光学和润湿性能,采用化学刻蚀法在玻璃表面制备具有减反和自清洁性能的薄层. 利用NaOH溶液对预处理后的玻璃进行化学刻蚀,采用扫描电镜( scanning electron microscopy,SEM)对刻蚀前后玻璃表面形貌进行了观察,通过调控刻蚀液浓度,分别采用分光光度计和接触角仪测量玻璃表面的透光率和接触角随浓度的变化趋势. 结果表明:经0. 05 mol/L的氢氧化钠溶液刻蚀后,在表面形成长约为100 nm、宽约为10 nm、分布比较均匀的细微沟槽,玻璃的透过率达94. 85%,比原始基片提高了4. 15%,接触角从53. 13°降至3. 25°,玻璃的光学性能和自清洁性能得到了有效的提高.

  16. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.

  17. On the entangled growth of NaTaO3 cubes and Na2Ti3O7 wires in sodium hydroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan O; Liu, Chang; Elser, Michael J; Sternig, Andreas; Siedl, Nicolas; Berger, Thomas; Diwald, Oliver

    2013-07-29

    The entangled growth of sodium titanate Na2Ti3O7 nanowires and sodium tantalate NaTaO3 cubes was investigated with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Depending on the composition of the Ta2O5- and TiO2-particle-based powder mixtures, which served as educts, we observed different types of hybridization effects. These include the titanium-induced contraction of the NaTaO3 perovskite-type unit cell and the generation of electronic defect states in NaTaO3 that give rise to optical subbandgap transitions and tantalum-induced limitations of the Na2Ti3O7 nanowire growth. The transformation from Ta2O5 to NaTaO3 occurs through a dissolution-recrystallization process. A systematic analysis of the impact of different titanium sources on NaTaO3 dispersion and, thus, on the properties of the entangled nanostructures revealed that a perfect intermixture of cubes and nanowires can only be achieved when titanate nanosheets emerge during transformation as reaction intermediates and shield nucleation and growth of isolated NaTaO3 cubes. The here demonstrated approach can be highly instrumental for understanding the nucleation and growth of composite and entangled nanostructures in solution and--at the same time--provides an interesting new class of photoactive composite materials.

  18. Contrast of the Effect of Alomide and Sodium Cromoglycate in the Treatment of Allergic Eye Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlan Zhang; Zhende Lin

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the clinical effect of alomide and sodium cromoglycate eyedrops in the treatment of atopic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis and giant papillary conjunctivitis.Methods: Randomized control study was used. Alomide and sodium cromoglycate eyedrops used to treat two groups of patients for two weeks. The effects of the two groups were compared.Results: With respect of comprehensive therapeutic effect, the effectiveness rate was 83.6% in alomide group, and 63.3% in sodium cromoglycate group, which was not significantly different statistically. With respect of itching alleviation, alomide is more effective than sodium cromoglycate. No adverse effects were found in both groups.Conclusion: Our study suggests that alomide is a safe and effective drug in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

  19. 氢氧化钠溶液中氯酸钠含量测定方法探究%Study on the content determination method of sodium chlorate in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云枫; 王世荣

    2011-01-01

    对GB/T11200.1—89与GB/T11200.1—2006测定氢氧化钠溶液中氯酸钠含量的方法进行了分析,对GB/T11200.1—89测定氢氧化钠溶液中氯酸钠含量分析方法进行了实验研究,并提出了修改建议。%The content determination method of sodium chlorate in sodium hyd~vxide solution accrding to GB/T11200-89 and GB/T11200-2006 was studied by the experiment and analysis method. MoreoveL, some useful revisions were attempted, which make the content determin

  20. New treatment method for boron in aqueous solutions using Mg–Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Tomohito, E-mail: kameda@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDHs and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs could take up boron from aqueous solutions. • Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} with intercalated NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −}. • The residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan. • The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. • The adsorption of B followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. - Abstract: Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with NO{sub 3}{sup −} (NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDHs) and with Cl{sup −} (Cl·Mg–Al LDHs) were found to take up boron from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} in solution with NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Using three times the stoichiometric quantity of NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 1.9 mg L{sup −1} in 120 min. Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Cl·Mg–Al LDH, the residual concentration of B decreased from 100 to 5.6 mg L{sup −1} in 120 min. It must be emphasized that, in both cases, the residual concentration of B was less than the effluent standards in Japan (10 mg L{sup −1}). The rate-determining step of B removal by the NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} with intercalated NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −}. The removal of B was well described by a pseudo second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption of B by NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDH and Cl·Mg–Al LDH followed a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6 mmol g{sup −1} and 1.7, respectively, for NO{sub 3}·Mg–Al LDH, and 3.8 mmol g{sup −1} and 0.7, respectively, for Cl·Mg–Al LDH. The B(OH){sub 4}{sup −} in B(OH){sub 4}·Mg–Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo

  1. Effect of ultrasonic streaming on intra-dentinal disinfection and penetration of calcium hydroxide paste in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Paola Castro ARIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic agitation of calcium hydroxide (CH pastes in infected bovine dentin and their penetrability were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and microbiological culture. Material and Methods Fifty-two bovine teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol; then they received CH paste and were divided into groups with or without ultrasound. Ultrasonic agitation was conducted for 1 min with a plain point insert. After 15 d, the CLSM analyzed the viable and dead bacteria with Live and Dead assay. The dentinal wall debris was collected by burs, and the colony forming units (CFU/mL were counted. The penetrability of the paste inside dentinal tubules was tested using the B-rodamine dye. Results The calcium hydroxide paste showed better results with the use of ultrasonic agitation (p<0.05. Conclusion The ultrasonic agitation of CH paste increased its antimicrobial action and was responsible for intradentinal penetration with the fulfilment of the tubules.

  2. Effect of ultrasonic streaming on intra-dentinal disinfection and penetration of calcium hydroxide paste in endodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARIAS, Marcela Paola Castro; MALIZA, Amanda Garcia Alves; MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; GRAEFF, Márcia Sirlene Zardin; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Húngaro; de ANDRADE, Flaviana Bombarda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic agitation of calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes in infected bovine dentin and their penetrability were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and microbiological culture. Material and Methods Fifty-two bovine teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol; then they received CH paste and were divided into groups with or without ultrasound. Ultrasonic agitation was conducted for 1 min with a plain point insert. After 15 d, the CLSM analyzed the viable and dead bacteria with Live and Dead assay. The dentinal wall debris was collected by burs, and the colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted. The penetrability of the paste inside dentinal tubules was tested using the B-rodamine dye. Results The calcium hydroxide paste showed better results with the use of ultrasonic agitation (p<0.05). Conclusion The ultrasonic agitation of CH paste increased its antimicrobial action and was responsible for intradentinal penetration with the fulfilment of the tubules. PMID:28076462

  3. Leaching thermodynamics of decomposing sparingly soluble molybdate by sodium hydroxide%氢氧化钠分解不溶性钼酸盐的浸出热力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 陈星宇; 何利华; 吴金玲

    2014-01-01

    When molybdnite was roasted, MoS 2 converts to MoO 3 . Meanwhile, sulfides associated with concentrate are oxidized to copper oxide and lead oxide and iron oxide or partial copper sulfate and lead sulfate and iron sulfate, which will react with MoO3 to form sparingly soluble molybdate. Aiming to decrease the loss of molybdenum in the slag, these sparingly soluble salts have to be handled with. According to the laws of conservation of mass and simultaneous equilibria, the logarithm concentration−pH diagram of Me-Mo-H2O (Me:Cu, Pb, Fe) system was established on the basis of thermodynamic data at 25℃. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out to discuss the technology of sodium hydroxide disintegrating sparingly soluble molybdate. The results show that the whole pH value of the system is divided into three areas. The first one is the stable area of H 2 MoO 4 , the second area is the stable area of sparingly soluble molybdate, the third one is the stable area of Me(OH) n . In the third area, Me(OH) n is gradually supersaturated in solution with the increase of pH value, so the Me(OH) n is deposited as sediment, and MoO 4 2− goes into solution. As a result, the processing of sparingly soluble molybdate leached by sodium hydroxide is carried out. The incremental difficulty of alkali leaching order is as follows: Fe 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , CuMoO 4 , PbMoO 4 . Over a certain alkalinity, copper, lead and iron could be leached out of molybdenum. But these metals will be dissolved numerously as hydroxyl complexes in the case of excessive basicity, which increases the difficulty of subsequent purification.%辉钼矿经氧化焙烧转化成MoO 3的过程中,伴生的铜铅铁等硫化矿亦被氧化,并与MoO 3生成难溶钼酸盐。为减少因难溶钼酸盐带来的钼损失,需要对这些钼酸盐进行再浸出处理。针对这些钼酸盐湿法浸出过程进行热力学分析,绘制了25℃时Me-Mo-H 2 O(Me:Cu,Pb,Fe)系组分的浓度对数−pH图。利用

  4. Controlled trial comparing the efficacy of 88% phenol versus 10% sodium hydroxide for chemical matricectomy in the management of ingrown toenail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial nail avulsion with lateral chemical matricectomy is the treatment of choice for ingrown toenails. Phenol (88% is the most widely used chemical agent but prolonged postoperative drainage and collateral damage are common. Sodiumhydroxide (NaOH 10% has fewer side-effects. Methods: Adult, consenting patients with ingrown toenails were alternately allocated into two treatment groups in the order of their joining the study, to receive either 88% phenol (Group 1, n = 26 or 10% NaOH (Group 0, n = 23 chemical matricectomy. The patients as well as the statistician were blinded to the agent being used. Post-procedure follow-up evaluated median duration of pain, discharge, and healing along with recurrence, if any, in both the groups. The group wise data was statistically analyzed. Results: Both the groups responded well to treatment with the median duration of postoperative pain being 7.92 days in Group 0 and 16.25 days in Group 1 (P < 0.202. Postoperative discharge continued for a median period of 15.42 days (Group 0 and 18.13 days (Group 1 (P < 0.203. The tissue condition normalized in 7.50 days (Group 0 and 15.63 days (Group 1 (P < 0.007. Limitations: Limited postsurgical follow up of 6 months is a limitation of the study. Conclusion: Chemical matricectomy using NaOH is as efficacious as phenolisation, with the advantage of faster tissue normalization.

  5. Radioisotopic synovectomy using ferric hydroxide macroaggregated for chronic arthritis treatment; Sinovectomia radioisotopica atraves do macroagregado de hidroxido ferrico para tratamento da artrite cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carla Flavia; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares] E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2002-07-01

    Synovectomy radioisotopic is an arthritis treatment used in specific clinical conditions whose main goal is to sterilized the synovia. This treatment has specific and precise indications and it is considered to have an adequate response. The present work presents a modeling of an articulation (joint) based on its real geometric anatomy and chemical constitution. The internal dosimetry is evaluated by the Monte Carlo Code. The majority of the radionuclides were considered in the simulations. The syntheses of the ferric hydroxide macroaggregates with dysprosium and samarium have been prepared (Dy{sup 165}-MHF and Sm{sup 153}-MHF). Obtaining the cintilographic images of rabbits in which Dy{sup 165}-MHF is injected is in progress. Biodistribution studies in addition with the internal dosimetry will certify the dose in the membrane of the synovia. (author)

  6. Anti-obesity sodium tungstate treatment triggers axonal and glial plasticity in hypothalamic feeding centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Amigó-Correig

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the effects of sodium tungstate treatment on hypothalamic plasticity, which is known to have an important role in the control of energy metabolism.Adult lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were orally treated with sodium tungstate. Arcuate and paraventricular nuclei and lateral hypothalamus were separated and subjected to proteomic analysis by DIGE and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging were also performed.Sodium tungstate treatment reduced body weight gain, food intake, and blood glucose and triglyceride levels. These effects were associated with transcriptional and functional changes in the hypothalamus. Proteomic analysis revealed that sodium tungstate modified the expression levels of proteins involved in cell morphology, axonal growth, and tissue remodeling, such as actin, CRMP2 and neurofilaments, and of proteins related to energy metabolism. Moreover, immunohistochemistry studies confirmed results for some targets and further revealed tungstate-dependent regulation of SNAP25 and HPC-1 proteins, suggesting an effect on synaptogenesis as well. Functional test for cell activity based on c-fos-positive cell counting also suggested that sodium tungstate modified hypothalamic basal activity. Finally, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed that tungstate treatment can affect neuronal organization in the hypothalamus.Altogether, these results suggest that sodium tungstate regulates proteins involved in axonal and glial plasticity. The fact that sodium tungstate could modulate hypothalamic plasticity and networks in adulthood makes it a possible and interesting therapeutic strategy not only for obesity management, but also for other neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer's disease.

  7. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  8. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen in the treatment of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, J; Negreiros, E B; Mazzei, J A; Isturiz, G

    1995-06-01

    We compared three treatments: sodium cromoglycate 5 mg aerosol and placebo syrup (39 patients), placebo aerosol and ketotifen syrup (39 patients), and placebo aerosol and syrup (36 patients). The patients (mean age 11.7 years) had mostly allergic, moderately severe asthma. Treatments were added to current therapy (mostly bronchodilators only) for 3 months. Aerosols were taken four times daily and syrups twice daily. The following results were significant at a level of 5%. At the final clinic visit, the changes from baseline in lung function favored sodium cromoglycate over the other treatments. During month 3, sodium cromoglycate was superior to ketotifen for night symptoms, morning tightness, daytime symptoms, and cough. Bronchodilator use decreased more with sodium cromoglycate than ketotifen. Patients' and clinicians' overall opinions of treatment effectiveness favored sodium cromoglycate over ketotifen and placebo. In these patients, sodium cromoglycate was both effective and superior to ketotifen.

  9. Conservative treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis: intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, L; Masiero, S; Marioni, G

    2005-10-01

    Promising short-term results in the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis with intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate (SH) have been reported in preliminary studies. The present prospective study compared long-term outcomes of temporomandibular joint SH injections with those of a conventional non-surgical treatment (bite-plane). Data from three groups of 20 patients with degenerative temporomandibular joint disease were considered. Group A underwent one cycle of five injections of 1 mL SH. Group B underwent a bite-plane treatment for at least 6 months. We considered a control group of 20 patients who refused any treatments. The description of the outcomes was based on objective and subjective parameters after a 6-month follow-up. Sodium hyaluronate and bite-plane treatments significantly improved patients conditions in all considered parameters. No significant differences in outcomes were confirmed by the statistical analysis. The tolerability of SH treatment resulted to be significantly higher. The analysis of results of serial controls in the SH treated group disclosed a significant worsening in pain at rest by comparing 1 and 6 months follow-up. Sodium hyaluronate infiltration resulted a valid non-surgical treatment for temporomandibular joint degenerative disease. Five well-tolerated intra-articular SH injections achieved equivalent results to those of a 6 months bite-plane treatment. We did not diagnose any complications of SH intra-articular injections. Longer time follow-up is necessary to determine the stability of SH properties.

  10. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... reabsorption did not change. Sodium clearance, fractional sodium excretion, potassium clearance, plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume were also unchanged. 4. In conclusion, we found no changes of renal tubular sodium reabsorption during acute nifedipine treatment, whereas long-term nifedipine treatment...

  11. The use of sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2009-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder encountered in ambulatory clinical practice comprising 11.3 percent of office visits to dermatologists in 2005.(1) By comparison, eczematous dermatoses, psoriasis, and skin cancer accounted for 6.2, 3.5, and 10 percent of office visits, respectively.(1) A variety of topical therapeutic options are available for treatment of acne vulgaris, including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur.(2,3) Sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% has been used for the topical treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, and rosacea since the mid-1950s and is available in a variety of formulations, including lotions, creams, cleansers, and emollient foams.(4) Recently, an emollient foam sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% formulation indicated for topical therapy of acne vulgaris, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis has become available.(5) This article provides an overview of the sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam and reports the results of a case report series of patients with acne vulgaris treated with sodium sulfacetamide 10%-sulfur 5% emollient foam as monotherapy or in combination with other topical acne products.

  12. Treatment of perennial rhinitis with 2% solution of sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton, P; Seranno, V; Rubio, N; Gomez, D

    1975-08-01

    This trial has demonstrated that S.C.G. is significantly better than placebo and therefore that a 2% solution of S.C.G. is effective in the treatment of perennial rhinitis. It would appear that better results can be obtained in patients who have a demonstrable allergic aetiology with a nasal eosinophilia.

  13. Pegaptanib sodium treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: clinical experience in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Feucht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Huebner Matthias, Chris P Lohmann, Mathias MaierAugenklinik rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, GermanyBackground: The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularisation (VISION reported the efficacy of intravitreal (ITV vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibition with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This paper reports clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of occult or minimally classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to AMD.Material and methods: The study included 50 eyes (in 49 patients with either occult CNV or minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD who were not eligible for photodynamic therapy (PDT. Study data were analyzed retrospectively. During the 6-month study, patients were administered an average 2.74 injections of 0.3 mg ITV pegaptanib sodium. Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT examinations were carried out and intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA were measured at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months. An eye examination was performed and VA was measured the 2 days following treatment and then again at weeks 4–6, and at 3 and 6 months. OCT, VA, and IOP were also assessed at 1 month.Results: ITV pegaptanib sodium was well tolerated and no treatment complications arose. Mean VA was measured as: 0.37 ± 0.24 at baseline; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 1 month; 0.37 ± 0.25 at 3 months and 0.40 ± 0.26 at 6 months. VA was stabilized in approximately 90% of eyes treated with pegaptanib sodium. OCT examination showed a minimal change in central retinal thickness (CRT during the course of the study, from 251.19 µm at baseline to 251.63 µm at 6 months. No elevation in IOP was measured during treatment at 4–6 months in patients receiving pegaptanib sodium.Conclusions: ITV therapy with pegaptanib sodium for occult and minimally classic CNV secondary to neovascular AMD offered good

  14. Clinical experience of supplying sodium chloride for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of supplying sodium chloride in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Methods Consecutive 51 hospitalized patients with severe heart failure and cardiac edema were included in this study. Normal diet (6g NaCl/d) was supplied

  15. Structural characterization of iron oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles in nine different parenteral drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia by electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, S; Andrusenko, I; Kolb, U; Hofmeister, W; Langguth, P

    2013-12-01

    Drug products containing iron oxide and hydroxide nanoparticles (INPs) are important for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Pharmaceuticals prepared by the complexation of different kinds of INPs and carbohydrates have different physicochemical and biopharmaceutic characteristics. The increasing number of parenteral non-biological complex drugs (NBCD) containing iron requires physicochemical methods for characterization and enabling of cross comparisons. In this context the structure and the level of crystallinity of the iron phases may be connected to the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates, which etiologically determine the therapeutic and toxic effects. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and electron diffraction (ED) methods were used in order to investigate the nine different parenteral iron formulations Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)), sodium ferric gluconate sucrose (Ferrlecit(®)), iron sucrose (Venofer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (CosmoFer(®)), low molecular weight iron dextran (Infed(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Ironate(®)), high molecular weight iron dextran (Dexferrum(®)), iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®)) and iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer(®)). The iron phase in CosmoFer(®), Ferinject(®), Monofer(®), Infed(®), Ironate(®) and Dexferrum(®) was identified as Akaganéite/Akaganéite-like (β-FeOOH), with low amounts of chloride. By combining results of both methods the iron oxide in Feraheme(®) was identified as Magnetite (Fe3O4) with spinel-like structure. Ferrlecit(®) and Venofer(®) were difficult to analyze due to the low degree of crystallinity, but the iron phase seems to fit Lepidocrocite/Lepidocrocite-like (γ-FeOOH) or an amorphous kind of structure. The structural information on the type of iron oxide or hydroxide together with the particle size allows predicting the stability of the different complexes including their labile iron content. The combination of ED and XRPD methods is a very helpful approach

  16. Crystalline structure analysis of cellulose treated with sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide by means of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Youn; Yoo, Dong Il; Shin, Younsook; Kim, Hwan Chul; Kim, Hak Yong; Chung, Yong Sik; Park, Won Ho; Youk, Ji Ho

    2005-10-31

    Crystalline structures of cellulose (named as Cell 1), NaOH-treated cellulose (Cell 2), and subsequent CO2-treated cellulose (Cell 2-C) were analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II was observed by X-ray diffraction for Cell 2 treated with 15-20 wt% NaOH. Subsequent treatment with CO2 also transformed the Cell 2-C treated with 5-10 wt% NaOH. Many of the FTIR bands including 2901, 1431, 1282, 1236, 1202, 1165, 1032, and 897 cm(-1) were shifted to higher wave number (by 2-13 cm(-1)). However, the bands at 3352, 1373, and 983 cm(-1) were shifted to lower wave number (by 3-95 cm(-1)). In contrast to the bands at 1337, 1114, and 1058 cm(-1), the absorbances measured at 1263, 993, 897, and 668 cm(-1) were increased. The FTIR spectra of hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibrations at around 3352 cm(-1) were resolved into three bands for cellulose I and four bands for cellulose II, assuming that all the vibration modes follow Gaussian distribution. The bands of 1 (3518 cm(-1)), 2 (3349 cm(-1)), and 3 (3195 cm(-1)) were related to the sum of valence vibration of an H-bonded OH group and an intramolecular hydrogen bond of 2-OH ...O-6, intramolecular hydrogen bond of 3-OH...O-5 and the intermolecular hydrogen bond of 6-O...HO-3', respectively. Compared with the bands of cellulose I, a new band of 4 (3115 cm(-1)) related to intermolecular hydrogen bond of 2-OH...O-2' and/or intermolecular hydrogen bond of 6-OH...O-2' in cellulose II appeared. The crystallinity index (CI) was obtained by X-ray diffraction [CI(XD)] and FTIR spectroscopy [CI(IR)]. Including absorbance ratios such as A1431,1419/A897,894 and A1263/A1202,1200, the CI(IR) was evaluated by the absorbance ratios using all the characteristic absorbances of cellulose. The CI(XD) was calculated by the method of Jayme and Knolle. In addition, X-ray diffraction curves, with and without amorphous halo correction, were resolved into portions of cellulose I and

  17. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Sadeq, Abdullah; Burezq, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common irrigation solution used in root canal treatment. It has strong antibacterial and tissue dissolving properties. Nevertheless, it has some serious complications, some of which are life-threatening. A young male presented with severe chemical burn of the right infraorbital area and partial necrosis of the hard palate resulting from extrusion of NaOCl during root canal treatment of the upper right 2nd molar tooth. The patient had a facial scar, and mucosal...

  18. RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1

  19. Epoprostenol sodium for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yukihiro Saito,1 Kazufumi Nakamura,1 Satoshi Akagi,1 Toshihiro Sarashina,1 Kentaro Ejiri,1 Aya Miura,1 Aiko Ogawa,2 Hiromi Matsubara,2 Hiroshi Ito1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan; 2Division of Cardiology, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Okayama, Japan Abstract: The release of endogenous prostacyclin (PGI2 is depressed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. PGI2 replacement therapy by epoprostenol infusion is one of the best treatments available for PAH. Here, we provide an overview of the current clinical data for epoprostenol. Epoprostenol treatment improves symptoms, exercise capacity, and hemodynamics, and is the only treatment that has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH in randomized clinical trials. We have reported that high-dose epoprostenol therapy (>40 ng/kg/min also results in marked hemodynamic improvement in some patients with IPAH. High-dose epoprostenol has a pro-apoptotic effect on PAH-PASMCs via the IP receptor and upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL in vitro. However, long-term intravenous administration of epoprostenol is sometimes associated with catheter-related infections and leads to considerable inconvenience for the patient. In the future, the development of new routes of administration or the development of powerful PGI2 analogs, IP-receptor agonists, and gene and cell-based therapy enhancing PGI2 production with new routes of administration is required. Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension, prostacyclin, apoptosis

  20. [Sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of food hypersensitivity in children under 3 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, E; Kaczmarski, M

    2001-09-01

    Dietary elimination is a treatment of first choice in food hypersensitivity. Such therapy is not always enough to stop the disease and introduction of pharmacological treatment is necessary. In prevention and long term treatment antiallergic drugs are recommended. The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of oral sodium cromoglycate in treatment of food hypersensitivity in the youngest children. In our study we examined: the group of 25 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with oral cromolyn sodium during the period 4-20 weeks and 29 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with ketotifen. Symptoms from skin, digestive and respiratory tract, behaviour status were evaluated for drugs efficacy. Cromolyn and ketotifen effected a significant decrease in total symptoms score. The treatment was well tolerated. No serious side effects were noted. The incidents of skin rash, disquiet during the night, diarrhoea and urticaria were only 8 percent. Sodium cromoglycate is safe and effective drug in treatment of food allergy in children; specially in symptoms from gastrointestinal tract and multi-organs allergy.

  1. Enhanced removal performance by the core-shell zeolites/MgFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Congying; Leng, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    The application of powdered layer double hydroxides (LDHs) in constructed rapid infiltration system (CRIS) appears to be an appreciable problem still unsolved due to the small particle size and the low density. Therefore, the core-shell zeolites/MgFe-LDHs composites were prepared via using co-precipitation method in present study. To investigate the practical applicability, a detailed organics, ammonia, and total phosphorus removal study were carried out in columns to treat the municipal wastewater. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) results confirmed the successful synthesis of core-shell zeolites/MgFe-LDHs through coating on the surface of zeolites. Accordingly, the zeolites/MgFe-LDHs largely reduced the COD by 81.14 %, NH4 (+)-N by 81.50%, and TP by 83.29%. Phosphate adsorption study revealed that the equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 79.3651 mg/kg for zeolites/MgFe-LDHs and 38.4615 mg/kg for the natural zeolites. In addition, economic analysis indicated that the reagent cost of synthesis of zeolites/MgFe-LDHs was economical. Herein, the zeolites/MgFe-LDHs solved the natural zeolites problem for poor P removal and the application of powdered LDHs in the solid/liquid separation process, suggesting that it was applicable as potential substrates for the removal of organics, ammonia, and total phosphorus in CRIS.

  2. 粉煤灰提铝渣碱浸提硅动力学%Kinetics of SiO2 leaching from Al2O3 extracted slag of fly ash with sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若超; 翟玉春; 宁志强; 马培华

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of SiO2 leaching from Al2O3 extracted slag of fly ash with sodium hydroxide solution was studied. The effect of leaching temperature, mass ratio of NaOH to SiO2 and stirring speed on SiO2 leaching rate was investigated. The results show that increasing leaching temperature, mass ratio of NaOH to SiO2 and stirring speed increases SiO2 leaching rate. The SiO2 leaching rate is 95.66%under the optimized conditions. There are two stages for the SiO2 leaching process, and the leaching reaction is very rapid in the first stage but quite slow in the second stage. The whole leaching process follows the shrinking core model, and the outer diffusion of no product layer is the rate-controlling step. The activation energies of the first and second stages are calculated to be 8.492 kJ/mol and 8.668 kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetic equations of the first and the second stages were obtained, respectively.%对粉煤灰提铝渣碱浸提硅过程的动力学进行研究。实验考察碱浸温度、碱硅比(NaOH与SiO2质量比)及搅拌速度对二氧化硅浸出率的影响。实验结果表明,升高碱浸温度、加大碱硅比及加强搅拌速度对浸出过程有利,在最优条件下,二氧化硅浸出率为95.66%。该浸出过程分为两个阶段,在第一阶段二氧化硅的浸出速率快,在第二阶段二氧化硅的浸出速率慢,两阶段均符合收缩核模型且受不生成固体产物层的外扩散控制。碱浸提硅过程第一阶段和第二阶段的反应活化能分别为8.492 kJ/mol和8.668 kJ/mol,分别求得这两个阶段的动力学方程。

  3. Measurements of zinc oxide solubility in sodium hydroxide solution from 25 to 100 ℃%25~100℃下ZnO在NaOH溶液中溶解度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱良; 徐冬; 陈星宇; 张文勇; 刘旭恒

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of zinc oxide in sodium hydroxide solution was measured in a closed polytetrafluoroethylene vessel from 25to 100 ℃.The ZnO solubility was determined by employing the method of isothermal solution saturation.The results show that only ZnO solid exists in the equilibrium state in the low concentration alkali regions,and the solubility of zinc oxide is almost invariable with temperature.With the increase of alkali concentration,equilibrium solid turns from ZnO to NaZn(OH)3 suddenly,this mutation is called invariant point.The alkali concentration of the invariant points increases with increasing temperature,but the solubility of NaZn(OH)3 decreases with increasing alkali concentration at the same temperature.At the same Na2O concentration,the higher the temperature is,the higher the solubility of NaZn(OH)3 is.%采用等温溶解饱和度法,在25~100°C下于密闭的聚四氟乙烯容器内测定ZnO在NaOH溶液中的溶解度.结果表明:在低浓度NaOH溶液中,平衡体系中只有ZnO一种固相存在,此时氧化锌的溶解度基本上不随温度改变.随着NaOH浓度增高,平衡固相由ZnO突然转变为NaZn(OH)3.这个突变点叫不变点.不变点的NaOH浓度随着温度的升高而增加,但在同一温度下NaZn(OH)3的溶解度随NaOH浓度增加而减少.在同Na2O浓度下,温度越高,NaZn(OH)3的溶解度越高.

  4. Influence of Hydrothermal Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Drug Release of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs of Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Gu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Risedronate Sodium in Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of risedronate sodium in treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, one-year randomized, double blind clinical trial was performed among 54 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The changes were compared in bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism markers and adverse events after 12 months oral administration of risedronate sodium.BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptionmetry (DEXA) and bone turnover marker was detected. The results showed that there was a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine (3.29 % ± 1.18 %, 4. 51% ±1.64 % respectively) after 6 and 12 months in the risedronate treatment group versus placebo control group (-0.62 % ±0.24 %, 0.48 % ±0.18 % respectively).Bone turnover was decreased to a stable nadir over 6 and 12 months for resorption markers [N-Telopeptide (NTx), P<0. 05] and over 12 months for formation marker (ALP, P<0.05; BGP, P<0.05). The safety profile of risedronate sodium was similar to that of placebo. There were no trends toward increased frequency of any adverse experience except for gastrointestinal symptoms (7.1%), rash (7.1%) and hematuria (3.6 %), which were usually mild, transient, and resolved with continued treatment. It was concluded that risedronate was an efficacious and safe drug in treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  7. Hydroxide depletion in dilute supernates stored in waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1985-10-10

    Free hydroxide ion in dilute supernates are depleted by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate and carbonate species and by reaction with acidic compounds formed by the radiolytic decomposition of tetraphenylborate salts. A model of the kinetics and thermodynamics of absorption of carbon dioxide in the waste tanks has been developed. Forecasts of the rate of hydroxide depletion and the requirements for sodium hydroxide to maintain technical standards have been made for the washed sludge and washed precipitate storage tanks. Hydroxide depletion is predicted to have a minimal impact on sludge processing operations. However, in-tank precipitation and downstream DWPF operations are predicted to be significantly affected by hydroxide depletion in Tank 49H. The installation of a carbon dioxide scrubber on Tank 49H may be justified in view of the decrease in alkali content and variation in the melter feed.

  8. The renal handling of sodium and water is not affected by the standard-dose cisplatin treatment for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Renal clearances of 51Cr-EDTA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured before and after each of four consecutive treatment series with cisplatin in 15 men with testicular cancer. Since lithium is reabsorbed like sodium and water in the proximal tubules, but not reabsorbed to any measurable...

  9. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  10. Precipitation of the rare earth double sodium and rare earths from the sulfuric liquor and the conversion into rare earth hydroxides through meta ethic reaction; Precipitacao do sulfato duplo de terras raras e sodio a partir de licor sulfurico e sua conversao em hidroxido de terras raras mediante reacao metatetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Renata D.; Oliveira, Ester F.; Brito, Walter de; Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: rda@cdtn.br; esterfo@cdtn.br; britow@cdtn.br; cmorais@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the purification study of the rare earths through precipitation of rare earth and sodium (Na TR (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. x H{sub 2}O)) double sulfate and his conversion to rare earths hydroxide TR(OH){sub 3} by meta ethic reaction through the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the solid double sulfate. The study used the sulfuric liquor as rare earth sample, generated in the chemical processing of the monazite with sulfuric acid by the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, Brazil, after the thorium and uranium extraction. The work investigated the influence of the main variables involved in the precipitation of Na TR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O and in the conversion for the TR(OH){sub 3}, as follows: type and excess of the precipitation agent, temperature and time reaction. The obtained solid composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The double sulfate diffractogram indicated the Na TR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} mono-hydrated. The characterization of the metatese products has shown that, for obtaining the complete conversion of NaTR(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O into TR(OH){sub 3}, the reaction must be hot processed ({approx}70 deg C) and with small excess of Na OH ({<=} 5 percent). (author)

  11. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Meillier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide’s metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use of both antidotes separately used with differing outcomes.

  12. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  13. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  14. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as

  15. Synthesis of crosslinked starch-graft-polyacrylamide-co-sodium xanthate and its performances in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Hao, Xuekui; Duan, Lili

    2008-11-30

    A novel crosslinked starch-graft-polyacrylamide-co-sodium xanthate (CSAX) was synthesized by grafting copolymerization reaction of corn starch, acrylamide (AM), and sodium xanthate using epichlorohydrin (EPI) as cross-linking reagent and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator in aqueous solution. CSAX was characterized by FTIR and element analysis. The performances of CSAX in wastewater treatment were evaluated by flocculation experiment. The results show that the CSAX was successfully synthesized and it has functions of removing both turbidity and copper ions from aqueous solution. It was proved that CSAX is more effective than crosslinked starch xanthate (CSX) and much more effective than crosslinked starch-graft-polyacrylamide (CSA) for removing copper ions. It was also proved that CSAX is little less effective than CSA, but much more effective than CSX for removing turbidity.

  16. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Korwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials.

  17. Combined treatment with sodium butyrate and PD153035 enhances keratinocyte differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Sandra Leon; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling is a critical determinant of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in both normal and diseased skin. Here we explore the effects of combined treatment with the differentiation-promoting agent sodium butyrate (SB) and the EGFR inhibitor (EGFRI) PD153035 on terminal differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Cells treated with SB showed increased expression of the levels of mRNA and protein of the differentiation markers filaggrin and transglutaminase 1. Co-treatment with EGF significantly blunted these effects of SB. Combined treatment with SB and PD153035 alleviated these inhibitory actions of EGF, resulting in improved effects of decreased cell growth and increased terminal differentiation, relative to the individual treatments. These results indicate that the combined use of a differentiation-promoting agent and an EGFR inhibitor may offer an additional approach to the management of hyperproliferative skin diseases. PMID:24451036

  18. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60 000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  19. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  20. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  1. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni M; Mose, Frank H; Kulik, Anna-Ewa O;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1.25 mg or placebo twice a day for 4.5 d before each examination day. On the examination day, glomerular filtration rate was measured...... by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U...

  2. The influence of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker on the properties of liquid silicone rubber%碱式硫酸镁晶须对液体硅橡胶性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓颖; 王国辉; 李倩; 邓新华

    2012-01-01

    以双组份加成型液体硅橡胶(LSR)为基胶,白炭黑为补强填料,通过测试分析,对比氢氧化铝、氢氧化镁、碱式硫酸镁晶须、经硬脂酸钠表面处理的碱式硫酸镁晶须4种阻燃剂复合液体硅橡胶的燃烧性能和力学性能.结果表明,经表面处理后的碱式硫酸镁晶须提高了LSR的拉伸强度,并在改善LSR的防火性能方面具有独特的优势.%Taking two-component additional liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as base rubber, silica white carbon black was as reinforcing packing material. Analyzis and comparison of the combustion performance and mechanical properties of four flame retardant liquid silicone rubber compound, including aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker,and the stearic acid sodium surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker. The results showed that the stearic acid sodium surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker could improve the tensile strength of LSR, and had a unique advantage in improving the flame resistance of LSR.

  3. Bacteriologic investigation of the effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine during the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Jr., José F.; Rocas,Isabela N.; Paiva, Simone S. M.; Pinto, Tatiana Guimarães; Magalhães, Karen M.; de Lima, Kenio C.

    2007-01-01

    SIQUEIRA JR. et al. Bacteriologic investigation of the effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine during the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod., v. 104, n. 1, p. 122-130, 2007. Objective. This clinical study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate as irrigants in reducing the cultivable bacterial populations in infected root canals...

  4. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Sadeq, Abdullah; Burezq, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common irrigation solution used in root canal treatment. It has strong antibacterial and tissue dissolving properties. Nevertheless, it has some serious complications, some of which are life-threatening. A young male presented with severe chemical burn of the right infraorbital area and partial necrosis of the hard palate resulting from extrusion of NaOCl during root canal treatment of the upper right 2(nd) molar tooth. The patient had a facial scar, and mucosal damage healed nearly completely. Several precautions must be taken during NaOCl use to prevent the spread of the solution into surrounding tissues. Early recognition of NaOCl accident and proper immediate management are important to achieve the best possible outcome.

  5. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in an Israeli group of patients and its treatment with sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryishak, Y R; Zavaro, A; Monselise, M; Samra, Z; Sompolinsky, D

    1982-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is usually considered as an allergic eye disorder of type I, and in most therapeutic trials it has been shown to yield to topical treatment with sodium cromoglycate. This has been confirmed in the present study of VKC patients from Israel. However, some of the cases seemed not to benefit from this treatment. In a survey of IgE levels in VKC patients in Israel tear IgE levels were significantly increased in 63.5%, but in 29% of the patients both tear and blood IgE levels were normal to low. The possibility that some of the cases diagnosed as VKC might have another cause than IgE-mediated atopy is discussed. Images PMID:6800400

  6. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case. PMID:27789914

  7. Sodium Thiosulfate Versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    IUIVIJ:lt:M Sodium thiosulfate versus hydroxocoba~amin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity in a swine (Sus Scrofa )model on...treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity in a swine (Sus Scrofa ) model .. 4. Principal Investigator (PI): ’ ~ I ’ ·, .. Name Rank Date

  8. Características da silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com inoculante bacteriano e hidróxido de sódio e acrescida de resíduo da colheita de soja Characteristics of sugarcane silage treated with bacterial inoculant, sodium hydroxide or soybean crop residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acyr Wanderley de Paula Freitas

    2006-02-01

    (Lactobacillus plantarum in doses of 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 x 10(6 cfu/g NM, 40% sodium hydroxide solution (3% dry matter basis, or 10% of soybean crop residue added according to the sugarcane fresh weight. The variety RB855536 harvested at 11 and 13 months of age was used. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa Animal Science Department, Viçosa, MG, in a completely randomized design (three repetitions per treatment with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 8 (two ages and eight treatments. For evaluation of chemical composition and degradation kinetic of silages three parameters were considered: 1 "nutritional quality" that included contents of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility; 2 "physiological maturity" that included soluble carbohydrates, lignin, and the neutral detergent fiber undegradable fraction; and 3 "degradation velocity of fiber carbohydrates" that included kdNDF. For evaluation of fermentation characteristics the following parameters were adopted: 1 "secondary fermentation and losses" that included DM losses, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ethanol concentrations; 2 "hydrogen potential" (pH; and 3 "protein degradation" (PD that included ammonia-N concentration. Soy crop residue improved silage nutritional quality and reduced both DM losses and ethanol production. Treatment with sodium hydroxide also decreased ethanol production but did not improve nutritional quality and was not able to prevent DM losses. Use of L. plantarum did not improve the nutritional quality of silages or reduced their DM losses and ethanol production.

  9. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Rodiansono Rodiansono; Shimazu Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol) was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH) catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite). The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dis...

  10. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P chemical treatments significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content except AHP (P chemical treatments (P Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization.

  11. Preparation and application of magnesium hydroxide%氢氧化镁的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常喜斌; 王冀锋

    2013-01-01

    Methods for preparation of magnesium hydroxide mainly include dolomite method , magne-site method, brucite method, magnesium chloride method (calcium hydroxide precipitation method, am-monia precipitation method , sodium hydroxide , magnesium chloride precipitation method ) , and hexam-moniated magnesium chloride -magnesium chloride method .Magnesium hydroxide can be used in water treatment, flue gas desulfurization , etc., and can also be used as inorganic flame retardants and a pre-cursor of magnesium oxide series products .%氢氧化镁制备方法主要包括:白云石法,菱镁矿法,水镁石法,氯化镁法(氢氧化钙沉淀法、氨沉淀法、氢氧化钠沉淀法),六氨氯化镁-氯化镁法。其可应用于水处理、烟气脱硫等领域,还可用作无机阻燃剂及制备氧化镁系列产品的前驱体。

  12. Comparison of clinical efficacies of sodium ascorbyl phosphate, retinol and their combination in acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruamrak, C; Lourith, N; Natakankitkul, S

    2009-02-01

    Acne vulgaris impairs the appearance of an individual and causes psychological irritation. Inflammatory acne lesion is caused by multifactor incorporates in each step of acne pathogenesis. In an attempt to archive inflammatory lesion treatment with the promise of prevention of acne vulgaris, randomized and double-blind studies on the comparison of the efficacies of topical formulations containing 5% sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) and 0.2% retinol, separately as well as in combination application, were conducted. The resulting data showed that SAP reduced the inflammatory lesion by 20.14% and 48.82% within 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Application of the formulation containing retinol slightly improved the treatment efficacy as the lesion reduced by 21.79% and 49.50% after 4 and 8 weeks respectively. The combination treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory lesion by 29.28% after 4 weeks and 63.10% after 8 weeks of application. The most effective treatment was by using the combination of 5% SAP and 0.2% retinol, which incorporated the synergistic effects on lipid peroxidation and sebaceous gland function in addition to the enhancement of SAP permeability by the desquamation of stratum corneum influenced by retinol, keratin plug removal and anti-inflammatory effect of retinol. This study promises for the development of cosmetic products to overcome aesthetic and psychological problems caused by acne vulgaris.

  13. Sodium retention and insulin treatment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    newly diagnosed diabetic patients (aged 20-35 years, median 27 years) who were studied on two occasions on different insulin doses. Study 3 was a 12-month prospective intervention study of 21 type 1 diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy, who had been randomized either to receive continuous...... subcutaneous insulin infusion for improvement of glycaemic control or to remain on conventional insulin treatment. In study 1, ENa was higher in short-duration type 1 diabetic men than in controls (3003 +/- 325 vs 2849 +/- 207 mEq/1.73 m2, P ...The hypothesis that total body exchangeable sodium (ENa) is elevated in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with short-duration diabetes and no signs of microangiopathy was tested. Also tested was whether peripheral hyperinsulinaemia, in terms of the amounts of insulin injected...

  14. Sodium Hypochlorite-Modified Hemosorbents in the Treatment of Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Syndrome: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sergiyenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment for limb ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in an experiment, by using the modified hemosorbents that have oxidative properties.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on 94 mongrel male dogs divided into 3 groups: 1 intact animals (n=20; 2 animals treated with hemocarboperfusion on the standard sorbent CKH-1K (n=36; 3 animals received hemocarboperfusion on sodium hypochloride-modified sorbent CKH-1K (n=38. A model of acute ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was created by the method of V. D. Pasechnikov et al. Partial oxygen tension (pO2 was determined by pin polarography. The levels of vasoactive eicosanoids were measured by enzyme immunoassay.Results. In the animals with leg ischemia syndrome, there is a significant pO2 reduction in the muscles of the hip and shin, which does not completely recover after reperfusion. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion reduces pO2 as compared with the reperfusion period while the use of modified CKH-1K hemosorbent increased pO2 in the study hind limb muscles to the level observed in intact animals. The development of ischemia and reperfusion is accompanied by the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that have vasoconstrictive properties (thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 and the lower concentration of the vasodilator prostacyclin. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion results in a further increase in the concentrations of thromboxane B2 and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4, a decrease in the concentration of endothelin-1, and an elevation of the levels of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2. When sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion is employed, the concentrations of thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 decrease, and the level of prostacyclin increases.Conclusion. Hemocarboperfusion used in the treatment of leg ischemia-reperfusion syndrome leads to restoration of tissue oxygenation and

  15. 纳米氢氧化镁在重金属水处理方面的应用%Application of Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles in Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明阳; 唐静

    2015-01-01

    纳米氢氧化镁是一种新型无机材料。由于其无毒、无害、腐蚀小、吸附能力强等特点,在重金属水处理方面得到了广泛应用。在论述近年来纳米氢氧化镁吸附应用进展的基础上,阐述目前存在的问题和以后的发展方向。%As a new type of inorganic material, magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles can be used as absorbent based on the advantages of non-toxicity, harmless, low corrosion, strong adsorption ability. In this paper, research progress of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles was reviewed. Meanwhile, disadvantages and development trend of the research on application were also presented.

  16. Comparative trial of sodium cromoglycate enemas with prednisolone enemas in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, R H; Gent, A E; Hellier, M D

    1987-01-01

    A double blind multicentre study comparing sodium cromoglycate (600 mg/100 ml) by enema with prednisolone (20 mg/100 ml) by enema is reported. The study was conducted over a nine week period in the treatment of 70 patients with ulcerative colitis. Analysis of symptoms showed significant decreases in scores for patients in both groups, both at four and eight weeks; the only difference between the two groups was a significantly greater improvement in the reduction of rectal bleeding after four weeks in the prednisolone group. On sigmoidoscopy, both treatment groups showed a highly significant improvement after four and eight weeks with no significant differences being seen between the groups. Histology of the rectal biopsies showed a significant improvement in the inflammation of the mucosa for both treatment groups after four and eight weeks with no differences being observed between the groups. There were no significant changes in eosinophils from baseline and no difference between the groups at four and eight weeks. PMID:3102323

  17. The Administration and Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside in the Treatment of Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ming; Wang Wenmeng; Wu Qiong

    2000-01-01

    To prove the effectiveness and safety of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure, 58 patients with heart failure and normal renal and hepatic function were selected and divided into 3 groups and treated differently. Group A was treated with routine vasodilators; Group B was treaeted intermittently with SNP (12.5 -75mg/24hrs);Group C was treated continuously with SNP (continuous infusion of 100-300mg/24hrs) Positively inotropie agents and diuretic agents were used in each group.The results showed that the highly effective rates of the three groups were 46.9% (15/32), 90.5% (19/21)and 100% (12/12) respectively. The effective rates were 81.3% (26/32), 100% (21/21), 100%(12/12) respectively. The highly effective rates of group B and C were much higher than that of group A (P<0.005, P< 0.005) . The reduction of blood pressure of group B and C was greater than that of group A ( P < 0. 025) . Among the patients we studied, no body had severe side effects. We concluded that the use of SNP in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure is safe, with better effect than routine treatment,and continous infusion of SNP is the best choice.

  18. Effect of Long Term Oral Warfarin Sodium Treatment on Bone Mineral Density Scores and Spinal Sagittal Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Eyvazov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term oral warfarin sodium treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and spinal sagittal alignment. Materials and Methods: Sixty four participants were enrolled for this retrospective study. Participants were divided into two groups-participants who had taken warfarin sodium for at least two years (n=33 and participants who had never taken warfarin sodium (n=31. All of the individuals were evaluated at the same center. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used for measuring BMD. Whole spine x-rays were obtained for sagittal assessment and the following parameters were measured: Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope and sagittal vertical axis (SVA. Results: The mean BMD value was significantly higher in participants who had not taken warfarin sodium compared to participants who had taken warfarin sodium. The differences between the average values were 0.1552 g/cm2 in BMD; 2.1 in T scores; 1.4 in Z scores. On the radiological evaluation of the spine, cervical lordosis was 7.1 degrees lower, lumbar lordosis was 4.7 degrees lower and thoracic kyphosis was 5.3 degrees higher in the patients using drug. C7 plumb line was interchanged forward in the patients using drug. Conclusions: This study shows that warfarin sodium use worsens bone quality in the lumbar region and does not affect bone quality in the femoral region. Furthermore, warfarin sodium use also reduces physiological lordosis and enhances thoracic kyphosis. Consequences of these changes are the likely cause of sagittal spinal anterior imbalance. Long-term oral warfarin sodium use affect bone mineral density and spinal alignment. Our conclusion about giving clear message and show exactly mechanism we need prospective randomized multicentre studies in future. We strongly believe this study will be pioneer for future researches.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Local Heat Therapy Versus Intravenous Sodium Stibogluconate for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmania Major Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dermatotrophic Leishmania species such as L. major, L. tropica , and L. mexicana are thermosensitive with higher temperatures limiting amastigote replication...Wahid M, Bismullah M, Quinnell RJ, et al. (2005) Efficacy of thermotherapy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kabul...A Randomized Controlled Trial of Local Heat Therapy Versus Intravenous Sodium Stibogluconate for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmania major

  20. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes After Initiation of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Bagger, Jonatan I; Knop, Filip K

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) were recently introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). SGLT2i lower plasma glucose by inhibiting the renal reuptake of glucose leading to glucosuria. Generally, these drugs are considered safe to use. However, recently, SGLT2i have...

  1. Comparison of efficacy and safety of topical Ketotifen (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shoja

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compared the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate .025% (Zaditen with Cromolyn sodium 4% (Opticrom eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing, and redness in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC. Methods: This double blind randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly prescribed Zaditen (group A: n=50 and Cromolyn sodium (group B: n=50 eye drops for a 4 weeks period. Itching, lacrimation, redness, and photophobia were scored on a 4-points severity scale. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the response rates based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (61.5% than in Cromolyn group(53%.A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4 of Zaditen and 81.2% of Sodium Cromoglycate treated patients. The investigator,s assessment of response rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (P=0.001. Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC (P<0.05. Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patients, in compare with day 0. Conclusion: Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn. The rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC. Keywords : VKC , allergic conjuctivitis , zaditen

  2. Divalproex Sodium for the Treatment of PTSD and Conduct Disordered Youth: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Hans; Saxena, Kirti S.; Carrion, Victor; Khanzode, Leena A.; Silverman, Melissa; Chang, Kiki

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of divalproex sodium (DVP) for the treatment of PTSD in conduct disorder, utilizing a previous study in which 71 youth were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve had PTSD. Subjects (all males, mean age 16, SD 1.0) were randomized into high and low dose conditions. Clinical Global Impression (CGI)…

  3. Effects of ferric hydroxid sludge dosage on sludge treatment/-disposal. Final report; Einfluesse einer Eisenschlammzugabe auf die Klaerschlammbehandlung/-entsorgung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, E.; Benzinger, S.

    1997-12-01

    A pilot plant consisting of two gravity thickeners, two sludge digesters and sludge dewatering by laboratory-frame filter press was operated on two different sewage water treatment plants. Ferric hydroxide sludge (FS) was treated together as with surplus sludge from enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (SS{sub EBPR}) as together with a mixture of primary and surplus sludge including precipitation sludge (PS+SS). One sludge treatment system was dosed with FS, the other serving as control unit operated without FS. In combined thickening in view of filterable solids, COD and P the quality of supernatant improved in most cases as well as the dried solid matter of the thickened sludge increased. In thickening of SS{sub EBPR} 45-70% P was refixed more than in the control system. Scum caused by hydrogen sulphide could be avoided in particular cases. There were no negative influences on the process of combined digestion with SS{sub EBPR} observed as well as with PS+SS. The degradation of organic solid matter was increased by FS-dosage>30 g Fe/kg TR{sub RS}. If present SS{sub EBPR}, hydrogen sulphide was reduced significantly; the content of methane in digester gas increased. Re-dissolved poly-P was refixed nearly completely. Sludge dewatering process was not influenced by FS, independent of the kind of post sludge conditioning. Nor was the sludge disposal restricted by FS. P-feedback from combined thickening, digestion and dewatering of SS{sub EBPR} decreased in comparison to the control unit with 16,8% (in relation to P{sub tot} influent) to 11,2 resp. 1,4% depending on the dosage of FS. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine halbtechnische Versuchsanlage mit Schwerkrafteindickern, Faulbehaeltern und Entwaesserung mit einer Labor-Rahmenfilterpresse wurde auf zwei kommunalen Klaeranlagen betrieben. Eisenhydroxidschlamm (ES) wurde zum einen mit Ueberschussschlamm aus der erhoehten biologischen P-Elimination (UeSS{sub BIO-P}) und zum anderen mit einem Gemisch aus Primaer- und

  4. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, Dean [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company - CHPRC (United States); Crocker, Ben [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. (United States); Smart, Bill [IMPACT Services, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  5. Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate for Short-Term Treatment of Hyperkalemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Josh; Lin, Jane; Au-Yeung, Sarah Hin Mui; Cessford, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) is a potassium-binding resin that is commonly used to treat mild hyperkalemia. However, there is limited evidence supporting its effectiveness in the short-term management of hyperkalemia. Objective: To determine whether SPS is effective in reducing serum potassium in general medical patients after a single oral dose. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted for patients admitted to the internal medicine service of a tertiary care hospital between January 2011 and May 2012 with documentation of a serum potassium level between 5.0 and 5.9 mmol/L during the hospital stay. Patients eligible for inclusion were adults without chronic or acute renal failure or recent changes in medication or diet that would affect serum potassium level. Propensity score matching was performed to minimize differences between the control group (no treatment) and the treatment group (treatment with oral SPS). Follow-up serum potassium levels (at 6–24 h) were compared with index potassium levels. Results: A total of 138 patients met the inclusion criteria, 72 in the control group and 66 in the treatment group. For most patients in the treatment group, the dose was 15 or 30 g of SPS orally. The difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of mean change in serum potassium at 6 to 24 h after the index potassium measurement was statistically significant (by paired t test) in both an unmatched analysis (−0.41 ± 0.50 and −0.58 ± 0.39 mmol/L, respectively; p = 0.039) and a matched analysis (−0.44 ± 0.29 and −0.58 ± 0.39 mmol/L, respectively; p = 0.026). No difference was observed in terms of mean change in serum potassium between patients who received 15 and 30 g of SPS (−0.51 ± 0.38 and −0.66 ± 0.40 mmol/L, respectively; p = 0.13). Conclusions: In patients with mild hyperkalemia, oral SPS therapy reduced serum potassium by 0.14 mmol/L more than control. Although this difference was statistically

  6. Sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibition: therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Philip

    2013-07-01

    Results from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the risk of microvascular complications can be reduced by intensive glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, only about half of patients with diagnosed diabetes achieve recommended glycaemic goals. New therapies with complementary mechanisms of action that are independent of insulin secretion or action may provide additional therapeutic options to enable patients to achieve glycaemic control. The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, primarily by the reabsorption of filtered glucose. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), located in the proximal convoluted tubule, is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption by the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a novel approach to treat T2DM and reduce hyperglycaemia by increasing urinary excretion of glucose. Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor recently approved in Europe for the treatment of T2DM, improves glycaemic control in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or when added to other diabetes medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, and insulin. As a class, SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated and have a low propensity to cause hypoglycaemia. An increase in signs, symptoms, and other events suggestive of genital and, in some studies, urinary tract infections has been reported with SGLT2 inhibitors. Results from ongoing and future clinical trials will help define the role for this new class of investigational compounds, with its unique mechanism of action, as a treatment option for reducing hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM.

  7. Alkaline treatment on commercially available aluminum rich mordenite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laak, A.N.C.; Gosselink, R.W.; Sagala, S.L.; Meeldijk, J.D.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Several commercially available samples consisting of agglomerated small mordenite crystallites with low Si/Al ratios (5.7–10 at/at) have been treated in aqueous NaOH solution. It was found that the porosity can be enhanced when the sodium hydroxide solution is sufficiently concentrated. Treatment in

  8. Iodine Glycerin plus Calcium Hydroxide for treatment pericoronitis%应用氢氧化钙碘甘油糊剂治疗智齿冠周炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福稳

    2013-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate calcium hydroxide paste iodine glycerin treatment pericoronitis clinical results. Methods: randomly selected hospital dental clinic from October 2010 to October 2012 were treated 214 cases of pericoronitis patients and divided into two groups, namely the treatment and control groups. Patients treated with calcium hydroxide paste iodine glycerin treatment. Control group patients with iodine glycerin treatment. 3 days after treatment, the therapeutic effect of two groups were compared. Results: 3 days after treatment, patients treated with the treatment efficiency than the control group patients, and the differences between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:Compared with the application of iodine glycerin, application of calcium hydroxide paste iodine glycerin pericoronitis treatment efficacy more reliable.%  目的:探讨应用氢氧化钙碘甘油糊剂治疗智齿冠周炎的临床效果。方法:随机选取我院口腔门诊2010年10月至2012年10月间收治的214例智齿冠周炎患者作为研究对象并将其分为两组,即治疗组和对照组。治疗组患者应用氢氧化钙碘甘油糊剂进行治疗。对照组患者应用碘甘油进行治疗。治疗3天后,比较两组患者的治疗效果。结果:治疗3天后,治疗组患者治疗的有效率优于对照组患者,且两组间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:与应用碘甘油相比,应用氢氧化钙碘甘油糊剂治疗智齿冠周炎的疗效更佳、操作更简便。

  9. Clinical utility of patiromer, sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate for the treatment of hyperkalemia: an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, Mario V; Meaney, Calvin J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hyperkalemia is a serious medical condition that often manifests in patients with chronic kidney disease and heart failure. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors are known to improve outcomes in these disease states but can also cause drug-induced hyperkalemia. New therapeutic options exist for managing hyperkalemia in these patients which warrant evidence-based evaluation. Aim The objective of this article was to review the efficacy and safety evidence for patiromer, sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS9), and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Evidence review Current treatment options to enhance potassium excretion are SPS and loop diuretics, which are complicated by ambiguous efficacy and known toxicities. Patiromer and ZS9 are new agents designed to address this treatment gap. Both unabsorbable compounds bind potassium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to facilitate fecal excretion. The capacity to bind other medications in the GI tract infers high drug–drug interaction potential, which has been demonstrated with patiromer but not yet investigated with ZS9 or SPS. Phase II and III clinical trials of patiromer and ZS9 demonstrated clear evidence of a dose-dependent potassium-lowering effect and the ability to initiate, maintain, or titrate renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors. There is limited evidence base for SPS: two small clinical trials indicated potassium reduction in chronic hyperkalemia. All agents may cause adverse GI effects, although they are less frequent with ZS9. Concerns remain for SPS to cause rare GI damage. Electrolyte abnormalities occurred with patiromer and SPS, whereas urinary tract infections, edema, and corrected QT-interval prolongations were reported with ZS9. Conclusion Patiromer and ZS9 have improved upon the age-old standard SPS for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Additional research should focus on drug–drug interactions in patients on multiple

  10. Novel synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) from zinc hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xue; Liu, Leipeng; Komarneni, Sridhar; Lv, Fengzhu

    2017-02-01

    The most common synthesis methods for layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are co-precipitation and reconstruction, which can have some limitations for application. Here, we report a novel synthesis method for LDHs. We use zinc hydroxide as the precursor to synthesize LDHs phase through a simple transformation process of zinc hydroxide phase. For this transformation process, aluminum can enter into zinc hydroxide and replace zinc quickly to transform it into LDH by creating positive charges in the zinc hydroxide solid phase. The mechanism of LDH formation was through Al3+ reaction first with zinc hydroxide followed by recrystallization of the original structure of zinc hydroxide. Thus, the new process of LDH formation involves a reaction of Al to substitute for Zn and recrystallization leading to LDH and the final pH influences the crystallization of LDHs by this process. In addition, Cr3+ was employed as a trivalent cation for LDH formation to react with zinc hydroxide, which also led to LDH structure.

  11. Multi-Modal Treatment Of Calciphylaxis With Sodium-Thiosulfate, Cinacalcet And Sevelamer Including Long-Term Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Salmhofer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calciphylaxis is a rare, yet life-threatening disease mainly occurring in dialysis patients. Traditional options of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Methods: Here we present a novel, combined approach, treating calciphylaxis with IV sodium thiosulfate, cinacalcet and sevelamer. In a case series five hemodialysis patients, have been successfully treated with this regimen. Treatment and survival data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: In all patients, a rapid decrease in pain, improvement of general condition and wound healing within six months occurred. Side effects were low. Drug dosages: IV sodium thiosulfate initial dose 119.4 +/- 84.9 g/m2/week, maintenance dose 40.6 +/- 9 g/m2/week; cinacalcet: maintenance dose 36 +/- 32.9 mg/d and sevelamer maintenance dose 3320 +/-1671 mg/d. One and two year survivals were 100 % and 80 %, respectively. We also report on long-term application of IV sodium thiosulfate of up to 52 months. Patient survival after diagnosis was 52, 84, 21, 36 and 30 months, respectively. Survival since initiation of hemodialysis was 76, 136, 89, 36 and 35 months, respectively. Conclusion: This novel combined approach, a multi-modal treatment of calciphylaxis with persistent hyperparathyroidism, using IV sodium thiosulfate, cinacalcet and sevelamer seems to improve the outcome of this devastating disease.

  12. Dietary sodium, potassium, and alcohol: key players in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Western industrialized societies are currently experiencing an epidemic expansion of hypertension (HTN), which extends alarmingly even to children and adolescents. HTN constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiorenal disease and represents an extremely common comorbidity of diabetes and obesity. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have provided robust scientific evidence that reduced dietary salt intake, increased dietary potassium intake, moderation of alcohol consumption, optimal weight maintenance, and the adoption of "heart-friendly" dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the Mediterranean diet can effectively lower blood pressure. Interestingly, the susceptibility of blood pressure to nutritional interventions is greatly variable among individuals, depending on age, race, genetic background, and comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available scientific evidence in the constantly evolving field of diet and HTN, placing particular emphasis on the key role of dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and alcohol intake in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

  13. Targeting voltage-gated sodium channels for treatment for chronic visceral pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Hu Qi; You-Lang Zhou; Guang-Yin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a fundamental role in controlling cellular excitability, and their abnormal activity is related to several pathological processes, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, spasticity and chronic pain. In particular, chronic visceral pain, the central symptom of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, is a serious clinical problem that affects a high percentage of the world population. In spite of intense research efforts and after the dedicated decade of pain control and research, there are not many options to treat chronic pain conditions. However, there is a wealth of evidence emerging to give hope that a more refined approach may be achievable. By using electronic databases, available data on structural and functional properties of VGSCs in chronic pain, particularly functional gastrointestinal hypersensitivity, were reviewed. We summarize the involvement and molecular bases of action of VGSCs in the pathophysiology of several organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders. We also describe the efficacy of VGSC blockers in the treatment of these neurological diseases, and outline future developments that may extend the therapeutic use of compounds that target VGSCs. Overall, clinical and experimental data indicate that isoform-specific blockers of these channels or targeting of their modulators may provide effective and novel approaches for visceral pain therapy.

  14. Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Pizzocri, Marta; Salice, Valentina; Chevallard, Giorgio; Fossali, Tommaso; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Polli, Federico; Gatti, Stefano; Fortunato, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P.; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. Methodology Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+) lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group): S) sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B) sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T) transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. Principal Findings Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05), pH (P<0.05) and strong ion difference (P<0.05) drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22±0.02 to 7.36±0.04, P<0.05) while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24±0.01 to 7.53±0.03, P<0.05). When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05) so that blood lactate was higher (2.9±1 mmol/l vs. 1.0±0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively). The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05). Conclusions pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load. PMID:23029373

  15. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2 × 10, 6.29 × 10, 7.4 × 10, and 11.4 × 10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4 × 10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools.

  16. Topical Colchicine Gel versus Diclofenac Sodium Gel for the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Behfar, Shadi; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs), a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated in terms of their lesion size, treatment complications, and recurrence at 7, 30, 60, and 120 days after treatment. Results. The mean of changes in the size was significant in both groups both before and after treatment ( 0.05). No case of erythema was seen in the colchicine group, while erythema was seen in 22.9% (eight cases) of patients in the diclofenac sodium group (p = 0.005). Conclusions. 1% colchicine gel was a safe and effective medication with fewer side effects and lack of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:27689135

  17. A double-blind group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate, 2% four times daily and 4% twice daily, in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, M; Montan, P; Njå, F

    1994-03-01

    In a multicenter, double-blind, single-dummy, group-comparative study, 169 patients received ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate 2% four times daily, and 170 patients received 4% ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate twice daily, together with placebo eye-drops twice daily, for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) to birch pollen. The treatment period was 4 weeks during the birch pollen season. Daily pollen counts were used to identify the peak 14-d period. Clinical examinations were made before the start of treatment, after 1 week of treatment, and at the end of the treatment period. Patients kept daily diary record cards of eye symptom severity and concomitant therapy. Symptoms were generally mild and, except for chemosis (week 4) and soreness (weeks 2 and 3), which were less in the 4% group (P sodium cromoglycate eye-drops twice daily is as effective and well tolerated as 2% sodium cromoglycate four times daily in the treatment of birch-pollen conjunctivitis.

  18. Renal sodium avidity in heart failure: from pathophysiology to treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Wilfried; Verbrugge, Frederik Hendrik; Nijst, Petra; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson

    2017-02-23

    Increased neurohumoral stimulation resulting in excessive sodium avidity and extracellular volume overload are hallmark features of decompensated heart failure. Especially in case of concomitant renal dysfunction, the kidneys often fail to elicit effective natriuresis. While assessment of renal function is generally performed by measuring serum creatinine-a surrogate for glomerular filtration-, this only represents part of the nephron's function. Alterations in tubular sodium handling are at least equally important in the development of volume overload and congestion. Venous congestion and neurohumoral activation in advanced HF further promote renal sodium and water retention. Interestingly, early on, before clinical signs of heart failure are evident, intrinsic renal derangements already impair natriuresis. This clinical review discusses the importance of heart failure (HF) induced changes in different nephron segments. A better understanding of cardiorenal interactions which ultimately result in sodium avidity in HF might help to treat and prevent congestion in chronic and acute HF.

  19. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours.

  20. Effects of glycerol on human skin damaged by acute sodium lauryl sulphate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Romagny, Céline; Padois, Karine; Denis, Alain; Haftek, Marek; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-08-01

    Glycerol, widely used as humectant, is known to protect against irritants and to accelerate recovery of irritated skin. However, most studies were done with topical formulations (i.e. emulsions) containing glycerol in relatively high amounts, preventing drawing conclusions from direct effects. In this study, acute chemical irritations were performed on the forearm with application of a 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) aqueous solution under occlusion for 3 h. Then, glycerol aqueous solutions from 1 to 10% were applied under occlusion for 3 h. After elimination of moist excess consecutive to occlusive condition, in ambient air for 15 and 30 min, skin barrier function was investigated by dual measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatments with SLS solution under occlusion significantly increased TEWL and decreased skin hydration as assessed by capacitance measurements. The SLS irritant property was raised by the occlusion and the water barrier function as well as water content appeared impaired. Recovery with glycerol at low doses was remarkable through a mechanism that implies its hygroscopic properties and which is saturable. This precocious effect acts through skin rehydration by enhancing water-holding capacity of stratum corneum that would facilitate the late physiological repair of impaired skin barrier. Thus, glycerol appears to substitute for natural moisturizing factors that have been washed out by the detergent action of SLS, enhancing skin hydration but without restoring skin barrier function as depicted by TEWL values that remained high. Thus, irritant contact dermatitis treated with glycerol application compensate for skin dehydration, favouring physiological process to restore water barrier function of the impaired skin. Empirical use of glycerol added topical formulations onto detergent altered skin was substantiated in the present physicochemical approach.

  1. WOOD PRE-TREATMENT INFLUENCE ON THE HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENT IN COMBINATION WITH SOME TROPICAL WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three pre-treatment methods on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement in combination with three tropical hardwood species was investigated. The maximum hydration temperature and time to reach maximum hydration temperature were analysed for the wood-cement-water mixtures of the three species after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples by extraction with 5% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, cold and hot water after removing inhibitory extractives of wood samples. There were differences in the hydration reaction of the wood species with Portland cement using the different pre-treatment methods. The compatibility of the wood species with Portland cement improved following pre-treatment. Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment had the most significant effect followed by hot water. Terminalia ivorensis (Idigbo, and Antiaris africana (Oriro species showed considerable improvement in their compatibility with Portland cement at 5% Sodium hydroxide pre-treatment with maximum hydration temperature of 65oC where Arere had 60.5oC where both cold and hot water were unable to raise the hydration temperature beyond 55.5oC . This study shows that the wood species requires more than cold and hot water extraction to make them suitable for wood cement composite materials as extraction with sodium hydroxide (1% solution was found to be the most effective treatment for the wood species under investigation.

  2. Growth during one year of treatment with fluticasone propionate or sodium cromoglycate in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J F; Russell, G; Hindmarsh, P C; Weller, P; Heaf, D P; Williams, J

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare accurately measured growth over 12 months in asthmatic children treated with either fluticasone propionate (FP) 50 micrograms twice daily (b.i.d.) or sodium cromoglycate (SCG) 20 mg four times daily (q.i.d.). After a 2-week run-in, asthmatic children aged 4-10 years from 15 UK centers were randomized in a 3:4 ratio to open-label FP (n = 52) or SCG (n = 70). After 8 weeks, those whose asthma was not adequately controlled were switched from SCG to FP or withdrawn. Standing height was measured (Holtain stadiometry) at baseline, after 8 weeks and at 6 weeks intervals thereafter for 1 year. Morning peak flows (PEFam) were recorded by patients for 2 weeks during baseline, and 1 week before each visit during treatment. Urinary free cortisol (24 h) was measured at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. After 8 weeks, 22 patients were withdrawn from SCG group (and were switched to FP), and five patients were withdrawn from the FP group due to poor asthma control. A further 21 and 11 patients were withdrawn from the SCG and FP groups, respectively, during the course of the study. There were no significant differences between patients who received FP and SCG for 1 year (n = 34 and n = 26, respectively) in terms of height velocity adjusted for age and gender (HV), or height velocity standard deviation scores adjusted for gender (HVSDS). Mean HV (mean HVSDS) were 6.0 cm/yr (0.1) and 6.5 cm/yr (0.5) for FP and SCG, respectively. There were no treatment differences in mean 24 h urinary free cortisol levels at 6 and 12 months. Mean % predicted PEFam improved over 1 year in both groups but to a greater degree in the FP group. We concluded that growth was normal in mildly asthmatic children receiving FP (50 micrograms bid) for 1 year. There were fewer withdrawals and lung function improved to a greater extent in FP treated patients than in patients receiving SCG.

  3. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  4. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin

  5. To Observe the Curative Effect of Cefoperazone Sodium/Sulbactam Sodium in Prevention and Treatment of Gynecological Infections%头孢哌酮钠/舒巴坦钠防治妇产科感染疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿雨花

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析总结头孢哌酮钠/舒巴坦钠防治妇产科感染的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年1月至2014年12月所收治的140例妇产科患者。对患者给予头孢哌酮钠/舒巴坦钠,观察患者在治疗后的临床疗效和细菌学疗效及不良反应。结果所选患者中129例患者治愈,头孢哌酮钠/舒巴坦钠的临床治疗痊愈率为92.1%。结论头孢哌酮钠/舒巴坦钠在对妇产科感染的防治中有效率高。值得临床推广。%Objective Through the clinical data colation of cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium for preventing gynecological infection patients, the efficacy of cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium in prevention and treatment of infections in obstetrics and gynecology were observed and analyzed.Methods 140 cases of patients in Department of Obstetrics and gynecology in our hospital from 2014 January to 2014 were selected from December. The type of infection were 28 cases of urinary system infection, cesarean section 38 cases of infection, puerperal infection in 26, 18 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, 9 cases of gonorrhea. 21 cases of salpingitis. Given cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium for patients, patients in the observation of clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of bacteriology and curative effect after the treatment.Results The selected patients 129 patients were cured, 11 cases effective relief of symptoms. Clinical treatment of cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium recovery rate was 92.1%. Al patients finaly after hospital treatment, al recovered and discharged from hospital.Conclusion Cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodium in the prevention and control of infections in obstetrics and gynecology in high efficiency. The clinical effect and safety of strong. Has great clinical value.

  6. Effect of sodium hypochlorite treatment on remineralization of human root dentine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inaba, D; Ruben, J; Takagi, O; Arends, J

    1996-01-01

    Dentine consists simplified of mineral and of several organic components. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a well-known nonspecific proteolytic agent capable to remove organic material. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of organic material removal from artificial dentine lesions b

  7. Erosion-inhibiting effect of sodium fluoride and titanium tetrafluoride treatment in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkom, Hans van; Ruben, J.; Vieira, A.; Huysmans, M.C.; Truin, G-J.; Mulder, J.

    2003-01-01

    The prevention of dental erosion with fluoride is still largely unknown territory. It was the aim of this study to determine the erosion-inhibiting effect of topical neutral 1% sodium fluoride (NaF) application and an application of a 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution compared with no treatm

  8. Adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-hong; CHEN Guang-hao; SHANG Chii

    2007-01-01

    Sodium pyrophosphate(pyro-P,Na4P207),sodium tripolyphosphate(tripoly-P,NasP3010),and sodium hexametaphosphate(metaP,(NaP03)6)were selected as the model compounds of condensed phosphate to investigate the adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide.The adsorption was found to be endothermic and divisible into two stages:(1)fast adsorption within 1 h:and(2)slow adsorption between 1 and 24 h.The modified Freundlich model simulated the fast adsorption stage well;the slow adsorption stage was described well by the first-order kinetics.The activation energies of pyro-P,tripoly-P,and meta-P adsorption on aluminum hydroxide were determined to be 20.2,22.8 and 10.9 kJ/mol P adsorbed,respectively,in the fast adsorption stage and to be 66.3.53.5 and 72.5 kJ/tool P adsorbed,respectively,in the slow adsorption stage.The adsorption increased the negative charge of the aluminum hydroxide surface.Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis analyses provided evidence that the adsorption was not uniform on the surface and that the small crystals contfibuted more to the fast adsorption than the normal sites did.The results from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests also revealed the uneven adsorption of condensed phosphate as a function of the penetration depth.More condensed phosphates were adsorbed on the outer surface of aluminum hydroxide than in its inner parts.

  9. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent

  10. Impact of Acidified Sodium Chlorite and Enzyme Treatment on the Microbial Load and Energy Bioavailability of Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur R

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbial load and high fiber content in various non conventional feedstuffs limit their utilization in poultry feed. In the present study, the feedstuffs were treated with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC and its impact on  the microbial load and metabolizable energy availability was assessed in  the chickens. The effect of supplementation of feed grade enzyme was also evaluated either alone or in combination with ASC treatment.  ASC was prepared by adding citric acid to an aqueous solution of sodium chlorite (625 g/liter. The sanitizing effect of ASC was assessed at  0,  100,  250 and  500 ppm levels in  the meat cum bone meal (MBM and sunflower meal (SFM, while its impact on  the energy bioavailability from SFM and de-oiled rice bran (DORB was assessed  at  0, 100 and  250 ppm levels with (0.3  g/kg and without exogenous enzyme supplementation.  The results revealed that  ASC treatment was effective in reducing  the  microbial load in MBM and SFM. Regarding  the metabolizable energy availability, ASC treatment produced appreciable improvement both in SFM and DORB, while enzyme supplementation was effective only with SFM. It may be concluded that ASC treatment has a sanitizing effect and improves the energy bioavailability from feed ingredients like SFM and DORB in the chicken.

  11. The disinfection effect of calcium hydroxides dressing using different vehicles on clinical root canal treatment%不同赋形剂氢氧化钙根管消毒效果的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国祥; 骆鸣宇; 高倩华; 廖雪峰; 王瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较生理盐水、碘甘油、樟脑对氯苯酚、樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等赋形剂对氢氧化钙消毒根管效果的影响,以期为临床工作提供参考.方法 选择单根管慢性根尖周炎患牙80颗,随机分成氢氧化钙加生理盐水、氢氧化钙加碘甘油、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等4组,观察封药1周后的临床疗效、封药1周前后的细菌学培养菌落数变化以及达到临床可充填的封药时间等评价指标.结果 氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油组明显优于氢氧化钙加生理盐水、氢氧化钙加碘甘油、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组(P<0.01);在封药1周的临床疗效(评分差值)方面,氢氧化钙加生理盐水组、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在达到临床可充填封药时间上,氢氧化钙加碘甘油组、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在生理盐水、碘甘油、樟脑对氯苯酚、樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等赋形剂中,樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油可能是最为有效的赋形剂.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of root canal disinfection with calcium hydroxides dressing respectively in four different vehicles (physiological saline, iodine glycerin, camphorated para-monochlorophenol and camphorated para-monochlorophenol/iodine glycerin), in order to provide reference for clinical root canal treatment. Methods To divide 80 teeth of single-root canal teeth having chronic apical periodontitis randomly into four groups according to the vehicles (physiological saline, iodine glycerin, camphorated para-monochlorophenol and camphorated para-monochlorophenol/iodine glycerin), observing the clinical effect after 7 days, bacterial colony numbers of root canal contents before and 7 days after calcium hydroxides dressing, clinical duration of root canal treatment. Results The camphorated para

  12. Advanced phosphorus removal from membrane filtrates by adsorption on activated aluminium oxide and granulated ferric hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genz, Arne; Kornmüller, Anja; Jekel, Martin

    2004-09-01

    The advanced phosphorus (P) removal by adsorption was studied for its suitability as a post-treatment step for membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluents low in P concentration and particle content. Two commercial adsorbents, granulated ferric hydroxide (GFH) and activated aluminium oxide (AA), were studied in batch tests and lab-scale filter tests for P adsorption in MBR filtrates. GFH showed a higher maximum capacity for phosphate and a higher affinity at low P concentrations compared to AA. Competition by inorganic ions was negligible for both adsorbents at the original pH (8.2). When equilibrium P concentrations exceeded 2 mg L(-1) in the spiked MBR filtrates, a precipitation of calcium phosphates occurred additionally to adsorption. During column studies the effluent criteria of 50 microgL(-1) P was reached after a throughput of 8000 bed volumes for GFH and 4000 for AA. Dissolved organic carbon appears to be the strongest competitor for adsorption sites. A partial regeneration and reloading of both adsorbents could be achieved by the use of sodium hydroxide.

  13. Adsorption of phosphonate antiscalant from reverse osmosis membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, Luciaan; Keesman, Karel J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2012-09-04

    Adsorptive removal of antiscalants offers a promising way to improve current reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment processes and enables the reuse of the antiscalant in the RO desalination process. This work investigates the adsorption and desorption of the phosphonate antiscalant nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) from RO membrane concentrate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), a material that consists predominantly of akaganéite. The kinetics of the adsorption of NTMP onto GFH was predicted fairly well with two models that consider either combined film-pore or combined film-surface diffusion as the main mechanism for mass transport. It is also demonstrated that NTMP is preferentially adsorbed over sulfate by GFH at pH 7.85. The presence of calcium causes a transformation in the equilibrium adsorption isotherm from a Langmuir type to a Freundlich type with much higher adsorption capacities. Furthermore, calcium also increases the rate of adsorption substantially. GFH is reusable after regeneration with sodium hydroxide solution, indicating that NTMP can be potentially recovered from the RO concentrate. This work shows that GFH is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of NTMP antiscalant from RO membrane concentrates.

  14. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  15. Composição química e perdas fermentativas de silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio Chemical composition and fermentative losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química e as perdas fermentativas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com ureia ou hidróxido de sódio (NaOH. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (CB 45-3 e RB 72-454 e quatro aditivos (controle, NaOH, ureia ou NaOH + ureia, compondo as seguintes silagens: cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 4% de ureia; cana-de-açúcar tratada 4% de NaOH; cana-de-açúcar tratada com 2% de ureia + 2% de NaOH. Os procedimentos foram realizados em ambas as variedades e as doses aplicadas com base na matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi picada e misturada, acescida dos aditivos e armazenada em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura por 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen. Adotou-se uma compactação de 750 kg de matéria natural/m³. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluente. Não foi observado efeito de interação entre variedades de cana-de-açúcar e doses para perdas por efluente, pH, celulose, lignina e cinza. O hidróxido de sódio contribui para redução de perdas,manutenção do grau brixa e elevação do pH da silagem da cana-de-açúcar, independentemente da utilização da ureia, além de promover redução dos constituintes da parede celular, ocasionando melhoria na qualidade da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation losses of the sugar cane silage treated with urea or sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was used a completely randomized design with four replicates, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two varieties of cane sugar (CB 45-3, RB 72-454 and four additives (Control, NaOH, urea or NaOH + urea, composing the following silages: sugar cane without additive; sugar cane treated with 4% urea; sugar cane treated

  16. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  17. Effect of topical cromoglycate solution on atopic dermatitis: combined treatment of sodium cromoglycate solution with the oral anti-allergic medication, oxatomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H; Hiratsuka, S

    1994-02-01

    The effect of topically applied sodium cromoglycate solution in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in children aged 4-14 years was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized group-comparative trial. One group of patients was treated with topical sodium cromoglycate solution and oral oxatomide whereas the other group was treated with topical placebo solution and oral oxatomide. After 4 weeks, AD improved significantly in the group treated with the sodium cromoglycate solution and oxatomide combination while marginal improvement was noted in the placebo. In addition, spontaneous IgE production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly in the sodium cromoglycate group but not in the placebo group. These results suggest that sodium cromoglycate solution may be very effective in combination with anti-allergic medication in the treatment of moderate to severe AD in children.

  18. A Comparison of Liposomal Amphotericin B with Sodium Stibogluconate for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Pregnancy in Sudan.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, M; Balasegaram, M.; Koummuki, Y; Ritmeijer, K.; Santana, M R; Davidson, R N N

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in pregnancy, especially in resource-poor settings. We present a series of pregnant women with VL treated with either sodium stibogluconate or liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome), or both, in eastern Sudan over 16 months. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of all pregnant VL patients treated in the Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) Um el Kher centre between January 2004 and April 2005. We diagnosed VL with labor...

  19. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Velissaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH>7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis.

  20. Observation on the therapeutic effect of aspirin in combined with ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Jing Shen; Hai-Yan He; Ming-Xuan Dai

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of aspirin in combined with ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction (ACI).Methods:A total of 120 patients with ACI who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group with 60 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given cerebral edema alleviating, brain cell protecting, cerebral circulation improving, and blood pressure controlling. The patients in the study group were given aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 0.1 g/time, 1 time/d. On the above basis, the patients in the study group were given ozagrel sodium (80 mg) + 0.9% NaCl (250 mL), ivdrip, 2 times/d. The patients in the two groups were treated for 14 d. The venous blood was extracted 1 d after admission and 14 d after treatment. The full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect PLT, PT, TT, FIB, and APTT. The radioimmunoassay was used to detect TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1α. The color Doppler ultrasound was used to detect IMT.Results: PLT, PT, TT, and APTT after treatment were not significantly different from those before treatment (P>0.05), but FIB was significantly reduced, and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, TXB2 level in the two groups was reduced, while 6-K-PGF1α was elevated, and those in the study group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, IMT in the two groups was reduced, and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Aspirin in combined with ozagrel sodium in the treatment of ACI can effectively inhibit the platelet aggregation, improve the coagulation function and cerebral blood supply, promote the recovery of cerebral nerve function after infarction, and enhance the therapeutic effect; therefore, it deserves to be widely

  1. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Brodin; Staffan Eksborg; Marita Wallenberg; Charlotte Asker-Hagelberg; Larsen, Erik H; Dag Mohlkert; Clara Lenneby-Helleday; Hans Jacobsson; Stig Linder; Sougat Misra; Mikael Björnstedt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Meth...

  2. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-05

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (pstarch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment.

  3. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T; Thueploy, A; Arayaphong, D [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Nilpairach, S, E-mail: thanakorn.w@chula.ac.t [National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  4. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Thueploy, A.; Nilpairach, S.; Arayaphong, D.

    2011-10-01

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 °C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 °C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 °C had lower water absorption as 12.22 %, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  5. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  6. Removal of phosphorus by the core-shell bio-ceramic/Zn-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites for municipal wastewater treatment in constructed rapid infiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Jiang, Yinghe; Li, Meng; Leng, Yujie

    2016-06-01

    Constructed rapid infiltration systems (CRIS) are a reasonable option for treating wastewater, owing to their simplicity, low cost and low energy consumption. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), novel materials with high surface area and anion exchange capacity, faced the problem of the application in CRIS due to the powdered form. To overcome this shortcoming, Zn-LDHs (FeZn-LDHs, CoZn-LDHs, AlZn-LDHs) were prepared by co-precipitation method and in-situ coated on the surface of the natural bio-ceramic to synthesize the core-shell bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs composites. Characterization by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) indicated that the Zn-LDHs were successful loaded on the natural bio-ceramic. Column tests experiments indicated that the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs efficiently enhanced the removal performance of phosphorus. The efficiently removal rates of bio-ceramic/FeZn-LDHs were 71.58% for total phosphorous (TP), 74.91% for total dissolved phosphorous (TDP), 82.31% for soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP) and 67.58% for particulate phosphorus (PP). Compared with the natural bio-ceramic, the average removal rates were enhanced by 32.20% (TP), 41.33% (TDP), 49.06% (SRP) and 10.50% (PP), respectively. Adsorption data of phosphate were better described by the Freundlich model for the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs and natural bio-ceramic, except for the bio-ceramic/CoZn-LDHs. The maximum adsorption capacity of bio-ceramic/AlZn-LDHs (769.23 mg/kg) was 1.77 times of the natural bio-ceramic (434.78 mg/kg). The effective desorption of phosphate could achieve by using a mixed solution of 5 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOH, it outperformed the natural bio-ceramic of 18.95% for FeZn-LDHs, 7.59% for CoZn-LDHs and 12.66% for AlZn-LDHs. The kinetic data of the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs were better described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Compared the removal amount of phosphate by the natural bio-ceramic, the physical effects were improved little, but the chemical

  7. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2,...

  8. Possibly enhanced Gd-excretion in dialysate, but no clinical benefit of 3-5 months treatment with sodium thiosulfate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Nielsen, A.H.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd...

  9. Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.; Nielsen, Arne Høj

    2008-01-01

    motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd...

  10. (羟基喜树碱@胆酸钠)-层状双金属氢氧化物纳米杂化物的组装及表征%Fabrication and Characterization of (Hydroxyl camptothecin@sodium cholate)-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids†

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞秀江; 刘源; 陈利; 全贞兰

    2015-01-01

    ( Hydroxyl camptothecin @ sodium cholate)-layered double hydroxide ( LDH) nanohybrids were prepared by a modified drug-coassembly method. Firstly, Hydroxyl camptothecin(HCPT) was incorporated in-to micelles derived from sodium cholate(SCL) which negatively charged. The negatively charged micelles in-tercalated HCPT@ SCL-LDH nanohybrids were prepared by a co-assembly between LDH nanosheets and sodi-um cholate micelles with the encapsulated HCPT could keep the biological active lactone form, and the drug loading of so-obtained nanohybrid was 12. 9% . (HCPT@ SCL)-LDH was modified using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and carboxymethylcellulose(CMC), respectively. The results showed that the dispersity of nanohy-brids was obviously improved, and PEG worked better than CMC. The PEG-(HCPT@ SCL)-LDH had favora-ble dispersity with average size of ca. 70 nm. PEG-(HCPT@ SCL)-LDH showed well controlled release prop-erty and in vitro drug release kine-tics from the nanohybrids could be fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinet-ic model. The diffusion of HCPT through the LDH particles played an important role in controlling the drug re-lease.%采用“药物修饰-共组装”法制备了(羟基喜树碱@胆酸钠)-层状双金属氢氧化物纳米杂化物.先用胆酸钠(SCL)包裹羟基喜树碱(HCPT)形成胶束,再与微反应器制备的层状双氢氧化物(LDH)纳米片共组装形成纳米杂化物,其载药量可达12.9%,杂化物中 HCPT 以高生物活性的内酯形式存在.采用聚乙二醇(PEG)和羧甲基纤维素(CMC)分别对所制备的(HCPT@ SCL)-LDH 纳米杂化物进行了表面修饰,结果表明,纳米杂化物的分散性得到明显改善; PEG 的修饰效果优于 CMC,所获得的 PEG-(HCPT@ SCL)-LDH 杂化物的平均粒径可小至约70 nm,具有良好的分散性和药物缓释效果.其药物释放过程可用准二级动力学方程描述,颗粒内部扩散是药物释放过程的控制步骤.

  11. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiplatelet aggregation treatment has become a regular treatment of ischemic stroke. The affirmation of antiplatelet therapy is mainly derived from patients with clinical use, which can not provide the laboratory indexes for evaluation of a recognized accuracy. Studies have confirmed that the degree of platelet activation is associated with atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke, and recognized that both CD62p (α-platelet granule membrane glycoprotein and CD63 (lysosomal membrane glycoprotein were important indexes of platelet activation. This study aims to explore the differences of efficacy between combined use of clopidogrel and ozagrel sodium and monotherapy by aspirin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke by investigating the expression of CD62p and CD63. Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect CD62p and CD63 expression on circulating platelet in patients with ischemic stroke and normal control group. The positive rate of CD62p and CD63 was detected in patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with aspirin 0.15 g (single drug therapy and clopidogrel 75 mg + ozagrel sodium 80 mg (combination therapy before and after one and two weeks' treatment. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were measured in patients with ischemic stroke at the same time in three periods respectively to evaluate the improvement of neural function. Results Platelet CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate in ischemic stroke group were higher than normal control group before treatment (P = 0.001, 0.032. CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score were measured at different times, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 56.693, P = 0.000; F = 21.544, P = 0.000; F = 216.271, P = 0.000, respectively. Compared with before treatment, CD62p and CD63 positive expression rate and NIHSS score decreased significantly after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but the differences between aspirin group and combination

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  13. The citotoxicity of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing by MTT assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide had been used as the intracanal dressing in endodontic treatment due to its high alkaline and high antimicrobial capacity. It also be able to dissolve the necrotic tissue, prevent the root resorbtion and regenerate a new hard tissue. The aim of this study is to identify the concentration of calcium hydroxide that has the lowest citotoxicity. There are 5 groups, each group had 8 samples with different concentration of calcium hydroxide. Group I: 50%, Group II: 55%, Group III: 60%, Group IV: 65% and Group V: 70%. The citotoxicity test by using enzymatic assay of MTT [3-(4.5- dimethylthiazol-2yl ]-2.5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, against fibroblast cell (BHK-21. The result of susceptibility test was showed by the citotoxicity detection of the survive cell of fibroblast that was measured spectrophotometrically using 595 nm beam. The data was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA test with significant difference α = 0.05 and subsequently LSD test. The result showed that in concentration 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% calcium hydroxide had low toxicity, but calcium hydroxide 60%, had the lowest toxicity.

  14. Oxidative leaching of chromium from layered double hydroxides: Mechanistic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A V Radha; P Vishnu Kamath

    2004-08-01

    The layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Cr on treatment with a hypochlorite solution releases chromate ions as a result of oxidative leaching by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. The residue is found to be -Zn(OH)2. The LDH of Mg with Cr on the other hand is resistant to oxidative leaching. In contrast, a X-ray amorphous gel of the coprecipitated hydroxides of Mg and Cr yields chromate ions. These results suggest that the oxidation potential of Cr(III) in LDHs is determined by the nature of the divalent ion and the crystallinity of the phase while being unaffected by the nature of the intercalated anions.

  15. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate shows in vitro and in vivo efficacy in the prevention and treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, J; Ikeno, H; Ohmori, K; Nishikawa, T; Vollhardt, J; Schehlmann, V

    2005-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common inflammatory skin disorder and jeopardizes seriously the facial impression of a person. Development of acne involves a complex relation among several causes. Treatment and prevention success can be archived by affecting the main contributors positively like Proprionibacterium acnes or lipid oxidation leading to inflammatory reactions and follicular keratinization. Vitamin C tends to break down in cosmetic formulations resulting in a brownish discoloration. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) represents a stable precursor of vitamin C that ensures a constant delivery of vitamin C into the skin. We were able to show that 1% SAP has a strong antimicrobial effect with a log reduction of 5 after 8 h on P. acnes in a time-kill study. Further on in a human in vivo study with 20 subjects an SAP O/W formulation significantly prevents the UVA-induced sebum oxidation up to 40%. Finally, we performed an open in vivo study with 60 subjects with a 5% SAP lotion over 12 weeks. The efficacy ranked as excellent and good of SAP was 76.9%, which was superior compared with a widely prescribed acne treatment. In conclusion, these data show that SAP is efficient in the prevention and treatment of acne vulgaris. SAP can be used in a non-antibiotic and effective treatment or co-treatment of acne with no side effects, which makes it particularly attractive for cosmetic purposes.

  16. Simultaneous objective and subjective evaluation of meclofenamate sodium in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R P; Powell, J R

    1987-09-01

    Eighteen patients participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover study of meclofenamate sodium in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Simultaneous evaluations of pain intensity and pain relief, sampling of continuous intrauterine pressure recording, and monitoring of blood meclofenamate levels were carried out. Improvements in pain intensity and pain relief were observed at 45 minutes and reached statistical significance at and beyond 1 hour 45 minutes after meclofenamate therapy. Ten of 14 uterine pressure parameters showed statistically significant responses after drug therapy and 12 of the 14 parameters showed statistically significant differences in time-response patterns. Statistically significant changes were noted as early as 45 minutes after meclofenamate therapy. Statistically significant correlations were found between and among the parameters of blood drug level and the subjective and objective measures. No drug-related adverse effects were found.

  17. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of azo dye (Direct Blue 15) using solvothermally synthesized copper hydroxide nitrate as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuzhong; Zhou, Xiang; Fu, Bei; Chen, Yiliang

    2011-03-15

    Copper hydroxide nitrate (Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3)) was synthesized solvothermally in anhydrous ethanol and characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DTA and SEM. The peroxide degradation of an azo dye (Direct Blue 15) on this material was evaluated by examining catalyst loading, initial pH, hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The leaching of Cu from the copper hydroxide nitrate during the reaction was also measured. The copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized solvothermally, which was of a novel spherical morphology with complex secondary structures and contained high-dispersed Cu(2)O impurity, showed good performance for oxidation degradation of the azo dye, especially high catalytic activity, high utilization of hydrogen peroxide and a wide pH range, whereas the copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized by the direct reaction of copper nitrate and sodium hydroxide showed low catalytic activity.

  18. Chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment decreases medial thickening of intramyocardial coronary arterioles, interstitial fibrosis, and ROS production in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying-Xian; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Huang, Guo-Ying; Moore, Philip Keith; Huang, Shan-Hong; Yao, Tai; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2007-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gasotransmitter that regulates cardiovascular functions. The present study aimed to examine the hypothesis that chronic treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H(2)S donor) is able to prevent left-ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Four-week-old SHR were treated with NaHS (10, 30, and 90 micromol x kg(-1) x day(-1)), a combination of NaHS (30 micromol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) and glibenclamide (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), glibenclamide alone (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), hydralazine alone (10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), and placebo for 3 mo. At the end of the treatment period, variables such as cardiac geometry and function, intramyocardial arterioles ranging in diameter from 25 to 100 microm, perivascular and interstitial collagen content, reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiol groups, conjugated dienes, and DNA base modification were examined. The novel finding of the present study is that chronic NaHS treatment prevented the hypertrophy of intramyocardial arterioles and ventricular fibrosis, as well as decreased myocardial ROS and conjugated diene levels. The cardioprotective effects were blunted by coadministration of glibenclamide, suggesting a role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in mediating the action of NaHS. Hydralazine caused a comparable reduction of blood pressure compared with NaHS treatment; however, it exerted no effect on the remodeling process or on ROS and conjugated diene levels. Moreover, NaHS treatment caused an increase in myocardial thiol group levels, whereas DNA base modification was not altered by NaHS treatment. In conclusion, the superior cardioprotective effects of NaHS treatment are worthy to be further explored to develop novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cardiac remodeling in hypertension.

  19. Tratamento da distrofia muscular progressiva com lactato de sódio Treatment of progressive muscular dystrophy with sodium lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base em trabalhos anteriores, 13 casos de distrofia muscular progressiva foram tratados com lactato de sódio 1/6 molar associado a ATP e complexo B. O exame da força muscular, realizado antes e após o tratamento — salvo em dois casos nos quais ocorreram melhoras muito discretas — não mostrou qualquer efeito favorável da medicação. Os autores sugerem a verificação de possíveis alterações enzimáticas provocadas pelo lactato de sódio, o que serviria para melhor avaliação do efeito terapêutico.Thirteen cases of progressive muscular dystrophy were treated with 1/6 M. sodium lactate plus ATP and B complex. Examinations of muscle strength, before and after the treatment, did not show any favourable effects, except in two of the cases which showed slight improvement. The authors suggest that possible enzimatic alterations caused by the sodium lactate be checked up on, since this checking could be employed in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects.

  20. Study on organic modified layered double hydroxides used for the adsorption treatment of dye wastewater%有机改性水滑石对染料废水的吸附处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商丹红; 张志生; 余亚楠

    2014-01-01

    采用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵改性制得有机改性水滑石,并用XRD和红外光谱进行表征。考察了有机改性水滑石对染料废水的吸附能力及相关影响因素。结果表明,水滑石改性后对染料吸附能力提高,染料去除率随改性水滑石投加量的增加而提高,随染料初始浓度的增大而降低,温度太高不利于染料的吸附,pH对染料废水的处理效果影响不大。改性水滑石对染料的吸附可用Langmuir等温吸附方程拟合,二级吸附模型能很好地描述改性水滑石对染料的吸附行为。表征结果表明十六烷基三甲基溴化铵进入到水滑石层间,但水滑石结构并没有发生大的变化。%Organic modified layered double hydroxides(LDHs) has been prepared by the modification of cetyltrime-thyl ammonium bromide (CTAB),and characterized by XRD and FT-IR,respectively. The adsorption capacity of organic modified layered double hydroxide for dye wastewater and the corresponding influencing factors are systematically investigated. The results show that the modified LDHs can improve its adsorption capacity for dye. The dye removing rate increases with the increase of LDHs dosage and decreases with the increase of initial concentration of dye. High temperature is not good for dye adsorption ,but pH does not have much influence on the treatment efficiency of dye wastewater. The adsorption of modified LDHs can be fitted by Langmuir isotherm adsorption equation,and the secondary adsorption model can well describe the adsorption behavior of modified LDHs. The characterization results show that cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide has entered into the layers of LDHs , but there has not been much change in the structure of LDHs.

  1. Effect of Ultrasound Frequency on the Precipitation Process of Supersaturated Sodium Aluminate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉波; 陈金清; 尹周澜; 张平民; 陈启元

    2004-01-01

    The effects of frequency of ultrasound on the precipitation process of prepared supersaturatedsodium aluminate solutions of practical concentration were studied experimentally under seeded,isothermal, batch crystallization conditions at various temperatures and initial αk(mole ratio ofNa2O/Al2O3). The decomposition and the particle number percentage for size below 2 μm at time of 15 hwere compared, particle size distribution and SEM photos of the product aluminum hydroxide were alsoanalyzed. The results indicate that the ultrasonic treatment at 16 kHz can enhance the decomposition rateof sodium aluminate solutions, and also has effects on particle morphology and particle size distributionof aluminum hydroxide precipitated.

  2. Evaluation of a consolidation treatment in dolostones by mean of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles in high relative humidity conditions; Evaluacion del tratamiento de consolidacion de dolomias mediante nanoparticulas de hidroxido de calcio en condiciones de alta humedad relativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Villalba, L. s.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza, A.; Alvares de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the results of a treatment applied to dolomitic stones using an isopropyl colloidal solution based on calcium hydroxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 2.0g/l are presented. The consolidation process in the stone has been checked before and after 28 days of exposure to 75% relative humidity. Morphologic and structural studies of the consolidating product confirmed the carbonation process. X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (TEM and ESEM), and electron diffraction carried out on the consolidating product have confirmed the transformation of portlandite phase to calcium carbonate polymorph, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Petrophysical tests performed on the stone before and after the application of the product have shown the improvement in the physical and hydrical properties due to the increase in the ultrasound velocity and density of the material, and a decrease in the capillarity coefficient and open porosity without significant changes in colour and brightness. The application of the consolidating product in the proposed experimental conditions is a natural method, compatible with the petrological characteristics of the substrate, without secondary damages on the stone, being an effective method to improve the durability of carbonate stones. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  4. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  5. The Performance of Geopolymers Activated by Sodium Hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeontaek; Kang, Seunggu

    2015-08-01

    Geopolymers, a group of promising environmentally friendly materials that can work as cement substitutes, should be fabricated from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO mixtures containing large amounts of amorphous phases to ensure optimal chemical and physical properties. In this study, it was shown that geopolymers with enhanced mechanical strengths, as high as 115 MPa, could be obtained from perfectly amorphous slag from spent catalyst (SSC) discharged during automobile catalyst recycling. Geopolymer processing involved alkali-activation using a 16 M NaOH solution of pH13. The varying SSC grain size was the main experimental factor of interest, in combination with curing temperature and aging time. Variations in the mechanical strengths of the resulting geopolymers are explained by the occurrence of 10-50 nm-sized crystals and the presence of voids and pores dozens to hundreds of micrometers in size.

  6. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively.

  7. [Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments.

  8. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white... hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used as a...

  9. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. Learn more and ... sodium with these printable and sharable infographics. The Salty Six – Common Foods that Add the Most Sodium ...

  10. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  11. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing

  12. Intravenous sodium valproate in mainland China for the treatment of diazepam refractory convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Peimin; Wang, Jinghua; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Dong

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the short-term safety and efficacy of treating patients with intravenous (i.v.) sodium valproate (VPA) for diazepam (DZP) refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). We prospectively registered 48 patients with refractory CSE who were treated at West China Hospital with i.v. VPA (30mg/kg, 6mg/kg per hour) after a loading dose of i.v. DZP and intramuscular phenobarbitone (PBT) failed. VPA stopped seizures in 87.5% of patients within 1h, and patients regained baseline mental status within 1h of seizure cessation. CSE did not recur in patients within the next 12h, and no significant VPA-related systemic or local side effects were found during their hospital stay. In conclusion, this study suggests that i.v. VPA is a promising option for DZP refractory CSE in mainland China, since i.v. PBT is unavailable in most hospitals, and anesthesia is unacceptable to most of the Chinese population.

  13. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  14. Supermolecular layered dou- ble hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Research progresses in the layered double hydroxides ·mH2O intercalated with metal coordinate ions or oxometalates in the last ten years are reviewed. These layered double hydroxides are mainly intercalated with polyoxometalate (POM) ions, a LiAl-LDH photochemical assembly containing TiO2 and CH3(CH2)12COO- anions, together with Zn(TPPC) (porphy-rin derivate) and macrocyclic ligand-containing porphyrin derivate anions. Emphasis is put on the synthesis methods for intercalation of the anions into the interlayer regions, the characterization techniques and structures for the layered compounds and the newest research progress in the fields such as catalysis. The review also forecasts the prospects of the field.

  15. Controlled growth of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles by wet precipitation method%水热法可控合成纳米氢氧化镁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉铖; 马海宾; 赵洪江

    2013-01-01

    In the water-soluble polymers and surfactants'common processing, We used ammonia, sodium hydroxide and water magnesium sulfate in response to specific conditions,making magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles sediment in water. We used water by the heat treatment of magnesium hydroxide particles to get the crystal-profile and status of further to improveing. Experimental inspected the surfactant or water-soluble polymer dispersion agent, temperature and concentration, feeding methods and speed, heat-treated water, and other parameters of the morphological characteristics and size of the role and impact.%在水溶性高分子化合物和表面活性剂的共同作用下,运用氨水,氢氧化钠和无水硫酸镁在特定的条件下反应,使得氢氧化镁纳米微粒在水溶液中沉淀。运用水热法处理合成所得到的氢氧化镁颗粒,使其在晶体型貌和状态上得到进一步的改善。

  16. The combination of nebulized sodium cromoglycate and salbutamol in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusho, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Sei; Akasaka, Toru; Arita, Masahiko; Edwards, Alan

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this multi-centre prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the combination of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and salbutamol (administered as a nebulized solution), compared to SCG alone and salbutamol alone, in the management of severe, intractable asthma in childhood. The study was an open, randomized, cross-over trial of 12 weeks' duration in children with moderate-to-severe intractable asthma. All treatments were administered twice daily by powered nebulizer. The primary outcome measure was the change in asthma severity, as measured by the mean asthma score during the last 2 weeks of a baseline period and the last 2 weeks of each treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the patient's opinion of the effectiveness of treatment. The change in asthma scores from baseline values were significantly greater with the combination treatment compared to each component administered separately. The mean difference in asthma score between the combination and salbutamol was: -7.5; 95% CI, -11.70 to -3.29 (p < 0.0001). The mean difference between the combination and SCG was: -8.53; 95% CI, -14.03 to -3.25 (p < 0.0001). Patients were also significantly in favor of combination treatment (p < 0.001 vs. salbutamol; p < 0.01 vs. SCG). Two patients reported adverse effects. We concluded that regular twice-daily inhalation of a combination of SCG and salbutamol gave better control of symptoms than previous treatments in patients with severe, intractable asthma. Few adverse effects with this therapy suggest that it is extremely useful, safe, and effective.

  17. Safety and efficacy of clobazam versus phenytoin-sodium in the antiepileptic drug treatment of solitary cysticercus granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now agreed that the prognosis of seizure disorder due to solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG is generally good. However, the choice antiepileptic drugs (AEDs remain empirical, with no comparative trials of different AEDs being available. Aims: To determine the safety and efficacy (measured by the incidence of ′treatment failure′ of clobazam in comparison to standard treatment with phenytoin-sodium for prevention of seizures in persons with solitary cysticercus granulomas (SCGs. Settings and Design: This pilot study was conducted in a neurology department of a medical college hospital in the form of a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with seizures due to SCG were randomized in an open-labeled trial to either, clobazam (1 mg/kg oral loading followed by 0.5 mg/kg/d (n=21 or phenytoin (15 mg/kg, oral loading in 3 divided doses over 24 h, followed by 5 mg/kg/d (n=27. They were followed over 6 months with the primary outcome measure being treatment failure (either discontinuation or modification of AEDs due to either adverse effects or breakthrough seizures. Results: Treatment failures were noted to be significantly less common ( P =0.03 in the clobazam-treated group (n=1; 4.7% than in phenytoin-treated group (n=9; 33.3%. These included one patient (4.7% in the clobazam-group who had breakthrough seizures and 3 (11.1% who had breakthrough seizures and 6 (22.2% in the phenytoin-treated group who had adverse effects requiring treatment discontinuation. Conclusions: Clobazam was well tolerated, safe and more effective than phenytoin in the AED treatment of patients with SCG.

  18. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields.

  19. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD with sodium oxybate (SMO or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA, exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as “street drug”; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD.

  20. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fabio; Vignoli, Teo; Tarli, Claudia; Domenicali, Marco; Zoli, Giorgio; Bernardi, Mauro; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-03-05

    The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) with sodium oxybate (SMO) or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as "street drug"; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD.

  1. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  2. Wet reclamation of sodium silicate used sand and biological treatment of its wastewater by Nitzschia palea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shaoqiang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The massive amount of sodium silicate in the used sand was a pollution source, especially in the waste water from the wet reclamation of used sand. A new process of wet reclamation by biologically treating the waste water produced during the wet reclamation process of used sand was studied in the paper. In the work, the pre-cultivation of N. palea was performed firstly, and three different scrubbing solutions: (1 tap water, (2 modified medium for N. palea, and (3 filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days, were used. The results of the primary investigation show that a de-skinning ratio of 90% is obtained when using the scrubbing solution containing modified medium for N. palea at the ratio 1:2 of sand and scrubbing solution, and the maximal concentrations of Na+ and SiO3? are 1.49 g稬-1 and 0.51 g稬-1, respectively. The results of the optimal biomass, pH value decrease and Na+ and SiO32- consumption indicate the optimal incubation conditions are at the irradiance of 5,000 lux and 25 篊. Using the filtrate of the broth treated by N. palea for 15 days as the scrubbing solution directly, a de-skinning ratio of 93% is the highest compared to the results of the tap water and the modified medium for N. palea. In the biological process using N. palea, less water is used and little wastewater is produced, which is advantageous to the purpose of green manufacturing and environmental protection.

  3. Preparation of Magnesium Hydroxide Flame Retardant with Additives%添加剂辅助制备氢氧化镁阻燃剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红进

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium hydroxide is a kind of flame retardant with high anti -flame effect, which is widely used in high polymer, such as plastic, rubber. In the experiment, synthesis reaction - hydrothermal treatment the flame - retardant magnesium hydroxide is prepared by the two -stpe way( ammonia synthesis reaction - hydrothermal treatment) with the help of additives and the products are detected by XRD, SEM and TEM methods. The results show that; ethylenediamine, n - butylamine and sodium stearate have enhancing effect on the preparation of Magnesium hydroxide , flame retardant, especially for the combination of n - butylamine and sodium stearate, and ethanol has no effect in this aspect.%氢氧化镁因具有良好的阻燃效果而被广泛应用于塑料、橡胶等高聚物中.实验使用两步法(氨水合成—水热处理法)在几种添加剂辅助条件下制备氢氧化镁阻燃剂粉体,对制备出的粉体进行了XRD、SEM和TEM表征.结果表明,加入有机添加剂对水热制备氢氧化镁阻燃剂影响较大,乙二胺、正丁胺、硬脂酸钠对制备阻燃型氢氧化镁具有促进作用,正丁胺和硬脂酸钠复合使用效果更佳,而无水乙醇未表现出促进作用.

  4. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  5. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  6. A novel SCN9A mutation responsible for primary erythromelalgia and is resistant to the treatment of sodium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Tzu; Huang, Po-Yuan; Yen, Chen-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Primary erythromelalgia (PE) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V) and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A). V1316A is a novel mutation and has not been characterized yet. Topologically, I136V is located in DI/S1 segment and both I848T and V1316A are located in S4-S5 linker region of DII and DIII domains, respectively. To characterize the elelctrophysiological manifestations, the channel conductance with whole-cell patch clamp was recorded on the over-expressed Chinese hamster overy cells. As compared with wild type, the mutant channels showed a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage dependent activation and a depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. The recovery time from channel inactivation is faster in the mutant than in the wild type channels. Since warmth can trigger and exacerbate symptoms, we then examine the influence of tempearture on the sodium channel conduction. At 35°C, I136V and V1316A mutant channels exhibit a further hyperpolarizing shift at activation as compared with wild type channel, even though wild type channel also produced a significant hyperpolarizing shift compared to that of 25°C. High temperature caused a significant depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation in all three mutant channels. These findings may confer to the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons, especially at high temperature. In order to identifying an effective treatment, we tested the IC₅₀ values of selective sodium channel blockers, lidocaine and mexiletine. The IC₅₀ for mexiletine is lower for I848T mutant channel as compared to that of the wild type and other two

  7. A novel SCN9A mutation responsible for primary erythromelalgia and is resistant to the treatment of sodium channel blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Tzu Wu

    Full Text Available Primary erythromelalgia (PE is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by severe burning pain and erythema in the extremities upon heat stimuli or exercise. Mutations in human SCN9A gene, encoding the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v1.7, were found to be responsible for PE. Three missense mutations of SCN9A gene have recently been identified in Taiwanese patients including a familial (I136V and two sporadic mutations (I848T, V1316A. V1316A is a novel mutation and has not been characterized yet. Topologically, I136V is located in DI/S1 segment and both I848T and V1316A are located in S4-S5 linker region of DII and DIII domains, respectively. To characterize the elelctrophysiological manifestations, the channel conductance with whole-cell patch clamp was recorded on the over-expressed Chinese hamster overy cells. As compared with wild type, the mutant channels showed a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage dependent activation and a depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. The recovery time from channel inactivation is faster in the mutant than in the wild type channels. Since warmth can trigger and exacerbate symptoms, we then examine the influence of tempearture on the sodium channel conduction. At 35°C, I136V and V1316A mutant channels exhibit a further hyperpolarizing shift at activation as compared with wild type channel, even though wild type channel also produced a significant hyperpolarizing shift compared to that of 25°C. High temperature caused a significant depolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation in all three mutant channels. These findings may confer to the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons, especially at high temperature. In order to identifying an effective treatment, we tested the IC₅₀ values of selective sodium channel blockers, lidocaine and mexiletine. The IC₅₀ for mexiletine is lower for I848T mutant channel as compared to that of the wild type

  8. 氯酸钠生产中母液处理工艺研究%Study on treatment process of mother liquor in sodium chlorate industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭淑芬; 周俊波; 潘胜

    2012-01-01

    Recently .chemical precipitation is used for treating sulfate radicals in the sodium chlorate production, but produces a considerable amount of sludge containing Cr,causing pollution to the environment.The use of ion exchange resin and nanofiltration membrane device integrated treatment of sodium chlorate industry crystallization mother liquor was presented.This method not only could recover sodium dichromate but also could remove sulfate radicals.Results showed that the recovery rate of sodium dichromate could reach 98%, and the content of sodium sulfate in the crystallization mother liquor was less than 3 g/L after treatment, reaching the recycling requirements.%目前,在氯酸钠生产中常用化学沉淀法处理硫酸根,但是会产生大量含铬污泥,污染环境.提出利用离子交换树脂和纳滤膜装置综合处理结晶母液的方法,既能回收重铬酸钠又能脱除硫酸根.实验结果表明,重铬酸钠的回收率可达98%,结晶母液处理后硫酸钠质量浓度低于3 g/L,达到母液循环利用的要求.

  9. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  10. Sodium butyrate enemas in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer and the impact on late proctitis. A prospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Andrea; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Kertesz, Tereza; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F. [University Hospital, Goettingen (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Pradier, Olivier [University Hospital, Brest (France). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of sodium butyrate enemas on the treatment of acute and the potential influence on late radiation-induced proctitis. 31 patients had been treated with sodium butyrate enemas for radiation-induced acute grade II proctitis which had developed after 40 Gy in median. During irradiation the toxicity was evaluated weekly by the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and subsequently yearly by the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) and LENT-SOMA scale. 23 of 31 patients (74%) experienced a decrease of CTC grade within 8 days on median. A statistical significant difference between the incidence and the severity of proctitis before start of treatment with sodium butyrate enemas compared to 14 days later and compared to the end of irradiation treatment course, respectively, was found. The median follow-up was 50 months. Twenty patients were recorded as suffering from no late proctitis symptom. Eleven patients suffered from grade I and 2 of these patients from grade II toxicity, too. No correlation was seen between the efficacy of butyrate enemas on acute proctitis and prevention or development of late toxicity, respectively. Sodium butyrate enemas are effective in the treatment of acute radiation-induced proctitis in patients with prostate cancer but have no impact on the incidence and severity of late proctitis. (orig.)

  11. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser; Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2(SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c(Hb A1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mm Hg systolic and 2 mm Hg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with Hb A1 c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes,but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials.

  12. Treprostinil sodium (Remodulin), a prostacyclin analog, in the treatment of critical limb ischemia: open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Scott; Quick, Rhonda; Yoder, Pam; Voigt, Sonia; Strootman, Deborah; Wade, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of continuous subcutaneous therapy with treprostinil sodium (Remodulin), a prostacyclin analog, and its effect on ischemic rest pain and ischemic wound healing in subjects with critical limb ischemia (CLI) and no planned revascularization procedure. This was a 12-week, open-label, single-center pilot study enrolling 10 subjects (mean age 82.4 years) with Fontaine stage III to IV (Rutherford class 4-6) peripheral arterial disease and ankle brachial indices less than 0.55. The primary end point was safety, and the secondary end points were the effects of treatment on ischemic rest pain, limb salvage, and wound healing. There was a 62% reduction in mean worst rest pain and a 57% reduction in mean average rest pain at week 12, with most subjects using less pain medication. Three subjects experienced complete healing of their wounds. No subject developed a new wound during the trial. Treprostinil was generally well tolerated. Subcutaneous infusion-site pain was the most frequently reported side effect, with one subject withdrawing from the study as a result. Jaw pain was reported by two subjects. One subject experienced two serious adverse events considered unrelated to treprostinil (cholecystitis and congestive heart failure). This study demonstrates that chronic, continuous subcutaneous treprostinil is safe and can be useful in the treatment of ischemic pain and wounds in subjects with CLI. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate these effects and determine appropriate patient selection.

  13. Effect of Bushen Shujin Decoction combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate treatment on early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis progress in elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xiang Niu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of Bushen Shujin Decoction combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate treatment on early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis progress in the elderly. Methods:A total of 102 elderly patients with early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis who received treatment in our hospital from November 2012 to January 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group with 51 cases. Control group received intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate treatment and observation group received Bushen Shujin Decoction combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate treatment. Differences in levels of inflammation-related factors and immunity-related factors in serum and synovial fluid of two groups were compared. Results:TNF-αα, IL-1β, iNOS, bFGF, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 levels in serum and synovial fluid of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05);TGF-β1 and IGF-1 levels in serum and synovial fluid of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05);CD4+CD25+CD127low/-Treg ratios in serum of observation group 1 month and 3 months after treatment were higher than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Elderly patients with early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis are accompanied by abnormality of a variety of factors and immune level, Bushen Shujin Decoction combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate treatment can optimize patients’ systemic state, inhibit disease progression and promote joint function recovery.

  14. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of topical levocabastine and sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, J; Mercer, M

    1994-11-01

    Children (n = 110) with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized to receive either twice daily 0.05% levocabastine eye drops and nasal spray plus twice daily topical placebos or 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops and nasal spray four times daily for a period of 4 weeks. Patients were required to use the nasal sprays as directed and the eye drops only when required. The results obtained suggest that topical levocabastine is at least as effective as sodium cromoglycate for the treatment of this condition. After 2 weeks treatment the effect of therapy on nasal symptoms was considered to be excellent or good in 72% of levocabastine-treated patients and 54% of patients on sodium cromoglycate (p = 0.009), with corresponding values for ocular symptoms of 81% and 57% in the two groups, respectively (p sodium cromoglycate with intergroup differences attaining statistical significance in favor of the topical antihistamine for nasal congestion (p < 0.05). Both agents were well-tolerated with no significant differences in the incidence or type of adverse reactions in the two treatment groups.

  15. Clinical effect of addition of beraprost sodium to pioglitazone treatment on the blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Kusunoki, M; Sato, D; Tsutsui, H; Nakamura, T; Miyata, T; Oshida, Y

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by insulin resistance has continued to increase in Japan. Insulin resistance is considered to be closely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic diseases, represented by arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Therefore, improvement of insulin resistance is one of the important strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. At present, α-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin-related drugs, and thiazolidinediones are among the most important oral hypoglycemic drugs used to improve insulin resistance. In this study, the effect of beraprost sodium, a prostaglandin I2 derivative, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. In type 2 diabetic patients with ASO who were under treatment with pioglitazone, additional treatment with beraprost sodium exerted a significant synergistic effect in reducing the serum HbA1c levels as compared to treatment with pioglitazone alone. This result indicates that concomitant administration of pioglitazone and beraprost sodium may be useful in the treatment of diabetes -mellitus.

  16. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen Brian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for

  17. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  19. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  20. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.; Lauerhass, L.; Olson, A.L.; Taylor, D.D.; Valentine, J.H.; Lockie, K.A. (DOE- ID)

    2002-01-16

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  1. Baseline Flowsheet Generation for the Treatment and Disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Olson, Arlin Leland; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Valentine, James Henry; Lockie, Keith Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) must implement technologies and processes to treat and qualify radioactive wastes located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for permanent disposal. This paper describes the approach and accomplishments to date for completing development of a baseline vitrification treatment flowsheet for sodium-bearing waste (SBW), including development of a relational database used to manage the associated process assumptions. A process baseline has been developed that includes process requirements, basis and assumptions, process flow diagrams, a process description, and a mass balance. In the absence of actual process or experimental results, mass and energy balance data for certain process steps are based on assumptions. Identification, documentation, validation, and overall management of the flowsheet assumptions are critical to ensuring an integrated, focused program. The INEEL HLW Program initially used a roadmapping methodology, developed through the INEEL Environmental Management Integration Program, to identify, document, and assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the SBW flowsheet process assumptions. However, the mass balance assumptions, process configuration and requirements should be accessible to all program participants. This need resulted in the creation of a relational database that provides formal documentation and tracking of the programmatic uncertainties related to the SBW flowsheet.

  2. Molybdenum removal from copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Youcai; Zhong Hong; Cao Zhanfang

    2011-01-01

    The removal of molybdenum from a copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching was investigated. The results show that leaching time, liquid to solid ratio, leaching ternperature, agitation speed, and sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide concentrations all have a significant effect on the removal of molybdenum. The optimum process operating parameters were found to be: time, 4 h: sodium hydroxide concentration, 10%; sodium hypochlorite concentration, 8%; liquid to solid ratio, 10:1; temperature, 50℃; and,agitation speed, 500 r/min. Under these conditions the extraction of molybdenum is greater than 99.9% and the extraction of copper is less than 0.01%. A shrinking particle model could be used to describe the leaching process. The apparent activation energy of the dissolution reaction was found to be approximately 8.8 kJ/mol.

  3. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Oral Magnesium Hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolberg, Mette Konow Bøgebjerg; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Dahl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presumption of a beneficial effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation on various diseases, little is known concerning the pharmacokinetics of Mg hydroxide. This study was designed to provide a pharmacokinetic profile of Mg hydroxide after a single oral dose. Ten healthy male adults...

  4. Telmisartan treatment targets inflammatory cytokines to suppress the pathogenesis of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Miyashita, Shizuka; Nomoto, Mayumi; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions to maintain the fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a locally expressed RAS in various tissues of mammals, which is having pathophysiological roles in those organ system. Interestingly, local RAS has important role during the inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Further to delineate its role and also to identify the potential effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, we have used a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. We have used 0.01 and 5mg/kg body weight doses of telmisartan and administered as enema to facilitate the on-site action and to reduce the systemic adverse effects. Telmisartan high dose treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index score when compared with the colitis control mice. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers expression were also significantly reduced when compared with the colitis control mice. Subsequent experiments were carried out to investigate some of the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects and identified that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 as well as cellular DNA damage were significantly suppressed when compared with the colitis control mice. Similarly the apoptosis marker proteins such as cleaved caspase 3 and 7 levels were down-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 level was significantly upregulated by telmisartan treatment. These results indicate that blockade of RAS by telmisartan can be an effective therapeutic option against acute colitis.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Brodin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients’ refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs, the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m2, with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m2 under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

    2002-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

  7. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  8. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on PEPT2 (SLC15A2) mediated renal clearance of cephalexin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Tang, Audrey May Yi; Tan, Yen Ling; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2011-01-01

    PEPT2 mediates the H(+) gradient-driving reabsorption of di- and tri-peptides, and various peptidomimetic compounds in the kidney. This study examines the influence of urinary pH modification through sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on the function of PEPT2 in healthy subjects, using cephalexin as the probe drug. Sixteen male subjects received a single oral dose of 1000 mg cephalexin under ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate treatment, respectively, with a wash-out period of one week. The study subjects were genotyped for PEPT2 polymorphic variants. Cephalexin concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean renal clearance of cephalexin was significantly higher under ammonium chloride treatment than that under sodium bicarbonate treatment (P < 0.01). This difference was significant for PEPT2*2/*2 (P = 0.017) but not for PEPT2*1/*1 (P = 0.128). No differences were observed for other pharmacokinetic parameters. The findings of this study suggest that urinary pH changes may alter the pharmacokinetics of PEPT2's substrates. This effect was more obvious for the PEPT2*2/*2.

  9. Effects of aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate antacids on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, R W; Lasseter, K C; Noe, A J; Shamblen, E C; Lettieri, J T

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of an aluminum hydroxide antacid and a calcium carbonate antacid on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (Cipro). Cipro (750 mg) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers in a three-way randomized crossover design. The three treatments included Cipro alone, four 850-mg calcium carbonate tablets taken 5 min before Cipro, and three 600-mg aluminum hydroxide tablets taken 5 min before Cipro. The relative bioavailability of Cipro when given ...

  10. Effect of the smear layer in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the smear layer influences the removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal with manual or rotary instruments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 48 freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to apical size 40 (n=40 and finally irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (group A, or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA followed by sodium hypo chlorite (group B. 20 teeth were assigned to each group, while the remaining eight teeth served as positive and negative controls. Each group was divided into two subgroups of 10 teeth (subgroup I - calcium hydroxide was removed with master apical file; subgroup II - with profile file; and, in all removal procedures, citric acid was used for irrigation. The percentage of calcium hydroxide-[Ca(OH [Ca(OH 2 ] coated surface area was calculated by image processing analysis. Results: Considering the root canal as a whole, the removal of Ca(OH 2 from the dentinal walls in group B showed significantly better results (P<0.05 as compared to group A. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the smear layer is important in the removal of calcium hydroxide.

  11. Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidotti M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

  12. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus : Cardiovascular and Kidney Effects, Potential Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Fitchett, David H.; Husain, Mansoor; Cherney, David Z. I.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, are now widely approved antihyperglycemic therapies. Because of their unique glycosuric mechanism, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce weight. Perhaps more important are the osmotic diuretic and na

  13. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant.

  14. 洛西林钠舒巴坦治疗肺炎的效果研究%Study on Ampicillin Sodium Combined with Sulbactam Treatment Effect of Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守东

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical effect of ampicillin sodium combined with sulbactam in treatment of pneumonia is to be observed and studied. Methods Select 40 patients of pneumonia that are treated in hospital from December 2013 to December 2014 and separate them into control group and study group at random which are given mezlocillin sodium treatment and ampicillin sodium combined with sulbactam treatment respectively;and then compare clinical treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficacy in study group is much higher than treatment efficacy in control group; besides,patients’fever and coughing abatement time,pulmonary rales disappeared time and other symptoms alleviation time in study group are shorter than counterparts in control group;there is a treatment differential between two groups and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Ampicillin sodium combined with sulbactam treatment is of efficacy in treatment of pneumonia; it is conducive to relieving patients’symptoms rapidly; thus,such a treatment is of clinical significance in treatment of viral pneumonia.%目的:对洛西林钠舒巴坦治疗肺炎的临床效果进行观察研究。方法选取于2013年12月~2014年12月在我院接受治疗的的40例肺炎患者随机分成对照组和治疗组,分别采用美洛西林钠和洛西林钠舒巴坦进行治疗,对两种治疗方法的临床效果进行对比。结果治疗组的治疗总有效率显著高于对照组,退热时间、咳嗽消失时间、肺啰音消失时间等症状消失时间显著短于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用洛西林钠舒巴坦治疗肺炎具有显著的临床效果,能够快速缓解患者的临床症状,对治疗病毒性肺炎有着重要的临床应用价值。

  15. Functionalized layered double hydroxide-based epoxy nanocomposites with improved flame retardancy and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Naderi Kalali; Xin Wanga; De-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized layered double hydroxides (LDHs) based on a multi-modifier system composed of hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin sodium (sCD), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and taurine (T) have been designed and fabricated in this paper, aiming at developing high performance fire retardant epoxy nanocomposites. In this multi-modifier system, sCD was utilized to improve the char yield, DBS was used to enlarge the inter-layer distance of LDH and T was used to enhance the interaction betw...

  16. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is...

  17. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  18. THE DIGESTION OPERATION IN THE ALKALI ALUMINAT SOLUTIONS OF ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES IN THE BOEHMITIC BAUXITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ŞAHİN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available At present more than 90 per cent of the world's alumina is produced by the Bayer process, a simple technology providing high purity final product. A part from some exceptional local conditions, bauxite is processed almost solely by this technology. As a benefication process, alumina production releases the aluminum oxide content of bauxite from other accompanying oxides thus providing alumina suitable for electrolysis in a cryolite melt. The basic theory of the Bayer process was elaborated by K.J. Bayer and described in his patents in 1887 and 1892. The first patent refers to the aid of seed crystals of aluminum hydroxide or of carbonic acid, that is, to the precipitation and carbonation processes. The second patent formulates the concept that the aluminum oxide content of bauxites can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solutions, with the formulation of sodium aluminate, a process called digestion nowadays. The most important operations of the Bayer technology are bauxite preparation, crushing, grinding, digestion, red mud separation, thickening, washing, filtration, precipitation, calcination and evaporation. In spite of its great significance as regards the complete Bayer technology, the structure of sodium aluminate solutions has not been cleared up definitely yet. Boehmite is the most important aluminum mineral of karstic bauxites. Some experimental results showing the various effects on aluminum hydroxides by alkali process from boehmitic bauxites and the factors gowerning the digestion operation of aluminate solutions were investigated.

  19. Properties of oxide-hydroxide sintered ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkov, R. V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  20. Thermodynamics of Volatile Silicon Hydroxides Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Evan H.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics are promising candidate structural materials for heat engines. The long-term stability of these materials to environmental degradation is dependent on the formation and retention of a protective SiO2 layer. It is well known that SiO2 forms stable volatile hydroxides in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures. Combustion conditions, which characteristically are at high velocities, contain significant water vapor pressures, and high temperatures tend to promote continuous formation of these hydroxides with resulting material degradation. For the degradation of silicon-based ceramics to be predicted, accurate thermodynamic data on the formation of silicon hydroxides are needed.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as endo intracanal dressing on Streptococcus viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide had been used as the intra-canal dressing in endodontic treatment due to its high alkaline and antimicrobial capacity. It can also dissolve the necrotic tissue, prevent dental root resorbtion and regenerate a new hard tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of calcium hydroxide which had the highest antimicrobial effect on Streptococcus viridans. Samples were divided into 5 groups; each group consisted of 8 samples with different concentration of calcium hydroxide. Group I: 50%, group II: 55, Group III: 60%, Group IV: 65%, Group V: 70%. The antimicrobial testing was performed using diffusion method against Streptococcus viridans. The result of susceptibility test was showed by the inhibition zone diameter which measured with caliper (in millimeter. We analyzed the data using One-Way ANOVA test with significant difference 0.05 and subsequently LSD test. The study showed that calcium hydroxide with concentration 60% has the highest antimicrobial effect.

  2. 水热反应条件对氢氧化镁晶体微观内应变的影响%Influence of Hydrothermal Conditions on the Microscopic Internal Strain of Magnesium Hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建铭; 张兆震; 宋云华

    2011-01-01

    The magnesium hydroxide precursor was synthesized by precipitation of magnesium chloride and sodium hydroxide, and the magnesium hydroxide powder was prepared by hydrothermal method.The microscopic internal strain of crystal plane ( 101 ) of magnesium hydroxide and the growth direction of crystal with different hydrothermal conditions were investigated by XRD.The results indeated that sodium hydroxide concentration and hydrothermal time have influenced on the microscopic internal strain of crystal plane (101)of magnesium hydroxide.The sodium hydroxide concentration and hydrothermal temperature were the main factors for the growth direetion of crystal of magnesium hydroxide.%用氯化镁和氢氧化钠反应合成氢氧化镁前驱体,通过水热反应制备出氢氧化镁阻燃剂粉体,采用X射线衍射进行表征,分析水热条件对氢氧化镁晶体(101)面微观内应变和晶体生长方向的影响.结果表明:在实验温度范围内,碱浓度和水热时间对氢氧化镁晶体在(101)面微观内应变的影响规律比较明显.碱浓度和水热温度是影响晶体生长方向的主要因素.

  3. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  4. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  5. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  6. Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

    2003-08-01

    Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

  7. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  8. Combined eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate and xanthan gum for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocatürk T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tolga Kocatürk,1 Ataman Gençgönül,2 Faruk Balica,1 Mehmet Özbağcivan,1 Harun Çakmak1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Mevki Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the ophthalmic gels containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine with fusidic acid in terms of recovery periods of corneal epithelium in the patients who underwent pterygium surgery.Methods: Patients who underwent pterygium surgery were separated into two groups. Forty patients in group 1 were given eye gel containing sodium hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine, and 40 patients in group 2 were given one drop of eye gel containing fusidic acid. The patients in both groups were examined at the 12th, 24th, and 48th hours in the postoperative period by using slit-lamp technique. The subjective complaints of the patients such as pain and stinging, and the recovery periods of the corneal epithelial defect were evaluated comparatively by fluorescein staining.Results: The mean ages were 26±8 years (range: 18–35 and 24±6 years (range: 18–33 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The closure period of the corneal epithelial defect was observed as 24±8 hours (range: 16–42 and 36±12 hours (range: 18–48 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The number of the patients suffering from subjective complaints such as pain and stinging in the first 12 hours was six and 29 in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The difference was significant both clinically and statistically (P=0.001.Conclusion: Combined eye gel containing hyaluronate, xanthan gum, and netilmycine accelerates the recovery of corneal epithelial defect and reduces the complaints of the patients, when compared to the fusidic acid gel. Combined eye gel should be considered as an option for the treatment of the corneal epithelial defect related with pterygium surgery. Keywords: iatrogenic

  9. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  10. [The effect of enzymatic treatment using proteases on properties of persistent sodium current in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun'ko, O O; Isaiev, D S; Maxymiuk, O P; Kryshtal', O O; Isaieva, O V

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of proteases, widely used for neuron isolation in electrophysiological studies, on the amplitude and kinetic characteristics of persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Properties of I(NaP) were studied on neurons isolated by mechanical treatment (control group) and by mechanical and enzymatic treatment using pronase E (from Streptomyces griseus) or protease type XXIII (from Aspergillus oryzae). We show that in neurons isolated with pronase E kinetic of activation and density of I(NaP) was unaltered. Enzymatic treatment with protease type XXIII did not alter I(NaP) activation but result in significant decrease in I(NaP) density. Our data indicates that enzymatic treatment using pronase E for neuron isolation is preferable for investigation of I(NaP).

  11. Solar-thermal Water Splitting Using the Sodium Manganese Oxide Process & Preliminary H2A Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Todd M; Lichty, Paul R; Perkins, Christopher; Tucker, Melinda; Kreider, Peter B; Funke, Hans H; Lewandowski, A; Weimer, Alan W

    2012-10-24

    There are three primary reactions in the sodium manganese oxide high temperature water splitting cycle. In the first reaction, Mn2O3 is decomposed to MnO at 1,500°C and 50 psig. This reaction occurs in a high temperature solar reactor and has a heat of reaction of 173,212 J/mol. Hydrogen is produced in the next step of this cycle. This step occurs at 700°C and 1 atm in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water is added in the hydrolysis step, which removes NaOH and regenerates the original reactant, Mn2O3. The high temperature solar-driven step for decomposing Mn2O3 to MnO can be carried out to high conversion without major complication in an inert environment. The second step to produce H2 in the presence of sodium hydroxide is also straightforward and can be completed. The third step, the low temperature step to recover the sodium hydroxide is the most difficult. The amount of energy required to essentially distill water to recover sodium hydroxide is prohibitive and too costly. Methods must be found for lower cost recovery. This report provides information on the use of ZnO as an additive to improve the recovery of sodium hydroxide.

  12. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sebaei MO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maisa O Al-Sebaei,1 Omar A Halabi,2 Ibrahim E El-Hakim3 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Abdulaziz University – Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Saudi Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Aim: This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary: This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41. After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc, the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points: This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient's safety. Keywords: complications of root canal, facial edema, root canal irrigation, root canal therapy, sodium hypochlorite, upper airway obstruction

  13. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  14. 苯妥英钠对比丙戊酸钠治疗癫痫效果分析%Contrast phenytoin sodium valproate treatment of epilepsy results analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真真; 李津军; 樊彬; 满高才; 祁洪凯

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比苯妥英钠与丙戊酸钠治疗癫痫的临床效果。方法收集2013年7月~2014年7月本院收治的60例癫痫患者临床效果,遵循随机原则,分为A组30例、B组30例。A组取丙戊酸钠治疗,B组取苯妥英钠治疗,对比患者疗效。结果两组患者治疗有效率、特异性反应发生率对比(P>0.05)。A组患者剂量相关的不良反应发生率、慢性不良反应发生率低于B组(P0.05). Group A dose related incidence of adverse reactions, patients with chronic lower incidence of adverse reactions than group B (P<0.05). ConclusionValproic acid, sodium phenytoin sodium treatment of epilepsy, curative effect, but valproic acid sodium low incidence of adverse reactions.

  15. 奥扎格雷钠治疗脑血栓形成的临床研究%Clinical Study on Sodium Ozagrel Treatment of Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守东

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical effect on sodium ozagrel in treatment of cerebral thrombosis is to be studied. Methods Selected 46 patients of cerebral thrombosis that were treated in hospital from April 2014 to December 2014 and separated them into control group and study group at random which were given danshen injection treatment and sodium ozagrel treatment respectively,and then compared clinical treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficacy in study group was much higher than treatment efficacy in control group,besides,score of patients’neurology function damage in study group was less than that in control group,there was a treatment differential between two groups and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Sodium ozagrel is of efficacy in treatment of cerebral thrombosis,it is conducive to improving patients’neurology function damage.%目的:对奥扎格雷钠治疗脑血栓形成的临床效果进行分析研究。方法选取于2014年4月~2014年12月期间在我院接受治疗的46例脑血栓形成患者,并随机分为对照组和治疗组对采取丹参粉针和奥扎格雷钠治疗的临床疗效进行对比分析。结果观察组患者的治疗总有效率高于对照组,神经功能缺损评分低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论奥扎格雷钠治疗脑血栓形成的临床效果显著,能够大大改善患者的神经功能缺损情况。

  16. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Sodium Stibogluconate Monotherapy to Sodium Stibogluconate and Paromomycin Combination for the Treatment of Severe Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in South Sudan – A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongomera, Charles; Gatluak, Francis; Buyze, Jozefine; Ritmeijer, Koert

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common dermatological complication following successful treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. PKDL presents as macular, papular, nodular or mixed skin rash on sun-exposed body parts. Patients are not ill unless there are complications due to mucosal involvement or ulceration. As PKDL in East Africa is typically self-healing, and treatment is long and with significant adverse events, only severe and complicated cases are treated. Studies to determine optimal treatment of PKDL are rare and based on small cohorts. Since 1989, Médecins Sans Frontières is treating severe PKDL within VL treatment programmes in South Sudan. Treatment was initially with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) monotherapy and since 2002 with a combination of SSG and paromomycin (PM). SSG monotherapy (20 mg/kg/day for a minimum of 30 days) was provided in primary health units, and the combination of PM (15 mg sulphate/kg/day for 17 days) plus SSG (30 mg/kg/day for a minimum of 17 days) was provided in secondary health facilities. Methodology/Principal Findings By retrospective analysis of routinely collected programme data we compared the effectiveness (outcome and treatment duration) of both regimens. Between 2002 and 2008, 422 patients with severe PKDL were treated; 343 received SSG and 79 SSG/PM combination. The cure rate was significantly better with combination treatment when compared to monotherapy (97% vs. 90%; odds ratio [OR], 7.6; p = 0.02), treatment duration was shorter (mean 34 days vs. 42 days; p = 0.005), and defaulter rate was lower (3% vs. 9%; OR, 0.3; p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in death rate (0% vs. 1%; p = 0.5). Conclusions/Significance We found that SSG/PM combination therapy resulted in more favourable outcomes than SSG monotherapy. An additional advantage is the lower cost of the combination therapy, due to the shorter treatment duration. A combination of SSG and PM is

  17. Sodium - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  18. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of branched yttrium hydroxide fluoride microcrystals with hierarchical tubular structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li; JIANG Wentao; SUN Qiliang; LIU Jin

    2012-01-01

    Hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride microcrystals were prepared by a two-step hydrothermal route using yttrium nitrate,sodium hydroxide and sodium fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent.The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD),energy dispersive spectrum (EDS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),thermogravimetre and differential-thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA),which revealed that Y(OH)2.14F0.86 microcrystals were multi-branched and that the branches of Y(OH)2.14F0.86 microcrystals were composed of hierarchical tubes.This novel multi-branched and intriguing hierarchical tubular structure of yttrium hydroxide fluoride maybe has a potential application in photoelectric crystals.The formation of branched Y(OH)2.14F0.86 microcrystals with hierarchical tubular structure were due to the substitution reaction and Oswald ripening.

  20. LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES: NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Paulo Figueredo Benício

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to introduce Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH as nanomaterials to be used in agriculture, with particular reference to its use as storage and slow release matrix of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant growing. Structural characteristics, main properties, synthesis methods and characterization of LDH were covered in this study. Moreover, some literature data have been reported to demonstrate their potential for storage and slow release of nitrate, phosphate, agrochemicals, besides as being used as adsorbent for the wastewater treatment. This research aims to expand, in near future, the investigation field on these materials, with application in agriculture, increasing the interface between chemistry and agronomy.

  1. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  2. Surface Acidity of Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. FUKUSHI; K. TSUKIMURA; H. YAMADA

    2006-01-01

    The surface acidity of synthetic amorphous Al hydroxide was determined by acid/base titration with several complementary methods including solution analyses of the reacted solutions and XRD characterization of the reacted solids. The synthetic specimen was characterized to be the amorphous material showing four broad peaks in XRD pattern. XRD analyses of reacted solids after the titration experiments showed that amorphous Al hydroxide rapidly transformed to crystalline bayerite at the alkaline condition (pH>10). The solution analyses after and during the titration experiments showed that the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide, Ksp =aAl3+/a3H+,was 1010.3,The amount of consumption of added acid or base during the titration experiment was attributed to both the protonation/deprotonation of dissolved Al species and surface hydroxyl group. The surface acidity constants, surface hydroxyl density and specific surface area were estimated by FITEQL 4.0.

  3. INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS HYDROXIDES ON WATER DISSOCIATION IN BIPOLAR MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldeshov N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of bipolar membrane – analogue of MB-2, modified with chemically introduced chromium (III, iron (III and nickel (II hydroxides by the method of frequency spectrum of electrochemical impedance, by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy in combination with X-ray spectrum analysis are presented. It is shown, that sequential treatment of cation-exchanger, contained in cationexchange membrane, with metal salt solution and alkali solution does not result in formation of complex compounds of these metals with ionic groups of ion exchanger. It was found that in these conditions the presence of heavy metals in the phase of cationexchanger confirmed by X-ray analysis, however, crystals of hydroxides of heavy metals are not detected in the size range of 1000 nm to 20 nm. These heavy metal compounds are thermally unstable and their catalytic activity in the reaction of dissociation of water molecules decreases with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The introduction of low-soluble hydroxides of d-metals (chromium (III, iron (III, nickel(II by chemical method can significantly improve the electrochemical characteristics of a bipolar membrane. The most effective catalysts in water dissociation reaction are the hydroxides of chromium (III and iron (III and, as a consequence, membranes with these hydroxides have a lower value of overpotential compared with original membrane at the same current density

  4. Comparison of fondaparinux sodium and low molecular weight heparin in the treatment of hypercoagulability secondary to traumatic infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiqiang Li; Kang Wang; Xin Zhao; Chao Lin; Haichen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:To compare the effects and side-effects of fondaparinux sodium and low molecular weight heparin in patients with hypercoagulability accompanied with traumatic infection.Methods:Thirty-six patients with post-traumatic infections in our hospital intensive care center were diagnosed with hypercoagulability from February 2012 to February 2013.These patients were randomly divided into 2 groups.In group F (18 patients),the patients were treated with fondaparinux sodium,2.5 mg,1/d for 11 d.In group L (18 patients),the patients were treated with low molecular weight heparin,4100 U,1/12 h for 11 d.The incidence of deep vein thrombosis,bleeding events and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and mortality of two groups after anticoagulation therapy were analyzed.Fibrinogen,D-dimer level and activity of antithrombin Ⅲ were measured by the coagulation analyzer.Results:The incidence of deep vein thrombosis,MODS incidence and mortality were not significantly different between the two groups.The rate of bleeding evens in group F was lower than group L (p < 0.05).Antithrombin Ⅲ got an upward trend after anticoagulant therapy,in which it was higher in group F than in group L on the 5th d and 11th d (p < 0.05).Fibrinogen levels were gradually increased,and there was no significant difference between two groups (p > 0.05).D-dimer was significantly decreased after anticoagulant therapy for 5 d (p < 0.01),and there were significant differences between two groups on the 5th d and 7th d (p < 0.05).It showed no significant difference on the 11th d (p > 0.05).Conclusion:Fondaparinux sodium and low molecular weight heparin can effectively improve coagulopathy in patients with traumatic infection.Compared with low molecular weight heparin,fondaparinux sodium may reduce the risk of bleeding events in patients with hypercoagulability accompanied by traumatic infection.

  5. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  6. 酶法降解小麦秸秆碱预处理浓度的选择及酶解产物的检测%Pre-treatment by sodium hydroxide forhydrolysis of wheat straw and analysis of the product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘沙沙; 李静梅; 吴颖; 石波; 梁平; OJOKOH Eromosele solomon

    2013-01-01

    通过研究氢氧化钠溶液预处理小麦秸秆浓度与β-葡聚糖酶对预处理后的小麦秸秆降解产物的关系,确定酶解小麦秸秆的最佳碱处理浓度,分析降解产物主要成分.将不同浓度碱处理的小麦秸秆用72%硫酸溶液酸解,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定酸降解产物中的葡萄糖及木糖含量,并进而推算出小麦秸秆中的纤维素及半纤维素含量,由纤维素、半纤维素含量及酶解转化率决定最佳碱处理条件;HPLC定性检测β-葡聚糖酶降解预处理后的小麦秸秆的主要降解产物 .结果表明,NaOH预处理小麦秸秆的最佳浓度为1%,处理后的小麦秸秆纤维素、半纤维素含量分别为44.13%、21.34%;β-葡聚糖酶降解小麦秸秆的主要产物为纤维二糖. 本研究为以小麦秸秆为原料酶解制备纤维寡糖提供了依据.%The aim of this study was to explore main components of wheat straw and to get optimum pretreatment method. The wheat straw was pretreated with NaOH of different concentrations and the enzymatic products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) to get an optimum concentration. Analysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses content and the rate of hydrolysis were also carried out. The result showed that optimum concentration of NaOH pretreatment was 1%,and the content of cellulose and hemicelluloses were 44.13% and 21.34% respectively. Cellbiose was seen to be the main enzymatic product of wheat straw. Findings obtained in this study could be recommended as refenrence for the production of cello-oligaaccharides hydrolysis by wheat straw with enzyme.

  7. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of GHB, GHB-glucuronide in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic patients under sodium oxybate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Roberta; Pichini, Simona; Pedersen, Daniel S; Pacifici, Roberta; Moresco, Monica; Pizza, Fabio; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-25

    Sodium oxybate (Xyrem(®)), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) validated method, GHB was determined together with its glucuronide (GHB-gluc), in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of NT1 patients under sodium oxybate treatment. To characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of GHB, three subjects with NT1 were administered at time 0 and 4h with 1.25, 1.5 and 3.55g Xyrem(®), respectively and had their blood samples collected at 7 time points throughout an 8-h session. CSF specimens, collected for orexin A measurement from the same three subjects 6h after their second administration, were also tested. The results obtained suggested that GHB plasma values increased disproportionally with the rising doses, (Cmax0-4: 12.53, 32.95 and 69.62μg/mL; Cmax4-8: 44.93, 75.03 and 111.93μg/mL for total Xyrem(®) dose of 2.5, 3 and 7g respectively) indicating non-linear dose-response. GHB-Gluc was present only in traces in all plasma samples from treated patients, not changing with increasing Xyrem(®) doses. GHB values of 5.62, 6.10 and 17.74μg/mL for 2, 3 and 7g Xyrem(®) were found in CSF with a significant difference from control values. GHB-Gluc was found in negligible concentrations with no differences to those of control individuals. In conclusion this simple and fast UHPLC-MS/MS method proved useful for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of GHB in narcoleptic patients treated with sodium oxybate.

  8. Dry process of smokes treatment with sodium bicarbonate and the recycling of sodic wastes; Proceso seco de depuracion de humos con bicarbonato sodico de reciclado de productos sodicos residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, X.

    1996-12-01

    The Neutrec process of Solvay for the acid emissions treatment by sodium bicarbonate is using in Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherland and Spain. there are 28 facilities for the smokes treatment. these smokes are coming from the urban, sanitary and hazardous wastes. The Neutrec process is using dry reactive for neutralizing the acid smoker. (Author)

  9. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  10. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite. The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dispersion Ni metal species. The average Ni crystallite sizes that derived from the Scherrer`s equation for former R-Ni and NiNPs/AlOH were 8.6 nm and 4.1 nm, respectively. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity both hydrogenolysis of disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose and monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and xylose at 403 K for 24 h. The NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable for at least five consecutive runs without any significant loss of activity and selectivity. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st December 2012; Revised: 7th February 2013; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Shimazu, S. (2013. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sug-ars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 40-46. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46] | View in  |

  11. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer ...

  12. Hydroxide catalysis bonding of silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, A.A. van; Ende, D.A. van den; Bogenstahl, J.; Rowan, S.; Cunningham, W.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    For bonding silicon carbide optics, which require extreme stability, hydroxide catalysis bonding is considered [Rowan, S., Hough, J. and Elliffe, E., Silicon carbide bonding. UK Patent 040 7953.9, 2004. Please contact Mr. D. Whiteford for further information: D.Whiteford@admin.gla.ac.uk]. This techn

  13. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  14. Influence of sodium hypochlorite treatment of electropolished and magnetoelectropolished nitinol surfaces on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Ryszard; Haider, Waseem; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz

    2012-09-01

    The influence of 6 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells seeded on electropolished (EP) and magnetoelectropolished (MEP) nitinol surfaces were investigated. The chemistry, topography, roughness, surface energy, wettability of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces before and after NaClO treatment were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), profilometry, and contact angle meter. In vitro interaction of osteoblast cell and NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces were assessed after 3 days of incubation by scanning electron microscopy. The XPS analysis shows that NaClO treatment increases oxygen content especially in subsurface oxide layer of EP and MEP nitinol. The changes of both basic components of nitinol, namely nickel and titanium in oxide layer, were negligible. The NaClO treatment did not influence physico-morphological surface properties of EP and MEP nitinol to a big extent. The osteoblast cells show remarkable adherence and proliferation improvement on NaClO treated EP and MEP nitinol surfaces. After 3 days of incubation they show almost total confluence on both NaClO treated surfaces. The present study shows that NaClO treatment of EP and MEP nitinol surfaces alters oxide layer by enriching it in oxygen and by this improves bone cell-nitinol interaction.

  15. BAY 61-3606, CDKi, and Sodium Butyrate Treatments Modulate p53 Protein Level and Its Site-Specific Phosphorylation in Human Vestibular Schwannomas In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is done to evaluate the effect of spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BAY 61-3606, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi, and sodium butyrate (Na-Bu on the level and phosphorylation of p53 protein and its binding to murine double minute 2 (MDM2 homologue in human vestibular schwannomas (VS. Primary cultures of the tumor tissues were treated individually with optimum concentrations of these small molecules in vitro. The results indicate modulation of p53 protein status and its binding ability to MDM2 in treated samples as compared to the untreated control. The three individual treatments reduced the level of total p53 protein. These treatments also decreased Ser392 and Ser15 phosphorylated p53 in tumor samples of young patients and Ser315 phosphorylated p53 in old patients. Basal level of Thr55 phosphorylated p53 protein was present in all VS samples and it remained unchanged after treatments. The p53 protein from untreated VS samples showed reduced affinity to MDM2 binding in vitro and it increased significantly after treatments. The MDM2/p53 ratio increased approximately 3-fold in the treated VS tumor samples as compared to the control. The differential p53 protein phosphorylation status perhaps could play an important role in VS tumor cell death due to these treatments that we reported previously.

  16. The evaluation of removal of calcium hydroxide paste from an artificial standardized groove in the apical root canal using different irrigation methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wu, M. K.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the capacity to remove a calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) paste from the root canal and to evaluate the efficacy of Ca(OH)(2) removal during passive ultrasonic irrigation using either sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or water as an irrigant. Methodology: Sixteen mandibular premolars were us

  17. Development of Drug Delivery Systems Based on Layered Hydroxides for Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Barahuie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Layered hydroxides (LHs have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life.

  18. EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Siswo Hutomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUMHIDROKSIDA Cellulose Extraction from Cacao Pod Husk Using Sodium Hydroxide Gatot Siswo Hutomo, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Sri Anggrahini, Supriyanto ABSTRAK Pod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db, WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.Kata kunci: Selulosa, pod husk, kakao, ekstraksi ABSTRACT Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator and

  19. Formation of nematic liquid crystals of sterically stabilized layered double hydroxide platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.; Devid, E.J.; van Schooneveld, M.M.; Vonk, Ch.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal platelets of hydrotalcite, a layered double hydroxide, have been prepared by coprecipitation at pH 11−12 of magnesium nitrate and aluminum nitrate at two different magnesium to aluminum ratios. Changing the temperature and ionic strength during hydrothermal treatment, the platelets were ta

  20. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  1. A role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water: acceleration of the reaction under ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Hiroyasu; Tsujino, Hidekazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawase, Masaya

    2014-04-01

    Organic environmental pollutants are now being detected with remarkably high frequency in the aquatic environment. Photodegradation by ultraviolet light is sometimes used as a method for removing organic chemicals from water; however, this method is relatively inefficient because of the low degradation rates involved, and more efficient methods are under development. Here we show that the removal of various organic pollutants can be assisted by calcined dolomite in aqueous solution under irradiation with ultraviolet light. It was possible to achieve substantial removal of bisphenol A, chlorophenols, alkylphenols, 1-naphthol and 17β-estradiol. The major component of dolomite responsible for the removal was calcium hydroxide. Our results demonstrate that the use of calcium hydroxide with ultraviolet light irradiation can be a very effective method of rapidly removing organic environmental pollutants from water. This is a new role for calcium hydroxide and dolomite in water treatment.

  2. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dotto Sottovia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extra

  3. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  4. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  5. THREE WASTES TREATMENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF SODIUM CHLORATE.%氯酸钠生产中的三废处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广惠; 张玉生

    2001-01-01

    The treatment technology for the three wastes( water, gas and sludge)in the production of sodium chlorate is introduced. By practice, it proves that this technology is reasonable, the utilization ratio of resources is high and the pollution is decreased.%介绍万吨工业氯酸钠生产中废水、废气、废渣的处理技术,实践证明,三废治理的工艺是合理的,原料有效成分利用率高,节约了资源,减少了二次污染,各项指标均达到排放标准。

  6. Benefits/risks of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin in women for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as canagliflozin, are used in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In clinical studies, canagliflozin significantly reduced A1C, bodyweight and blood pressure, and was generally well tolerated with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. Most common adverse effects observed were genital mycotic infections and urinary tract infections, and increased urination. Approximately 10% of women treated with canagliflozin experienced a genital mycotic infection compared with 3% treated with placebo; those with a prior history were at greater risk. Approximately 9% of women treated with canagliflozin reported a urinary tract infection compared with 7% treated with placebo. Most adverse events were considered mild to moderate in intensity and responded to standard therapy. Treatment with canagliflozin was effective and generally well tolerated in both women (and men) with T2DM.

  7. Development of a Waste Treatment Process to Deactivate Reactive Uranium Metal and Produce a Stable Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates-Anderson, D D; Laue, C A; Fitch, T E

    2002-01-17

    This paper highlights the results of initial investigations conducted to support the development of an integrated treatment process to convert pyrophoric metallic uranium wastes to a non-pyrophoric waste that is acceptable for land disposal. Several dissolution systems were evaluated to determine their suitability to dissolve uranium metal and that yield a final waste form containing uranium specie(s) amenable to precipitation, stabilization, adsorption, or ion exchange. During initial studies, one gram aliquots of uranium metal or the uranium alloy U-2%Mo were treated with 5 to 60 mL of selected reagents. Treatment systems screened included acids, acid mixtures, and bases with and without addition of oxidants. Reagents used included hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. Complete dissolution of the uranium turnings was achieved with the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HCI system at room temperature within minutes. The sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite systems achieved complete dissolution but required elevated temperatures and longer reaction times. A ranking system based on criteria, such as corrosiveness, temperature, dissolution time, off-gas type and amount, and liquid to solid ratio, was designed to determine the treatment systems that should be developed further for a full-scale process. The highest-ranking systems, nitric acid/sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid/phosphoric acid, were given priority in our follow-on investigations.

  8. Efficacy of gastro-retentive forms of ecabet sodium in the treatment of gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Bae, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Jungsub; Lim, Jong-Rae; Kim, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seok

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of gastric retention of ecabet sodium (ECS) on its mucoprotective effect in rat ulcer models. Mini-tablets containing 9 mg ECS were prepared using the direct compression method. The release rates of ECS mini-tablets were controlled by the amount and viscosity grade of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose incorporated. Gastric retention of ECS mini-tablets after oral administration to rats was visually confirmed using a fluorescence imaging system. Because ECS mini-tablets exhibited size-dependent gastric retention, their gastric retention time was prolonged as the release rate decreased. In the in vivo efficacy study, gastro-retentive dosage forms of ECS did not influence the mucoprotective effect in the immediate irritation model but enhanced the effect in the delayed irritation model compared with ECS suspension. This finding indicates that the duration of the mucoprotective effect of ECS can be extended by the employment of gastro-retentive dosage formulations and provides a rationale for development of ECS gastro-retentive dosage forms.

  9. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  10. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers.

  11. Antigen-induced bronchial anaphylaxis in actively sensitized guinea-pigs: effect of long-term treatment with sodium cromoglycate and aminophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P.; Bergstrand, H.

    1981-01-01

    1 The effects of long-term treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and aminophylline on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction have been studied in guinea-pigs actively sensitized according to two different regimens (one producing IgE- and IgG-like antibodies and the other producing exclusively IgG-like antibodies). 2 Treatment for three weeks with SCG (10 mg/kg) and aminophylline (10, 30 or 60 mg/kg) led to a decreased bronchial response capacity which persisted even three days after treatment ceased. In this respect SCG was effective only in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce at least partly IgE-like antibodies; aminophylline was effective in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgE and/or IgG antibodies. 3 The results in vivo with SCG were reflected in vitro by a reduced capacity of chopped lung tissue to release histamine at antigen challenge; lungs from animals treated with aminophylline did not show reduced histamine releasing capacity. 4 Acute treatment with atropine was shown to reduce significantly the antigen-induced bronchial contraction in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgE- and IgG-antibodies. No effect of atropine was seen on an IgG-mediated anaphylaxis. 5 Increased reactivity to methacholine but not to histamine was seen in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgG- and IgE-antibodies. Long-term treatment with SCG did not affect this hyperreactivity to methacholine. 6 Decreased reactivity to isoprenaline was found in isolated tracheae taken from guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgE- and IgG-like antibodies compared to unsensitized guinea-pigs. Long-term treatment with SCG, but not with aminophylline, reversed this decreased reactivity. PMID:6170376

  12. Efficacy of intravenous administration of hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David D; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Werpy, Natasha M

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of a product containing hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses. ANIMALS 32 healthy 2- to 5-year-old horses. PROCEDURES The study involved 2 portions. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy of the test product, horses received 5 mL of the product (n = 8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (8; placebo) IV every fifth day, starting on day 0 (when osteoarthritis was induced in the middle carpal joint of 1 forelimb) and ending on day 70. To evaluate treatment efficacy, horses received either the product or placebo (n = 8/treatment) on days 16, 23, 30, 37, and 44 after osteoarthritis induction. Clinical, diagnostic imaging, synovial fluid, gross anatomic, and histologic evaluations and other tests were performed. Results of each study portion were compared between treatment groups. RESULTS Limb flexion and radiographic findings were significantly worse for horses that received the test product in the prophylactic efficacy portion than for placebo-treated horses or product-treated horses in the treatment efficacy portion. In the prophylactic efficacy portion, significantly less articular cartilage erosion was identified in product-treated versus placebo-treated horses. In the treatment efficacy portion, joints of product-treated horses had a greater degree of bone edema identified via MRI than did joints of placebo-treated horses but fewer microscopic articular cartilage abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that caution should be used when administering the evaluated product IV to horses, particularly when administering it prophylactically, as it may have no benefit or may even cause harm.

  13. Effect of rare Earth ions on the properties of composites composed of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and layered double hydroxides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study on the rare earth (RE-doped layered double hydroxides (LDHs has received considerable attention due to their potential applications in catalysts. However, the use of RE-doped LDHs as polymer halogen-free flame retardants was seldom investigated. Furthermore, the effect of rare earth elements on the hydrophobicity of LDHs materials and the compatibility of LDHs/polymer composite has seldom been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The stearate sodium surface modified Ni-containing LDHs and RE-doped Ni-containing LDHs were rapidly synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave hydrothermal treatment. The influences of trace amounts of rare earth ions La, Ce and Nd on the amount of water molecules, the crystallinity, the morphology, the hydrophobicity of modified Ni-containing LDHs and the adsorption of modifier in the surface of LDHs were investigated by TGA, XRD, TEM, contact angle and IR, respectively. Moreover, the effects of the rare earth ions on the interfacial compatibility, the flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA/LDHs composites were also explored in detail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S-Ni₀.₁MgAl-La displayed more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in EVA matrix compared with other LDHs. Furthermore, the S-Ni₀.₁MgAl-La/EVA composite showed the best fire retardancy and mechanical properties in all composites.

  14. Sodium hyaluronate for treatment of chondromalacia patella syndrome%玻璃酸钠治疗髌骨软骨软化症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严浩然; 蔡俊丰; 沈彬; 温竣翔; 谭军

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:According to the special physical and chemical properties, the sodium hyaluronate plays a very important physiological role, such as constructing the celular matrix, lubricating the joints, and promoting the repair of tissue damage. OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of sodium hyaluronate on chondromalacia patelar syndrome with different disease courses. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with chondromalacia patelar syndrome received intra-articular injection of 2 mL sodium hyaluronate once a week for 5 consecutive weeks as a course, with the entry point on the medial margin of the patela. Al the patients were divided into two groups according to the disease course: 3 months group (n=44). One-year folow-up was done to summarize the therapeutic effect. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After folow-up for 1 year, the excelent and good rate was 94% in the 3 months group (73%). There was no side effect and infection during the treatment. Five patients appeared to have pain worsened after treatment, which may be caused as folows: Patelar effusion was removed incompletely and early puncture was unskiled. The pain was relieved within 1-2 days after the break. Results showed that the sodium hyaluronate is an effective drug for chondromalacia patelar syndrome, while early treatment and reasonable entry point is the key to keep the therapeutic effects.%背景:玻璃酸钠本身特殊的理化性质决定了其非常重要的生理作用,如构成细胞基质、润滑关节、促进组织损伤修复等。  目的:观察玻璃酸钠注射治疗不同病程髌骨软化症的疗效。  方法:76例髌骨软化症患者关节腔内注射玻璃酸钠2 mL(以髌骨内侧缘为进针点,每周1次,5周为1个疗程),根据病程分两组,病程3个月44例,随访1年观察远期疗效。  结果与结论:随访1年发现病程3个月组(优良率73%)。治疗期间无明显毒副作用,其中有5例注射后疼痛加重,可能与髌下积

  15. Comparison of beclomethasone dipropionate (2 and 3 mg) and prednisolone sodium phosphate enemas (30 mg) in the treatment of ulcerative proctitis. An adrenocortical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, C J; Endert, E; van der Heide, H; Houthoff, H J; Wiersinga, W; Wiltink, E H; Tytgat, G N

    1989-08-01

    Twenty-three patients with attacks of distal ulcerative colitis were treated randomly with either 2 or 3 mg of topically administered beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) or 30 mg of prednisolone sodium phosphate (PP). The effect of the steroid enemas on adrenocortical function was assessed by ACTH tests, which were performed before and after treatment. Endoscopic, clinical and histological scores were comparable in the three treatment groups in this pilot trial. Fasting cortisol in the PP group decreased significantly from 0.47 +/- 0.12 mumol/l before to 0.22 +/- 0.14 mumol/l (P less than 0.05) after therapy; in the BDP group no significant changes were found. Urinary cortisol excretion in the PP group was not detectable after therapy; in the BDP group no changes were found. It is concluded that in the topical treatment of ulcerative colitis, BDP may be preferable to PP because it exerts a promising anti-inflammatory action without affecting adrenocortical function.

  16. Layered Double Hydroxide as Cordycepin Delivery Nanocarrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zheng YANG; Jing YANG; Chang Kai ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide was investigated as cordycepin delivery nanocarrier for the first time in this study. Negatively charged biomolecule-cordycepin was intercalated in the gallery spaces of [Mg-Al-NO3], which was confirmed by the results of X-ray diffraction and electrophoretic mobility. Cell experiment suggested that the new bio-LDH nanohybrid could prevent cordycepin decomposition by adenosine deaminase. This new formulation could possibly be used as a novel form cordycepin intravenous injection.

  17. Thermal behaviour of hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthasarathi Bera; Michael Rajamathi; M S Hegde; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-04-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of gases evolved during thermal decomposition of divalent metal hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites show that all these compounds undergo dehydration in the temperature range 30 < T < 220°C followed by decomposition at temperatures above 250°C. The latter step involves simultaneous deanation and dehydroxylation of the layers. Our observations conclusively prove that alternative mechanisms which envisage CO2 evolution due to deanation at lower temperatures proposed by Kanezaki to be wrong.

  18. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  19. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH) and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH), against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.

  20. Effect of three different calcium hydroxide mixtures (calcium hydroxide with glycerine, normal saline and distilled water on root dentin microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasheminia SM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During root canal therapy, it is necessary to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal. The use of medicaments is recommended to reduce the microbial population prior to root filling. Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used because of their antibacterial effects and the ability of tissue dissolving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide/glycerine mixture, calcium hydroxide/normal saline mixture and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixture on root dentin microhardness in storage times of 7 and 14 days.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, fifteen extracted maxillary canines and central incisors were selected. The crowns of the teeth were removed and the canals were prepared. Teeth were sectioned transversally to produce a total of 30 dentin discs from the middle third of the roots. Specimens were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Dentin samples were subjected to calcium hydroxide/glycerine, calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water mixtures for 7 and 14 days. Dentin microhardness was measured by a Vickers indenter with a load of 200 g for 15 seconds. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Paired t-test and LSD with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Statistical analysis showed that all three mixtures decreased dentin microhardness. After 7 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination was significantly higher than calcium hydroxide/normal saline and calcium hydroxide/distilled water combinations. After 14 days, reduction in dentin microhardness by calcium hydroxide/distilled water combination was significantly higher than the other two groups.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the use of calcium hydroxide combinations for intracanal dressing reduces dentin microhardness. After 7 days calcium hydroxide/glycerine combination and after 14 days calcium hydroxide/distilled water

  1. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost.

  2. Efficacy of a Solution Composed by Verbascoside, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Schumacher, Richard Fabian; D'Ippolito, Carmelita; Porta, Fulvio; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a solution composed by verbascoside, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium hyaluronate (Mucosyte) in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositi (OM). Patients between 5 and 18 years receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and with OM grade 1 or 2 were randomized in group A (treated with Mucosyte, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d) and group B (treated with placebo, ie, an inert water-based solution, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d). The OM scoring was performed at day 1 (diagnosis of OM-T0), after 3 days of treatment (T1), and at day 8 (T2). Pain was evaluated through the visual analog scale with the same timing of OM measurement. A total of 56 patients were included (28 patients per group). Group A experienced a statistically significant decline of OM at T2 (P=0.0038); a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between 2 groups both at T1 and at T2 (P<0.005) was observed. The use of Mucosyte mouthwashes in children with chemotherapy-induced OM may be recommended as supportive therapy.

  3. Influence of pH on the thixotropy of magnesium aluminum hydroxide-kaolinite suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Xiaonan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Chen Zongqi, Shi Lin, Wu Shiying et al., The negative thixotropy, Chemistry (in Chinese), 1991, 54(2): 31-34.[2]Hou Wanguo, Sun Dejun, Han Shuhua et al., A novel thixotropic phenomenon-complex thixotropic behavior, Chem. Res. Chin. Univ., 1997, 13(1): 86-88.[3]Mo 2+ Al3+[4]Constantino. V. R. L., Pinnavaia, T. J., Basic properties of Mg2+l-x Ai3+x layered double hydroxides intercalated by carbonate. hydroxide, chloride, and sulfate anions, Inorg. Chem., 1995, 34(4): 883-892.[5]Albiston, L., Frankin, K. R., Lee, E. et al., Rheology and microstructure of aqueous layered double hydroxide dispersions, J. Mater. Chem., 1996, 6(5): 871-877.[6]Abend, S., Bonnke, N., Gutschner, U. et al., Stabilization of emulsions by heterocoagulation of clay minerals and layered double hydroxides, Colloid Polym. Sci., 1998, 276(8): 730-737.[7]Heckroodt, R. O., Ryan, W., Clay suspensions with negative thixotropy, Trans. J. Brit. Ceram. Sci., 1978, 77(2): 180- 183.[8]Chen Zongqi, Yu Wanglin, Hao Ce et al., The rheological properties of SiO2 suspension and PHPA system, Acta Chimica Sinica, 1990, 48(7): 666-72.[9]Benna, M., Kbir-Ariguib, N., Magnin, A. et al., Effect of pH on rheological properties of purified sodium bentonite suspensions, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 1999, 218(4): 442-445.[10]Sohm, R., Tadros, T. F., Viscoelastic Properties of sodium montmorillonite (Gelwhite H) suspensions, J. Colloid Interface Sci.. 1989, 132(1): 62-71.[11]Torrance, K. J., Pirmat, M., Effect of pH on the rheology of marine clay from the site of the south Nation River, Clays Clay Miner, 1984, 32(5): 384-390.[12]Heath, D., Tadros, T. F., Influence of pH, electrolyte, and poly (vinyl alcohol) addition on the rheological characteristics of aqueous dispersions of sodium montmorillonite, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 1983, 93(2): 307-319.

  4. Colistimethate sodium for the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerner-Rettberg C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Manfred Ballmann Department of Pediatric Pneumology, University Children’s Hospital of Ruhr University Bochum at St Josef-Hospital, Bochum, Germany Abstract: Chronic bacterial respiratory-tract infections are a major driving force in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease and promote chronic lung-function decline, destruction, and progression to respiratory failure at a premature age. Gram-negative bacteria colonizing the airways in CF are a major problem in CF therapy due to their tendency to develop a high degree of resistance to antibiotic agents over time. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominating bacterial strain infecting the CF lung from early childhood on, and multiresistant strains frequently develop after years of therapy. Colistin has been used for treating pulmonary bacterial infections in CF for decades due to its very good Gram-negative activity. However, drawbacks include concerns regarding toxicity when being applied systemically, and the lack of approval for application by inhalation in the USA for many years. Other antibiotic substances for systemic use are available with good to excellent Gram-negative and anti-Pseudomonas activity, while there are only three substances approved for inhalation use in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infection with proven benefit in CF. The emergence of multiresistant strains leaving nearly no antibiotic substance as a treatment option, the limited number of antibiotics with high activity against P. aeruginosa, the concerns about increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance by continuous antibiotic therapy, the development of new drug formulations and drug-delivery devices, and, finally, the differing treatment strategies used in CF centers call for defining the place of this “old” drug, colistimethate, in today’s CF therapy. This article reviews the available evidence to reflect on the place of colistimethate sodium in the therapy of chronic

  5. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassiopi, N; Vaxevanidou, K; Christou, C; Karagianni, E; Antipas, G S E

    2014-01-15

    Chromium is a common contaminant of soils and aquifers and constitutes a major environmental problem. In nature, chromium usually exists in the form of two oxidation states, trivalent, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous for biota and for the aquatic environment, and hexavalent, Cr(VI) which is toxic, carcinogenic and very soluble. Accordingly, the majority of wastewater and groundwater treatment technologies, include a stage where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), in order to remove chromium from the aqueous phase and bind the element in the form of environmentally stable solid compounds. In the absence of iron the final product is typically of the form Cr(OH)3·xH2O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe(1-x)Crx(OH)3 phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fex,Cr1-x)(OH)3 hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH)3. We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH)3·3H2O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH)3(am) phase. Mixed Fe0.75Cr0.25(OH)3 hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH)3, and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides are more effective enhancers of groundwater quality, in comparison to the plain amorphous or crystalline Cr(III) hydroxides, the latter found to have a solubility typically higher than 50μg/l (maximum EU permitted Cr level in drinking water), while the amorphous Cr(OH)3(am) phase was within the drinking water threshold in the range 5.7hydroxides studied were of extended stability in the 4.8

  6. Efficacy of 28-day and 40-day Regimens of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) in the Treatment of Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Mediwaia Tropical Alexander von Humboldt. Universidad Penuana Cuavyetano Heredia. Limna. Peru: Hospital Regionaal del Casco. Cusco . Peru: IValher Reed...in the Department of Cusco , Peru. In a study done in India on the treatment of vis- Leishmaniasis is not endemic in these villages W ceral...phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. admitted to Cusco Regional Hospital ( Cusco . glucose phosphate isomerase. mannose phos- Peru) and administered Pentostam (20

  7. Hydroxocobalamin Versus Sodium Thiosulfate for the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    treatment of acute cyanide poisoning in adult beagle dogs . Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44(suppl 1):5-15. 15. Posner MA, Tobey RE, McElroy H...cobalamine and acute cyanide poisoning in dogs . Life Sci. 1965;4:1785-1789. 18. Borron SW, Baud FJ, Barriot P, et al. Prospective study of hydroxocobalamin... Cardiology , the European Resuscitation Council, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Institute of Critical Care Medicine, the Safar Center for

  8. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids.

  9. Pulp response to a novel adhesive calcium hydroxide based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A; Paterson, R C; Cohen, B D; Combe, E C

    1994-09-01

    This study compares pulp responses to 3 formulations of calcium hydroxide, namely: a) An experimental adhesive calcium hydroxide cement containing polyacrylic acid, b) Dycal (L.D> Caulk Co, Milford, Delaware) Batch Nos 176970/176990, c) "Analar" calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water. After 28 days dentine bridges were present in 77% of teeth capped with the test material, 64% of teeth treated with Dycal and in 62% of teeth capped with calcium hydroxide and water. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in a number of teeth remote from the bridges. Bacteria were detected in these specimens. Exposed rat molar pulp responses to an experimental adhesive calcium hydroxide cement were similar to to those observed with 2 other calcium hydroxide formulations.

  10. Polytypic transformations of aluminum hydroxide: A mechanistic investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thimmasandra Narayan Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of ammonia vapors into a solution of aluminum nitrate or ferric nitrate results in the precipitation of their respective hydroxides and oxyhydroxides.Polymorphic phase formation of aluminum hydroxide is controlled by the rate of crystallization.The PXRD patterns of products obtained via vapor phase diffusion revealed that poorly ordered aluminum hydroxide is formed during the initial stages of crystallization.After 8 days,the formation of the bayerite phase of aluminum hydroxide was observed.Upon prolonged exposure to ammonia vapors,bayerite was transformed into gibbsite.The infrared spectrum of the product confirmed the presence of different polytypic phases of aluminum hydroxide.The results demonstrated that the crystal structure of metal hydroxides is controlled by the rate of crystallization,nature of the metal ion,site selectivity and specificity and preparative conditions.

  11. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  12. Effect of Creatine Phosphate Sodium in the Treatment of Pediatric Myocarditis%小儿心肌炎采用磷酸肌酸钠治疗的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锐

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨磷酸肌酸钠治疗小儿心肌炎的疗效。方法随机将90例心肌炎患儿平均分为两组,对照组行果糖二磷酸钠治疗,观察组行磷酸肌酸钠治疗,比较两组临床疗效。结果观察组总有效率、心肌酶降低程度等指标均优于对照组(P <0.05)。结论磷酸肌酸钠治疗小儿心肌炎疗效理想,可有效保护心肌细胞。%Objective To investigate the effect of creatine phosphate sodium in the treatment of pediatric myocarditis. Methods We divided 90 patients into two groups,control group used fructose diphosphate sodium treatment,and observation group used creatine phosphate sodium,comparing efficacy of two groups. Results The total efficiency,reduction in myocardial enzyme of observation group were significantly better than control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion The effect of creatine phosphate sodium in the treatment of pediatric myocarditis is ideal,and can effectively protect the myocardial cel s.

  13. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (pcinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (pfruits.

  14. Improvement of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by the previous administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, M; Rodríguez, C; Carpano, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Kahl, S; Pisarev, M; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa, A

    2013-08-01

    We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) like sodium butyrate (NaB) cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and show capacity to increase the gamma irradiation effect. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the use of the NaB as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT for PDTC. Follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO) and rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were incubated with 1 mM NaB and then treated with boronophenylalanine ¹⁰BPA (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with 2, 4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ¹⁰BOPP (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with a neutron beam alone. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10¹⁰ n cm⁻² s⁻¹). Cell survival decreased as a function of the physical absorbed dose in both cell lines. Moreover, the addition of NaB decreased cell survival (p < 0.05) in WRO cells incubated with both boron compounds. NaB increased the percentage of necrotic and apoptotic cells in both BNCT groups (p < 0.05). An accumulation of cells in G2/M phase at 24 h was observed for all the irradiated groups and the addition of NaB increased this percentage. Biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) 24 h after NaB injection were performed. The in vivo studies showed that NaB treatment increases the amount of boron in the tumor at 2-h post-BPA injection (p < 0.01). We conclude that NaB could be used as a radiosensitizer for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma by BNCT.

  15. A Randomized Multicenter Study Comparing 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% Sodium Hyaluronate with 0.05% Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yuli; Song, Jong Suk; Choi, Chul Young; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (SH) artificial tears compared with 0.05% cyclosporine (CS) ophthalmic solution for the treatment of dry eye. Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients were recruited and randomized to receive of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH and 0.05% CS. There was a primary end point which is the changes in the fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score to determine noninferiority of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH. Secondary objective end points were lissamine green conjunctival staining (LGCS) scores, Schirmer test, and tear film break-up time (TBUT). Secondary subjective end point was ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score. These were evaluated before treatment and 6 and 12 weeks after start of treatment. Results: In the primary analysis, the mean change from baseline in FCS scores verified noninferiority of 0.1% and 0.15% SH to 0.05% CS and also indicated significant improvement of all groups (P scores, and OSDI scores showed significant improvements in all groups (P scores in the 0.15% SH group showed a significant tendency for better improvement at week 12 compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Administration of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH was effective in improving both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye. Those findings, in addition to the well-tolerated profile of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH, show that it is effective therapeutic method for dry eye. PMID:27929721

  16. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy.

  17. Progress of Magnesium HydroxidePreparation%氢氧化镁制备工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄姗姗

    2013-01-01

    氢氧化镁作为重要的化工产品有着广泛的应用,已形成了很多的制备方法,主要分为物理粉碎法和化学合成法.文章综述了氢氧化镁主要的制备工艺和研究进展,分析了不同方法的适用性和优缺点,并指明氢氧化钠法是适合察尔汗盐湖地区资源特点和产业链建设的制备工艺.%Magnesium hydroxide has a wide applicatioon as an important chemical product.Many preparation methods of magnesium hydroxide have been put forward,which mainly includes physical milling and chemical synthesis.This paper reviewed the progress of magnesium hydroxide preparation and analyzed the applicability as well as the merit and demerits of various technologies.Particularly,this paper indicates sodium hydroxide method was a very promising route in the Chaerhan Salt Lake which adapted to the local natural resources and industrial chains construction.

  18. Treatment of Na(v)1.7-mediated pain in inherited erythromelalgia using a novel sodium channel blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Yigal Paul; Price, Nicola; Namdari, Rostam; Cohen, Charles Jay; Lamers, Mieke H; Winters, Conrad; Price, James; Young, Clint E; Verschoof, Henry; Sherrington, Robin; Pimstone, Simon Neil; Hayden, Michael Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the SCN9A gene leading to deficiency of its protein product, Na(v)1.7, cause congenital indifference to pain (CIP). CIP is characterized by the absence of the ability to sense pain associated with noxious stimuli. In contrast, the opposite phenotype to CIP, inherited erythromelalgia (IEM), is a disorder of spontaneous pain caused by missense mutations resulting in gain-of-function in Na(v)1.7 that promote neuronal hyperexcitability. The primary aim of this study was to demonstrate that Na(v)1.7 antagonism could alleviate the pain of IEM, thereby demonstrating the utility of this opposite phenotype model as a tool for rapid proof-of-concept for novel analgesics. An exploratory, randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 4 SCN9A mutation-proven IEM patients. In each treatment period (2days), separated by a 2-day washout period, patients were orally administered XEN402 (400mg twice daily) or matching placebo. In 3 patients, pain was induced by heat or exercise during each treatment arm. A fourth patient, in constant severe pain, required no induction. Patient-reported outcomes of pain intensity and/or relief were recorded, and the time taken to induce pain was measured. The ability to induce pain in IEM patients was significantly attenuated by XEN402 compared with placebo. XEN402 increased the time to maximal pain induction and significantly reduced the amount of pain (42% less) after induction (P=.014). This pilot study showed that XEN402 blocks Na(v)1.7-mediated pain associated with IEM, thereby demonstrating target engagement in humans and underscoring the use of rare genetic disorders with mutant target channels as a novel approach to rapid proof-of-concept.

  19. Electrocatalysis and electroanalysis of nickel, its oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides toward small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuqing; Ouyang, Lei; Zhou, Shilin; Xu, Lina; Yang, Zhuoyuan; Xiao, Mingshu; Ouyang, Ruizhuo

    2014-03-15

    The electrocatalysis toward small molecules, especially small organic compounds, is of importance in a variety of areas. Nickel based materials such as nickel, its oxides, hydroxides as well as oxyhydroxides exhibit excellent electrocatalysis performances toward many small molecules, which are widely used for fuel cells, energy storage, organic synthesis, wastewater treatment, and electrochemical sensors for pharmaceutical, medical, food or environmental analysis. Their electrocatalytic mechanisms are proposed from three aspects such as Ni(OH)2/NiOOH mediated electrolysis, direct electrocatalysis of Ni(OH)2 or NiOOH. Under exposure to air or aqueous solution, two distinct layers form on the Ni surface with a Ni hydroxide layer at the air-oxide interface and an oxide layer between the metal substrate and the outer hydroxide layer. The transformation from nickel or its oxides to hydroxides or oxyhydroxides could be further speeded up in the strong alkaline solution under the cyclic scanning at relatively high positive potential. The redox transition between Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH is also contributed to the electrocatalytic oxidation of Ni and its oxides toward small molecules in alkaline media. In addition, nickel based materials or nanomaterials, their preparations and applications are also overviewed here.

  20. 奥扎格雷钠联合丹参酮ⅡA 磺酸钠和吡拉西坦治疗急性脑梗死%Sodium ozagrel combined with sodium tanshinone ⅡA silate and piracetam in treatment of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴学虎; 邱守田; 胡伟; 孟宪良

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of sodium ozagrel combined with sodium tanshinone ⅡA silate and piracetam on acute cerebral infarction. Methods Ninety-six acute cerebral in-farction patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group. There were 48 patients in each group. Both groups were treated with regular treatment. Based on the treatment,the observation group were given sodium ozagrel combined with sodium tanshinone ⅡA silate and piracetam,the control group were given sodium tanshinone ⅡA silate and piracetam administration for 14 days. At the end of the treatment,neurologic impairment score and the curative effect of the patients were evaluated. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 91. 67% ,and that of the control group was 77. 08% . There was significant difference between the two groups(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusions The curative effect of sodium ozagrel combined with sodium tanshinone ⅡA silate and piracetam on acute cerebral infarction is remarkable.%目的:观察奥扎格雷钠联合丹参酮ⅡA 磺酸钠和吡拉西坦治疗脑梗死的临床疗效。方法96例脑梗死患者随机分为观察组和对照组各48例,两组均给予常规治疗,在此治疗基础上,观察组给予奥扎格雷钠、丹参酮ⅡA 磺酸钠和吡拉西坦,对照组给予丹参酮ⅡA 磺酸钠和吡拉西坦,两组均连续用药14 d。治疗结束后进行神经功能缺损评分和疗效评价。结果观察组总有效率为91.67%,对照组总有效率为77.08%,两组比较差异有统计学意义。结论奥扎格雷钠联合丹参酮ⅡA 磺酸钠和吡拉西坦治疗脑梗死临床疗效显著。

  1. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: an antidotal role for sodium nitrite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A H; Rumack, B H

    1997-06-01

    In 2 separate incidents, 6 patients were poisoned with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer gas. In the first incident, mixing acid- and sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaners in a confined space resulted in 4 poisonings and 2 deaths. Three would-be rescuers were seriously poisoned and 1 died. Two survivors had neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite appeared to have some clinical efficacy in 1 case. The second incident involved 2 patients working on a pump in a sewage pond. A patient lying on a raft close to the pond surface was seriously poisoned; sodium nitrite was clinically efficacious and this patient survived without developing neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite deserves further clinical study as a potential H2S antidote.

  2. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah,1 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,2,3 Palanisamy Arulselvan,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Benjamin M Geilich,5 Mohd Zobir Hussein1 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH, against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.  Keywords: Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides, zinc layered hydroxides, tuberculosis, para

  3. 铝酸钡与氢氧化钡脱硫过程比较%Comparison of Barium Aluminate and Barium Hydroxide Desulfurization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念炳; 黎志英; 丁彤

    2012-01-01

    The seed precipitation liquor was desulfurized with barium aluminate and barium hydroxide respectively. The desulfurization slag was characterized by XRD analysis, and the desulfurization process was compared. The results show that barium hydroxide exceeds barium aluminate with better desulfurization in terms of effect, speed and duration. In the desulfurization process with barium aluminate, 2BaO · Al2O3 · 5H2O is firstly produced in the reaction of barium aluminate with alkali, and then it reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. To compare, Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O directly reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate in the desulfurization process with barium hydroxide. Both of desulfurization reaction processes can be described with "shrinking core model".%用铝酸钡和氢氧化钡对种分母液进行脱硫试验,对脱硫渣进行XRD分析,并比较脱硫过程.结果表明,氢氧化钡的脱硫效果更好,脱硫完成时间更短,速率更快;铝酸钡先与碱液反应生成2BaO·Al2O3·5H2O,再与硫碱和碳碱反应,而氢氧化钡直接与硫碱和碳碱反应,脱硫过程均可用未反应核模型描述.

  4. Biofilm regeneration on carriers in MBBR used for vitamin C wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X B; Wang, Zh; Xu, K; Ren, H Q

    2013-01-01

    Methods were investigated for biofilm regeneration on carriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor used for vitamin C production wastewater treatment. Three ordinary chemical cleaning agents (hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium hypochlorite) and physical drying were chosen for evaluation as methods for biofilm detachment. The results showed that these methods all had some degree of biofilm removal effectiveness. Treatment with 3% hydrochloric acid (w/w) achieved the maximum degree of biofilm detachment, at 75.2%. Biofilm biomass re-formed on carriers, from the maximum degree of biofilm detachment, quickly by an increase of 76.17 g m(-2) month(-1). It was concluded that treatment with 3% acid was the best choice for biofilm removal and regeneration.

  5. Dynamics of Intercalation/De-Intercalation of Rhodamine B during the Polymorphic Transformation of CdAl Layered Double Hydroxide to the Brucite-Like Cadmium Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Daniel

    2016-06-23

    Cadmium-Aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) is thermodynamically unstable and transforms to Cd(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 in a short period of time. We present a reaction-diffusion framework that enables us to use in situ steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy to study the kinetics of intercalation of a fluorescent probe (Rhodamine B (RhB)) during the formation of the CdAl LDH and its de-intercalation upon the conversion of the LDH phase to the β phase (Cd(OH)2). The method involves the diffusion of sodium hydroxide into a hydrogel gel matrix containing the aluminum and cadmium ions as well as the species we wish to incorporate in the interlayers of the LDH. The existence of RhB between the LDH layers and its expel during the transition into the β phase are proved via fluorescence microscopy, XRD and ssNMR. The activation energies of intercalation and de-intercalation of RhB are computed and show dependence on the cationic ratio of the corresponding LDH. We find that the energies of de- intercalation are systematically higher than those of intercalation proving that the dyes are stabilized due to the probe-brucite sheets interactions.

  6. Intrarticular Sodium Hyaluronate for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee. A Retrospective Review of 45 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrarticular Hyaluronic Acid was administered to 45 patients with various grades of osteoarthritis in the knee. Following 3 fortnightly injections, these patients were reviewed at 6 weeks and 3 months with regard to their knee pain. We found that most patients (84.4% had decreased knee pain following these injections. Patients who had severe grade osteoarthritis based on knee radiographs before the injections were less likely to have pain reduction compared to those with milder grade osteoarthritis. Only 4 (8.9% patients showed no improvement and were subsequently considered for surgery. Many patients did not require any further treatment (24.4% and the remaining were given analgesia (64.4% to aid in their pain. One patient required another course of this injection. There were no complications recorded in this study. We concluded that intrarticular Hyaluronic Acid is an easy and safe method to treat osteoarthritis. The short-term outcome with regard to knee pain is good in patients with milder grades of osteoarthritis.

  7. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  8. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  9. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)]. E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Alshawabkeh, Akram N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Haifeng [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  10. Ultrasound efficiency in relation to sodium hypochlorite and filtration adsorption in microbial elimination in a water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes like ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were compared to eliminate microorganisms and to adjust established parameters of public drinking water. A mini water treatment plant (WTP-CB, in pilot scale, was projected and built to evaluate each process influence as: decontamination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria and physic/chemical parameters were quantified from water. Ultrasound, chlorination and filtration-adsorption were efficient to inactivate and/or eliminate bacteria. Ultrasound decontamination in addition to coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, could be considered as an alternative treatment water solution where prechlorination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation and filtration were used. The chlorination itself was efficient in inactivating bacteria despite of the coagulation-flocculation process; however, in the absence of the coagulation process, the resultant water did not achieve the established parameters. The filtration-adsorption was an important process to eliminate bacteria, showing that the filter retained particles, suspended solids, besides chemical substances and microorganisms.Comparou-se diferentes processos: ultra-som, cloração e filtração/adsorção para eliminação de microrganismos e adequação de outros parâmetros exigidos para água de abastecimento público. Para avaliar a influência de cada processo: desinfecção, coagulação/floculação, decantação e filtração foi projetada e construída uma Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA-CB em escala piloto. Foram avaliados coliformes, bactérias heterotróficas e parâmetros físico/químicos. Ondas ultra-sônicas, cloração e filtração/adsorção mostraram-se eficientes na inativação e/ou eliminação de bactérias. O processo de desinfecção com ultra-som juntamente com a coagulação/floculação, decanta

  11. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  12. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  13. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, P; Di Stefano, G; Ferreri, F; Spinella, R; Stilo, A

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients with hypotonic or isotonic hyaluronate eye drops. Methods: 40 Sjögren's syndrome patients were divided in two groups and treated as follows: group 1 with hypotonic (150 mOsm/l) 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops; group 2 with isotonic 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops. The eye drops were instilled six times a day for 90 days. Grading of subjective symptoms, break up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival rose bengal staining, Schirmer's I test, and conjunctival impression cytology were carried out at 0 and 15, 30, 90 days from the beginning of the study. Patients were examined in a blind fashion. For the statistical analysis the Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were performed. Results: Symptoms were statistically significantly improved at day 15 in both groups but group 1 patients had a global score statistically significantly better group 2 (p=0.02). At day 15 group 1 patients had an improvement from baseline values of BUT (p=0.003), fluorescein, and rose bengal score (p=0.000001 and p=0.0004 respectively). Group 2 patients had, at day 15, an improvement of BUT and fluorescein score compared to baseline values (p=0.05 and p=0.0001 respectively). A comparison between the two groups showed better results for group 1 patients at day 15 for rose bengal stain (p=0.01) and for BUT (p=0.05) and fluorescein score (p=0.0003) at day 90. The conjunctival impression cytology showed that group 1 had a statistically significant better total score than group 2 starting from day 15 and lasting throughout the study (p<0.02). Also group 2 patients showed an improvement from baseline values starting from day 30 (p=0.000005). Conclusion: Hyaluronate eye drops are useful for treating severe dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. The use of a formulation with pronounced hypotonicity showed better effects on corneoconjunctival epithelium than the isotonic solution. PMID:12140209

  14. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  15. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  16. Clinical Effect of Cefoperazone Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium in the Treatment of Infection in Obstetrics and Gynecol-ogy Department%头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠治疗妇产科感染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium in the treatment of infection in obstetrics and gynecology department. Methods A total of 120 infection patients in Obstetrics and Gynecology de-partment in our hospital were selected from March 2012 to January 2014,and they were randomly divided into observation group and control group,60 cases in each group. Control group was treated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,while observa-tion group was treated with cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium. Clinical effect and incidence of adverse reactions between two groups were compared. Results There was no significant differences of total effective rate between two groups(P>0. 05). The incidence of adverse reactions of observed group was 1. 7%(1/60),was lower than that of control group of 10. 0%(6/60),the difference was statistically significantly different(P0.05)。观察组不良反应发生率为1.7%(1/60),低于对照组的10.0%(6/60),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠治疗妇科感染疗效可靠,并能较好地减少不良反应发生率。

  17. Role of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arun A; Sangameshwar Sajjanshetty; Deepak Jain; Saujanya KP; Mohammed Mustafa; Laxmi Uppin; Mahnoor Kadri

    2012-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide is a multipurpose agent, and there have been an increasing number of indications for its use in endodontics. Some of its indications include inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, endodontic sealers, pulp capping agents, apexification, pulpotomy and weeping canals. The purpose of this article is to review the properties, advantages, disadvantages and various indications for the use of calcium hydroxide in endodontics.

  18. FIBRED MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE AND FLAME-RESISTANT POLYENE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The fibred mangesiun hydroxide from the bracite was treated with a surface active agent. The modified fibred magesium hydroxide as f lame-retardant,boric acid, barium stearate, polydimethyl siloxane fluid,vinyltr iethoxysilane as synergists of the flame-retardant were added to polyene resin. The flame-resistance polyene material prepared meets the requirements of EWCZ -6287-1.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  20. Magnetic cellulose ionomer/layered double hydroxide: An efficient anion exchange platform with enhanced diclofenac adsorption property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Beyki, Mostafa; Mohammadirad, Mosleh; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-10

    Polymeric ionomers with anion exchange capability are considered to be classes of environmentally friendly compounds as combination of them with anionic layered hydroxides constitute emerging advance materials. Biosorption by polymeric ionomer - layered double hydroxide (LDH) hybrid material exhibits an attractive green, low cost and low toxic - clean way. As a result, a novel anion exchange platform has been developed by the reaction of CaAl - LDH with Fe(2+), cellulose solution, epichlorohydrin and pyridine. Magnetite cellulose - LDH (MCL) and the ionomer were used for efficient biosorption of diclofenac sodium (DF). Results showed that ionomer has more efficiency for DF adsorption relative to MCL. Magnetite ionomer showed fast equilibrium time (2min) with maximum uptake of 268mgg(-1). Isotherm and Kinetic models were also studied. Regeneration of the sorbent was performed with a mixture of methanol -NaOH (2.0molL(-1)) solution.

  1. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying, E-mail: clu@nchu.edu.tw; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  2. Magnetic behavior of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe mixed oxides from precursors layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, M.I., E-mail: marcosivanoliva@gmail.com [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); IFFAM AF (CONICET - FaMAF UNC), M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Heredia, A. [CITeQ - Facultad R. Cordoba, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Maestro Lopez esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, CP 5016 Cordoba (Argentina); Zandalazini, C.I. [Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares. INFIQC-FCQ-Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales-FaMAF-Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, CP5000 Cordoba, Argentina CONICET (Argentina); Crivello, M. [CITeQ - Facultad R. Cordoba, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Maestro Lopez esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, CP 5016 Cordoba (Argentina); Corchero, E. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Mixed oxides of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe were obtained by calcination of layered double hydroxides (LDH) prepared by coprecipitation reaction with hydrothermal treatment. The structural characterization of precursors and oxides was carried out by X rays diffraction, showing increases of ZnO phase with the increase of the zinc content. Magnetic behavior was studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showing both paramagnetic and super paramagnetic behavior depending on both particles size and composition.

  3. Understanding surface interactions in aqueous miscible organic solvent treated layered double hydroxides.

    OpenAIRE

    Erastova, Valentina; Degiacomi, Matteo T.; O'Hare, Dermot; Greenwell, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Layered materials are of interest for use in a wealth of technological applications, many of which require a high surface area for optimal properties and performance. Recently, an industrially scalable method to create high surface area layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials, which may be readily dispersed in non-polar solvents, has been developed. This method involves treatment of LDHs with aqueous miscible organic (AMO) solvents. Here, molecular modeling is exploited to elucidate the AMO ...

  4. Insights into the Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Nanoparticles: Part 2. Formation Mechanisms of LDH

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaodi; Dey, Sandwip K.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effect of (co)intercalated anion compositions on nanostructure evolution to understand the formation mechanisms of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles following coprecipitation and hydrothermal treatments (HT). Initially, the room temperature coprecipitation resulted in amorphous primary nanoparticles that agglomerated at the edges due to low surface charge densities. The reversibility of such agglomeration was determined by the crystalline quality upon HT...

  5. Carboxymethyl inulin: a novel flocculant for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, Rahul; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-02-01

    Carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) has been synthesized by incorporation of carboxymethyl groups in the inulin framework; by reacting inulin with sodium salt of monochloro acetic acid (SMCA) in presence of sodium hydroxide. The resulting carboxymethylated product, with different degrees of substitution, has been confirmed through various physicochemical characterization techniques, such as intrinsic viscosity measurement, elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Flocculation efficacy of various grades of CMI, have been studied in kaolin suspension and then in municipal wastewater, in relation to inulin (parent polysaccharide). This has been done utilizing jar-test procedure towards possible application as a flocculant for waste water treatment.

  6. Enhanced aerobic sludge granulation with layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhi Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge technology has been developed for the biochemical treatment of wastewater in the present study. A fast cultivation of aerobic granular sludge was realized in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR, where Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was used as a carrier for granules growth. In comparison, the sludge particle size with LDH addition was bigger than those without LDH, with more than 50% of compact granular sludge >1.4 mm in size. This indicatestheLDH improved the growth ofthegranular sludge. The frequency of LDH addition had little effect on the granule growth. Moreover, the formation of granules led to the low sludge volume index (SVI and high mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS in SBR reactor. With the formation of granular sludge, more than 80% of COD was removed in SBR reactor. The high COD removal efficiency of wastewater was observed regardless of various COD loading strength. The results suggest that the growth of granular sludge with LDH as a carrier enhanced the treatment efficiency. Therefore, our results have provided a promising way to prepare the granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

  7. The Clinical Research of Montelukast Sodium for the Treatment of Pediatric Asthmatic Bronchitis%应用孟鲁司特钠治疗小儿喘息性支气管炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金联

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of application of montelukast sodium in treatment of children with asthmatic bronchitis. MethodsTo our hospital for 76 children with asthmatic bronchitis patients treated cases selected in accordance with the different treatment methods for the observation group and the control group, patients in the control group using conventional methods of treatment, patients in the observation group based on the treatment in control group were treated with montelukast sodium.Results After treatment, the patients in observation group were signiifcantly better than the treatment effect of patients in the control group, P<0.05.Conclusion The addition of montelukast sodium in the process of traditional therapy in treatment can signiifcantly improve the treatment effect.%目的探讨应用孟鲁司特钠治疗小儿喘息性支气管炎的临床治疗效果。方法选取来我院进行治疗的小儿喘息性支气管炎患者76例,按照治疗方式的不同分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者使用常规方式进行治疗,观察组患者在对照组治疗的基础上加用孟鲁司特钠进行治疗。结果经过治疗后,观察组患者的治疗效果明显优于对照组患者, P<0.05。结论在传统治疗的过程中加入孟鲁司特钠进行治疗能够明显提高治疗的效果。

  8. A phase 2/3, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, 2-year trial of pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Marla B; Zhou, Duo; Loftus, Jane;

    2011-01-01

    To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia.......To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia....

  9. Necessity of re-evaluation of estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) as a treatment option for first-line monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T

    2001-02-01

    Estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) was first introduced in the early 1970s for the treatment of prostate cancer, when EMP was supposed to have the dual effect of estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity. For the following decades, it was used mainly in hormone-refractory cases, with a conventional dosage of 4-9 capsules/day, which showed a 30-35% objective response rate. However, a very limited number of cases have been reported that used EMP as a first-line monotherapy in the conventional dosage. One study showed a response rate of 82%, which is at least as effective as conventional estrogen (diethylstilbestrol; DES) monotherapy. Nevertheless, EMP was almost abandoned for the treatment of prostate cancer because of severe adverse side-effects, especially in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Recently, two facts have become evident. First, EMP interferes with cellular microtubule dynamics but does not show alkylating effects. Second, EMP is able to produce a complex with calcium when dairy products are taken concomitantly with EMP, resulting in a decrease in the absorption rate of EMP from the gut. Many clinical trials have been undertaken without warning against concomitant dairy product intake since the introduction of EMP. This fact will jeopardize almost all the clinical trials performed before 1990. It is considered that response rates have been underestimated and better results could have been obtained because side-effects decrease dose-dependently. Low-dose EMP monotherapy (2 capsules/day) has been performed infrequently in previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. The only large trial by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer in 1984 was biased in selecting patients. Nevertheless, the response rate of EMP is comparable to that of DES. In this study, the adverse side-effects of EMP were less than that of DES. Recently, a study was conducted at the University of Tokyo of 11 patients with advanced prostate cancer on

  10. Clinical Effect of Montelukast Sodium in the Treatment of Children With Cough Variant Asthma%探讨孟鲁司特钠治疗小儿咳嗽变异性哮喘临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of montelukast sodium in patients with cough variant asthma. Methods Chose 90 cases of cough variant asthma in children from 2013 to 2014 in our hospital,these patients were divided into conventional therapy group and montelukast sodium in the treatment group,each were 45 cases,the conventional group used routine drug treatment,montelukast sodium treatment group used conventional drug plus montelukast sodium,on two groups of clinical treatment for comparative analysis.ResultsMontelukast special application of sodium in children with cough variant asthma clinical treatment with very high efficiency,than the conventional drug treatment effect more excelent clinical results were statisticaly significant difference(P< 0.05).Conclusion The treatment of children with cough variant asthma has a very good effect,and can be combined with conventional drugs in clinical practice.%目的:根据小儿咳嗽变异性哮喘患者接受孟鲁司特钠治疗的临床效果来进行探讨分析,对该种治疗方式应用于小儿咳嗽性变异性哮喘疾病的作用进行探讨。方法根据2013~2014年我院的90例咳嗽变异性哮喘患儿来进行分析,将这些患儿分成常规治疗组和孟鲁司特钠治疗组,每组均有45例患者,常规组使用常规药物治疗,孟鲁司特钠治疗组使用常规药物增加孟鲁司特钠治疗,对两组的临床治疗情况进行比较分析。结果孟鲁司特钠应用于小儿咳嗽变异性哮喘的临床治疗上具有非常高的有效率,比常规药物治疗效果更加优秀,临床结果存在统计学差异性,P<0.05。结论孟鲁司特钠对小儿咳嗽变异性哮喘的治疗具有非常好的效果,临床中可以和常规药物进行联合治疗,提升治疗有效率。

  11. Clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Rosina

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Rosina, Ferdinando Bottoni, Giovanni StaurenghiLuigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milano, ItalyAbstract: Pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® blocks the extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF isoform VEGF165, whose elevated levels are associated with the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. This selective inhibition prevents binding to the VEGF receptors and the development of the increased vascular permeability and the CNV associated with neovascular age-related degeneration (AMD. The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularization (VISION demonstrated that pegaptanib sodium confers clinically meaningful benefit in the treatment of all angiographic subtypes of neovascular AMD. It also has a favorable safety profile after 1 and 2 years of continuous treatment, and recent data suggest that the agent has a disease-modifying effect. Post hoc analysis of VISION suggests that treatment benefit may be greatest in patients with early lesions, in whom 80% achieved the primary endpoint of <15 letters lost, 47% maintained visual acuity (VA, and 20% gained ≥15 letters of vision. Similarly, our own clinical experience indicates that pegaptanib sodium achieves better outcomes in early lesions than in established lesions, particularly in patients with previously untreated minimally classic and occult lesions in whom VA improvement and lesion size stabilization has been recorded. Observations indicate that pegaptanib sodium has a slower mode of action than unselective VEGF inhibitors, resulting in an average of 3–4 injections being required to stabilize VA and lesion size. Pegaptanib sodium has good efficacy and safety profiles and represents a good treatment option for patients with early CNV membranes associated with neovascular AMD.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, choroidal neovasularization (CNV, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, pegaptanib sodium, early lesions, visual acuity (VA

  12. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate for asthma in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; Bernsen, Roos M. D.; Tasche, Marjolein J. A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Ducharme, Francine

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium cromoglycate has been recommended as maintenance treatment for childhood asthma for many years. Its use has decreased since 1990, when inhaled corticosteroids became popular, but it is still used in many countries. Objectives To determine the efficacy of sodium cromoglycate compare

  13. 硝普钠联合多巴胺治疗急性心力衰竭的临床观察%Curative Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside Combined Dopamine in Treatment of Patients With Acute Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察硝普钠联合多巴胺治疗急性心力衰竭患者的效果。方法随机将110例急性心力衰竭患者平均分为2组,对照组行硝普钠治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上联合多巴胺治疗。结果观察组总有效率、生理指标等均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论硝普钠联合多巴胺治疗急性心力衰竭效果理想。%Objective To investigate the curative effect of sodium nitroprusside combined dopamine in the treatment of patients with acute heart failure. Methods We divided 110 patients into two groups,the control group used sodium nitroprusside treatment,and observation group used dopamine on the basis of the control group. Results The total effective rate and physiological indexes of the observation group were significantly better than control group(P<0.05). Conclusion The effect of sodium nitroprusside combined dopamine in the treatment of acute heart failure is ideal.

  14. Preparation of Magnesium Hydroxide and Nanofiber Polymer Composites to Reduce the Flammability and Melt Dripping Behaviour of Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Raza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale alumina fibers reduce the flammability and melt dripping behaviour of polymers. Magnesium hydroxide breaks the agglomerates by generating shear and iterative forces. Mixing was done with Brabender Plasticoder. The temperature and time of mixing greatly affects the mixing behaviour. At higher temperatures blow holes were observed. By increasing the mixing time agglomerates were broken to a greater extent. Different concentrations of nanofibers, Magnesium hydroxide and surface treatments are used to investigate the properties of polymer. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, optical microscopy and flame test was done to see the effect of different parameters on mixing and flame retardancy behaviour.

  15. The clinical effect of montelukast sodium in the treatment of children with bronchial asthma%孟鲁司特钠治疗小儿支气管哮喘的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of montelukast sodium in the treatment of children with bronchial asthma. Methods:70 children with bronchial asthma were selected,they were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group with 35 cases in each.The control group was treated with conventional drugs,the treatment group was given montelukast sodium on the basis of routine treatment,we compared the treatment effect of the two groups.Results:The total effective rate of 91.4% in the treatment group was significantly higher than 77.1% of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of montelukast sodium in the treatment of children with bronchial asthma was significant,the effect was quick,and the side effects were small.%目的:探讨孟鲁司特钠治疗小儿支气管哮喘的临床疗效.方法:收治小儿支气管哮喘患儿70例,随机分为对照组与治疗组各35例.对照组采用常规药物治疗,治疗组在常规用药的基础上加用孟鲁司特钠治疗,比较两组治疗效果.结果:治疗组总有效率91.4%,明显高于对照组的77.1%(P<0.05).结论:孟鲁司特钠治疗小儿支气管哮喘的临床疗效显著,见效快,不良反应小.

  16. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  17. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  18. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products.

  19. Hydrophilic block copolymer-directed growth of lanthanum hydroxide nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyer, F.; Sanson, N.; Gerardin, C. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR 5618 CNRS-ENSCM-UM1, FR 1878, Institut Gerhardt, 34 - Montpellier (France); Destarac, M. [Centre de Recherches Rhodia Aubervilliers, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    2006-03-15

    Stable hairy lanthanum hydroxide nano-particles were synthesized in water by performing hydrolysis and condensation reactions of lanthanum cations in the presence of double hydrophilic poly-acrylic acid-b-polyacrylamide block copolymers (PAA-b-PAM). In the first step, the addition of asymmetric PAA-b-PAM copolymers (M{sub w,PAA} {<=} M{sub w,PAM}) to lanthanum salt solutions, both at pH = 5.5, induces the formation of monodispersed micellar aggregates, which are predominantly isotropic. The core of the hybrid aggregates is constituted of a lanthanum polyacrylate complex whose formation is due to bidentate coordination bonding between La{sup 3+} and acrylate groups, as shown by ATR-FTIR experiments and pH measurements. The size of the micellar aggregates depends on the molecular weight of the copolymer but is independent of the copolymer to metal ratio in solution. In the second step, the hydrolysis of lanthanum ions is induced by addition of a strong base such as sodium hydroxide. Either flocculated suspensions or stable anisotropic or spherical nano-particles of lanthanum hydrolysis products were obtained depending on the metal complexation ratio [acrylate]/[La]. The variation of that parameter also enables the control of the size of the core-corona nano-particles obtained by lanthanum hydroxylation. The asymmetry degree of the copolymer was shown to influence both the size and the shape of the particles. Elongated particles with a high aspect ratio, up to 10, were obtained with very asymmetric copolymers (M{sub w,PAM}/M{sub w,PAA}{>=}10) while shorter rice grain-like particles were obtained with a less asymmetric copolymer. The asymmetry degree also influences the value of the critical metal complexation degree required to obtain stable colloidal suspensions of polymer-stabilized lanthanum hydroxide. (authors)

  20. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2014-03-05

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal; Koch, Christian Bender;

    2012-01-01

    PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds...... in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces...... may be active degrading agents. Phosphate treatment of laurate-modified LDH was investigated and this may be a promising way of reducing PLA degradation, thereby making such processes more practically realistic....

  2. Efficacy of Potassium Sodium Dehydroandroan Drographolide Succinate Injection for Treatment of Infantile Rotavirus Diarrhea%炎琥宁注射液治疗小儿轮状病毒腹泻的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓亮; 张苗

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析炎琥宁注射液治疗小儿轮状病毒腹泻的临床效果。方法选取我院2013年2月~2015年2月收治的小儿轮状病毒腹泻患儿100例为研究对象,随机分为2组。对照组给予常规治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上采用炎琥宁注射液进行治疗,比较2组治疗效果。结果观察组的治疗有效率高于对照组。结论炎琥宁注射液治疗小儿轮状病毒腹泻的临床效果显著。%ObjectiveTo analyze the efficacy of potassium sodium dehydroandroan drographolide succinate injection for treatment of infantile rotavirus diarrhea. Methods From February 2013 to February 2015 were children with infantile rotavirus diarrhea 100 cases as the research object,were randomly divided into 2 groups. Control group given conventional treatment,the observation group in the control group on the basis of using potassium sodium dehydroandroan drographolide succinate injection treatment,compared two groups treatment effect.ResultsThe treatment group effectiveness was higher than the control group.Conclusion Potassium sodium dehydroandroan drographolide succinate injection in the treatment of infantile rotavirus diarrhea effect is remarkable.

  3. 氟氯西林钠阿莫西林治疗呼吸系感染80例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 80 Cases of Flucloxacillin Sodium Amoxicillin Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔方

    2013-01-01

      目的观察氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊在治疗呼吸系感染疾病的临床疗效,评价其应用价值。方法80例临床呼吸道感染患者随机分为治疗组40例和对照组40例。对照组给予头孢克洛片,治疗组给予氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊,两周一个疗程。结果治疗组的显效率和总有效率高于对照组;治疗组的细菌清除率为100%,优于对照组细菌清除率的94.7%。结论氟氯西林钠阿莫西林可安全有效地治疗呼吸道感染疾病。%  Objective Observe clinical curative effect flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule in the treatment of respiratory system infection disease , evaluate its application value. Methods 80 cases of clinical respiratory tract infection patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group forty cases and cases. Control group received cefaclor tablet, the treatment group was given flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule, two weeks a treatment. Results Treatment group’s total effective rate of significant and the efficiency are higher than those in the control group;the treatment group of bacteria clearance is 100%,better than control bacterial clearance’s 94.7%. Conclusion Respiratory tract infection can be effectively and safely treated by Ampicillin sodium amoxicillin fluorine chlorine.

  4. Electrochemical Properties of Nanocomposite Nanoporous Carbon / Nickel Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Hemiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical properties of composite nanoporous carbon / nickel hydroxide as electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors were investigated. Fast reversible faradaic reactions flow was determined in connection with chemical makeup of the -Ni(OH2/С composite. It is shown that increase of nickel hydroxide concentration can intensify reactions. It is found that clean -Ni(OH2 has 238 F/g of specific capacity, but -Ni(OH2/С nanocomposite with 90 % nickel hydroxide has 292 F/g. Such capacity value can be considered as a maximum for these composites.

  5. Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

    2014-08-11

    A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields.

  6. Influence of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and sodium fluoride on the healing process in delayed tooth replantation: histologic and histometric analysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Wilson Roberto; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Manfrin, Thais Mara; Rodrigues, Thais da Silveira

    2007-02-01

    Although it has already been shown that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) promotes periodontal regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects, there is little information concerning its regenerative capacity in cases of delayed tooth replantation. To evaluate the alterations in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth after use of Emdogain, the central incisors of 24 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were extracted and left on the bench for 6 h. Thereafter, the dental papilla and the enamel organ of each tooth were sectioned for pulp removal by a retrograde way and the canal was irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were assigned to two groups: in group I, root surface was treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min (changing the solution every 5 min), rinsed with saline for 10 min and immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride for 10 min; in group II, root surfaces were treated in the same way as described above, except for the application of Emdogain instead of sodium fluoride. The teeth were filled with calcium hydroxide (in group II right before Emdogain was applied) and replanted. All animals received antibiotic therapy. The rats were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixated, decalcified and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The use of 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride provided more areas of replacement resorption. The use of Emdogain resulted in more areas of ankylosis and was therefore not able to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis. It may be concluded that neither 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride nor Emdogain were able to prevent root resorption in delayed tooth replantation in rats.

  7. Sodium Aescinate in the Treatment of Secretory Otitis Media%七叶皂苷钠治疗分泌性中耳炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵锋; 潘金斌; 方文豪; 王晓杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the treatment of secretor otitis media. Methods Selected 92 patients with secretory oti⁃tis media were randomlydivided into two groups. The patients in the control group treated by conventional treatment while treat⁃ment group were added in sodium aescinate besides the routine therapy. Result The cure rate of Secretory otitis media are 71.74%, 89.13%separately in control and treatment groups, and curing time for the two groups are 14±4.6d,10±5.3d respective⁃ly. The cure rate of treatment group is higher than control group, and the average healing time is shorter than the control group. There is a significantly difference between the two methods and there was statistically significant (X2=P0.05). Conclusion The efficacy will be obviously improved to serous patients by adding in sodi⁃um aescinate besides the routine therapy.%目的:探讨分泌性中耳炎的治疗方法。方法选择分泌性中耳炎病人92例,随机分为两组,对照组采用常规治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用七叶皂苷钠进行治疗。结果对照组和治疗组的治愈率分别为71.42%、89.66%,两组的平均治愈时间分别为14±4.6d、10±5.3d,治疗组的治愈率高于对照组(P<0.05),平均治愈时间明显短于对照组(P<0.01);对照组和治疗组内的浆液性和黏液性的治愈率分别为76.74%和53.84%、97.87%和54.55%,把两组病人的浆液性组、黏液性组的治愈率分别进行比较,浆液性组的治愈率治疗组明显高于对照组(P<0.01),粘液性组的治愈率治疗组与对照组相比较,无差异性(P>0.05)。结论分泌性中耳炎在常规治疗上加用七叶皂苷钠治疗,对浆液性的分泌性中耳炎有明显提高疗效。

  8. Treatment and Investigate the Sodium Hyaluronate Combined With Glucosamine for Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee%玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖对骨性膝关节炎的治疗探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 张玲; 李颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖对骨性膝关节炎的治疗效果。方法选取2014年4月~2016年3月收治的120例骨性膝关节炎患者按随机数字表法分成观察组和对照组,每组各60例。对照组采用氨基葡萄糖进行治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上采用玻璃酸钠进行治疗。对比两组的治疗效果及不良反应。结果观察组治疗的总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05);两组不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖能有效的提高对骨性膝关节炎的治疗效果,是安全而有效的治疗方式。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of sodium hyaluronate combined with glucosamine on osteoarthritis of knee.MethodsA total of 120 patients with osteoarthritis of knee joint treated from April 2014 to March 2016 were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 60 cases in each group. The therapeutic effect of the two groups and the function of the knee joints before and after the treatment were compared. Results The total effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P0.05).Conclusion Sodium hyaluronate combined with glucosamine can effectively improve the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee.

  9. 臭氧联用透明质酸钠治疗膝关节骨性关节炎疗效%Effects of ozone combined with sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of osteoarthritis of knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昕; 刘宏锦

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察臭氧联用透明质酸钠(均外科用药)治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效.方法 住院病人178例,随机分为4组:单纯理疗组、单纯臭氧治疗组、单纯透明质酸钠治疗组和联合治疗组,同时给予补钙、保暖、适当功能锻炼等.其中联合治疗过程,先向关节腔内注射30μg·mL-1医用臭氧10~15 mL,每周注射1次,3次后使用透明质酸钠25 mg;5周为1个疗程.用SPSS13.0进行分析.结果 研究人群有明显的功能改善;但治疗6,12个月比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).经Womac评分与视觉模拟VAS评分,治疗后3个月后联合用药组效果最好.结论 医用臭氧联合透明质酸钠注射剂可明显缓解膝关节骨性关节炎的疼痛症状、改善膝关节活动功能.%Objective To study the effects of ozone combined with sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of osteoarthritis of knee. Methods One hundred and seventy - eight patients were selected and they were divided into four groups: simple physical therapy group, pure ozone group, pure sodium hyaluronate group and ozone combined with sodium hyaluronate group. Treatments of simple physical therapy, pure ozone, pure sodium hyaluronate and ozone combined with sodium hyaluronate were used to cure injections knee osteoarthritis. Meanwhile calcium, warmth and appropriate treatment such as functional exercise were given to the patients. During the combined treatment, 10-15 mL medical ozone (30 μg · mL-1 ) were injected into knee, one time for one week, 25 mg sodium hyaluronate were used after injecting ozone 3 times, one time for one week, 5 weeks was called one course of treatment Software SPSS13. 0 was used to analyze the statistics. Results After follow - up, obvious functional improvement was appeared on the patients, but there is no statistical sense on the treatment between 6 months and 12 months (P > 0. 05 ). Through the comparison between Womac and visual simulation by VAS, the combined group got the best

  10. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of

  11. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papassiopi, N.; Vaxevanidou, K.; Christou, C.; Karagianni, E.; Antipas, G.S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Fe(III)–Cr(III) hydroxides enhance groundwater quality better than pure Cr(III) compounds. • Crystalline Cr(OH){sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O was unstable, with a solubility higher than 50 μg/l. • Amorphous Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) was stable with a solubility lower than 50 μg/l in the range 5.7 < pH < 11. • For mixed Fe{sub 0.75}Cr{sub 0.25}(OH){sub 3}, the stability region was extended to 4.8 < pH < 13.5. -- Abstract: Chromium is a common contaminant of soils and aquifers and constitutes a major environmental problem. In nature, chromium usually exists in the form of two oxidation states, trivalent, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous for biota and for the aquatic environment, and hexavalent, Cr(VI) which is toxic, carcinogenic and very soluble. Accordingly, the majority of wastewater and groundwater treatment technologies, include a stage where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), in order to remove chromium from the aqueous phase and bind the element in the form of environmentally stable solid compounds. In the absence of iron the final product is typically of the form Cr(OH){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe{sub (1−x)}Cr{sub x}(OH){sub 3} phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fe{sub x},Cr{sub 1−x})(OH){sub 3} hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH){sub 3}. We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH){sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) phase. Mixed Fe{sub 0.75}Cr{sub 0.25}(OH){sub 3} hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH){sub 3}, and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe

  12. [Clinical use of sodium hypochlorite for local treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and therapy of contracted bladders (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, M; Jurcovic, K; Pfeiffer, E; Skoluda, D; Busse, K

    1976-01-01

    A stable commercial electrolytic sodium hypochlorite solution was tested in 63 urologic patients. The complete germicidal action against all sorts of bacteria was shown in suspension-tests. Irrigation studies of the infected bladder were performed. It was found that continued bladder irrigations were necessary to stop bacterial ascension from the infected urethra. Bladder capacity was increased in 6 of 8 patients with nonmalignant contracted bladder or interstitial cystitis. Desinfection with sodium hypochlorite in urologic practice is cheap, easy to perform and diminishes the risk of hospitalism. Clinical studies confirmed the absence of general or local toxicity.

  13. Topical Treatment With Liposomal Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Redness and Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasily, David B

    2015-10-01

    Physicians are often presented with patients complaining of facial redness and difficult to control rosacea. The water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin complex has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities in vitro and anti-redness, pore reduction, and anti-acne activities in pilot clinical studies. In these case studies, the safety and efficacy of a topical gel containing a liposomal suspension of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was assessed in subjects with facial redness and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea.

  14. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  15. ZnO-Layered Double Hydroxide@Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composite for Consecutive Adsorption and Photodegradation of Dyes under UV and Visible Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a ZnO-layered double hydroxide@graphitic carbon nitride composite (ZnO-LDH@C3N4 was synthesized via co-precipitation method with solvothermal treatment. The structure and morphology of ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopes/transmission electron microscopes (SEM/TEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS, photoluminescence spectrometer (PL and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The adsorption and photocatalytic properties of ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite towards the organic dyes: Orange II sodium salt (OrgII, an anionic azo dye and methylene blue (MB, a cationic azo dye were investigated. Compared to ZnO-LDH and g-C3N4, the ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite displayed an excellent performance in both adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of the organic dyes. Moreover, a combination of ZnO-LDH and g-C3N4 significantly improved the photocatalytic performance of ZnO-LDH and g-C3N4 under visible-light irradiation. The adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism were also investigated.

  16. USING COLLOIDAL LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES AS CATIONICMICROPARTICULATE COMPONENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SonglinWang; WenxiaLiu

    2004-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides consisting of layers withcationic charges may be potential candidates ofcationic microparticles forming synergetic retentioneffect with anionic polyacrylamide. In this work, thelayered double hydroxides with various molar ratiosof Mg/AI were synthesized by co-precipitation ofmagnesium chloride and aluminum chloride and pep-tized by intense washing with water. The chemicalformula, particle size, Zeta potential of the layereddouble hydroxide were analyzed. It was found thatpositively charged magnesium aluminum hydroxidewith particle diameter in nanoparticle size could beprepared. The Zeta potential and particle size varywith the feed molar ratio of Mg/A1 and the peptizingprocess, respectively. The Zeta potential is also pHdependent. The retention experiments carried out onDDJ show that when used together with anionic poly-acrylamide, the positively charged colloidal doublehydroxide greatly improves the retention of reedpulps. The chemical formula, particle size and Zetapotential of the colloidal double hydroxide all affectits retention behavior.

  17. Tertiary dentinogenesis with calcium hydroxide: a review of proposed mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, P; Sangwan, A; Duhan, J; Rohilla, A

    2013-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been used extensively in dentistry for a century. Despite its widespread use as a pulp-capping agent, its mechanisms of action still remain ambiguous. Understanding its modes of action will lead to a broader understanding of the mechanisms associated with induced dentinogenesis and help in optimizing the currently available agents to target specific regenerative processes to obtain the best possible clinical outcomes. A literature search relating to mechanisms of dentinogenesis of calcium hydroxide up to December 2011 was carried out using pubmed and MEDLINE database searches as well as manual searching of cross-references from identified studies. Resulting suggestions regarding dentinogenic mechanisms of calcium hydroxide range from direct irritating action of the material to induction of release of biologically active molecules. The purpose of this article is to discuss various mechanisms through which calcium hydroxide may induce tertiary dentinogenesis in the light of observations made in included studies.

  18. A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850 for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doros G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gheorghe Doros,1 Philip T Lavin,2 Michael Daley,3 Larry E Miller4 1School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, 2Lavin Consulting LLC, Framingham, MA, 3OrthogenRx Inc., Doylestown, PA, 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA Abstract: Although the concept of equivalence for drugs (generics and biologics (biosimilars has been readily adopted, the concept of equivalence or indistinguishable characteristics for class III medical devices has yet to be specifically addressed regarding a defined regulatory approval process in the US. In September 2015, GenVisc 850® (sodium hyaluronate, a hyaluronic acid approved for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA based upon indistinguishable characteristics in comparison to an approved branded hyaluronic acid (Supartz®/Supartz FX™. The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology and report the main outcomes used to demonstrate clinical comparability of GenVisc 850 with Supartz/Supartz FX. The FDA approval was collectively attained using prospectively defined methods for preclinical, physical, and chemical testing, as well as noninferiority in clinical performance comparisons. Evidence from five randomized controlled studies of Supartz/Supartz FX vs saline control injections (used for Supartz approval, two randomized controlled trials of GenVisc 850 vs saline control injections, and one randomized controlled study of GenVisc 850 vs Supartz/Supartz FX provided evidence of safety for GenVisc 850. Efficacy was further assessed based on assessment of the same Supartz studies and three prospectively identified GenVisc 850 studies. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to demonstrate that the clinical efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control. Overall, safety of GenVisc 850 was similar to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and saline control injections, while efficacy of GenVisc 850

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide (hydr)oxide micro/nanorods in presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银艳; 徐时清

    2016-01-01

    Uniform and well-defined lanthanide hydroxide and oxide micro/nanorods Ln(OH)3(Ln=La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er) and Gd(OH)3:Eu3+, Gd2O3:Eu3+ were successfully synthesized through a green and facile hydrothermal method. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and lanthanide nitrides were used as the hydrothermal precursors without the addition of any templates/surfactants. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The result demonstrated that lanthanide hydroxide micro/nanorods with 20–80 nm in diameter and 50–450 in length were obtained. The size of the Ln(OH)3 (Ln=La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er) rods increased with the increase of the atomic number. The size of the Gd(OH)3:Eu3+ rods decreased with the increase of pH value by modulating the amount of the TBAH solution. The as-formed product via the hydrothermal process, Gd(OH)3:Eu3+, could be transformed to Gd2O3:Eu3+ with the same morphology and a slight shrinking in size after a post annealing process. It is a facial method to synthesize photoluminescent nanomaterial of Gd2O3:Eu3+. The Gd2O3:Eu3+ microrods exhibited strong red emission corresponding to5D0→7F2 transition (610 nm) of Eu3+ under UV light excitation (257 nm).

  20. Role of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide is a multipurpose agent, and there have been an increasing number of indications for its use in endodontics. Some of its indications include inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, endodontic sealers, pulp capping agents, apexification, pulpotomy and weeping canals. The purpose of this article is to review the properties, advantages, disadvantages and various indications for the use of calcium hydroxide in endodontics.

  1. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, Sergey Nikolaevich

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by...

  2. Modeling of hydrodynamic processes at a large leak of water into sodium in the fast reactor coolant circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevoznikov, Sergey; Shvetsov, Yuriy; Kamayev, Aleksey; Paknomov, Ilia; Borisov, Viacheslav; Pazan, Gennadiy; Mizeabasov, Oleg; Korzun, Olga [Joint Stock Company State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we describe a physicomathematical model of the processes that occur in a sodium circuit with a variable flow cross-section in the case of a water leak into sodium. The application area for this technique includes the possibility of analyzing consequences of this leak as applied to sodium-water steam generators in fast neutron reactors. Hydrodynamic processes that occur in sodium circuits in the event of a water leak are described within the framework of a one-dimensional thermally nonequilibrium three-component gas-liquid flow model (sodium-hydrogen-sodium hydroxide). Consideration is given to the results of a mathematical modeling of experiments involving steam injection into the sodium loop of a circulation test facility. That was done by means of the computer code in which the proposed model had been implemented.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Ola; Eksborg, Staffan; Wallenberg, Marita;

    2015-01-01

    and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m(2), with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern...

  4. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  5. USING COLLOIDAL LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES AS CATIONIC MICROPARTICULATE COMPONENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin Wang; Wenxia Liu

    2004-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides consisting of layers with cationic charges may be potential candidates of cationic microparticles forming synergetic retention effect with anionic polyacrylamide. In this work, the layered double hydroxides with various molar ratios of Mg/Al were synthesized by co-precipitation of magnesium chloride and aluminum chloride and peptized by intense washing with water. The chemical formula, particle size, Zeta potential of the layered double hydroxide were analyzed. It was found that positively charged magnesium aluminum hydroxide with particle diameter in nanoparticle size could be prepared. The Zeta potential and particle size vary with the feed molar ratio of Mg/Al and the peptizing process, respectively. The Zeta potential is also pH dependent. The retention experiments carried out on DDJ show that when used together with anionic polyacrylamide, the positively charged colloidal double hydroxide greatly improves the retention of reed pulps. The chemical formula, particle size and Zeta potential of the colloidal double hydroxide all affect its retention behavior.

  6. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-10-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu(III)(OH)(3)] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  7. Clinical Observation and Nursing of Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis%玻璃酸钠治疗类风湿关节炎的临床观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于力; 冯永莉; 于倩; 张臻

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨玻璃酸钠治疗类风湿关节炎的临床效果及护理方法.方法:选取我科2010年11月-2011年11月收治的280例类风湿关节炎患者为研究对象,将280例患者随机分为两组,每组140例患者.对照组实施玻璃酸钠关节腔注射,常规护理;干预组实施配合玻璃酸钠注射的强化护理.比较两组治疗后的效果.结果:干预组患者治疗后效果好于对照组(P<0.05).结论:对实施关节腔注射玻璃酸钠治疗类风湿性关节炎的患者施行强化护理,可以提高类风湿性关节炎的治疗效果,为临床治疗及护理提供科学的依据.%Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of sodium hyaluronate on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and nursing. Methods: 280 cases of rheumatoid arthritis were selected in this study, from November 2010 to 2011 November, and they were randomly divided into two groups, and each group had 140 patients. The control group received sodium hyaluronate intra-articular injection, routine care; Intervention group received intensive care with sodium hyaluronate injection. Two groups were compared after the treatment. Results: Intervention group after the treatment showed better curative effect than the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis underwent intensive care can improve the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and provide a scientific basis for clinical treatment and care.

  8. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  9. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  10. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  11. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  13. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-15

    sodium dihydrogen phosphate were products of Fisher Scientific Company (Fairlawn, NJ). Sodium thiosulfate, sodium hydroxide, sodium cyanide, sodium...acetate buffer , 4 4 pH 5.2, and 0.5 ml of a 0.1 mM solution of SDS was added to the outer well of the diffusion cell, and 2.0 ml of 0.1 N sodium...digital pH meter (Orion Research, Inc.) that contained 10 U1 of a silver potassium cyanide indicator- buffer solution (17.69 g Na2 HPO4 , 5.5 ml 10 M NaOH

  14. Surface Modification of Nano-sized Magnesium Hydroxide%纳米氢氧化镁表面改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建海; 刘连生; 赵连梅

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification of nano-sized magnesium hydroxide using four surface modifiers which being sodium stearate, sodium dodecylsulfonate, sodium oleate and sodium silicate was investigated. The effects of amount of surface modifier, modification temperature and time on activate index of magnesium hydroxide were diseussed in the paper. The results show that sodium stearate was the best choice among four modifiers on surface modification and the optimum condition was 80 ℃ at 4h with the amount of 5%.The post-modification magnesium hydroxide has smaller particle size, larger powder contact angle, slowersediment rate, and less oil absorption.%采用硬脂酸钠、十二烷基磺酸钠、油酸钠和硅酸钠4种改性剂对纳米氢氧化镁进行表面改性,讨论了改性剂加入量、改性温度、改性时间对活化指数的影响;应用沉降速率、吸油率、粉末接触角等指标对改性前后的纳米氢氧化镁进行分析,并应用TEM、xRD对改性前后的氢氧化镁进行表征.结果表明,硬脂酸钠在80℃、改性时间4h、添加量5%时,改性效果最好;改性后氢氧化镁粒径变小,沉降速率减慢,吸油率下降,粉末接触角增大.

  15. 头孢哌酮/舒巴坦钠治疗重度肺部感染疗效分析%Cefoperazone/sulbactam sodium in the treatment of severe pulmonary infection curative effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察头孢哌酮/舒巴坦钠治疗重度肺部感染的疗效和细菌学评价。方法重度肺部感染患者60例,随机分为治疗组、对照组各30例,治疗组采用头孢哌酮/舒巴坦钠治疗,疗程7~14天。结果有效率为93%,分离出35株致病菌,细菌清除率为88.57%。结论头孢哌酮/舒巴坦钠治疗重度肺部感染临床疗效好,细菌耐药低,是一种抗菌谱广、杀菌作用强的耐酶抗生素。%Objective to observe cefoperazone sodium/shu ba jotham the curative effect of treatment of severe pulmonary infection and evaluation of bacteriology.Methods 60 patients with severe pulmonary infection were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 30 cases in treatment group treated with cefoperazone sodium/shu ba jotham, course of 7 ~ 14 days.Results the effective rate of 93%, 35 strains of pathogenic bacteria was isolated, bacterial clearance rate was 88.57%.Conclusion cefoperazone sodium/shu ba jotham good clinical curative effect of treatment of severe pulmonary infection and bacterial drug resistance is low, it is a kind of wide antimicrobial spectrum, and strong sterilization effect of enzyme antibiotic resistance.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antituberculosis isoniazid zinc aluminum-layered double hydroxide based nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin Mahler; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is complicated by its long-term treatment, its frequent drug dosing, and the adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. In this study, we have developed two nanocomposites (A and B) by intercalating the anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH) into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides. The average size of the nanocomposites was found to bê164 nm. The efficacy of the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated INH against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased by approximately three times more than free INH. The nanocomposites were also found to be active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to the free INH, the nanodelivery formulation was determined to be three times more biocompatible with human normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and 3T3 fibroblast cells at a very high concentration of 50 µg/mL for up to 72 hours. The in vitro release of INH from the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides was found to be sustained in human body-simulated buffer solutions of pH 4.8 and 7.4. This research is a step forward in making the TB chemotherapy patient friendly.

  17. Toxicity and metabolism of layered double hydroxide intercalated with levodopa in a Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Ain, Nooraini Mohd; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan

    2014-04-09

    Layered hydroxide nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, and less toxic than most inorganic nanoparticles, making them an acceptable alternative drug delivery system. Due to growing concern over animal welfare and the expense of in vivo experiments both the public and the government are interested to find alternatives to animal testing. The toxicity potential of zinc aluminum layered hydroxide (ZAL) nanocomposite containing anti-Parkinsonian agent may be determined using a PC 12 cell model. ZAL nanocomposite demonstrated a decreased cytotoxic effect when compared to levodopa on PC12 cells with more than 80% cell viability at 100 µg/mL compared to less than 20% cell viability in a direct levodopa exposure. Neither levodopa-loaded nanocomposite nor the un-intercalated nanocomposite disturbed the cytoskeletal structure of the neurogenic cells at their IC50 concentration. Levodopa metabolite (HVA) released from the nanocomposite demonstrated the slow sustained and controlled release character of layered hydroxide nanoparticles unlike the burst uptake and release system shown with pure levodopa treatment.

  18. Vertical root fracture associated with prolonged use of calcium hydroxide during apexification. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ribadeneira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Apexification is a procedure performed in young permanent teeth to promote apical closure and root elongation if Hertwig’s epithelial sheath has not been irreversibly damaged. The objective of this article is to describe vertical root fracture as a complication during apexification when using calcium hydroxide for extended periods of time. The patient was a 9-year-old female student who went to the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidad Andres Bello in Concepcion. She presented strong and spontaneous pain and pressure and swelling on the left cheek. Clinically, the vestibule of the lower left first molar (3.6 was edematous and had pus. Radiographically, lesions and open apices were seen in the apical zone. Diagnosis was pulp necrosis and acute apical abscess. The tooth was trephined to perform intracanal drainage and an oral antibiotic was prescribed. Afterwards, she was referred to the endodontic specialty office. The selected treatment was apexification with calcium hydroxide until achieving the formation of an apical barrier. When the apical formation was observed, a vertical root fracture was discovered as well, confirming that the use of calcium hydroxide should not be prolonged because dehydration processes lead to weakening of the walls and therefore of the tooth

  19. Effects of sodium alginate treatment in physiology and biochemistry changes of fresh-cut Xuehua pears%海藻酸钠处理对鲜切雪花梨生理生化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田密霞; 胡文忠; 刘程惠; 王艳颖; 姜爱丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究海藻酸钠涂膜对鲜切雪花梨外观,质地及营养成分的影响。方法以鲜切雪花梨为材料,采用海藻酸钠(1%海藻酸钠+0.15%半胱氨酸+0.3%VC+0.6%醋酸)进行涂膜处理鲜切梨,测定经涂膜处理后的鲜切雪花梨的生理生化指标。结果雪花梨经过鲜切后在4℃和10℃贮藏期间,海藻酸钠涂膜处理明显减轻了鲜切雪花梨的褐变程度,抑制了多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶的活性,保持较高的硬度、可滴定酸和VC含量,延缓了水分散失。结论海藻酸钠处理较好地保持了贮藏期间鲜切雪花梨的外观和质地。%Objective To research the effects of sodium alginate treatment on appearance, texture and nutritional ingredient of fresh-cut Xuehua pears.Methods Fresh-cut Xuehua pears were used as materials. Physiological and biochemical indicators were measured by sodium alginate (1 % sodium alginate, 0.15 %L-cysteine, 0.3 % VC and 0.6 % acetic acid) treatment on fresh-cut Xuehua pears.Results During storage at 4 and 10℃, the sodium alginate treatment could alleviated browning, inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, maintained a high firmness, Vc content and titratable acid content.Conclusion The data suggested that sodium alginate composite film could remain quality and appearance of the fresh-cut Xuehua pear during storage period.

  20. 分析硝普钠治疗高血压急性心力衰竭的护理干预%Analysis of Sodium Nitroprusside Treatment of Hypertension Nursing Intervention of Acute Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许禄颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析硝普钠治疗高血压急性心力衰竭患者的护理干预效果.方法 60例高血压急性心力衰竭患者被随机分为两组,在硝普钠治疗期间,对照组给予常规护理,观察组给予护理干预,比较两组治疗及护理效果.结果 观察组总有效率高于对照组;且护理满意度评分高于对照组.结论 护理干预在高血压急性心力衰竭采用硝普钠治疗患者中的临床应用效果显著.%Objective To analyze the SNP treatment of acute heart failure in patients with hypertension nursing intervention.Methods 60 cases of hypertension in patients with acute heart failure were randomly divided into two groups, in sodium nitroprusside during treatment, the control group was given routine nursing, the observation group given nursing intervention, compared two groups of treatment and nursing effect.Results The total efficiency of the control group; and care satisfaction scores higher than the control.Conclusion Nursing intervention in hypertensive acute heart failure patients using sodium nitroprusside treatment effect is remarkable.

  1. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions: Formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-10-01

    The hydroxides of Mg, Ni, Cu and Zn transform into layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of formation of LDH minerals in the earth’s crust.

  2. The Effects of Aluminium Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide on the Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin Akdoğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polyurethane materials are widely used in automotive, clothing, electrical and electronics, medical, construction, machine industry due to excellent physical and chemical properties. Thermoplastic polyurethane materials combustion and resistance to high temperature characteristics are poor. Additives and fillers are added into the polyurethane matrix to improve those properties. Particularly adding these agents as a flame retardant are affect mechanical properties of polyurethane materials. Therefore, it is important to determinate the mechanical properties of these materials. In this study, 5% by weight of the thermoplastic polyurethane material, aluminium tri hydroxide (ATH, (Al2O3 3H2O and magnesium hydroxide (MgOH, (Mg(OH2 were added. Ammonium polyphosphate (APP as an intumescent flame retardant with inorganic flame retardants were added to increase the flame resistance of produced composite structure. Tensile test, tear test, hardness and Izod impact tests were made and compared of those produced composites. As a result of experiments the addition of ATH has lowered the tensile strength and tear strength contrast to this the addition of MgOH has improved those properties. Hardness and Izod impact test results were showed that both of the additives have no negative effect.

  3. Maximizing biomass productivity and CO2 biofixation of microalga, Scenedesmus sp. by using sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manoranjan; Rath, Swagat S; Thirunavoukkarasu, Manikkannan; Panda, Prasanna K; Mishra, Barada K; Mohanty, Rama C

    2013-09-28

    A series of experiments were carried out with three native strains of microalgae to measure growth rates, biomass, and lipid productivities. Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 had better biomass growth rate and higher lipid production. The growth, lipid accumulation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) consumption rate of Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 were tested under different NaOH concentrations in modified BBM. The algal strain showed the maximum specific growth rate (0.474/day), biomass productivity (110.9 mg l(-1) d(-1)), and CO2 consumption rate (208.4 mg l(-1) d(-1)) with an NaOH concentration of 0.005 M on the 8(th) day of cultivation. These values were 2.03-, 6.89-, and 6.88-fold more than the algal cultures grown in control conditions (having no NaOH and CO2). The CO2 fixing efficiency of the microalga with other alternative carbon sources like Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 was also investigated and compared. The optimized experimental parameters at shake-flask scale were implemented for scaling up the process in a self-engineered photobioreactor. A significant increase in lipid accumulation (14.23% to 31.74%) by the algal strain from the logarithmic to stationary phases was obtained. The algal lipids were mainly composed of C16/C18 fatty acids, and are desirable for biodiesel production. The study suggests that microalga Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 is an efficient strain for biodiesel production and CO2 biofixation using stripping solution of NaOH in a cyclic process.

  4. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  5. Kinetics of Pb and Zn leaching from zinc plant residue by sodium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrometallurgical zinc production processes, important amount of hazardous solid extraction residue containing unextractable Zn and Pb is generated. Due to increasing demand of metals and the depletion of high grade natural resources, these types of wastes are gaining great importance in the metallurgical industries. In this study, selective leaching and leaching kinetics of Pb and Zn from zinc extraction residue were investigated. For this purpose; the effects of NaOH concentration, contact time, stirring speed and temperature on the Pb and Zn recovery from the residue were studied. The shrinking core model was applied to the results of the experiments. Leaching results showed that 85.55% Pb and 21.3 % Zn could be leached under the optimized conditions. The leaching of Pb and Zn were found to fit well to shrinking core model with ash layer diffusion control. Activation energy values for Pb and Zn leaching were calculated to be 13.645 and 22.59 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. Friction and wear of iron and nickel in sodium hydroxide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorff, G. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A loaded spherical aluminum oxider rider was made to slide, while in various solutions, on a flat iron or nickel surface reciprocate a distance of 1 cm. Time of experiments was 1 hr during which the rider passed over the center section of the track 540 times. Coeficients of friction were measured throughout the experiments. Wear was measured by scanning the track with a profilometer. Analysis of some of the wear tracks included use of the SEM (scanning electron microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Investigated were the effect of various concentrations of NaOH and of water. On iron, increasing NaOH concentration above 0.01 N caused the friction and wear to decrease. This decrease is accompanied by a decrease in surface concentration of ferric oxide (Fe2O3) while more complex iron-oxygen compounds, not clearly identified, also form. At low concentrations of NaOH, such as 0.01 N, where the friction is high, the wear track is badly torn up and the surface is broken. At high concentration, such as 10 N, where the friction is low, the wear track is smooth. The general conclusion is that NaOH forms a protective, low friction film on iron which is destroyed by wear at low concentrations but remains intact at high conentrations of NaOH. Nickel behaves differently than iron in that only a little NaOH gives a low coefficient of friction and a surface which, although roughened in the wear track, remains intact. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10171

  7. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.;

    2009-01-01

    was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers...

  8. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  9. Polarized Solution Treatment and Sodium Bicarbonate on Hyperkalemia in Rabbits%极化液及纠正酸中毒对家兔高钾血症的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨黎黎; 金会艳; 余志诚; 李树清

    2011-01-01

    目的 探究一种稳定的高钾血症造模方法比较,极化液治疗及NaHCO3治疗对家兔实验性高钾血症的疗效并探讨其可能机制.方法 将30例家兔随机平均分成3组,运用“深静脉滴注法”造模成功后,分别进行生理盐水治疗,极化液治疗和碳酸氢钠治疗.结果 30例家兔通过颈外静脉滴注3%的氯化钾后均出现了典型的心电图变化,并且血清钾显著升高(P<0.01);分组治疗后,静脉滴注极化液和4%碳酸氢钠均可使心电图基本恢复正常血钾浓度明显下降(P<0.05).结论 深静脉滴注法是一种稳定可靠,易于操作的高钾血症模型复制方法,极化液和碳酸氢钠对高钾血症有抢救治疗作用.%Objective To investigate a steady way which named "intravenously guttae" of preparation of hyperkalemia in rabbit, and compare two different treatment methods polarized solution treatment and sodium bicarbonate treatment. Methods 30 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: Saline group, polarized solution (glucose-insulin) group and sodium bicarbonate group (n = 10 in each group). All rabbits were injected with 3% KC1 and were treated with different ways. Results Typical ECG changes were found, and serum levels of [K+]were increased (P <0.05) in all 30 rabbits in three groups after injection of 3% KCL. After treatment, compared with Saline group, serum levels of [k+] were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and ECG recovered to normal in glucose-insulin group and sodium bicarbonate group. Conclusion "Intravenously guttae is a simple and steady way of preparation of hyperkalemia model. Glucose-insulin and sodium bicarbonate are effective methods for the treatment of hyperkalemia.

  10. Research on surface modification of industrial magnesium hydroxide%工业氢氧化镁的表面改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱丽; 阳慕华; 李佳佳

    2014-01-01

    The surface modification of the industrial magnesium hydroxide with sodium dodecyl sulfate was researched,and the modified effect was characterized by the activation index. The effect of amount of sodi-um dodecyl sulfate,reaction temPerature,reaction time and stirring sPeed on the activation rate were stud-ied. The results showed that when the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate as the 2% quality of magnesium hydroxide,the reaction temPerature was 80 ℃,reaction time was 0. 75 h,the stirring sPeed was 450 r/min,the modified effect was the best,the activation index reached 90. 5%. The modified samPle under oPtimum conditions and the unmodified samPle ’s microscoPe PhotograPhs show that the disPers-ibility of the modified magnesium hydroxide is suPerior to the unmodified magnesium hydroxide.%采用十二烷基磺酸钠改性工业氢氧化镁,研究了十二烷基磺酸钠的用量、反应温度、反应时间、搅拌速度对活化率的影响。结果表明,当十二烷基磺酸钠用量为氢氧化镁质量的2%、反应温度为80℃、反应时间0.75 h、搅拌速度为450 r/min时,改性效果最好,活化率达到90.5%。最佳条件下改性样品及未改性样品的显微镜照片表明,改性后氢氧化镁的分散性优于未改性的氢氧化镁。

  11. A pre-treatment method of detection of cyclohexyl amino acid sodium salt%一种环已氨基磺酸钠检测的前处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 罗红霞; 句荣辉; 段丽丽; 吴忠玲; 潘赛超

    2012-01-01

    As a food additive, the amount of sodium cyclamate in food should be tiny. A prerequisite to ensure the accuracy of test results is to extract all the cyclohexyl amino acid sodium salt in the sample in the shortest possible time, trying to avoid the introduction of other substances that will affect the measurement results. This article provides a time-saving and reliable pre-treatment method of detection of cyclohexyl amino acid sodium salt for the special solid samples like preserves and seasonings flour products.%作为一种食品添加剂,甜蜜素在食品中的加入量应该是微量的。保证检测结果的准确性的前提条件是需要将样品里的环己氨基磺酸钠在尽可能短的时间里全部提取出来,同时尽可能避免引入会影响测定结果的其他物质。提供了对于果脯和调味面制品等特殊固体样品的一种省时、可靠的环己氨基磺酸钠检测的前处理方法。

  12. Efficacy of Ozagrel Sodium and Batroxobin in the Treatment of Progressive Cerebral Infarction%奥扎格雷钠联合巴曲酶对进展性脑梗死的治疗效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective Study on combined ozagrel sodium and batroxobin in treatment of progressive cerebral infarction. Methods We randomly divided 94 cases of cerebral infarction patients into experimental group and control group,each group had 47 cases and control group received conventional therapy and the use of ozagrel sodium in the treatment,the experimental group on the basis of plus batroxobin. Effects of the two groups were compared. Results Experimental group total effective rate(93.6%)and control group(74.5%)was significantly higher(P < 0.05). Conclusion The combined application of ozagrel sodium and batroxobin in treatment of progressive cerebral infarction,ideal curative effect,recommended application.%目的:研究联合奥扎格雷钠和巴曲酶治疗进展性脑梗死的效果。方法随机均分94例进展性脑梗死患者为实验组和对照组,各组均为47例,对照组予以常规治疗和使用奥扎格雷钠治疗,实验组在此基础加用巴曲酶,比较两组疗效。结果实验组治疗总有效率(93.6%)比对照组(74.5%)高(P <0.05)。结论联合应用奥扎格雷钠和巴曲酶治疗进展性脑梗死,疗效理想。

  13. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  14. Treatment with carbamazepine and gabapentin of a patient with primary erythermalgia (erythromelalgia) identified to have a mutation in the SCN9A gene, encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natkunarajah, J; Atherton, D; Elmslie, F; Mansour, S; Mortimer, P

    2009-12-01

    Primary erythermalgia (erythromelalgia) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by intermittent attacks of erythema, increased skin temperature and severe burning pain in the extremities, in a bilateral symmetrical distribution. Mutations in the SCN9A gene, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel have been shown to cause this disease. We report a family identified to have a mutation in the SCN9A gene, in which one severely affected family member has responded to the therapeutic combination of gabapentin and carbamazepine treatment.

  15. Analysis on the Effect of Levothyroxine Sodium in the Treatment of Elderly Hypothyroidism Syndrome%左甲状腺素钠治疗老年甲状腺功能减退综合征的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢建东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative efect of levothyroxine sodium in the treatment of elderly hypothyroidism.Methods 84 cases of patients were divided intotwo groups, control group was treated with thyroid Tablets, and observation group was treated with levothyroxine, to compare the curative efect of two groups. Results After treatment, the total rate of eficiency and the incidence rate of adverse reactions of observation group were significantly better than control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The application levothyroxine sodium in the treatment of elderly hypothyroidism syndrome has an ideal efect.%目的:观察左甲状腺素钠治疗老年甲状腺功能减退综合征的效果。方法随机将84例老年甲状腺功能减退综合征患者平均分为两组。对照组行甲状腺片治疗,观察组行左甲状腺素钠治疗,比较两组临床疗效。结果治疗后,观察组总有效率、不良反应发生率等指标均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论左甲状腺素钠治疗老年甲状腺功能减退综合征效果理想。

  16. 依达拉奉联合奥扎格雷钠治疗急性脑梗死的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Edaravone Combined with Ozagrel Sodium in the Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of edaravone combined with sodium ozagrel in the treatment of patients with acute cerebral infarction. MethodsThe clinical data of 82 cases of patients with acute cerebral infarction.ResultsThe score of neural function defect, the effective rate of the treatment were compared between two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion Edaravone and ozagrel sodium can be used as the drug of choice in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.%目的 观察应用依达拉奉联合奥扎格雷钠治疗急性脑梗死患者的临床疗效.方法 选取82例急性脑梗死患者的临床资料.结果 两组患者的神经功能缺损评分、治疗有效率对比(P<0.05).结论 可将依达拉奉和奥扎格雷钠作为治疗急性脑梗死患者的首选药物.

  17. Detalhes da utilização do íon hidróxido, HO-, no tratamento de efluentes contaminados com metal pesado zinco - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.8379 Details of hydroxide ion utilization in the treatment of contaminated effluents with zinc - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.8379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Otilia Bortotti Favero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo abordou o tratamento do efluente gerado num Espectrômetro de Absorção Atômica - EAA, no tocante ao metal pesado zinco, utilizando a propriedade do cátion formar o precipitado Zn(OH2(ppt. O assunto foi tratado teórica e praticamente. Teoricamente foram levantados parâmetros termodinâmicos e analisada matematicamente a solubilidade do Zn(OH 2(ppt com a variação do pH. Experimentalmente foi analisado o comportamento da solução aquosa do Zn(OH 2(ppt e da solução in natura do efluente descartado com o pH. As medidas da concentração de zinco nas diversas situações foram realizadas pelo método da EAA, com limite de detecção (LD de 0,030 mg L-1. Os resultados nas diferentes situações de solução e pH do meio, para a solubilidade mínima do Zn(OH (ppt, SMínima, em mg L-1, foram: valor teórico = 2,3; valor experimental para solução de Zn(OH (ppt = 0,92; valor para solução in natura = 0,092, respectivamente. Estes valores estão de conformidade com BRASIL-Resolução Conama n. 397/2008.This work analyzed the treatment of effluent produced by an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS containing the heavy metal zinc, utilizing the capacity of Zn2+ to react with hydroxide ion (HO-, forming Zn(OH 2(ppt. The content was treated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, the thermodynamic parameters were assessed and the solubility of Zn(OH 2(ppt with pH variation was analyzed mathematically. Experimentally, the study analyzed the behavior of the Zn(OH 2(ppt aqueous solution and in natura solution of discarded effluent with the medium pH. The values of zinc concentration in the different situations were measured using AAS, flame modality, with detection limit (DL 0.030 mg L-1. The results in the different situations of solution and medium pH for the minimum solubility of Zn(OH 2(ppt, in mg L-1, were: theoretical value = 2.3; experimental value for the Zn(OH 2(ppt solution = 0.92; in natural effluent = 0.092, respectively

  18. 头孢呋辛钠在肺气肿合并感染治疗中的应用分析%Application Analysis of Cefuroxime Sodium Medication in Treatment of Emphysema Complicated With Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春光

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore clinical effect of cefuroxime sodium medication in treatment of emphysema complicated with infection. MethodsChoose 43 patients of emphysema complicated with infection who are treated in hospital from March 2012 to March 2013 and separate them into two groups; patients in study group are given intravenous injection of cefuroxime sodium treatment, while patients in control group are given intravenous injection of penicillin treatment. And then compare treatment efficacy, clinical indicators and patients’ adverse reactions between two groups.Results Treatment efficacy in study group (95.83%) is higher than that in control group (78.95%); besides, indicators improvements are much more favorable and side-effect incidence is less than counterparts in control group; there is a treatment differential between two groups, and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Cefuroxime sodium is of efficacy and safety in treatment of emphysema complicated with infection with few adverse reactions; thus, it is quite worthwhile to be promoted.%目的:分析肺气肿合并感染应用头孢呋辛钠治疗的临床效果。方法选取2012年3月~2013年3月间我院收治的肺气肿合并感染患者43例,实验组应用头孢呋辛钠静滴治疗,对照组应用青霉素静滴治疗,比较两组治疗效果、临床指标、不良反应。结果实验组总有效率(95.83%)与对照组(78.95%)比较相对较高,各项观察指标改善显著,不良反应相对较少,两组患者临床效果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肺气肿合并感染应用头孢呋辛钠治疗效果良好,副作用少,安全可靠。

  19. Clinical Experience of Sodium Citicoline and Huperzine A in the Treatment of Vascular Dementia%胞磷胆碱钠和石杉碱甲治疗血管性痴呆的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦日恒

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of combined use of citicoline sodium and huperzine A in the treatment of vascular dementia.Methods:164 patients with vascular dementia were selected in our hospital from 2011 September~2012 year in December between the treated patients, were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, on the basis of routine treatment and nursing, the control group using huperzine A tablets in the treatment, the observation group were treated with citicoline sodium tablets and huperzine A tablets combined treatment, comparison and analysis of MMSE, ADL score before and after the two groups of patients with clinical curative effect and treatment.Results:after six courses of treatment, the total effective rate in treatment group than in the control group, but the two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). Before treatment, the treatment group and the control group of patients with MMSE, the ADL score had no significant difference (P>0.05), after treatment, two groups of patients were compared with before treatment, MMSE score, ADL showed significant difference (P0.05)。治疗前,对照组和治疗组患者MMSE、ADL评分无显著差异(P>0.05),治疗后,两组患者分别与治疗前对比,MMSE、ADL评分均呈现出显著性差异(P<0.05),两组治疗后MMSE、ADL评分进行对比,差异显著(P<0.05)。两组患者治疗期间均有轻度不良反应发生,但均自行消失,未影响继续治疗。讨论:胞磷胆碱钠联合石杉碱甲对血管性痴呆患者的治疗安全有效,具有较好的临床推广应用价值。

  20. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturn...