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Sample records for sodium fulvestrant gabapentin

  1. A case of gait disturbance caused by low-dose gabapentin

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    Kanao-Kanda M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Kanao-Kanda, Hirotsugu Kanda, Osamu Takahata, Takayuki Kunisawa Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Abstract: Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant agent, is now often used for the treatment of neuropathic pain all over the world. It is unclear whether the combined use of gabapentin, sodium valproate, and flunitrazepam results in enhancement of the side effect, a gait disturbance. A 60-year-old man was taking oral sodium valproate for symptomatic epilepsy after a brain contusion and flunitrazepam to relieve insomnia. Oral gabapentin therapy was started for suspected neuropathic pain. Although the initial dose of oral gabapentin (200 mg relieved the pain, the lower extremities became weak, resulting in a gait disturbance. The therapy was restarted with a halved dose, and this resolved the gait disturbance and relieved the pain. Keywords: gabapentin, gait disturbance, side effect, neuropathic pain

  2. A case of gait disturbance caused by low-dose gabapentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao-Kanda, Megumi; Kanda, Hirotsugu; Takahata, Osamu; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant agent, is now often used for the treatment of neuropathic pain all over the world. It is unclear whether the combined use of gabapentin, sodium valproate, and flunitrazepam results in enhancement of the side effect, a gait disturbance. A 60-year-old man was taking oral sodium valproate for symptomatic epilepsy after a brain contusion and flunitrazepam to relieve insomnia. Oral gabapentin therapy was started for suspected neuropathic pain. Although the initial dose of oral gabapentin (200 mg) relieved the pain, the lower extremities became weak, resulting in a gait disturbance. The therapy was restarted with a halved dose, and this resolved the gait disturbance and relieved the pain. PMID:27354808

  3. High CDK6 protects cells from fulvestrant-mediated apoptosis and is a predictor of resistance to fulvestrant in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Carla Maria Lourenco; Elias, Daniel; Lyng, Maria B

    2016-01-01

    expression impaired fulvestrant-resistant cell growth and induced apoptosis. Treatment with palbociclib re-sensitized fulvestrant-resistant cells to fulvestrant through alteration of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. High CDK6 levels in metastatic samples from two independent cohorts of breast cancer...

  4. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Li, Xiaoyan; Moran, Meena S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT

  5. Radiologic Findings in Gabapentin-Induced Myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupal, Tyler Michael; Chang, David Ross; Pennycooke, Kevin; Ouellette, Hugue Alcide; Munk, Peter Loren

    2017-04-01

    Throughout recent years, Gabapentin has become increasingly used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. We report on a case of a 31 year old female who presented to the emergency department with unilateral leg pain, weakness, and swelling after increasingly titrating her Gabapentin dosage over three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of myositis confined to the left thigh and the patient's symptoms and laboratory abnormalities resolved following Gabapentin cessation. While Gabapentin-induced myositis and rhabdomyolysis is a rare entity, it should be a diagnostic consideration for radiologists, particularly in the absence of infection or trauma.

  6. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w gabapentin 0.75% (w/w Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w DMSO or 70% (w/w ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  8. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  9. Efficacy of palbociclib plus fulvestrant after everolimus in hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rusquec, Pauline; Palpacuer, Clément; Campion, Loic; Patsouris, Anne; Augereau, Paule; Gourmelon, Carole; Robert, Marie; Dumas, Laurence; Caroline, Folliard; Campone, Mario; Frenel, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-04-01

    Palbociclib, a CDK4-6 inhibitor, combined with endocrine therapy (ET) is a new standard of treatment for Hormone Receptor-positive Metastatic Breast Cancer. We present the first real-life efficacy and tolerance data of palbociclib plus fulvestrant in this population. From November 2015 to November 2016, patients receiving in our institution palbociclib + fulvestrant according to the Temporary Authorization for Use were prospectively analyzed. 60 patients were treated accordingly; median age was 61 years; 50 patients (83.3%) had visceral metastasis, and 10 (16.7%) had bone-only disease. Patients had previously received a median of 5 (1-14) lines of treatment, including ET (median 3) and chemotherapy (median 2); 28 (46.7%) received previously fulvestrant and all everolimus. With a median follow-up of 10.3 months, median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 5.8 months (95% CI 3.9-7.3). Patients pretreated with fulvestrant had a similar PFS of 6.4 months (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.55-1.83; P = 1.00). The most common AEs (adverse events) were neutropenia (93%), anemia (65%), and thrombocytopenia (55%). In this heavily pretreated population including everolimus, fulvestrant plus palbociclib provides an mPFS of 5.8 months with the same magnitude of benefit for fulvestrant-pretreated patients.

  10. Gabapentin enacarbil – clinical efficacy in restless legs syndrome

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    Pinky Agarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinky Agarwal1, Alida Griffith1, Henry R Costantino2, Narendra Vaish31Booth Gardner Parkinson’s Center, Kirkland, WA, USA; 2Costantino Consulting, Woodinville, WA, USA; 3Kirkland, WA, USAAbstract: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sleep-related movement disorder commonly involving an unpleasant urge to move the limbs, typically the legs. Dopaminergic agents represent the first-line therapy for RLS; however, long-term use of such drugs results in worsening symptoms due to “augmentation” or other adverse events. Gabapentin, an analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, is an anticonvulsant/analgesic agent. Gabapentin is only mildly effective in relieving RLS symptoms, perhaps a result of its poor absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Gabapentin enacarbil is a prodrug of gabapentin specifically designed to enhance absorption via the GI tract, and hence provide improved circulating levels of gabapentin on metabolism. Clinical trials to date have demonstrated favorable safety and (compared to traditional gabapentin improved pharmacokinetics and efficacy in treating RLS symptoms. Thus, gabapentin enacarbil may prove to be a useful drug in treating RLS. An application of gabapentin enacarbil for treatment of RLS is currently pending with FDA for approval.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, gabapentin enacarbil, movement disorder

  11. Silencing MED1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant in vitro and in vivo.

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    Lijiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising ER antagonist for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients developed resistance to this type of endocrine therapy but the molecular mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent remain poorly understood. Here, we've reported that knockdown of estrogen receptor coactivator MED1 sensitized fulvestrant resistance breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. We found that MED1 knockdown further promoted cell cycle arrest induced by fulvestrant. Using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, we found that knockdown of MED1 significantly reduced tumor growth in mice. Importantly, knockdown of MED1 further potentiated tumor growth inhibition by fulvestrant. Mechanistic studies indicated that combination of fulvestrant treatment and MED1 knockdown is able to cooperatively inhibit the expression of ER target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further supported a role for MED1 in regulating the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional corepressor HDAC1 on endogenous ER target gene promoter in the presence of fulvestrant. These results demonstrate a role for MED1 in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Reversible Thrombocytopenia after Gabapentin in an HIV-Positive Patient

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    Mohammed Basith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin has become increasingly used in psychiatric practice specifically for anxiety disorders. Even though gabapentin is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat anxiety, physicians sometimes use it as an alternative to benzodiazepines in patients with a history of substance abuse. Gabapentin is also prescribed when individuals are at risk of thrombocytopenia which is not considered a side effect. Among patients at risk of thrombocytopenia are those positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Here we present a case of an HIV-positive man who presented for inpatient psychiatric care with severe anxiety and a history of alcohol and benzodiazepine abuse. In this patient, gabapentin worsened thrombocytopenia after repeated exposure to this medication. We suggest caution when considering gabapentin for patients with preexisting low platelet counts, as there seems to be a risk for worsening thrombocytopenia with this antiepileptic in the presence of HIV infection.

  13. Development and optimization of gastroretentive mucoadhesive microspheres of gabapentin by Box-Behnken design.

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    Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Mishra, Shikha; Kumar, Avdhesh; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Gabapentin follows saturation kinetics for absorption because of carrier-mediated transport and narrow absorption window in stomach. There is need to develop a gastroretentive formulation to maximize the absorption without crossing the saturation threshold for absorption. The aim was to develop a gastroretentive formulation of gabapentin to increase the fraction of drug absorbed in stomach. Sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were used to formulate the microsphere by ionotropic gelation with calcium chloride. The formulation was optimized using a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design. The particle size varied from 559.50 to 801.10 μm, entrapment efficiency from 61.29 to 81.00% and in vitro release from 69.40 to 83.70%. The optimized formulation was found using point-prediction, and formulation OF-3 showed optimum results at 608.21 μm size, 79.65% entrapment efficiency and 82.72% drug release and 81% mucoadhesion up to 10 h. The drug release was controlled for more than 12 h. The particle size was most influenced by sodium alginate while entrapment efficiency and drug release depended upon both polymers. The release followed Higuchi model. Gastroretentive formulation was successfully optimized by a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design and found to be useful.

  14. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  15. Effects of fulvestrant alone or combined with different steroids in human breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G.H.; Franke, H.R.; Wolbers, F.; Brinkhuis, M.; Brinkhuis, M.; Vermes, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist that binds, blocks and degrades the estrogen receptor and is currently used in adjuvant treatment in postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer as an alternative for tamoxifen. As an antagonist, it may induce or aggravate

  16. The use of fulvestrant, a parenteral endocrine agent, in intestinal obstruction due to metastatic lobular breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampaul Rajendra Singh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fulvestrant in the management of intestinal obstruction associated with lobular carcinoma has not been specifically described. Case presentation Herein we present two cases where fulvestrant, as the only available parenteral endocrine agent for postmenopausal advanced breast cancer has the opportunity to provide a means to initiate treatment in those patients who present with varying degrees of intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Fulvestrant may obviate the use of chemotherapy while achieving sustained clinical benefit with less toxicity, in appropriately selected patients.

  17. Potential role of gabapentin and extended- release gabapentin in the management of menopausal hot flashes

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    Yadav M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Manisha Yadav, Judith Volkar Center for Specialized Women’s Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Abstract: About 80% of postmenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats – symptoms that are associated with sleep disruption and can lead to fatigue and mood changes. Moreover, hot flashes can be embarrassing for women, causing difficulties at work and in their social lives. Many therapies have been advocated for relief of vasomotor symptoms, but only hormone therapy has been US Food and Drug Administration approved. However, after the Women's Health Initiative Study suggested that there was a correlation between hormone therapy and increased risk for breast cancer and cardiovascular events, many women stopped taking hormone therapy, and many do not want to initiate it. Hormone therapy is also contraindicated in certain women, such as those with a history of hormone-stimulated cancer like breast and uterine cancer. Gabapentin (Neurontin has shown efficacy in relieving vasomotor symptoms and is used as off-label for this indication. A new extended-release formulation of gabapentin has also shown efficacy in treating hot flashes and improving sleep quality with possibly fewer side effects than regular gabapentin. Keywords: Hot flushes, vasomotor symptoms, postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive cancer, non-hormonal therapy, gastric-retentive, Breeze

  18. Analgesic synergism of gabapentin and carbamazepine in rat model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesic synergism of gabapentin and carbamazepine in rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah AL-Mahmood, Shahrin Tarmizi Bin Che Abdullah, Nik Nur Fatnoon Nik Ahmad, Abdul Hadi Bin Mohamed, Tariq Abdul Razak ...

  19. Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on postoperative pain in patients receiving spinal ... Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia ... Group III (n = 30) patients received an oral placebo one hour prior to surgery.

  20. Fibromyalgia with Gabapentin and Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, Cynthia; Bernard, Natasha; Palacios, Alison; Wheeler, Cary; Preiss, Ben; Brown, Mackenzie; Bhattacharya, Saveri; Klapstein, Gloria

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study compares the safety and efficacy of three treatments in reducing pain and improving fibromyalgia symptoms. This study was an 8-week prospective, single center feasibility study. Forty subjects were recruited from Solano, Sonoma, and Contra Costa counties of California in 2006-2009. Subjects were aged 18-65 and met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia. This study had three treatment arms: gabapentin only (900 mg/day), osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) only, and combined treatment of gabapentin plus OMM. OMM treatment was administered by advanced medical students for 30 min, once a week. The trial lasted for 8 weeks, which included 6 weeks of treatment plus initial and final visits. Key outcome measures included Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (WBF), Clinical Global Impression of Health (CGI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and number of tender points. Twenty-nine subjects completed the trial; 8 subjects received gabapentin only, 11 patients received OMM only, and 10 patients received gabapentin plus OMM. Subjects receiving OMM alone and subjects receiving the combined treatment of OMM and gabapentin displayed clinical improvements based on WBF (p treatment and gabapentin are safe and clinically efficacious treatment of pain and other constitutional and somatic symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. A larger trial using the new ACR 2010 Fibromyalgia criteria is needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Antinociceptive Interaction of Tramadol with Gabapentin in Experimental Mononeuropathic Pain.

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    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Zanetta, Pilar; Castillo, Rodrigo; Aranda, Nicolás; Sierralta, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is the result of injury to the nervous system, and different animal models have been established to meet the manifestations of neuropathy. The pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain includes gabapentin and tramadol, but these are only partially effective when given alone. The aim of this study was to assess the antinociceptive interaction between both drugs using the isobolographic analysis and changes of the IL-1β concentration in a mouse model of neuropathic pain (partial sciatic nerve ligation or PSNL). The i.p. administration of gabapentin (5-100 mg/kg) or tramadol (12.5-100 mg/kg) displayed a dose-dependent antinociception in the hot plate assay of PSNL mice, and effects induced by gabapentin with tramadol were synergistic. Administration of gabapentin or tramadol reversed significantly the increase in the concentration of IL-1β induced by PSNL after either 7 or 14 days and their combination was significantly more potent in reversing the elevated concentration of IL-1β. The synergism obtained by the co-administration of gabapentin and tramadol is proposed to result from action on different mechanisms in pain pathways. Gabapentin or tramadol or their combination modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, in a model of mice PSNL which could be due to an inhibition of glial function. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. Sulfation of fulvestrant by human liver cytosols and recombinant SULT1A1 and SULT1E1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edavana VK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vineetha Koroth Edavana1, Xinfeng Yu1, Ishwori B Dhakal1, Suzanne Williams1, Baitang Ning2, Ian T Cook3, David Caldwell1, Charles N Falany3, Susan Kadlubar11Division of Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Fulvestrant (Faslodex™ is a pure antiestrogen that is approved to treat hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Previous studies have demonstrated that fulvestrant metabolism in humans involves cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs. To date, fulvestrant sulfation has not been characterized. This study examined fulvestrant sulfation with nine recombinant sulfotransferases and found that only SULT1A1 and SULT1E1 displayed catalytic activity toward this substrate, with Km of 4.2 ± 0.99 and 0.2 ± 0.16 µM, respectively. In vitro assays of 104 human liver cytosols revealed marked individual variability that was highly correlated with β-naphthol sulfation (SULT1A1 diagnostic substrate; r = 0.98, P < 0.0001, but not with 17ß-estradiol sulfation (SULT1E1 diagnostic substrate; r = 0.16, P = 0.10. Fulvestrant sulfation was correlated with both SULT1A1*1/2 genotype (P value = 0.023 and copy number (P < 0.0001. These studies suggest that factors influencing SULT1A1/1E1 tissue expression and/or enzymatic activity could influence the efficacy of fulvestrant therapy.Keywords: fulvestrant, sulfotransferase, genotype, copy number

  3. The effect of pre-emptive gabapentin on anaesthetic and analgesic requirements in patients undergoing rhinoplasty: A prospective randomised study

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    Eman Ramadan Salama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hypotensive anaesthesia is necessary in rhinoplasty for better visualisation of surgical field and reduction of surgery time. Gabapentin is a new generation anticonvulsant with anti-hyperalgesic and anti-nociceptive properties. We aimed to investigate the effect of pre-operative administration of oral gabapentin (1200 mg on anaesthetic requirements and post-operative analgesic consumption and its role in hypotensive anaesthesia for rhinoplasty. Methods: Seventy adult patients undergoing rhinoplasty, were randomly allocated to two groups. Group I (G I (n = 35 received gabapentin 1.2 g and Group II (G II (n = 35 received oral placebo capsules 2 h before surgery. General anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen-nitrous oxide to maintain bispectral index value between 40 and 60, and remifentanil infusion to keep mean arterial pressure (MAP at 55–60 mmHg. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration, intra-operative remifentanil consumption and time to intended MAP were recorded. Visual analogue scale (VAS scores, post-operative analgesic requirements and side effects for the first 24 h were recorded. Results: G I required significantly lower intra-operative remifentanil (G I = 0.8 ± 0.26 mg and G II = 1.7 ± 0.42 mg; P = 0.001 and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, with reduced doses of post-operative tramadol and diclofenac sodium. Time to the intended MAP was significantly less in G I than G II (59.1 ± 12.3 vs. 73.6 ± 16.4, respectively, with P = 0.001. Conclusion: Pre-operative oral gabapentin significantly reduced intra-operative remifentanil and sevoflurane requirements during hypotensive anaesthesia along with decreased post-operative analgesic requirement.

  4. Antinociceptive interaction of gabapentin with minocycline in murine diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, H F; Sierralta, F; Jorquera, V; Poblete, P; Prieto, J C; Noriega, V

    2017-02-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes and pain is one of the main symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, however, currently available drugs are often ineffective and complicated by adverse events. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the antinociceptive interaction between gabapentin and minocycline in a mice experimental model of DN by streptozocin (STZ). The interaction of gabapentin with minocycline was evaluated by the writhing and hot plate tests at 3 and 7 days after STZ injection or vehicle in male CF1 mice. STZ (150 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a marked increase in plasma glucose levels on day 7 (397.46 ± 29.65 mg/dL) than on day 3 (341.12 ± 35.50 mg/dL) and also developed neuropathic pain measured by algesiometric assays. Gabapentin produced similar antinociceptive activity in both writhing and hot plate tests in mice pretreated with STZ. However, minocycline was more potent in the writhing than in the hot plate test in the same type of mice. The combination of gabapentin with minocycline produced synergistic interaction in both test. The combination of gabapentin with minocycline in a 1:1 proportion fulfills all the criteria of multimodal analgesia and this finding suggests that the combination provide a therapeutic alternative that could be used for human neuropathic pain management.

  5. In vivo and In vitro Evaluations of Intestinal Gabapentin Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Frølund, Sidsel; Nøhr, Martha Kampp

    2015-01-01

    of gabapentin by both in vivo and in vitro investigations METHODS: Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a range of intravenous (5-100 mg/kg) and oral doses (10-200 mg/kg) in rats. Transepithelial transport (50 μM-50 mM) and apical uptake of gabapentin (0.01-50 mM) were investigated in Caco-2...... cells. The effect of co-application of the LAT-inhibitor, BCH, and the b(0,+)-substrate, L-lysine, on intestinal transport of gabapentin was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Gabapentin showed dose-dependent oral absorption kinetics and dose-independent disposition kinetics. Co-application of BCH...... inhibited intestinal absorption in vivo and apical uptake in vitro, whereas no effect was observed following co-application of L-lysine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time that BCH was capable of inhibiting intestinal absorption of gabapentin in vivo. Furthermore, in Caco-2 cell...

  6. Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Toelle, Thomas; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-04-27

    This review is an update of a review published in 2011, itself a major update of previous reviews published in 2005 and 2000, investigating the effects of gabapentin in chronic neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). Antiepileptic drugs are used to manage chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of gabapentin in chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. We identified randomised trials of gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia by searching the databases MEDLINE (1966 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 2014 week 10), and CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3 of 12, 2014). We obtained clinical trial reports and synopses of published and unpublished studies from Internet sources, and searched Clinicaltrials.gov. Searches were run originally in 2011 and the date of the most recent search was 17 March 2014. Randomised, double-blind studies reporting the analgesic and adverse effects of gabapentin in neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia with assessment of pain intensity, pain relief, or both, using validated scales. Participants were adults. Three review authors independently extracted efficacy and adverse event data, examined issues of study quality, and assessed risk of bias. We performed analysis using three tiers of evidence. First tier evidence derived from data meeting current best standards and subject to minimal risk of bias (outcome equivalent to substantial pain intensity reduction, intention-to-treat analysis without imputation for dropouts; at least 200 participants in the comparison, 8 to 12 weeks duration, parallel design), second tier from data that failed to meet one or more of these criteria and were considered at some risk of bias but with adequate numbers in the comparison, and third tier from data involving small numbers of participants that were considered very likely to be biased or used outcomes of limited clinical utility, or both.For efficacy, we calculated the number needed

  7. Prognostic value of monitoring tumour markers CA 15-3 and CEA during fulvestrant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locker Gottfried J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At many centres tumour markers are used to detect disease recurrence and to monitor response to therapy in patients with advanced disease, although the real value of serial observation of marker levels remains disputed. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of tumour markers for predicting response (partial response [PR], stable disease [SD] ≥ 6 months, de novo disease progression (PD and secondary PD in patients receiving fulvestrant ('Faslodex' 250 mg/month for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC. Methods Changes in cancer antigen 15–3 (CA 15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA were prospectively monitored (monthly and were also evaluated for the 3 months preceding secondary PD. Data from 67 patients with previously treated MBC participating in a Compassionate Use Programme were analysed. Results In patients with a PR (n = 7 [10.4%], a non-significant increase in CA 15-3 occurred during the first 6 months of treatment; CEA was significantly reduced (P = 0.0165. In patients with SD ≥ 6 months (n = 28 [41.8%], both CA 15-3 (P P = 0.0399 levels increased significantly after 6 months treatment. In those experiencing de novo PD (n = 32 [47.8%], CA 15-3 increased significantly (P P = 0.0002 during the same time period. Both CA 15-3 (P P Conclusion CA 15-3 increases in patients progressing on fulvestrant but may also increase in those experiencing clinical benefit; this should not be taken as a sign of PD without verification. Overall, both CA 15-3 and CEA appear to be poor prognostic markers for determining progression in patients receiving fulvestrant.

  8. Paradoxical action of fulvestrant in estradiol-induced regression of tamoxifen-stimulated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipo, Clodia; Gajdos, Csaba; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Jordan, V Craig

    2003-11-05

    Long-term tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer can result in tamoxifen-stimulated breast cancer, in which estrogen inhibits tumor growth after tamoxifen withdrawal. We investigated the molecular mechanism(s) of estradiol-induced tumor regression by using an in vivo model of tamoxifen-stimulated human breast cancer. Growth of parental estradiol-stimulated MCF-7E2 and long-term tamoxifen-stimulated MCF-7TAMLT xenografts in athymic mice was measured during treatment with vehicle, estradiol, estradiol plus tamoxifen, tamoxifen alone, estradiol plus fulvestrant, or fulvestrant alone. Apoptosis was detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression was assessed by western blot analysis. mRNA expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. All statistical tests were two-sided. MCF-7E2 tumor growth was stimulated by estradiol (cross-sectional area at week 13 = 1.06 cm2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82 to 1.30 cm2; Pestradiol-induced regression to 0.18 cm2 (95% CI = 0.15 to 0.21 cm2; P<.001), and tamoxifen or estradiol plus fulvestrant enhanced tumor growth to 1.00 cm2 (95% CI = 0.88 to 1.22 cm2). Estradiol increased the number of apoptotic cells in tumors by 23% (95% CI = 20% to 26%; P<.001) compared with all other treatments, decreased estrogen receptor alpha(ERalpha) protein expression, increased the expression of Fas mRNA and protein, decreased the expression of HER2/neu mRNA and protein and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) protein but did not affect Fas ligand protein expression compared with control. Paradoxically, fulvestrant reversed this effect and stimulated MCF-7TAMLT tumor growth apparently through ERalpha-mediated regulation of Fas, HER2/neu, and NF-kappaB. Physiologic levels of estradiol induced regression of tamoxifen-stimulated breast cancer tumors, apparently by inducing the death receptor Fas and suppressing the antiapoptotic

  9. Gabapentin Pretreatment for Propofol and Rocuronium Injection Pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... the venous catheter out of place.[5,6] This may prevent the use of ... central antinociceptive effect has an increased chance of success.[2-5]. Gabapentin is a ... dysfunction or previous trauma history in the study hand, pregnant ...

  10. Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-02

    May 2, 2010 ... Conclusion: Preoperative gabapentin, when administered one hour prior to surgery in a dose of 1 200 mg, decreases postoperative pain scores at ... and impending tissue damage. Acute pain accompanies almost all surgical procedures. .... consumption after mastectomy. Anesthesiology 2002;97:560–4. 8.

  11. Gabapentin for overactive bladder and nocturia after anticholinergic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong T. Kim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We reviewed our experience with the use of gabapentin to treat symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB and nocturia in patients who have failed conventional anticholinergic therapy. METHODS: Thirty-one patients referred to us with refractory (OAB and/or nocturia were treated with oral gabapentin. All the patients had tried or remained on antimuscarinic drugs during treatment. Twenty-four of 31 complained of bothersome symptoms during day and night and the other seven had primary complaints of nocturia. Initial gabapentin doses ranged from 100-300 mg at bedtime. Dose was slowly titrated up to 3,000 mg based on patients' symptomatology and tolerability. RESULTS:The mean age was 51 years old (range 27-78. There were 13 men and 18 women. The median steady state dose chosen by the patient after initial titration was 600 mg/day. Fourteen of 31 patients reported subjective improvement of their frequency and 8 have been on the medication for over 12 months with persistent efficacy. For the 14 improved patients, mean frequency/24 hours decreased from 14.1 ± 2.2 to10.0 + 2.1. Three patients with primary nocturia reported improvement from a mean of 4.0 ± 1.3 to 1.0 ± 0.3 episodes/night. Six patients stopped taking the drug within one month due to side effects mostly described as drowsiness or lethargy. CONCLUSION: Fourteen of 31 patients with refractory (OAB and nocturia improved with oral gabapentin. Gabapentin was generally well tolerated and can be considered in selective patients when conventional modalities have failed.

  12. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  13. Early circulating tumor DNA dynamics and clonal selection with palbociclib and fulvestrant for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ben; Hrebien, Sarah; Morden, James P; Beaney, Matthew; Fribbens, Charlotte; Huang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Koehler, Maria; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Bliss, Judith M; Turner, Nicholas C

    2018-03-01

    CDK4/6 inhibition substantially improves progression-free survival (PFS) for women with advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, although there are no predictive biomarkers. Early changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) level may provide early response prediction, but the impact of tumor heterogeneity is unknown. Here we use plasma samples from patients in the randomized phase III PALOMA-3 study of CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib and fulvestrant for women with advanced breast cancer and show that relative change in PIK3CA ctDNA level after 15 days treatment strongly predicts PFS on palbociclib and fulvestrant (hazard ratio 3.94, log-rank p = 0.0013). ESR1 mutations selected by prior hormone therapy are shown to be frequently sub clonal, with ESR1 ctDNA dynamics offering limited prediction of clinical outcome. These results suggest that early ctDNA dynamics may provide a robust biomarker for CDK4/6 inhibitors, with early ctDNA dynamics demonstrating divergent response of tumor sub clones to treatment.

  14. Review of hormone-based treatments in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Knoop, Ann S; Jessing, Christina A R

    2016-01-01

    . However, overall survival was not significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Conventional treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant may be an adequate treatment option for most patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition and cyclin...

  15. A case of gabapentin-induced rhabdomyolysis requiring renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Seok; Jeon, Howook; Kim, Hyo Suk; Jang, Bo Hyun; Lee, Yoon Hee; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, HyungWook; Jin, Dong Chan

    2017-01-01

    Gabapentin is commonly used for controlling convulsions, restless pain syndrome, and pain in diabetic neuropathy. Common side effects include dizziness, somnolence, ataxia, peripheral edema, and confusion; gabapentin-induced rhabdomyolysis is rarely reported. To date, the reported cases of gabapentin-induced rhabdomyolysis have been associated with patients with multiple underlying diseases and assuming multiple medicines for various reasons. In this report, we describe a case of gabapentin-induced rhabdomyolysis in a 32-year-old woman with no medical history. We also review related literature and discuss the possible mechanism and the association with other factors. This case shows that gabapentin can induce rhabdomyolysis in healthy patients and that clinicians must consider the possible association between gabapentin and rhabdomyolysis. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Gabapentin pharmacotherapy for antipsychotic-induced akathisia: single-patient experiment and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria A; Wilbur, Robert

    2014-04-01

    This clinical study reports upon the efficacy of gabapentin (Neurontin) for treating severe akathisia (3 on the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale) in two patients receiving quetiapine (Seroquel), one of whom also received olanzapine (Zyprexa) for a short period. The first patient participated in an open-label experiment in which the bedtime dose of gabapentin was discontinued three times at intervals 1 week apart, resulting in severe akathisia which was quickly terminated by taking his usual 1200 mg gabapentin dose. This patient was also taking high doses of two benzodiazepines and a beta blocker, without therapeutic effect upon his akathisia; only gabapentin was efficacious. The second case is a report of a woman taking a high dose of quetiapine for anxiety who experienced severe akathisia which was relieved by taking 1200 mg of gabapentin. Possible mechanisms of action of gabapentin are discussed. Particular attention is drawn to the difference between neuroleptic-induced akathisia and the neurological condition of restless legs syndrome.

  17. Clinical activity of fulvestrant in metastatic breast cancer previously treated with endocrine therapy and/or chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hansang; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-16

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical activity of fulvestrant in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) previously treated with endocrine therapy and/or chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with MBC treated at Samsung Medical Center between January 2009 and August 2016. Patients received fulvestrant 250 mg intramuscularly every 28 days (from January 2009 to November 2010) or 500 mg intramuscularly every 28 days (from December 2010 to August 2016). Tumor responses were assessed every 8 weeks and at the end of treatment, as well as when disease progression was suspected. A total of 84 patients were included in this study. A median of two previous endocrine treatments had been performed; 79% of the patients had received two or more endocrine treatments. Forty-five patients (54%) had been treated with chemotherapy for MBC before the fulvestrant treatment course. Visceral metastasis was found in 49 patients (58%). The estimated median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.5) and 32.5 months (95% CI, 17.6 to 47.4), respectively. The disease control rate was 40.5% (95% CI, 30.5 to 51.5); partial response was observed in 16% of the patients and stable disease was observed in 25% of the patients. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were mild-to-moderate grade myalgia (10.5% of the patients), injection site pain (7%), and fatigue (7%). Fulvestrant was generally well tolerated. Fulvestrant showed encouraging clinical activity and favorable feasibility in postmenopausal women with MBC who had been treated with multiple endocrine therapies and/or cytotoxic chemotherapies.

  18. Biological distribution of iodo-allyl Gabapentin and iodo-Gabapentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akat, H.; Yildirim, Y.; Balcan, M.; Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Yilmaz, O.; Duman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) is an anticonvulsant and is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy. In this study, GBP and an allyl derivative of GBP were radioiodinated with 131 I using the iodogen method; then their radiopharmaceutical potential in rats and rabbits was investigated. The radiochemical purity of 131 I-GBP and its derivatives was determined by RTLC. The labeling yield was 95±2%. Biological evaluation was performed in normal rats and rabbits. Labeled compounds were intravenously injected into two rabbits via the ear vein after anesthetizing. The dynamic and static scintigrams were obtained using a gamma camera at different time. Then the labeled compounds were administered intravenously into the rats. The distribution was studied by counting the radioactivity in the removed organs. The results of biodistribution in the rats showed the clearance of 131 IALGBP was faster than 131 I-GBP. On the other hand, the uptake of 131 I-ALGBP in the brain was higher than 131 I-GBP at 60 minutes. (author)

  19. Effects of gabapentin on experimental somatic pain and temporal summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Staahl, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    at 2 Hz); (2) stimulus-response function relating pain intensity scores (visual analog scale, VAS) to increasing current intensities for electrical skin and muscle stimuli (single and repeated, determined at baseline); and (3) the pain intensity (VAS) and pain areas after intramuscular injection......, was to examine the effect of a single dose of 1200 mg gabapentin on multi-modal experimental cutaneous and muscle pain models. METHODS: The following pain models were applied: (1) pain thresholds to single and repeated cutaneous and intramuscular electrical stimulation (temporal summation to 5 stimuli delivered...... reduced the area under the pain intensity curve to hypertonic saline injections in the muscle (P = .02); and (3) significantly reduced the area of pain evoked by hypertonic saline (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin reduces temporal summation of skin stimuli at pain threshold intensities; this may have...

  20. Gabapentin Modulates HCN4 Channel Voltage-Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Tae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GBP is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV+ or calretinin positive (CR+ inhibitory neurons. The effect of GBP on Ih was measured in each inhibitory neuron population. HCN4 expression was assessed in the spinal cord using immunohistochemistry. When applied to HCN4 channels, GBP (100 μM caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage of half activation (V1/2 thereby reducing the currents. Gabapentin had no impact on the V1/2 of HCN1 or HCN2 channels. There was a robust increase in the time to half activation for HCN4 channels with only a small increase noted for HCN1 channels. Gabapentin also caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the V1/2 of Ih measured from HCN4-expressing PV+ inhibitory neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Gabapentin had minimal effect on Ih recorded from CR+ neurons. Consistent with this, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the majority of CR+ inhibitory neurons do not express somatic HCN4 channels. In conclusion, GBP reduces HCN4 channel-mediated currents through a hyperpolarized shift in the V1/2. The HCN channel subtype selectivity of GBP provides a unique tool for investigating HCN4 channel function in the central nervous system. The HCN4 channel is a candidate molecular target for the acute analgesic and anticonvulsant actions of GBP.

  1. Implications and mechanism of action of gabapentin in neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkar, Ankesh; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Gabapentin is an anti-epileptic agent but now it is also recommended as first line agent in neuropathic pain, particularly in diabetic neuropathy and post herpetic neuralgia. α2δ-1, an auxillary subunit of voltage gated calcium channels, has been documented as its main target and its specific binding to this subunit is described to produce different actions responsible for pain attenuation. The binding to α2δ-1 subunits inhibits nerve injury-induced trafficking of α1 pore forming units of calcium channels (particularly N-type) from cytoplasm to plasma membrane (membrane trafficking) of pre-synaptic terminals of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and dorsal horn neurons. Furthermore, the axoplasmic transport of α2δ-1 subunits from DRG to dorsal horns neurons in the form of anterograde trafficking is also inhibited in response to gabapentin administration. Gabapentin has also been shown to induce modulate other targets including transient receptor potential channels, NMDA receptors, protein kinase C and inflammatory cytokines. It may also act on supra-spinal region to stimulate noradrenaline mediated descending inhibition, which contributes to its anti-hypersensitivity action in neuropathic pain.

  2. Effectiveness of gabapentin pharmacotherapy in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnowska, Magdalena; Iżycka, Natalia; Kapoła-Czyż, Joanna; Romała, Anna; Lorek, Jakub; Spaczyński, Marek; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common chemotherapy side effect, but its prevention and treatment remains a challenge. Neurotoxicity may lead to dose limitation or even treatment discontinuation, and therefore potentially affect the efficacy of anticancer treatment and long term outcomes. The practice to administer gabapentin for neuropathy may be applicable, but is limited by insufficient studies. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in ovarian cancer patients treated with first-line paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy and evaluate the effectiveness of gabapentin in treatment of this condition. 61 ovarian cancer patients treated with first line chemotherapy were included in the study. The first phase of the study was to assess neurological condition of each patient by: neuropathy symptoms scale, McGill's scale, neurological deficit and quality of life, during the chemotherapy. In the second phase of the study we evaluated the response to gabapentin treatment in a group of patients who developed neuropathy. 78.7% of the patients developed chemotherapy related neuropathy. During the course of chemotherapy these patients experienced significant exacerbation of neuropathy symptoms (p peripheral neuropathy.

  3. Fulvestrant Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experienced menopause (change of life; end of monthly menstrual periods) and have not previously been treated with ... buttock).Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  4. Examination of the evidence for off-label use of gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    (1) Describe the relevance of off-label use of gabapentin to managed care pharmacy; (2) summarize recent FDA warnings and media reports related to off-label gabapentin use; (3) review medical information pertaining to the off-label use of gabapentin; (4) outline alternatives to off-label use of gabapentin in an evidence-based fashion, where literature exists to support such alternatives; and (5) encourage key clinicians and decision makers in managed care pharmacy to develop and support programs that restrict the use of gabapentin to specific evidence-based situations. Gabapentin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for adjunctive therapy in treatment of partial seizures and postherpetic neuralgia. Various off-label (unapproved) uses have been reported, and the use of gabapentin for off-label purposes has reportedly exceeded use for FDAapproved indications. Pharmaceutical marketing practices and physician dissatisfaction with currently available pharmacological treatment options may be key factors that contribute to this prescribing trend. Recently, the media has focused on these issues, noting that many cases of reported safety and effectiveness of gabapentin for off-label use may have been fabricated. A thorough review of the medical and pharmacy literature related to off-label use of gabapentin was performed, and a summary of the literature for the following conditions is presented: bipolar disorder, peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome, attention deficit disorder, restless legs syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, periodic limb movement disorder of sleep, migraine headaches, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. A common theme in the medical literature for gabapentin is the prevalence of open-label studies and a lack of randomized controlled clinical trials for all but a small number of indications. In the majority of circumstances where it has reported potential for.off-label. use, gabapentin is not the optimal

  5. Antinociceptive synergism of gabapentin and nortriptyline in mice with partial sciatic nerve ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Zepeda, Ramiro; Zanetta, Pilar; Prieto-Rayo, Josefina; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Sierralta, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain results from nerve injury, and gabapentin, an antiepileptic drug, has been approved for the treatment of several types of neuropathic pain. On the other hand, nortriptyline, an antidepressant drug, has been suggested as an alternative treatment. In partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) mice, the interaction of gabapentin with nortriptyline was evaluated by the hot plate assay using isobolographic analysis. Gabapentin (3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) or nortriptyline (1-30 mg/kg, i.p.) induced dose-dependent antinociception, with an ED50 of 11.60 ± 0.54 mg/kg for gabapentin and of 5.16 ± 0.21 mg/kg for nortriptyline. The potency of gabapentin and nortriptyline in PSNL mice at 7 and 14 days after ligation was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Coadministration of gabapentin with nortriptyline, at a 1:1 ratio of their ED50, had a synergistic effect, with an interaction index of 0.311 and 0.348 for these mice at 7 and 14 days, respectively. The data showed a synergy in antinociception at a gabapentin-to-nortriptyline ratio of 1:1 in PSNL mice. This finding suggests that this combination could provide a therapeutic alternative that can be used for neuropathic pain management. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effect of combined treatment with diuretics and gabapentin on convulsive threshold in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Swiderska, Grajyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2013-01-01

    Research data show that diuretics can have anticonvulsant properties. This study examined effects of ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic, and hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide-type diuretic, on the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin, a newer antiepileptic drug, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test in mice. Diuretics were administered intraperitoneally (ip.) both acutely (single dose) and chronically (once daily for seven days). Electroconvulsions were produced by an alternating current (50 Hz, 500 V, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via ear-clip electrodes by a generator. Additionally, the influence of combined treatment with the diuretics and gabapentin on motor performance in the chimney test has been assessed. In the current study, ethacrynic acid at the chronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg and the single dose of 100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin. Similarly, hydrochlorothiazide (100 mg/kg), both in acute and chronic experiments, had no effect on the gabapentin action. On the other hand, in the chimney test, the combined treatment with ethacrynic acid (100 mg/kg) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg) significantly impaired motor performance in mice. Based on the current preclinical findings, it can be suggested that the diuretics should not affect the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin in epileptic patients. However, the combination of ethacrynic acid with gabapentin may cause neurotoxicity.

  7. STEPS: A NARRATIVE ACCOUNT OF A GABAPENTIN SEEDING TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D.; Egilman, David S.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. Methods We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing v. Pfizer and Franklin v. Warner-Lambert, the majority of which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial, in order to identify key themes related to the trial’s conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Results Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company’s marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that several external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in two published papers. Conclusions The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation. PMID:21709111

  8. Gabapentin May Relieve Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Pain: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSoltanzadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common complaints after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG is post-operative pain. Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and antineuralgic agent. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effect of preemptive gabapentin on post-operative pain and morphine consumption after cardiac surgery. Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 male candidates for CABG. The patients were divided into two groups—the gabapentin (n=30 and the control group (n=30. The test group received 800 mg gabapentin orally two hours before the surgery followed by 400 mg of the drug two hours post-extubation. The control group received placebo instead. Then severity of pain was recorded according to an 11-point visual analog pain scale. The amount of morphine consumed, its side effects and hemodynamic changes were also recorded during and at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after extubation. Results: The mean±SD cumulative morphine consumption at the first 24 hours after extubation in gabapentin group was 0.9±1.5 mg while it was 1.5±4 mg for the control group. Therefore, gabapentin group consumed 38% less than the control group (P=0.01. The pain scores during rest and coughing at 2, 6, and 12 hours after extubation were also significantly lower in the gabapentin group compared with the control group (P=0.02. The mean±SD mechanical ventilation time was 5.4±1.7 hours for gabapentin group and 1.6±4.4 hours for the control group (P=0.035. The other variables including hemodynamic changes (HR, SBP and DBP, and incidence of nausea, vomiting and respiratory depression showed no significant difference between the studied groups within 24 hours after extubation. Conclusion: Oral pre-medication with gabapentin before CABG significantly reduces post-operative pain and morphine consumption in adult cardiac surgery.

  9. Effect of mushroom diet on pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Dorothy Su Lin; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Yee, Jie Yin; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Boon-Cher; Murray, Michael; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Chinese subjects who received a diet rich in shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to contain high amount of ergothioneine. In vitro studies have shown that OCTN1-mediated secretion of gabapentin is trans-stimulated by ergothioneine. This study also investigated the concentrations of ergothioneine in plasma at baseline and following mushroom consumption. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited and received a diet containing no mushrooms (treatment A) or a high mushroom diet (treatment B; after at least a 7 day washout period) 1 day prior to administration of a single oral dose of gabapentin 600 mg. Ingestion of shiitake mushrooms produced significant increases in plasma ergothioneine concentrations that were sustained for more than 48 h. A statistically significant but modest increase in the renal clearance (CLR ) of gabapentin occurred after intake of the mushroom diet (91.1 ± 25.1 vs. 76.9 ± 20.6 ml min(-1) , P = 0.031). No significant changes in AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin were observed (P = 0.726). Creatinine clearance did not correlate with CLR of gabapentin at baseline (treatment A). After ingestion of the mushroom diet, creatinine clearance accounted for 65.3% of the variance in CLR of gabapentin. These data suggest that diet-drug pharmacokinetic interactions may occur during co-exposure to gabapentin and mushroom constituents. However, as it does not affect the AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin, it may not have clinically important consequences. Shiitake mushrooms can also be used as a source of ergothioneine for future clinical studies. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Cyclic Voltammetric Investigation of Dopamine at Poly-(Gabapentin Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Shreenivas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The poly (gabapentin film was prepared on the surface of carbon paste electrode by electrochemical method using cyclic voltammetric technique. The poly (gabapentin film-modified carbon paste electrode was calibrated with standard potassium ferrocyanide solution in 1 M KCl as a supporting electrolyte. The prepared poly (gabapentin film-coated electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of dopamine at physiological pH. The scan rate effect was found to be diffusion-controlled electrode process. The concentration effect of dopamine was studied, and the redox peak potentials of dopamine were dependant on pH.

  11. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Gabapentin in a CFA-induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Rat Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Keizer, Ron; Munro, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA......-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. METHODS: A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration...

  12. Involvement of NO/cGMP pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin in mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Ameli, Sanaz; Akhlaghipour, Golnoosh; Dehpour, AhmadReza

    2016-04-01

    Based on clinical studies regarding the beneficial effect of gabapentin in depression, we aimed to evaluate the antidepressant-like properties of gabapentin in mice and also the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in this effect. The following drugs were used in this study: gabapentin; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; 7-nitroindazole, a specific neuronal NOS inhibitor; aminoguanidine, a specific inducible NOS inhibitor; L-arginine, a NO precursor; and sildenafil, a phosphodiestrase inhibitor. Finally, we studied the behavioral effects through the forced swimming test (FST) and the changes of the hippocampus NO level through nitrite assay. The immobility time was significantly reduced after gabapentin administration. Co-administration of non-effective doses of gabapentin and L-NAME or 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) resulted in antidepressant-like effect in FST, while aminoguanidine did not affect the immobility time of gabapentin-treated mice. Furthermore, the antidepressant-like property of gabapentin was prevented by L-arginine or sildenafil. Also, the hippocampal nitrite level was significantly lower in gabapentin-treated mice relative to saline-injected mice, and co-administration of 7-NI with sub-effective gabapentin caused a significant decrease in hippocampal nitrite levels. Our results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin in the mice FST model is mediated at least in part through nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway.

  13. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [18F]fluorine substitution at the 16α-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seimbille, Yann; Benard, Francois; Rousseau, Jacques; Pepin, Emilie; Aliaga, Antonio; Tessier, Guillaume; Lier, Johan E. van

    2004-01-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ERα and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for 18 F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16α-position for 18 F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [ 18 F]fluoride at the 16- 18 F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 16 18 F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators

  14. Gabapentin in the management of dysautonomia following severe traumatic brain injury: a case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baguley, Ian J; Heriseanu, Roxana E; Gurka, Joseph A

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological management of dysautonomia, otherwise known as autonomic storms, following acute neurological insults, is problematic and remains poorly researched. This paper presents six subjects with dysautonomia following extremely severe traumatic brain injury where gabapentin controlled...

  15. Evaluation of the effect of gabapentin on postoperative analgesia with epidural morphine after abdominal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diptesh Aryal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Gabapentin has been used successfully as a non-opioid analgesic adjuvant for postoperative pain management. We hypothesized that the preoperative use of gabapentin prolonged the analgesic effect of epidural morphine without an increase in adverse effects of morphine. Materials & Methods: In a randomized, double blind study sixty ASA PS I and II patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were assigned to receive either placebo or gabapentin 1200mg 1 hour before surgery. Postoperatively, 0.125% bupivacaine with morphine 50 µg per kg body weight was used for epidural analgesia. Vital parameters, time to the first request for analgesic, visual analogue scale scoring for pain at rest and during movement, 24-hour morphine consumption, and side effects were studied.Results: The patients were comparable with respect to age, weight, ASA PS, baseline hemodynamic parameters and duration of surgery. Gabapentin significantly decreased the duration of analgesia compared to placebo (1078.26 min Vs. 303.5 min; P value <0.0001. The VAS scores at rest and during movement at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h were significantly lower in gabapentin group. The total amount of morphine consumption in 24 h postoperatively was significantly lower in gabapentin group (1.93mg Vs. 6.30mg; P value <0.0001. The incidence of nausea and pruritus was significantly lower with gabapentin. Conclusion: Oral gabapentin 1200 mg as a premedication decreases the dose requirement of epidural morphine and postoperative pain after total abdominal hysterectomy. It also decreases the pain scores at rest and during movement significantly. 

  16. Effects of single and combined gabapentin use in elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Fatma Sultan; Ismailoglu, Sule; Kaygisiz, Bilgin; Oner, Setenay

    2014-10-01

    Gabapentin, a third-generation antiepileptic drug, is a structural analogue of γ-aminobutyric acid, which is an important mediator of central nervous system. There is clinical data indicating its effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects and mechanisms of gabapentin in rats. Female Spraque-Dawley rats weighing 250±20 g were used. A total of 13 groups were formed, each containing 8 rats: gabapentin (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg), ketamine (10 mg/kg), gabapentin 20 mg/kg was also combined with amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg). All the drugs were used intraperitoneally as single dose. Saline was administered to the control group. Elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests were used as experimental models of anxiety and depression, respectively. It was observed that gabapentin showed an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effect in all doses in rats. Its antidepressant effect was found to be the same as the antidepressant effects of amitriptyline and sertraline. There was no change in the antidepressant effect when gabapentin was combined with amitriptyline and ketamine, but there was an increase when combined with sertraline and diazepam. Gabapentin and amitriptyline showed similar anxiolytic effect, whereas ketamine and diazepam had more potent anxiolytic effect compared with them. These data suggest that gabapentin may possess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects.

  17. A randomized controlled trial to compare pregabalin with gabapentin for postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Ghai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregabalin is a potent ligand for alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the central nervous system, which exhibits potent anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic activity. The pharmacological activity of pregabalin is similar to that of gabapentin and shows possible advantages. Although it shows analgesic efficacy against neuropathic pain, very limited evidence supports its postoperative analgesic efficacy. We investigated its analgesic efficacy in patients experiencing acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy and compared it with gabapentin and placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 90 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy who were anaesthetized in a standardized fashion. Patients received 300 mg pregabalin, 900 mg gabapentin or placebo, 1-2 hours prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was administered at visual analogue scale (VAS ≥3. The primary outcome was analgesic consumption over 24 hours and patients were followed for pain scores, time to rescue analgesia and side effects as secondary outcomes. Results: The diclofenac consumption was statistically significant between pregabalin and control groups, and gabapentin and control groups; however, pregabalin and gabapentin groups were comparable. Moreover, the consumption of tramadol was statistically significant among all the groups. Patients in pregabalin and gabapentin groups had lower pain scores in the initial hour of recovery. However, pain scores were subsequently similar in all the groups. Time to first request for analgesia was longer in pregabalin group followed by gabapentin and control groups. Conclusion: A single dose of 300 mg pregabalin given 1-2 hours prior to surgery is superior to 900 mg gabapentin and placebo after abdominal hysterectomy. Both the drugs are better than placebo.

  18. Rational dosing of gabapentin and pregabalin in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mena Raouf,1 Timothy J Atkinson,1 Meredith W Crumb,1 Jeffrey Fudin2–5 1VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Murfreesboro, Nashville, TN, 2Stratton VA Medical Center, 3Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, 4Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, 5Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate LLC, Delmar, NY, USA IntroductionRenal dose adjustments for gabapentin and pregabalin are ubiquitously evident in the medical literature. All manufacturers for these branded and generic dosage forms list dosing recommendations relative to creatinine clearance (CrCl for both medications (Table 1.1,2 However, the basis of these recommendations has not been well articulated. 

  19. Palbociclib Combined with Fulvestrant in Premenopausal Women with Advanced Breast Cancer and Prior Progression on Endocrine Therapy: PALOMA-3 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; Turner, Nicholas C; Ro, Jungsil; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Iwata, Hiroji; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Loi, Sherene; André, Fabrice; Harbeck, Nadia; Verma, Sunil; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Puyana Theall, Kathy; Hoffman, Justin; Zhang, Ke; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was assessed in premenopausal women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ET). One hundred eight premenopausal endocrine-refractory women ≥18 years with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ABC were among 521 women randomized 2:1 (347:174) to fulvestrant (500 mg) ± goserelin with either palbociclib (125 mg/day orally, 3 weeks on, 1 week off) or placebo. This analysis assessed whether the overall tolerable safety profile and significant progression-free survival (PFS) improvement extended to premenopausal women. Potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and ovarian suppression with goserelin were assessed via plasma pharmacokinetics and biochemical analyses, respectively. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01942135) RESULTS: Median PFS for premenopausal women in the palbociclib ( n  = 72) versus placebo arm ( n  = 36) was 9.5 versus 5.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.87), and consistent with the significant PFS improvement in the same arms for postmenopausal women. Any-grade and grade ≤3 neutropenia, leukopenia, and infections were among the most frequent adverse events reported in the palbociclib arm with concurrent goserelin administration. Hormone concentrations were similar between treatment arms and confirmed sustained ovarian suppression. Clinically relevant DDIs were not observed. Palbociclib combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for premenopausal women with prior endocrine-resistant HR+/HER2- ABC. Inclusion of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women in pivotal combination ET trials facilitates access to novel drugs for young women and should be considered as a new standard for clinical trial design. PALOMA-3, the first registrational

  20. Comparative study of preoperative use of oral gabapentin, intravenous dexamethasone and their combination in gynaecological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the effects of oral gabapentin and intravenous (I.V. dexamethasone given together or separately 1 h before the start of surgery on intraoperative hemodynamics Postoperative analgesia and postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV in patients undergoing gynaecological procedure. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (gabapentin, n = 46 received 400 mg gabapentin, Group 2 (dexamethasone, n = 46 received 8 mg dexamethasone and Group 3 (gabapentin plus dexamethasone, n = 46 received both 400 mg gabapentin and 8 mg dexamethasone I.V. 1 h before the start of surgery. Standard induction and maintenance of anesthesia were accomplished. Visual analog scale for pain was recorded for 12 h. Side effects were noted. Results: Hemodynamics at various time interval (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min of laryngeal mask airway insertion and PONV were found significantly lower in Group 3 than in Group 1 and Group 2 (P 3 was significantly longer in Group 3 (510.00 ± 61.64 min than in Group 1 (352.83 ± 80.61 min and in Group 2 (294.78 ± 60.76 min, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the combination of oral Gabapentin and I.V. dexamethasone has significantly less hemodynamic changes, better postoperative analgesia and less incidence of PONV than individual administration of each drug.

  1. Effects of a single 1200-mg preoperative dose of gabapentin on anxiety and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, F; Bordenave, L; Sessler, D I; Chauvin, M

    2012-10-01

    Gabapentin has antihyperalgesic and potential anxiolytic effects. We therefore evaluated the effects of gabapentin premedication on anxiety, amnesia, and sedation. We tested the primary hypothesis that 1200mg of oral gabapentin 2 to 3h before surgery reduces preoperative anxiety. Our secondary hypothesis was that gabapentin administration is sedative without causing preoperative amnesia. Prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study. Surgical patients having general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to either 1200mg oral gabapentin (n=32) or an identical-looking placebo (n=32) 2 to 3h before anaesthesia. Anxiety, sedation, and amnesia were quantified before premedication, 2h thereafter, and postoperatively. Preoperative anxiety was measured using the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI state) and the visual analogue scale anxiety (VAS). Memory was assessed with the picture recall test of Snodgrass and Vanderwart. Results were compared with t, Mann-Whitney U, or Chi(2) tests as appropriate, Psedation scores. Gabapentin premedication, 1200mg, provided preoperative anxiolysis without causing sedation or impairing preoperative memory. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Gabapentin in a CFA-induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Keizer, Ron; Munro, Gordon; Mørk, Arne; Holm, René; Savic, Rada; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-05-01

    Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration of a range of gabapentin doses (oral and intravenous). The plasma/brain ECF concentration-time profiles of gabapentin were adequately described with a two-compartment plasma model with saturable intestinal absorption rate (K m  = 44.1 mg/kg, V max  = 41.9 mg/h∙kg) and dose-dependent oral bioavailability linked to brain ECF concentration through a transit compartment. Brain ECF concentration was directly linked to a sigmoid E max function describing reversal of hyperalgesia (EC 50, plasma  = 16.7 μg/mL, EC 50, brain  = 3.3 μg/mL). The proposed semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model provides further knowledge into the understanding of gabapentin's non-linear pharmacokinetics and the link between plasma/brain disposition and anti-hyperalgesic effects. The model suggests that intestinal absorption is the primary source of non-linearity and that the investigated rat model provides reasonable predictions of clinically effective plasma concentrations for gabapentin.

  3. Factors in Variability of Serial Gabapentin Concentrations in Elderly Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jeannine M; Eberly, Lynn E; Collins, Joseph F; Macias, Flavia M; Ramsay, R Eugene; Leppik, Ilo E; Birnbaum, Angela K

    2017-10-01

    To characterize and quantify the variability of serial gabapentin concentrations in elderly patients with epilepsy. This study included 83 patients (age ≥ 60 yrs) from an 18-center randomized double-blind double-dummy parallel study from the Veterans Affairs Cooperative 428 Study. All patients were taking 1500 mg/day gabapentin. Within-person coefficient of variation (CV) in gabapentin concentrations, measured weekly to bimonthly for up to 52 weeks, then quarterly, was computed. Impact of patient characteristics on gabapentin concentrations (linear mixed model) and CV (linear regression) were estimated. A total of 482 gabapentin concentration measurements were available for analysis. Gabapentin concentrations and intrapatient CVs ranged from 0.5 to 22.6 μg/ml (mean 7.9 μg/ml, standard deviation [SD] 4.1 μg/ml) and 2% to 79% (mean 27.9%, SD 15.3%), respectively, across all visits. Intrapatient CV was higher by 7.3% for those with a body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m 2 (coefficient = 7.3, p=0.04). CVs were on average 0.5% higher for each 1-unit higher CV in creatinine clearance (coefficient = 0.5, p=0.03) and 1.2% higher for each 1-hour longer mean time after dose (coefficient = 1.2, p=0.04). Substantial intrapatient variability in serial gabapentin concentration was noted in elderly patients with epilepsy. Creatinine clearance, time of sampling relative to dose, and obesity were found to be positively associated with variability. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  4. Fulvestrant plus anastrozole or placebo versus exemestane alone after progression on non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (SoFEA): a composite, multicentre, phase 3 randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen Rd; Kilburn, Lucy S; Ellis, Paul; Dodwell, David; Cameron, David; Hayward, Larry; Im, Young-Hyuck; Braybrooke, Jeremy P; Brunt, A Murray; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Jyothirmayi, Rema; Robinson, Anne; Wardley, Andrew M; Wheatley, Duncan; Howell, Anthony; Coombes, Gill; Sergenson, Nicole; Sin, Hui-Jung; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Dowsett, Mitch; Bliss, Judith M

    2013-09-01

    The optimum endocrine treatment for postmenopausal women with advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer that has progressed on non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) is unclear. The aim of the SoFEA trial was to assess a maximum double endocrine targeting approach with the steroidal anti-oestrogen fulvestrant in combination with continued oestrogen deprivation. In a composite, multicentre, phase 3 randomised controlled trial done in the UK and South Korea, postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer (oestrogen receptor [ER] positive, progesterone receptor [PR] positive, or both) were eligible if they had relapsed or progressed with locally advanced or metastatic disease on an NSAI (given as adjuvant for at least 12 months or as first-line treatment for at least 6 months). Additionally, patients had to have adequate organ function and a WHO performance status of 0-2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive fulvestrant (500 mg intramuscular injection on day 1, followed by 250 mg doses on days 15 and 29, and then every 28 days) plus daily oral anastrozole (1 mg); fulvestrant plus anastrozole-matched placebo; or daily oral exemestane (25 mg). Randomisation was done with computer-generated permuted blocks, and stratification was by centre and previous use of an NSAI as adjuvant treatment or for locally advanced or metastatic disease. Participants and investigators were aware of assignment to fulvestrant or exemestane, but not of assignment to anastrozole or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00253422 (UK) and NCT00944918 (South Korea). Between March 26, 2004, and Aug 6, 2010, 723 patients underwent randomisation: 243 were assigned to receive fulvestrant plus anastrozole, 231 to fulvestrant plus placebo, and 249 to exemestane. Median PFS was 4·4 months (95% CI 3·4-5·4) in patients assigned to

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Preemptive Gabapentin and Dextromethorphan on the Postoperative Pain after Open Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohaghegh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Preemptive administration of gabapentin and dextromethorphan has been shown to be effective for reduction of postoperative pain; but the effect of these two drugs has not yet been compared. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of administration of gabapentin and dextromethorphan on the postoperative pain after open prostatectomy. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 80 adult males with ASA class of I, II and III who were candidate for open prostatectomy under spinal anesthesia in Shahid Hasheminejad Educational Center (in Tehran were enrolled and randomly allocated to two groups of gabapentin (n=40 and dextromethorphan (n=40. In dextromethorphan group, 60 mg of dextromethorphan syrup and in gabapentin group, 300 mg of gabapentin syrup were administered 2 hours preoperatively. During operation, the maximum height of block was determined at 5, 10 and 15 minutes after spinal anesthesia establishment. In postoperative period, at 1, 2, 12, and 24 hours, the pain intensity was measured through Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS; and, overall opioid consumption and the time to first analgesic request were recorded as well.Results: While the pain intensity in all the measurements was comparable between groups, at the 2nd hour, the pain was significantly lesser in gabapentin group (2.70±1.51 vs. 3.74±1.77, P=0.006. Also, the time for the first analgesic request was comparable between study groups; however, the total dose of postoperative opioid consumption was lesser in gabapentin group (45.0±39.32 vs. 64.45±32.12 mg, P=0.018. Moreover, the height of block showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Preemptive oral administration of 300 mg of gabapentin syrup in patients undergoing open prostatectomy under spinal anesthesia significantly lessens the pain intensity and the total dose of opioid consumption compared with 60 mg of dextromethorphan syrup. Meanwhile, the level of spinal anesthesia

  6. Gabapentin can improve postural stability and quality of life in primary orthostatic tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Julian P; Edwards, Dylan J; Walters, Susan E; Byrnes, Michelle L; Thickbroom, Gary; Stell, Rick; Mastaglia, Frank L

    2005-07-01

    Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is characterized by leg tremor and instability on standing. High frequency (13-18 Hz) tremor bursting is present in leg muscles during stance, and posturography has shown greater than normal sway. We report on an open-label add-on study of gabapentin in 6 patients with OT. Six patients were studied with surface electromyography, force platform posturography, and a modified Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) quality of life (QOL) scale before and during treatment with gabapentin 300 mg t.d.s. If on other medications for OT, these were continued unchanged. Of the 6 patients, 4 reported a subjective benefit of 50 to 75% with gabapentin, 3 of whom showed reduced tremor amplitude and postural sway of up to 70%. Dynamic balance improved in all 3 patients who completed the protocol. QOL data from 5 patients showed improvement in all cases. No adverse effects were noted. Gabapentin may improve tremor, stability, and QOL in patients with OT, and symptomatic response correlated with a reduction in tremor amplitude and postural sway. The findings confirm previous reports of symptomatic benefit with gabapentin and provide justification for larger controlled clinical trials. Further work is required to establish the optimal dosage and to validate the methods used to quantify the response to treatment. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Synergistic antiallodynic interaction between gabapentin or carbamazepine and either benfotiamine or cyanocobalamin in neuropathic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Teresa; Quinonez-Bastidas, Geovanna N; Caram-Salas, Nadia L; Ambriz-Tututi, Monica; Araiza-Saldana, Claudia I; Rocha-Gonzalez, Hector I; Medina-Santillan, Roberto; Reyes-Garcia, Gerardo; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsants, including gabapentin and carbamazepine, have shown activity against several types of neuropathic pain; however, they have limiting side effects that may minimize their use. In this study the possible synergistic interaction between anticonvulsants and benfotiamine or cyanocobalamin on spinal nerve ligation-induced tactile allodynia was assessed. Oral administration of gabapentin (15-300 mg/kg), carbamazepine (10-300 mg/kg), benfotiamine (30-600 mg/kg) or cyanocobalamin (0.3-6.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced tactile allodynia in rats. Maximal antiallodynic effects were reached with gabapentin 300 mg/kg (approximately 70%), carbamazepine 300 mg/kg (approximately 66%), benfotiamine 600 mg/kg (approximately 51%) and cyanocobalamin 6 mg/kg (approximately 59%). At the highest tested doses, gabapentin, but not carbamazepine, benfotiamine or cyanocobalamin, significantly reduced motor coordination. Coadministration of gabapentin or carbamazepine with benfotiamine or cyanocobalamin in a fixed ratio markedly reduced spinal nerve ligation-induced tactile allodynia, showing a synergistic interaction between anticonvulsants and B vitamins. Data indicate that combinations of anticonvulsants with benfotiamine or cyanocobalamin are able to reduce tactile allodynia without affecting motor coordination in rats, and suggest the possible clinical use of these combinations in the treatment of neuropathic pain in humans.

  8. Binding of the neuroleptic drug, gabapentin, to bovine serum albumin: Insights from experimental and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Fahimeh; Dorraji, Parisa S.; Mahdiuni, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between antiepileptic drug, gabapentin (GP), and bovin serum albumin (BSA) was studied by spectroscopic and computational methods. The native fluorescence of BSA was quenched by GP. Stern–Volmer quenching constant was calculated at different temperatures which suggested a static mechanism. The association constant (K a ) was calculated from fluorescence quenching studies, which increased with temperature rising. GP competed well with warfarine for hydrophobic subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I) on the protein. Enthalpy and entropy changes during the interaction of GP with BSA were obtained using van't Hoff plot, which showed an entropy-driven process and involvement of hydrophobic forces (ΔH>0 and ΔS>0). Synchronous fluorescence measurements of BSA solution in the presence of GP showed a considerable blue shift when Δλ=15 nm, therefore, GP interacts with tyrosine-rich sites on BSA. Optimized docked model of BSA–GP mixture confirmed the experimental results. -- Highlights: • Interaction of gabapentin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) is investigated by spectroscopic techniques. • Gabapentin can quench the fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching procedure. • The binding of gabapentin to BSA is driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. • Subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I) of BSA is found to be the main binding site for gabapentin. • Molecular docking modeling confirmed the experimental results

  9. Fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo for treatment of hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer that progressed on previous endocrine therapy (PALOMA-3): final analysis of the multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanilli, Massimo; Turner, Nicholas C; Bondarenko, Igor; Ro, Jungsil; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Colleoni, Marco; DeMichele, Angela; Loi, Sherene; Verma, Sunil; Iwata, Hiroji; Harbeck, Nadia; Zhang, Ke; Theall, Kathy Puyana; Jiang, Yuqiu; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Koehler, Maria; Slamon, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    In the PALOMA-3 study, the combination of the CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor palbociclib and fulvestrant was associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival compared with fulvestrant plus placebo in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Identification of patients most suitable for the addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy after tumour recurrence is crucial for treatment optimisation in metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to confirm our earlier findings with this extended follow-up and show our results for subgroup and biomarker analyses. In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 study, women aged 18 years or older with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer that had progressed on previous endocrine therapy were stratified by sensitivity to previous hormonal therapy, menopausal status, and presence of visceral metastasis at 144 centres in 17 countries. Eligible patients-ie, any menopausal status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, measurable disease or bone disease only, and disease relapse or progression after previous endocrine therapy for advanced disease during treatment or within 12 months of completion of adjuvant therapy-were randomly assigned (2:1) via a centralised interactive web-based and voice-based randomisation system to receive oral palbociclib (125 mg daily for 3 weeks followed by a week off over 28-day cycles) plus 500 mg fulvestrant (intramuscular injection on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1; then on day 1 of subsequent 28-day cycles) or placebo plus fulvestrant. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. We also assessed endocrine therapy resistance by clinical parameters, quantitative hormone-receptor expression, and tumour PIK3CA mutational status in circulating DNA at baseline. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01942135. Between Oct 7, 2013, and Aug 26, 2014, 521 patients were

  10. Comparison of gabapentin, pregabalin and placebo as premedication for attenuation of hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mahoori

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Oral gabapentin premedication is effective for control of hemodynamic pressor response of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. The study data showed that the pregabalin have the same effect. Pregabalin and gabapentin are both useful and safe for control of hemodynamic pressor response as premedication.

  11. Long term treatment with gabapentin in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Andrews, N.; Wegener, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    . Daily treatment with gabapentin 30 mg/kg sc. or saline for 6 consecutive weeks. Mechanical sensitivity thresholds (MST) to von Frey stimulation of hindpaws and thorax measured by both reflex withdrawal and supra-spinal responses. Anxiety-like behaviour using the openfield paradigm. Drug effect...... was measured after initial dose, 1 and 6 weeks of treatment. Preliminary results show that saline-treated SCC animals (N=10) have significantly lower MST with supra-spinal responses on the thorax compared to saline-treated shams (N=10), and gabapentin-treated SCC (N=10) and sham animals (N=10) throughout...... the study. The SCC animals had significantly decreased MST with reflex responses on the hindpaws in the two first time points compared with gabapentin-treated SCC animals (and both sham groups). There was no effect of injury on the MST with supra-spinal responses on the hindpaws and thus no effect...

  12. Narrative review: the promotion of gabapentin: an analysis of internal industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael A; Bero, Lisa A; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Landefeld, C Seth

    2006-08-15

    Internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry provide a unique window for understanding the structure and methods of pharmaceutical promotion. Such documents have become available through litigation concerning the promotion of gabapentin (Neurontin, Pfizer, Inc., New York, New York) for off-label uses. To describe how gabapentin was promoted, focusing on the use of medical education, research, and publication. Court documents available to the public from United States ex. rel David Franklin vs. Pfizer, Inc., and Parke-Davis, Division of Warner-Lambert Company, mostly from 1994-1998. All documents were reviewed by 1 author, with selected review by coauthors. Marketing strategies and tactics were identified by using an iterative process of review, discussion, and re-review of selected documents. The promotion of gabapentin was a comprehensive and multifaceted process. Advisory boards, consultants meetings, and accredited continuing medical education events organized by third-party vendors were used to deliver promotional messages. These tactics were augmented by the recruitment of local champions and engagement of thought leaders, who could be used to communicate favorable messages about gabapentin to their physician colleagues. Research and scholarship were also used for marketing by encouraging "key customers" to participate in research, using a large study to advance promotional themes and build market share, paying medical communication companies to develop and publish articles about gabapentin for the medical literature, and planning to suppress unfavorable study results. Most available documents were submitted by the plaintiff and may not represent a complete picture of marketing practices. Activities traditionally considered independent of promotional intent, including continuing medical education and research, were extensively used to promote gabapentin. New strategies are needed to ensure a clear separation between scientific and commercial activity.

  13. Effect of adding celecoxib to a single dose of gabapentin on postoperative pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Choubsaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, several studies with conflicting results have been done on the role of gabapentin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pre-emptive analgesia to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding low doses of celecoxib to gabapentin on increasing the analgesic effect and patients’ satisfaction. Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 130 patients with ASA I, II class were divided in two groups as they were the candidates for elective inguinal hernia surgery with spinal anesthesia. Before the surgery, the control group (G received 300 mg oral dose of gabapentin and the study group (GC received 100 mg celecoxib in addition to the above dose. Severity of patients’ pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS. By the same token, the amount of painkillers usedwas measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The results suggested a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain level 4, 6 and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05. Adding low-dose of celeoxib to gabapentin before the surgery and the combination of these two drugs caused further reduction of pain 4, 6 and 24 h after the surgery in comparison to the administration of gabapentin alone. Conclusion: Adding 100 mg celecoxib to 300 mg gabapentin resulted in a reduction of pain level 24 h after elective surgery of inguinal hernia in patients of control group (P<0.05. However, in terms of using painkillers (analgesics, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

  14. Gabapentin adjunctive to risperidone or olanzapine in partially responsive schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Gabriel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adel GabrielDepartments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: There is a great need in the treatment of schizophrenia for a drug, or drug ­combinations, to improve clinical response with fewer serious side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and tolerability of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as an adjunctive in the treatment of patients with partially responsive schizophrenia.Methods: Ten consenting patients with a confirmed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. All patients failed at least one 12-week treatment trial with risperidone or olanzapine. Gabapentin was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Other scales included the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine changes in outcome measures over time with adjunctive treatment with gabapentin.Results: There was a significant drop in the PANSS and CDSS scores at endpoint (week 8. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to changes in all outcome measures or in AIMS score. The adjunctive treatments were well tolerated and side effects were transient.Conclusion: Gabapentin could be used successfully as an adjunct to novel antipsychotics in partially responsive schizophrenia. However, large controlled studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of gabapentin in psychotic disorders.Keywords: schizophrenia, refractory, adjunctive treatment, gabapentin, risperidone, olanzapine

  15. Pregabalin versus gabapentin in partial epilepsy: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships

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    Thompson Sally

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin at comparable effective dose levels in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. Methods Eight randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the efficacy of pregabalin (4 studies and gabapentin (4 studies over 12 weeks were identified with a systematic literature search. The endpoints of interest were "responder rate" (where response was defined as at least a 50% reduction from baseline in the number of seizures and "change from baseline in seizure-free days over the last 28 days (SFD". Results of all trials were analyzed using an indirect comparison approach with placebo as the common comparator. The base-case analysis used the intention-to-treat last observation carried forward method. Two sensitivity analyses were conducted among completer and responder populations. Results The base-case analysis revealed statistically significant differences in response rate in favor of pregabalin 300 mg versus gabapentin 1200 mg (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 3.25 and pregabalin 600 mg versus gabapentin 1800 mg (odds ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.21, 5.27. Both sensitivity analyses supported the findings of the base-case analysis, although statistical significance was not demonstrated. All dose levels of pregabalin (150 mg to 600 mg were more efficacious than corresponding dosages of gabapentin (900 mg to 2400 mg in terms of SFD over the last 28 days. Conclusion In patients with refractory partial epilepsy, pregabalin is likely to be more effective than gabapentin at comparable effective doses, based on clinical response and the number of SFD.

  16. Real-world effectiveness of everolimus-based therapy versus fulvestrant monotherapy in HR(+)/HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanni; Lin, Peggy L; Xie, Jipan; Li, Nanxin; Koo, Valerie; Ohashi, Erika; Wu, Eric Q; Rogerio, Jaqueline

    2015-08-01

    Assessing real-world effectiveness of everolimus-based therapy (EVE) versus fulvestrant monotherapy (FUL) among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+))/HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) after progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). Medical charts of community-based patients who received EVE or FUL for mBC after NSAI were examined. Progression-free survival (PFS), time on treatment and time to chemotherapy were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for line of therapy and patient characteristics. 192 patients received EVE and 156 FUL. After adjusting for patient characteristics, EVE was associated with significantly longer PFS than FUL (hazard ratio: 0.71; p = 0.045). EVE was associated with better PFS than FUL among NSAI-refractory postmenopausal HR(+)/HER2(-) mBC patients.

  17. The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Mosbacher, Johannes; Elg, Susanne

    2002-01-01

    The actions of the anticonvulsant gabapentin [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid, Neurontin] have been somewhat enigmatic until recently, when it was claimed to be a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist acting exclusively at a heterodimeric complex containing the GABA(B(1a...... in vitro assays. In light of these results, we find it highly questionable that gabapentin is a GABA(B) receptor agonist. Hence, the anticonvulsive effects of the compound have to arise from GABA(B) receptor-independent mechanisms. This also implies that the first GABA(B) receptor splice variant...

  18. Investigating Efficacy of Melatonin and Gabapentin in Reducing Anxiety and Pain of Lumbar Puncture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fallah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lumbar puncture is one of the most important diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within children which child’s non-cooperativeness and procedural sedation are regarded necessary to conduct it. This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and gabapentin in reducing anxiety and pain of lumbar puncture in children. Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty children aged 6 months -7 years, were evaluated in Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, in Yazd (Iran in 2012. The children were distributedrandomly into two groups (30 children in each group. In group one, they received 0.3 mg/kg/dose of melatonin and theother group received 15 mg/kg/dose of gabapentin. Primary endpoints were success rate in reducing anxiety (anxiety score of≥ four and reducing pain when the needle was inserted to skin for lumbarpuncture (pain score of less than four. The clinicalside effects were investigated as well. Results: Twenty two girls (36.7% and 38 boys (63.3% with mean age of 2.79 ± 1.92 years were evaluated. Anxiety reduction (achieving the anxiety score of ≥ four was obtained in 43.3% in melatonin and in 36.7% in gabapentin groups, respectively and both drugs were equally effective in anxiety reduction (p.value = 0.598.Pain reduction ( achieving the pain score of less than four was obtained in 23.3% in melatonin and in 50% in gabapentin groups, respectively and thus, gabapentin wasproved to be more effective in pain reduction (p.value = 0.032.Mild side effects were observed in 10% of melatonin group and in 16.7% of gabapentin group. No statistically significant differences were seen from viewpoint of safety between the two drugs (p.value=0.448. Conclusion: Melatonin and gabapentin were not effective drugs in anxiety reduction for lumbar puncture of children. However, gabapentin is a safe and effective drug in pain reduction in painful diagnostic therapeutic procedures.

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Preemptive Gabapentin and Dextromethorphan on the Postoperative Pain after Open Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mohaghegh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Preemptive administration of gabapentin and dextromethorphan has been shown to be effective for reduction of postoperative pain; but the effect of these two drugs has not yet been compared. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of administration of gabapentin and dextromethorphan on the postoperative pain after open prostatectomy.

    Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 80 adult males with ASA class of I, II and III who were candidate for open prostatectomy under spinal anesthesia in Shahid Hasheminejad Educational Center (in Tehran were enrolled and randomly allocated to two groups of gabapentin (n=40 and dextromethorphan (n=40. In dextromethorphan group, 60 mg of dextromethorphan syrup and in gabapentin group, 300 mg of gabapentin syrup were administered 2 hours preoperatively. During operation, the maximum height of block was determined at 5, 10 and 15 minutes after spinal anesthesia establishment. In postoperative period, at 1, 2, 12, and 24 hours, the pain intensity was measured through Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS; and, overall opioid consumption and the time to first analgesic request were recorded as well.

    Results: While the pain intensity in all the measurements was comparable between groups, at the 2nd hour, the pain was significantly lesser in gabapentin group (2.70±1.51 vs. 3.74±1.77, P=0.006. Also, the time for the first analgesic request was comparable between study groups; however, the total dose of postoperative opioid consumption was lesser in gabapentin group (45.0±39.32 vs. 64.45±32.12 mg, P=0.018. Moreover, the height of block showed no significant difference.

    Conclusion: Preemptive oral administration of 300 mg of gabapentin syrup in patients undergoing open prostatectomy under spinal

  20. Pregabalin and gabapentin for the treatment of sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kelvin; Marshman, Laurence A G; Plummer, David

    2016-04-01

    Whilst pregabalin (PGB) and gabapentin (GBP) are both used to treat neuropathic pain, their relative role in sciatica is unclear. Our aim was to extensively review the roles of PGB and GBP in treating sciatica. The efficacy, side effects (SE) profile and cost of PGB and GBP in neuropathic pain states were reviewed with special reference to sciatica. Eleven articles matched the criteria: seven systematic reviews, one retrospective cross-sectional study, one placebo-controlled-crossover study, one randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study and one case report. GBP and PGB appeared to demonstrate comparable efficacy and SE. However, the amount and quality of evidence was low, and only indirect comparisons were available. Importantly, no direct "head-to-head" study existed. Globally, costs varied widely (by up to 31 times) and unpredictably (PGB cheaper than GBP, or vice versa). Formulary regulator rulings were globally disparate; however, many exclusively favoured the more expensive drug (whether GBP or PGB). No studies assessed PGB-GBP interchange. Weak evidence suggests that efficacy and SE with GBP and PGB are probably similar; however, firm conclusions are precluded. Despite weak data, and having cited minor titration, but definite cost, advantages, UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence favoured PGB over GBP. Given that no evidence supports unhindered PGB-GBP interchange, neither drug should probably be favoured. Prospective "head-to-head" studies are urgently required to provide robust evidence-based knowledge for choice of GBP or PGB in sciatica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Vittorio; Giacomoni, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKC ε ) translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKC ε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKC ε . We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  2. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Vellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKCε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKCε. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  3. TIMP1 overexpression mediates resistance of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to fulvestrant and down-regulates progesterone receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Christina; Vinther, Lena; Belling, Kirstine C.

    2013-01-01

    is associated with endocrine sensitivity. We established a panel of 11 MCF-7 subclones with a wide range of TIMP1 mRNA and protein expression levels. Cells with high expression of TIMP1 versus low TIMP1 displayed significantly reduced sensitivity to the antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182,780, Faslodex®), while......, the effects of fulvestrant, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, or estrogen on estrogen receptor expression were not associated with TIMP1 levels. Gene expression analyses revealed associations between expression of TIMP1 and genes involved in metabolic pathways, epidermal growth factor receptor 1/cancer signaling pathways......, and cell cycle. Gene and protein expression analyses showed no general defects in estrogen receptor signaling except from lack of progesterone receptor expression and estrogen inducibility in clones with high TIMP1. The present study suggests a relation between high expression level of TIMP1 and loss...

  4. Randomised controlled trial comparing hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlan David, Shannon; Salzillo, Sandra; Bowe, Patrick; Scuncio, Sandra; Malit, Bridget; Raker, Christina; Gass, Jennifer S; Granai, C O; Dizon, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors, and to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a clinical trial comparing a drug with a complementary or alternative method (CAM). Design Prospective randomised trial. Setting Breast health centre of a tertiary care centre. Participants 15 women with a personal history of breast cancer or an increased risk of breast cancer who reported at least one daily hot flash. Interventions Gabapentin 900 mg daily in three divided doses (control) compared with standardised hypnotherapy. Participation lasted 8 weeks. Outcome measures The primary endpoints were the number of daily hot flashes and hot flash severity score (HFSS). The secondary endpoint was the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Results 27 women were randomised and 15 (56%) were considered evaluable for the primary endpoint (n=8 gabapentin, n=7 hypnotherapy). The median number of daily hot flashes at enrolment was 4.5 in the gabapentin arm and 5 in the hypnotherapy arm. HFSS scores were 7.5 in the gabapentin arm and 10 in the hypnotherapy arm. After 8 weeks, the median number of daily hot flashes was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 80% in the hypnotherapy arm. The median HFSS was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 85% in the hypnotherapy arm. HFRDIS scores improved by 51.6% in the gabapentin group and by 55.2% in the hypnotherapy group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Hypnotherapy and gabapentin demonstrate efficacy in improving hot flashes. A definitive trial evaluating traditional interventions against CAM methods is feasible, but not without challenges. Further studies aimed at defining evidence-based recommendations for CAM are necessary. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00711529). PMID:24022390

  5. Comparison of palbociclib in combination with letrozole or fulvestrant with endocrine therapies for advanced/metastatic breast cancer: network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirila, Costel; Mitra, Debanjali; Colosia, Ann; Ling, Caroline; Odom, Dawn; Iyer, Shrividya; Kaye, James A

    2017-08-01

    Palbociclib is the first cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor approved in the United States for HR+/HER2- advanced/metastatic breast cancer, in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy in postmenopausal women or with fulvestrant in women with disease progression following endocrine therapy. We compared progression-free survival (PFS) and discontinuations due to adverse events for palbociclib combinations against other endocrine therapies using a mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. A systematic literature review identified relevant trials. Separate analyses were conducted for each palbociclib combination using a Bayesian approach. Treatment rankings were established using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Sixty-five unique studies met inclusion criteria. Palbociclib plus letrozole had the highest SUCRA value (99.9%) and was associated with significantly longer PFS than all comparators in treatment-naïve patients (hazard ratios [HRs] ranged from 0.41 to 0.58). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant had the second highest SUCRA value (93.9%) and, in previously treated patients, yielded significantly longer PFS than most comparators (HRs ranged from 0.26 to 0.46); the exception was everolimus plus exemestane, with similar PFS (HR, 1.04; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.58-1.76). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was associated with significantly lower odds of discontinuation due to adverse events than everolimus plus exemestane (odds ratio, 0.14; 95% CrI, 0.05-0.39). The results suggest that the two palbociclib combinations yielded significantly greater PFS than endocrine therapy in treatment-naïve and previously treated patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was associated with significantly less toxicity than everolimus plus exemestane.

  6. The Effect of Gabapentin on Preoperative Anxiety and Postoperative Analgesia in Breast Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kisi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that pre-emptive orally gabapentin reduced the total amount of tramadol consumption and provided effective analgesia and lower pain scores without hemodynamic side effect but did not affect the STAI-1 anxiety scores. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 315-322

  7. Evaluating of the Anticonvulsant Gabapentin against Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures in a Guinea Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    treating neuropathic pain. This study evaluated whether gabapentin could terminate or moderate nerve agent-induced seizures using a validated guinea ... pig model. Male Hartley guinea pigs were surgically prepared to record electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. After a week recovery, animals were

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Compounded Intravenous and Oral Gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a manifestation of chronic pain that arises with damage to the somatosensory system. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for alleviation of neuropathic pain are often multimodal, and the few reports communicating treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in avian patients describe the use of gabapentin as part of the therapeutic regimen. To determine the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), compounded gabapentin suspensions were administered at 30 mg/kg IV to 2 birds, 10 mg/kg PO to 3 birds, and 30 mg/kg PO to 3 birds. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at 9 different time points after drug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for gabapentin concentration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with both a nonlinear mixed-effect approach and a noncompartmental analysis. The best compartmental, oral model was used to simulate the concentration-time profiles resulting from different dosing scenarios. Mild sedation was observed in both study birds after intravenous injection. Computer simulation of different dosing scenarios with the mean parameter estimates showed that 15 mg/kg every 8 hours would be a starting point for oral dosing in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots based on effective plasma concentrations reported for human patients; however, additional studies need to be performed to establish a therapeutic dose.

  9. The influence of pre-and perioperative administration of gabapentin on pain 3-4 years after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Petersen, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    study is a secondary follow-up of a primary RCT investigating the effect of gabapentin on acute postoperative pain after TKA and exploring the effect of pre- and perioperative administration of gabapentin on chronic postoperative pain and psychological state 3-4 years after TKA. METHODS: Patients...... not associated with gabapentin treatment (p>0.19). Significantly lower postoperative PCS and HADS-A scores were seen compared with preoperative scores (p0.55). CONCLUSIONS: The current study found that pre- and perioperative administrations...

  10. A Comparative Study between Oxcarbazepine and Gabapentin Regarding Therapeutic Efficiency and Tolerability in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakir Mohan Debta

    2010-01-01

    Recently two newer anticonvulsant oxcarbazepine (OXC a ketoderivative of carbamazepine and gabapentin (GBP has been trailed in trigeminal neuralgia in different open clinical trial as monotherapy with encouraging results. These drugs have convenient dosage and surprisingly fewer side effects. These facts that trigeminal neuralgia responds to newer anticonvulsant (oxcarbazepine, gabapentin in a better perspective, enabled me to conduct the present clinical trial on 54 patients (both in newly diagnosed TN patient and refractive patient of trigeminal neuralgia who were made two randomized group for separate monotherapy study for a period of six months. The therapeutic effect of OXC and gabapentin (GBP in relation to reduction in number of attacks of pain and severity of pain were evaluated. All the scoring data showed OXC is more therapeutic efficacious cost-effective and well-tolerated profile than gabapentin and an emerging as a drug for treatment of TN in both new and refractive patients.

  11. Topical gabapentin gel alleviates allodynia and hyperalgesia in the chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury neuropathic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Subhan, F; Ahmad, N; Ali, G; Akbar, S; Fawad, K; Sewell, R D E

    2017-04-01

    Systemic gabapentin is a mainstay treatment for neuropathic pain though there are side-effects. Localized therapy may curtail such side-effects so a topical gabapentin dermal application was examined in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. Partial denervation CCI was achieved by rat sciatic nerve ligation. Gabapentin gel (10% w/w) was applied three times daily on the ipsilateral or contralateral plantar surface of the hind-paw, whereas in a concurrent systemic study, gabapentin was intraperitoneally administered daily (75 mg/kg) for 30 days. Tests for static- and dynamic-mechano-allodynia [paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to von Frey filament application and latency (PWL) to light brushing], cold-allodynia [paw withdrawal duration (PWD) to acetone], heat- (PWL and PWD) and mechano-hyperalgesia (PWD to pin prick) were utilized to assess pain, whereas effects on locomotion (open field) and motor balance (rotarod and footprint analysis) were measured on days 5-30 post surgery. Topical application of gabapentin gel ipsilaterally but not contralaterally alleviated CCI-induced static- (days 10-30) and dynamic-allodynia (days 15-30), suppressed cold-allodynia (days 10-30), heat- (days 15-30) and mechano-hyperalgesia (days 5-30) indicating a local action. Systemic gabapentin exhibited similar pain profiles but was associated with motor impairment. The gabapentin gel formulation afforded desirable neuropathic pain alleviating effects devoid of unwanted systemic side-effects. These outcomes disclose an expedient pharmacological validation of the effectiveness of topical gabapentin gel against an extensive range of nociceptive stimulus modalities utilizing the CCI-induced neuropathic pain model. They also advocate further clinical studies on topical gabapentin with regard to certain neuropathic pain syndromes. Systemic gabapentin neuropathic pain management carries side-effects ostensibly preventable by localized therapy. This study validates the

  12. Gabapentin for the Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women (GaPP1: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steff C Lewis

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP affects 2.1-24% of women. Frequently, no underlying pathology is identified, and the pain is difficult to manage. Gabapentin is prescribed for CPP despite no robust evidence of efficacy. We performed a pilot trial in two UK centres to inform the planning of a future multicentre RCT to evaluate gabapentin in CPP management. Our primary objective was to determine levels of participant recruitment and retention. Secondary objectives included estimating potential effectiveness, acceptability to participants of trial methodology, and cost-effectiveness of gabapentin. Women with CPP and no obvious pelvic pathology were assigned to an increasing regimen of gabapentin (300-2700mg daily or placebo. We calculated the proportion of eligible women randomised, and of randomised participants who were followed up to six months. The analyses by treatment group were by intention-to-treat. Interviews were conducted to evaluate women's experiences of the trial. A probabilistic decision analytical model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness. Between September 2012-2013, 47 women (34% of those eligible were randomised (22 to gabapentin, 25 to placebo, and 25 (53% completed six-month follow-up. Participants on gabapentin had less pain (BPI difference 1.72 points, 95% CI:0.07-3.36, and an improvement in mood (HADS difference 4.35 points, 95% CI:1.97-6.73 at six months than those allocated placebo. The majority of participants described their trial experience favorably. At the UK threshold for willingness-to-pay, the probabilities of gabapentin or no treatment being cost-effective are similar. A pilot trial assessing gabapentin for CPP was feasible, but uncertainty remains, highlighting the need for a large definitive trial.

  13. Gabapentin for once-daily treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beal B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Beal,1 Tobias Moeller-Bertram,1,2 Jan M Schilling,1 Mark S Wallace11Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, 2VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Post-herpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome resulting from an insult to the peripheral and central nervous systems caused by the varicella zoster virus. Spontaneous pain may result in the persistent sensation of burning, tingling, or aching and may be associated with thermally or mechanically provoked pain, resulting in hyperalgesia or allodynia. The majority of cases occur in patients over the age of 50 years. Gabapentin is a structural analog of gamma aminobutyric acid that binds to the α2-δ site of voltage-dependent calcium channels and modulates the influx of calcium, with a resulting reduction in excitatory neurotransmitter release. Gabapentin is effective in reducing neuropathic pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia when given at least three times per day, due to its short half-life, resulting in demonstrable fluctuations in plasma levels. Gabapentin has dose-limiting side effects that prevent some patients from achieving therapeutic plasma levels, such as somnolence (27.4%, dizziness (23.9%, and ataxia (7.1%. Gralise™ is a once-daily extended-release formulation of gabapentin that has been developed using AcuForm™ technology. AcuForm is a polymer-based drug delivery system that retains the tablet in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract for a sustained period of time. Once-daily dosing has been shown to provide comparable drug exposure with an identical daily dose of the immediate-release formulation when administered three times daily. Participants given Gralise 1800 mg daily had a statistically significant reduction in average daily pain intensity scores compared with placebo, reduced sleep interference due to pain, and a greater percent of participants reporting being much or very much improved on

  14. PALOMA-3: Phase III Trial of Fulvestrant With or Without Palbociclib in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer That Progressed on Prior Endocrine Therapy-Safety and Efficacy in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroji; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Im, Young-Hyuck; Inoue, Kenichi; Rai, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Rikiya; Kim, Jee Hyun; Hoffman, Justin T; Zhang, Ke; Giorgetti, Carla; Iyer, Shrividya; Schnell, Patrick T; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Ro, Jungsil

    2017-08-01

    To assess efficacy and safety of palbociclib plus fulvestrant in Asians with endocrine therapy-resistant metastatic breast cancer. The Palbociclib Ongoing Trials in the Management of Breast Cancer 3 (PALOMA-3) trial, a double-blind phase III study, included 521 patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer with disease progression on endocrine therapy. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed on study treatment and at the end of treatment. This preplanned subgroup analysis of the PALOMA-3 study included premenopausal and postmenopausal Asians taking palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 71) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 31). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with fulvestrant alone. Median PFS was not reached with palbociclib plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 9.2 months to not reached) but was 5.8 months with placebo plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 3.5 to 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.485; 95% CI, 0.270 to 0.869; P = .0065). The most common all-cause grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the palbociclib arm were neutropenia (92%) and leukopenia (29%); febrile neutropenia occurred in 4.1% of patients. Within-patient mean trough concentration comparisons across subgroups indicated similar palbociclib exposure between Asians and non-Asians. Global quality of life was maintained; no statistically significant changes from baseline were observed for patient-reported outcome scores with palbociclib plus fulvestrant. This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing that palbociclib plus fulvestrant improves PFS in asian patients. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was well tolerated in this study.

  15. PALOMA-3: Phase III Trial of Fulvestrant With or Without Palbociclib in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor–Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer That Progressed on Prior Endocrine Therapy—Safety and Efficacy in Asian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Im, Young-Hyuck; Inoue, Kenichi; Rai, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Rikiya; Kim, Jee Hyun; Hoffman, Justin T.; Zhang, Ke; Giorgetti, Carla; Iyer, Shrividya; Schnell, Patrick T.; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Ro, Jungsil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess efficacy and safety of palbociclib plus fulvestrant in Asians with endocrine therapy–resistant metastatic breast cancer. Patients and Methods The Palbociclib Ongoing Trials in the Management of Breast Cancer 3 (PALOMA-3) trial, a double-blind phase III study, included 521 patients with hormone receptor–positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative metastatic breast cancer with disease progression on endocrine therapy. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed on study treatment and at the end of treatment. Results This preplanned subgroup analysis of the PALOMA-3 study included premenopausal and postmenopausal Asians taking palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 71) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 31). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with fulvestrant alone. Median PFS was not reached with palbociclib plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 9.2 months to not reached) but was 5.8 months with placebo plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 3.5 to 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.485; 95% CI, 0.270 to 0.869; P = .0065). The most common all-cause grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the palbociclib arm were neutropenia (92%) and leukopenia (29%); febrile neutropenia occurred in 4.1% of patients. Within-patient mean trough concentration comparisons across subgroups indicated similar palbociclib exposure between Asians and non-Asians. Global quality of life was maintained; no statistically significant changes from baseline were observed for patient-reported outcome scores with palbociclib plus fulvestrant. Conclusion This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing that palbociclib plus fulvestrant improves PFS in asian patients. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was well tolerated in this study. PMID:28831437

  16. PALOMA-3: Phase III Trial of Fulvestrant With or Without Palbociclib in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor–Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer That Progressed on Prior Endocrine Therapy—Safety and Efficacy in Asian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroji Iwata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess efficacy and safety of palbociclib plus fulvestrant in Asians with endocrine therapy–resistant metastatic breast cancer. Patients and Methods: The Palbociclib Ongoing Trials in the Management of Breast Cancer 3 (PALOMA-3 trial, a double-blind phase III study, included 521 patients with hormone receptor–positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative metastatic breast cancer with disease progression on endocrine therapy. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs were assessed on study treatment and at the end of treatment. Results: This preplanned subgroup analysis of the PALOMA-3 study included premenopausal and postmenopausal Asians taking palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 71 or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 31. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant improved progression-free survival (PFS compared with fulvestrant alone. Median PFS was not reached with palbociclib plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 9.2 months to not reached but was 5.8 months with placebo plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 3.5 to 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.485; 95% CI, 0.270 to 0.869; P = .0065. The most common all-cause grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the palbociclib arm were neutropenia (92% and leukopenia (29%; febrile neutropenia occurred in 4.1% of patients. Within-patient mean trough concentration comparisons across subgroups indicated similar palbociclib exposure between Asians and non-Asians. Global quality of life was maintained; no statistically significant changes from baseline were observed for patient-reported outcome scores with palbociclib plus fulvestrant. Conclusion: This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing that palbociclib plus fulvestrant improves PFS in asian patients. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was well tolerated in this study.

  17. Quantification of the Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Morphine and Gabapentin Using a Response Surface Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The combination of morphine and gabapentin has shown to be promising for managing postoperative pain but finding the right dose for the combination has proven to be a challenge. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the pharmacodynamic interaction between the two drugs...... studies. The combined pharmacodynamic effect of morphine and gabapentin was analyzed and linked to drug plasma concentrations via a response surface approach using non-linear mixed-effect modeling. Full reversal of withdrawal thresholds for the pain stimulation to presurgery values was estimated...... of pharmacodynamic interactions. The proposed pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model may provide the basis for a rational clinical trial design with the aim to identify the optimal dose combination ratios in humans....

  18. Do carbamazepine, gabapentin, or other anticonvulsants exert sufficient radioprotective effects to alter responses from trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, John C; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C

    2012-07-15

    Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up ≥6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age ≤70 years, and Type 1 typical

  19. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kano, Hideyuki [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Niranjan, Ajay [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Flickinger, John C., E-mail: flickingerjc@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  20. Efficiencies of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Gabapentin in the Management of Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Daoud, Eitedal M; El Gendy, Aliaa; Mourad, Hagar H; Mannaa, Fathia A; Saber, Maha M

    2018-03-12

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the highly occurred complication of diabetes mellitus; it has been defined as an event of peripheral nerve dysfunction characterized by pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and paraesthesia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of neuropathy in diabetic rats. The used animals were divided into the following groups: negative control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats with peripheral neuropathy (DNP) and DNP treated with gabapentin or with LLLT. Behavioral tests were carried out through hotplate test for the determination of pain sensations and the Morris water maze test for spatial reference memory evaluation. Blood samples were collected at the end of treatment for biochemical determinations. In the current study, the latency of hind-paw lick decreased significantly when DNP are treated with gabapentin or LLLT. The Morris water maze test showed that LLLT treatment improved memory that deteriorated in DNP more than gabapentin do. The results of the biochemical study revealed that LLLT could not affect the level of beta-endorphin that decreased in DNP but significantly decreased S100B that rose in DNP. PGE2 and cytokines IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α showed significant increase in DNP compared with control group. The gabapentin administration or LLLT application significantly reversed the levels of the mentioned markers towards the normal values of the controls. Levels of serum MDA and nitric oxide increased significantly in the DNP but rGSH showed significant decrease. These markers were improved significantly when the DNP were treated with gabapentin or LLLT. The treatment with gabapentin or LLLT significantly decreased the raised level in total cholesterol in DNP but could not decrease the elevated level of triglycerides, while LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in DNP treated with gabapentin but not affected by LLLT. Values of serum alanine

  1. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up ≥6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6–153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with

  2. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [{sup 18}F]fluorine substitution at the 16{alpha}-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seimbille, Yann; Benard, Francois E-mail: francois.benard@USherbrooke.ca; Rousseau, Jacques; Pepin, Emilie; Aliaga, Antonio; Tessier, Guillaume; Lier, Johan E. van

    2004-08-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ER{alpha} and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for {sup 18}F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16{alpha}-position for {sup 18}F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [{sup 18}F]fluoride at the 16-{sup 18}F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 16{sup 18}F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators.

  3. The Effect of Gabapentin and Tramadol in Cancer Pain Induced by Glioma Cell in Rat Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Ramos, Janette Nallely; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Romero-Piña, Mario; Medina, Luis A; Martínez-Racine, Issac; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar A; García-López, Patricia; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical Research The presence of pain as part of the cancer process is variable. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) can produce bone metastasis, a condition that involves other pathological phenotypes including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Tramadol and gabapentin are drugs used in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, there are no studies evaluating their analgesic effects in bone metastasis. We produced a pain model induced by the inoculation of glioma cells (10 5 ) into the rat femur, by perforating the intercodiloid fossa. Painful behavior was evaluated by measuring mechanical allodynia using the Von Frey test while thermal hyperalgesia was assessed in the plantar test. Histopathological features were evaluated and antinociceptive responses were compared using tramadol and gabapentin. The inoculation of cells inside the right femur produced nociceptive behaviors. Tramadol and gabapentin produced an anti-allodynic effect in this condition, but tramadol did not produce an anti-hyperalgesic response. The development of this model will allow us to perform tests to elucidate the pathology of bone metastasis, cancer pain, and in particular the pain produced by glioma. Drug Dev Res 78 : 173-183, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quality of life with palbociclib plus fulvestrant in previously treated hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: patient-reported outcomes from the PALOMA-3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, N; Iyer, S; Turner, N; Cristofanilli, M; Ro, J; André, F; Loi, S; Verma, S; Iwata, H; Bhattacharyya, H; Puyana Theall, K; Bartlett, C H; Loibl, S

    2016-06-01

    In the PALOMA-3 study, palbociclib plus fulvestrant demonstrated improved progression-free survival compared with fulvestrant plus placebo in hormone receptor-positive, HER2- endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This analysis compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between the two treatment groups. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to receive palbociclib 125 mg/day orally for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off (n = 347) plus fulvestrant (500 mg i.m. per standard of care) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174). PROs were assessed on day 1 of cycles 1-4 and of every other subsequent cycle starting with cycle 6 using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and its breast cancer module, QLQ-BR23. High scores (range 0-100) could indicate better functioning/quality of life (QoL) or worse symptom severity. Repeated-measures mixed-effect analyses were carried out to compare on-treatment overall scores and changes from baseline between treatment groups while controlling for baseline. Between-group comparisons of time to deterioration in global QoL and pain were made using an unstratified log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Questionnaire completion rates were high at baseline and during treatment (from baseline to cycle 14, ≥95.8% in each group completed ≥1 question on the EORTC QLQ-C30). On treatment, estimated overall global QoL scores significantly favored the palbociclib plus fulvestrant group [66.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.5-67.7 versus 63.0, 95% CI 60.6-65.3; P = 0.0313]. Significantly greater improvement from baseline in pain was also observed in this group (-3.3, 95% CI -5.1 to -1.5 versus 2.0, 95% CI -0.6 to 4.6; P = 0.0011). No significant differences were observed for other QLQ-BR23 functioning domains, breast or arm symptoms. Treatment with palbociclib plus fulvestrant significantly delayed deterioration in global QoL (P < 0.025) and pain (P < 0.001) compared with fulvestrant alone. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant allowed patients to maintain good Qo

  5. Gabapentin-lactam, but not gabapentin, reduces protein aggregates and improves motor performance in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Birgit; Ludin, Dagmar E; Gerds, Thomas A; Lücking, Carl H; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2004-08-01

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anti-convulsant widely used in the treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes, has been suggested to have neuroprotective properties. There is evidence, however, that the neuroprotective properties attributed to GBP are rather associated with a derivative of GBP, gabapentin-lactam (GBP-L), which opens mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels, in contrast to GBP. We explored whether GBP and GBP-L may attenuate the course of a monogenetic autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington's disease (HD), using a transgenic mouse model. R6/2 mice treated with GBP-L performed walking on a narrow beam better than mice receiving no treatment, vehicle or GBP, suggesting a beneficial effect of GBP-L on motor function. In addition, a marked reduction of neuronal nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions was observed in brains of mice treated with GBP-L. The pharmacokinetics of GBP-L yielded a mean plasma concentration near the EC50 of GBP-L to open mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels. These findings support the role of GBP-L as a novel neuroprotective substance in vivo.

  6. Gabapentin reduces CX3CL1 signaling and blocks spinal microglial activation in monoarthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jia-Le

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal glia, particularly microglia and astrocytes, are of the utmost importance in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. A recent study from our laboratory revealed that gabapentin, a recommended first-line treatment for multiple neuropathic conditions, could also efficiently antagonize thermal hyperalgesia evoked by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced monoarthritis (MA. In the present study, we investigated whether the spinal glia are involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of gabapentin and how this event occurs. Results Unilateral intra-articular injection of CFA produced a robust activation of microglia and astrocytes. These cells exhibited large cell bodies, thick processes and increases in the ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1, a microglial marker or the glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocytic marker. These cells also displayed immunoreactive signals, and an upregulation of the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs α2/δ-1 subunit, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression levels in the spinal cord. These changes were associated with the development of thermal hyperalgesia. Immunofluorescence staining showed that VGCC α2/δ-1 subunit, a proposed gabapentin target of action, was widely distributed in primary afferent fibers terminals and dorsal horn neurons. CX3CL1, a potential trigger to activate microglia, colocalized with VGCC α2/δ-1 subunits in the spinal dorsal horn. However, its receptor CX3CR1 was mainly expressed in the spinal microglia. Multiple intraperitoneal (i.p. gabapentin injections (100 mg/kg, once daily for 4 days with the first injection 60 min before intra-articular CFA suppressed the activation of spinal microglia, downregulated spinal VGCC α2/δ-1 subunits decreased CX3CL1 levels and blocked the development of thermal hyperalgesia in MA rats. Conclusions Here we provide the first evidence that gabapentin diminishes CX3CL1 signaling and spinal microglia

  7. Evaluation of gabapentin and dexamethasone alone or in combination for pain control after adenotonsillectomy in children

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    Sabry Mohammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different methods and many drugs have been used to control the post-operative pain. In this study, we evaluate the role of gabapentin premedication and/or dexamethasone in management of post-operative pain following adenotonsillectomy in children. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind randomized study, 120 children were subjected for adenotonsillectomy classified into three equal groups. Group G: Gabapentin 10 mg/kg was given orally 2 h before induction of anesthesia (Gabapentin syrup 250 mg/5 ml. Group D: Children in this group received placebo pre-operatively and received dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg intravenously after induction of anesthesia, but before surgery. Group C: Children in this group received combination of oral gabapentin 10 mg/kg 2 h before induction of anesthesia and intra-operative 0.15 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. All children underwent general anesthesia. Pain score was assisted post-operatively 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 18 h after recovery using face, legs, activity, cry, consolability scale. Results: Pain score in Group C and Group G was significantly less at 4 h, 6 h and 8 h post-operatively than in Group D (P 0.05. The time to first analgesia was longer in the Group C than in Group G and Group D and the time to first analgesia was significantly longer in Group G than in Group D (P < 0.05. The total amount of pethidine was less in Group C and Group G than in Group D (P < 0.05. The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting was statically insignificant among all groups and no reported post-operative bleeding. Conclusion: Gabapentin 10 mg/kg premedication combined with intra-operative dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg prolongs the post-operative analgesia following adenotonsillectomy in children and decreases the amount of pethidine used post-operatively with no reported adverse effects or increase in the incidence of post-operative bleeding.

  8. Efficacy of gabapentin versus diclofenac in the treatment of chest pain and paresthesia in patients with sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyik, Ismail; Gülcüler, Metin; Karabiga, Murat; Ergene, Oktay; Tayyar, Nezih

    2009-10-01

    Chronic post-sternotomy chest pain and paresthesia (PCPP) are frequently seen and reduce the quality of life. We aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin compared with diclofenac in the treatment of PCPP and to elucidate the similarities of PCPP to neuropathic pain syndromes. The prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point design of study was used. One hundred and ten patients having PCPP lasting three months or more were randomized to receive 800 mg/daily gabapentin (n=55) and 75 mg/daily diclofenac (n=55) for thirty days. All patients have undergone cardiac surgery and median sternotomy. The perception of pain or paresthesia was evaluated as 0--Normal (no pain or paresthesia), 1--Mild, 2--Moderate, 3--Severe at baseline and after thirty days of treatment. Recurrences were questioned after three months. Statistical analyses were performed using independent samples t, Chi-square, continuity correction, Fisher's exact, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests. In gabapentin group, mean pain and paresthesia scores regressed from 2.12+/- 0.76 to 0.54+/- 0.83 (pparesthesia scores regressed in diclofenac group from 1.93+/- 0.8 to 1.0+/- 1.13 (p<0.001) and from 1.76+/- 0.74 to 1.24+/- 0.96 (p=0.002), respectively. Although, both gabapentin and diclofenac were found to be effective without obvious side effects in the treatment of PCPP (p<0.001), gabapentin was found to be superior to diclofenac (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Adverse effects were seen in 7% of patients on gabapentin and 4% of patients on diclofenac. Results also showed that symptomatic relief with gabapentin lasts longer than diclofenac (p<0.001). Both gabapentin and diclofenac are effective in the treatment of chronic PCPP, without obvious side effects. However, gabapentin is found to be superior to diclofenac and its effects sustain longer. The results show that there may be some evidence in PCPP as a kind of neuropathic pain.

  9. Possible involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effects of gabapentin in mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Akbarian, Reyhaneh; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Nikoui, Vahid; Zolfaghari, Samira; Chamanara, Mohsen; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-07-01

    Gabapentin as an anticonvulsant drug also has beneficial effects in treatment of depression. Previously, we showed that acute administration of gabapentin produced an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) by a mechanism that involves the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO). Considering the involvement of NO in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ), in the present study we investigated the involvement of K ATP channels in antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin. Gabapentin at different doses (5-10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) were administrated by intraperitoneal route, 60 and 30 min, respectively, before the test. To clarify the probable involvement of K ATP channels, mice were pretreated with K ATP channel inhibitor or opener. Gabapentin at dose 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility behavior of mice similar to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). Co-administration of subeffective dose (1 mg/kg) of glibenclamide (inhibitor of K ATP channels) with gabapentin (3 mg/kg) showed a synergistic antidepressant-like effect. Also, subeffective dose of cromakalim (opener of K ATP channels, 0.1 mg/kg) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin (10 mg/kg). None of the treatments had any impact on the locomotor movement. Our study, for the first time, revealed that antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin in mice is mediated by blocking the K ATP channels.

  10. Development of Direct Reversed-Phase High Performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitative determination of gabapentin in pharmaceutical dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.; Zaman, B.; Rahman, S.; Rahman, A.U.; Ali, N.; Mohammadzai, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop and validate a rapid analytical method for quantitative determination of Gabapentin in pharmaceutical dosage tablets and capsules. An accurate, simple, and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, UV detection at 215 nm and flow rate at 1.0 ml/min has been developed. Isocratic elution was used instead of gradient elution to reduce the time and cost of serial analysis. The mobile phase was a mixture of water and methanol (HPLC grade). The retention time (Rt) of Gabapentin was 4.681 +- 0.013 minutes. Recovery, Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined for the stated method. The calibration curve was linear and the correlation coefficient was 0.9996. There was no chromatographic interference from other excipients present in dosage form. The method was validated appropriately and successfully used for determination of Gabapentin in Pharmaceutical formulations. (author)

  11. Involvement of nitridergic and opioidergic pathways in the antinociception of gabapentin in the orofacial formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Sierralta, Fernando; Lux, Sebastian; Troncoso, Rocío; Ciudad, Natalia; Zepeda, Ramiro; Zanetta, Pilar; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Pain is one of the most common problems in clinical medicine. There is considerable evidence that pharmacologic approaches are the most widely used therapeutic options to ameliorate persistent or chronic pain. In this study it was evaluated the effect of l-NAME and naltrexone in the antinociception induced by administration of gabapentin in the orofacial formalin test of mice. The algesiometer assay was performed by the administration of 20 μl of 2% formalin solution injected into the upper right lip of each mouse. The dose of gabapentin that produces the 50% of the maximum possible effect (ED50) was significantly increased by the pretreatment with l-NAME or naltrexone. These results suggest that gabapentin produce antinociception partly via the activation nitridergic pathways and opioid system. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Attenuation of Hemodynamic Responses to Intubation by Gabapentin in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Marashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A varieties of medications have been suggested to prevent hemodynamic instabilities following laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. This study was conducted to determine the beneficial effects of gabapentin on preventing hemodynamic instabilities associated with intubation in patients who were a candidate for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. This double blinded randomized, parallel group clinical trial was carried out on 58 normotensive patients scheduled for elective CABG under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation in Shariati Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of 29 patients that received 1200 mg of gabapentin in two dosages (600 mg, 8 hours before anesthesia induction and 600 mg, 2 hours before anesthesia induction as gabapentin group or received talc powder as placebo (placebo group. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured immediately before intubation, during intubation, immediately after intubation, 1 and 2 minutes after tracheal intubation. Inter-group comparisons significantly showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and heart rate immediately before intubation, during intubation, immediately after intubation, 1 and 2 minutes after tracheal intubation in the placebo group in comparison to gabapentin group. The median of anxiety  verbal analog scale (VAS at the pre-induction room in gabapentin and placebo groups were 2 and 4,  respectively that was significantly lower in the former group (P. value =0.04 ; however, regarding median of pain score no difference was observed between them (P. value =0.07. Gabapentin (1200mg given preoperatively can effectively attenuate the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, intubation and also reduce preoperative related anxiety in patients who were a candidate for CABG.

  13. Comparison of efficacy and safety of topiramate with gabapentin in migraine prophylaxis: randomized open label control trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, S.; Khan, M.; Alam, R.; Zafar, I.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of topiramate with gabapentin in the prophylaxis of migraine patients. Methods: A 12-week randomised open label control trial was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi from January to March 2011 involving 80 outpatients who had a history of migraine. The sample was divided into two equal groups. Primary efficacy measure was changed into mean monthly migraine frequency. Secondary efficacy measure included reduction in severity and average duration of an attack. Chi square test and paired t-test were used to analyse the data through SPSS 15. Result: Reduction in mean monthly migraine frequency (10.67+-4.25 to 1.82+-2.02) in the topiramate group was significantly greater compared with (11.97+-4.452 to 2.73+-2.59) that in the gabapentin group (p<0.001). Reduction in severity from 6.60+-2.122 to 1.03+-0.92 in the topiramate group was also significantly greater compared with 6.93+-1.90 to 1.18+-1.01 in the gabapentin group (p<0.001). Reduction in the average duration of attacks from 25.77+-22.32 hours to 1.0 1.06 hours in the topiramate group was significantly greater compared with 22.20+-20.72 to 1.08+-1.40 hours in the gabapentin group (p<0.001). Weight loss and numbness were common adverse effects in the topiramate group. Dizziness, weight gain and somnolence were reported in the gabapentin group. Conclusion: Gabapentin appeared well tolerated in 30(75%) patients compared to topiramate in 23(57.5%) patients. Both drugs were equally effective in migraine prophylaxis. (author)

  14. Effect of gabapentin pretreatment on myoclonus after etomidate: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Mensure Yılmaz Çakirgöz

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To evaluate the effects of three different doses of gabapentin pretreatment on the incidence and severity of myoclonic movements linked to etomidate injection. Method: One hundered patients, between 18 and 60 years of age and risk category American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, with planned elective surgery under general anesthetic were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into four groups and 2 h before the operation were given oral capsules of placebo (Group P, n = 25, 400 mg gabapentin (Group G400, n = 25, 800 mg gabapentin (Group G800, n = 25 or 1200 mg gabapentin (Group G1200, n = 25. Side effects before the operation were recorded. After preoxygenation for anesthesia induction 0.3 mg kg−1 etomidate was administered for 10 s. A single anesthetist with no knowledge of the study medication evaluated sedation and myoclonic movements on a scale between 0 and 3. Two minutes after induction, 2 µg kg−1 fentanyl and 0.8 mg kg−1 rocuronium were administered for tracheal intubation. Results: Demographic data were similar. Incidence and severity of myoclonus in Group G1200 and Group G800 were significantly lower than in Group P; sedation incidence and level were appreciably higher compared to Group P and Group G400. While there was no difference in the incidence of myoclonus between Group P and Group G400, the severity of myoclonus in Group G400 was lower than in the placebo group. In the two-hour period before induction other than sedation none of the side effects related to gabapentin were observed in any patient. Conclusion: Pretreatment with 800 mg and 1200 mg gabapentin 2 h before the operation increased the level of sedation and reduced the incidence and severity of myoclonic movements due to etomidate.

  15. Effects of a single preappointment dose of gabapentin on signs of stress in cats during transportation and veterinary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, Karen A; Forsythe, Lauren R Eichstadt; Stelow, Elizabeth A; Bain, Melissa J

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of oral gabapentin administration prior to veterinary examination on signs of stress in cats. DESIGN Randomized, blinded, crossover clinical trial. ANIMALS 20 healthy pet cats with a history of fractious behavior or signs of stress during veterinary examination. PROCEDURES Cats were scheduled for 2 veterinary visits 1 week apart and randomly assigned to receive a capsule containing 100 mg of gabapentin (13.0 to 29.4 mg/kg [5.9 to 13.4 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose powder) prior to the first visit and the opposite treatment prior to the second visit. Owners were instructed to administer the assigned capsule orally 90 minutes prior to placing the cat into a carrier and transporting it to the veterinary hospital. Standardized physical examinations and blood pressure readings were performed. Owners assigned a cat stress score during transportation and examination, and the veterinarian assigned a compliance score at the visit. Scores were compared between treatments, controlling for various factors. RESULTS Owner-assessed cat stress scores during transportation and veterinary examination and veterinarian-assessed compliance scores were significantly lower when cats received gabapentin than when they received the placebo. Sedation was a common effect of gabapentin administration, and ataxia, hypersalivation, and vomiting were also reported. All effects resolved within 8 hours after gabapentin administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Owners' perception of stress in their cats is a primary reason for failing to seek veterinary care. Results of this study suggested that gabapentin is a safe and effective treatment for cats to help reduce stress and aggression and increase compliance for transportation and veterinary examination.

  16. COMBINATION OF MORPHINE AND GABAPENTIN LEADS TO SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS IN A RAT MODEL OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    Postoperative pain is a complex clinical condition that is still inadequately managed. Opioids remain the first line agents for the management of postoperative pain despite their side effects. Combination treatment with non-opioid agents that act at different sites within the central and peripheral...... of hindpaw withdrawal thresholds, after subcutaneous administration of morphine (0, 1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (0, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations of the above doses) were obtained using an electronic von Frey device. Surface of synergistic interaction (SSI) analysis was used...

  17. The Effect of Acute Ethanol and Gabapentin Administration on Spatial Learning and Memory

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    Fahimeh Yeganeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Patients with epilepsy can have impaired cognitive abilities. Many factors contribute to this impairment, including the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs like Gabapentin (GBP. Apart from anti-epilectic action, Gabapentin is used to relieve ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Because both GBP and ethanol act on GABA ergic system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate their effect and interaction on spatial learning and memory. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in the Morris water maze for 5 consecutive days. On the sixth day, a probe test was performed to assess the retention phase or spatial rats’ memory ability. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p. and GBP (30 mg/kg i.p. was administered each day 30 and 40 minutes before testing respectively. Results: Acute ethanol administration selectively impaired spatial memory (p<0.05, yet it failed to impair the acquisition phase (learning. Contradictorily GBP selectively impaired learning on second and forth days. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GBP and acute ethanol impair different phases of learning probably by modifying different neuronal pathways in cognitive areas of the brain.

  18. Rapid examination of the kinetic process of intramolecular lactamization of gabapentin using DSC-FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lin, S.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability and thermodynamics of gabapentin (GBP) in the solid state were investigated by DSC and TG techniques, and FTIR microspectroscopy. The detailed intramolecular lactamization process of GBP to form gabapentin-lactam (GBP-L) was also determined by thermal FTIR microspectroscopy. GBP exhibited a DSC endothermic peak at 169 deg. C. The weight loss in TG curve of GBP suggested that the evaporation process of water liberated via intramolecular lactamization was simultaneously combined with the evaporation process of GBP-L having a DSC endothermic peak at 91 deg. C. A thermal FTIR microspectroscopy clearly evidenced the IR spectra at 3350 cm -1 for water liberated and at 1701 cm -1 for lactam structure formed due to the lactam formation of GBP. This study indicates that the activation energy for combined processes of intramolecular lactamization of GBP and evaporation of GBP-L was about 114.3 ± 23.3 kJ/mol, but for the evaporation of GBP-L alone was 76.2 ± 1.5 kJ/mol. A powerful simultaneous DSC-FTIR combined technique was easily used to quickly examine the detailed kinetic processes of intramolecular cyclization of GPB and evaporation of GBP-L in the solid state

  19. Multimodal analgesia with gabapentin, ketamine and dexamethasone in combination with paracetamol and ketorolac after hip arthroplasty: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Mathiesen, Ole; Dierking, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that combinations of analgesics with different mechanisms of action may reduce or even prevent postoperative pain. We, therefore, investigated the analgesic effect of gabapentin, dexamethasone and low-dose ketamine in combination with paracetamol and ketorolac as compared...

  20. Low dose of donepezil improves gabapentin analgesia in the rat spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anna; Honoré, Per Hartvig; Andersen, Lene Munkholm

    2010-01-01

    the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil when administered (1) alone and (2) as low-dose in combination with the first-line recommendation gabapentin. The co-administration studies were performed following single and multiple dosing. Single, parenteral dosing of donepezil (1, 1.5 and 3 mg...

  1. Effect of Gabapentin on morphine demand and pain after laparoscopic sterilization using Filshie clips. A double blind randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jens; Hilsted, Karen L; Hjortsoe, Nils C

    2006-01-01

    A considerable number of patients require opioids during recovery after laparoscopic sterilization. This implies nausea, dizziness and sedation and increases the number of unplanned admissions. Gabapentin has shown excellent postoperative analgesic effect in a number of recent studies with few si...

  2. Multimodal analgesia with gabapentin, ketamine and dexamethasone in combination with paracetamol and ketorolac after hip arthroplasty: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Mathiesen, Ole; Dierking, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that combinations of analgesics with different mechanisms of action may reduce or even prevent postoperative pain. We, therefore, investigated the analgesic effect of gabapentin, dexamethasone and low-dose ketamine in combination with paracetamol and ketorolac as compared...... with paracetamol and ketorolac alone after hip arthroplasty....

  3. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B

    2013-12-01

    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    cell lines concomitant with inhibition of Erk and unaltered Akt activation. In concert, inhibition of Erk with U0126 preferentially reduced growth of resistant cell lines. Treatment with ErbB3 neutralizing antibodies inhibited ErbB3 activation and resulted in a modest but statistically significant...... activation was observed only in the parental MCF-7 cells. The downstream kinases pAkt and pErk were increased in five of seven and in all seven resistant cell lines, respectively. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib preferentially inhibited growth and reduced the S phase fraction in the resistant...... growth inhibition of two resistant cell lines. These data indicate that ligand activated ErbB3 and EGFR, and Erk signaling play important roles in fulvestrant resistant cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased level of ErbB4 in resistant cells may facilitate heterodimerization of ErbB3 with EGFR and ErbB2...

  5. Health-related quality of life from the FALCON phase III randomised trial of fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John F R; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Shao, Zhimin; Degboe, Arnold; Lichfield, Jasmine; Thirlwell, Jackie; Fazal, Mehdi; Ellis, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    The phase III randomised FALCON trial (NCT01602380) demonstrated improved progression-free survival with fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg in endocrine therapy-naïve postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (LA/MBC). Furthermore, overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was maintained and comparable for fulvestrant and anastrozole. Here, we present additional analyses of patient-reported HRQoL outcomes from FALCON. Women with endocrine therapy-naïve HR+ LA/MBC were randomised 1:1 to fulvestrant (days 0, 14, 28, then every 28 d) or anastrozole (daily) until disease progression or discontinuation. HRQoL was assessed by FACT-B questionnaire (TOI and FACT-B total score) at randomisation and every 12 weeks during treatment. HRQoL data post-treatment (with or without progression) were also collected. In total, 462 patients were randomised (fulvestrant, n = 230; anastrozole, n = 232). Compliance to FACT-B overall ranged from 60.0 to 97.4%. Mean change from baseline in TOI and FACT-B total score remained broadly stable (approximately ± 3 points to week 132) and was similar between arms during treatment. HRQoL was also maintained in FACT-B subscales. Approximately one-third of patients had improved TOI (≥+6 points) and FACT-B (≥+8 points) total scores from baseline up to week 120 and 132, respectively, of treatment with fulvestrant (ranges 26.4-45.0% and 22.4-35.8%, respectively) and anastrozole (ranges 18.6-32.9%, and 22.7-37.9%, respectively). Mean change from baseline in TOI and FACT-B total score was maintained for fulvestrant and anastrozole; similar proportions of patients in both arms had improved TOI and FACT-B total scores. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01602380. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of premedication with oral gabapentin on intraocular pressure changes following tracheal intubation in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbolova, Alexandra; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Capik, Igor

    2017-09-19

    Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug widely approved as an add-on therapy for epilepsy treatment in human and dogs. There is a clinical impression that gabapentin is a suitable drug which attenuates the IOP elevation associated with tracheal intubation in humans. The present study performed to determine the effects of oral gabapentin on intraocular pressure (IOP) changes following tracheal intubation in dogs. Twenty adult healthy dogs were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. Dogs in the treatment group received oral gabapentin (50 mg/kg) 2 h before induction of anesthesia and dogs in the control group received oral gelatin capsule placebo at the same time. The dogs were anesthetized with propofol 6 mg/kg, and anesthesia was maintained with a constant infusion of 0.2 mg/kg/min of propofol for 20 min. IOP were measured immediately before induction and then repeated immediately after induction, as well as 5 min, 10 min and 15 min following tracheal intubation in both groups. IOP was significantly higher immediately after induction, and 5 min after tracheal intubation when compared with IOP reading before induction in the control group. There was no statistically significant change in IOPs immediately after induction, and 5 min after tracheal intubation in comparison to the values before induction in the treatment group. Based on the findings of this study, preanesthetic oral administration of gabapentin significantly prevents an increase in the IOP associated with tracheal intubation in dogs anesthetized with propofol.

  7. Gabapentin, opioids, and the risk of opioid-related death: A population-based nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid use is highly associated with risk of opioid-related death, with 1 of every 550 chronic opioid users dying within approximately 2.5 years of their first opioid prescription. Although gabapentin is widely perceived as safe, drug-induced respiratory depression has been described when gabapentin is used alone or in combination with other medications. Because gabapentin and opioids are both commonly prescribed for pain, the likelihood of co-prescription is high. However, no published studies have examined whether concomitant gabapentin therapy is associated with an increased risk of accidental opioid-related death in patients receiving opioids. The objective of this study was to investigate whether co-prescription of opioids and gabapentin is associated with an increased risk of accidental opioid-related mortality.We conducted a population-based nested case-control study among opioid users who were residents of Ontario, Canada, between August 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, using administrative databases. Cases, defined as opioid users who died of an opioid-related cause, were matched with up to 4 controls who also used opioids on age, sex, year of index date, history of chronic kidney disease, and a disease risk index. After matching, we included 1,256 cases and 4,619 controls. The primary exposure was concomitant gabapentin use in the 120 days preceding the index date. A secondary analysis characterized gabapentin dose as low (<900 mg daily, moderate (900 to 1,799 mg daily, or high (≥1,800 mg daily. A sensitivity analysis examined the effect of concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use in the preceding 120 days. Overall, 12.3% of cases (155 of 1,256 and 6.8% of controls (313 of 4,619 were prescribed gabapentin in the prior 120 days. After multivariable adjustment, co-prescription of opioids and gabapentin was associated with a significantly increased odds of opioid-related death (odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% CI

  8. Reanalysis of morphine consumption from two randomized controlled trials of gabapentin using longitudinal statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiyuan Zhang,1 James Paul,2 Manyat Nantha-Aree,2 Norman Buckley,2 Uswa Shahzad,2 Ji Cheng,2 Justin DeBeer,5 Mitchell Winemaker,5 David Wismer,5 Dinshaw Punthakee,5 Victoria Avram,5 Lehana Thabane1–4 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 2Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, 3Biostatistics Unit/Centre for Evaluation of Medicines, St Joseph’s Healthcare-Hamilton, 4Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Science/McMaster University, 5Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Postoperative pain management in total joint replacement surgery remains ineffective in up to 50% of patients and has an overwhelming impact in terms of patient well-being and health care burden. We present here an empirical analysis of two randomized controlled trials assessing whether addition of gabapentin to a multimodal perioperative analgesia regimen can reduce morphine consumption or improve analgesia for patients following total joint arthroplasty (the MOBILE trials. Methods: Morphine consumption, measured for four time periods in patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty, was analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model to provide a longitudinal estimate of the treatment effect. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and generalized estimating equations were used in a sensitivity analysis to compare the robustness of the methods. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in morphine consumption between the treatment group and a control group (mean effect size estimate 1.0, 95% confidence interval −4.7, 6.7, P=0.73. The results remained robust across different longitudinal methods. Conclusion: The results of the current reanalysis of morphine consumption align with those of the MOBILE trials. Gabapentin did not significantly reduce morphine consumption in patients undergoing major replacement surgeries. The

  9. Possible gabapentin and ketamine interaction causing prolonged central nervous system depression during post-operative recovery following cervical laminoplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejnarowicz Robert P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The drugs gabapentin and ketamine are used frequently in the peri-operative setting. There is poor documentation whether or not gabapentin and ketamine interact to cause prolonged depression of the central nervous system. Case Presentation The following is a case report in which a patient, a 58-year-old African-American man, with a history of post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain underwent a cervical laminoplasty procedure. The patient presented post-operatively in a dissociative state with paralysis, anarthria and preservation of consciousness. All organic causes were excluded, with the exception of prolonged central nervous system depression from a gabapentin/ketamine drug interaction. A new onset conversion disorder could also not be excluded. Conclusion Although this case by itself is not enough evidence to substantiate a true adverse reaction between gabapentin and ketamine, it is enough to warrant further investigation.

  10. Selective Cathepsin S Inhibition with MIV-247 Attenuates Mechanical Allodynia and Enhances the Antiallodynic Effects of Gabapentin and Pregabalin in a Mouse Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ellen; Pitcher, Thomas; Rizoska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Henderson, Ian; Sahlberg, Britt-Louise; Grabowska, Urszula; Classon, Björn; Edenius, Charlotte; Malcangio, Marzia; Lindström, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Cathepsin S inhibitors attenuate mechanical allodynia in preclinical neuropathic pain models. The current study evaluated the effects when combining the selective cathepsin S inhibitor MIV-247 with gabapentin or pregabalin in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Mice were rendered neuropathic by partial sciatic nerve ligation. MIV-247, gabapentin, or pregabalin were administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey hairs. Neurobehavioral side effects were evaluated by assessing beam walking. MIV-247, gabapentin, and pregabalin concentrations in various tissues were measured. Oral administration of MIV-247 (100-200 µmol/kg) dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia by up to approximately 50% reversal when given as a single dose or when given twice daily for 5 days. No behavioral deficits were observed at any dose of MIV-247 tested. Gabapentin (58-350 µmol/kg) and pregabalin (63-377 µmol/kg) also inhibited mechanical allodynia with virtually complete reversal at the highest doses tested. The minimum effective dose of MIV-247 (100 µmol/kg) in combination with the minimum effective dose of pregabalin (75 µmol/kg) or gabapentin (146 µmol/kg) resulted in enhanced antiallodynic efficacy without augmenting side effects. A subeffective dose of MIV-247 (50 µmol/kg) in combination with a subeffective dose of pregabalin (38 µmol/kg) or gabapentin (73 µmol/kg) also resulted in substantial efficacy. Plasma levels of MIV-247, gabapentin, and pregabalin were similar when given in combination as to when given alone. Cathepsin S inhibition with MIV-247 exerts significant antiallodynic efficacy alone, and also enhances the effect of gabapentin and pregabalin without increasing side effects or inducing pharmacokinetic interactions. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Multi-kinetics and site-specific release of gabapentin and flurbiprofen from oral fixed-dose combination: in vitro release and in vivo food effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonvico, Fabio; Conti, Chiara; Colombo, Gaia; Buttini, Francesca; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Barchielli, Marco; Leoni, Barbara; Loprete, Luca; Rossi, Alessandra

    2017-09-28

    In this work, a fixed-dose combination of gabapentin and flurbiprofen formulated as multilayer tablets has been designed, developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. The aim was to construct a single dosage form of the two drugs, able to perform a therapeutic program involving three release kinetics and two delivery sites, i.e., immediate release of gabapentin, intra-gastric prolonged release of gabapentin and intestinal (delayed) release of flurbiprofen. An oblong three-layer tablet was manufactured having as top layer a floating hydrophilic polymeric matrix for gastric release of gabapentin, as middle layer a disintegrating formulation for immediate release of a gabapentin loading dose and as bottom layer, an uncoated hydrophilic polymeric matrix, swellable but insoluble in gastric fluids, for delayed and prolonged release of flurbiprofen in intestinal environment. The formulations were studied in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers. The in vitro release rate assessment confirmed the programmed delivery design. A significant higher bioavailability of gabapentin administered 30min after meal, compared to fasting conditions or to dose administration 10min before meal, argued in favor of the gastro-retention of gabapentin prolonged release layer. The two drugs were delivered at different anatomical sites, since the food presence prolonged the gastric absorption of gabapentin from the floating layer and delayed the flurbiprofen absorption. The attainment of a successful delayed release of flurbiprofen was realized by a matrix based on a polymers' combination. The combined use of three hydrophilic polymers with different pH sensitivity provided the dosage form layer containing flurbiprofen with gastro-resistant characteristics without the use of film coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the antinociceptive interactions in two-drug combinations of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine and amitriptyline in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Maja A; Vucković, Sonja M; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Micov, Ana M; Ugresić, Nenad D; Prostran, Milica S; Bosković, Bogdan

    2010-02-25

    Antiepileptic and antidepressant drugs are the primary treatments for pain relief in diabetic neuropathy. Combination therapy is a valid approach in pain treatment, where a reduction of doses could reduce side effects and still achieve optimal analgesia. We examined the effects of two-drug combinations of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and amitriptyline on nociception in diabetic mice and aimed to determine the type of interaction between components. The nociceptive responses in normal and diabetic mice were assessed by the tail-flick test. The testing was performed before and three weeks after the diabetes induction with streptozotocin (150mg/kg; i.p.), when the antinociceptive effects of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, amitriptyline and their two-drug combinations were examined. Gabapentin (10-40mg/kg; p.o.) and oxcarbazepine (20-80mg/kg; p.o.) produced a significant, dose-dependent antinociception in diabetic mice while amitriptyline (5-60mg/kg; p.o.) produced weak antinociceptive effect. In normal mice, neither of the drugs produced antinociception. Gabapentin and oxcarbazepine, co-administered in fixed-dose fractions of the ED(50) to diabetic mice, induced significant, dose-dependent antinociception. Isobolographic analysis revealed synergistic interaction. Oxcarbazepine (10-60mg/kg; p.o.)+amitriptyline (5mg/kg; p.o.) and gabapentin (10-30mg/kg; p.o.)+amitriptyline (5mg/kg; p.o.) combinations significantly and dose-dependently reduced nociception in diabetic mice. Analysis of the log dose-response curves for oxcarbazepine or gabapentin in a presence of amitriptyline and oxcarbazepine or gabapentin applied alone, revealed a synergism in oxcarbazepine-amitriptyline and additivity in gabapentin-amitriptyline combination. These findings provide new information about the combination therapy of painful diabetic neuropathy and should be explored further in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Dose-dependent opposite effects of gabapentin on the depressive action of morphine on a C-fibre reflex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollin, Bernard; Roy-Ledoux, Randy; le Bars, Daniel; Adam, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    Gabapentin is a structural analogue of gamma-amino-butyric acid with anticonvulsant activity. Recently, indications for its use were extended to the management of acute pain in the postoperative period. The effects of pre-administration of gabapentin on the depressive action of intravenous morphine were studied on the C-fibre reflex elicited by a wide range of stimulus intensities. The reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve and recorded from the ipsilateral biceps femoris muscle in halothane anaesthetized rats with either an intact neuraxis or a brainstem previously transected at the level of the obex. As previously reported, 6 mg/kg intravenous morphine both increased the threshold and decreased the slope of the stimulus-response recruitment curve. The C-fibre reflex was not modified following intravenous gabapentin. Gabapentin pre-treatment at lower doses (0.01-7.5 mg/kg) not only antagonized the depressive effect of morphine, but caused facilitation of the reflex. At higher doses (10-50 mg/kg), gabapentin pre-treatment potentiated the depressive effect of morphine. In obex-transected rats, the facilitation of the C-fibre reflex, seen following 1 mg/kg gabapentin and 6 mg/kg morphine, disappeared and was replaced by a strong reinforcement of the depressive effect of morphine. It is concluded that a strong synergy between the effects of gabapentin and morphine can be seen at the spinal level. However, radically opposite effects with supraspinal origins thwart this mechanism. From the clinical standpoint, these results incite cautiousness in the use of combinations of gabapentin and opioids. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  15. Multiple sites and actions of gabapentin-induced relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Qu, Chaoling; Navratilova, Edita; Oyarzo, Janice; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Dickenson, Anthony H; Porreca, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms and sites of action remain uncertain. We investigated GBP-induced modulation of neuropathic pain following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Intravenous or intrathecal GBP reversed evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in SNL rats. Spinal GBP also significantly inhibited dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neuronal responses to a range of evoked stimuli in SNL rats. By contrast, GBP microinjected bilaterally into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), produced CPP, and elicited NAc DA release selectively in SNL rats but did not reverse tactile allodynia and had marginal effects on wide-dynamic-range neuronal activity. Moreover, blockade of endogenous opioid signaling in the rACC prevented intravenous GBP-induced CPP and NAc DA release but failed to block its inhibition of tactile allodynia. Gabapentin, therefore, can potentially act to produce its pain relieving effects by (a) inhibition of injury-induced spinal neuronal excitability, evoked hypersensitivity, and ongoing pain and (b) selective supraspinal modulation of affective qualities of pain, without alteration of reflexive behaviors. Consistent with previous findings of pain relief from nonopioid analgesics, GBP requires engagement of rACC endogenous opioid circuits and downstream activation of mesolimbic reward circuits reflected in learned pain-motivated behaviors. These findings support the partial separation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain in this experimental model and suggest that modulation of affective-motivational qualities of pain may be the preferential mechanism of GBP's analgesic effects in patients.

  16. Effect of Gabapentin/Memantine on the Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome in the Zebrafish Model: Implications for the Therapy of Ocular Motor Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögli, Stefan Yu; Afthinos, Maresa; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects. Moreover, we described the influence of both medications on ocular motor functions in healthy zebrafish, evaluating possible iatrogenic effects. Ocular motor function and INS characteristics were assessed by eliciting optokinetic response, spontaneous nystagmus, and spontaneous saccades in light and in dark, in 5- to 6-day postfertilization bel larvae and heterozygous siblings. Single larvae were recorded before and after a 1-hour drug treatment (200 mM gabapentin/0.2 mM memantine). Both interventions significantly reduced nystagmus intensity (gabapentin: 59.98%, memantine: 39.59%). However, while the application of gabapentin affected all tested ocular motor functions, memantine specifically reduced nystagmus amplitude and intensity, and thus left controls completely unaffected. Finally, both drug treatments resulted in specific changes in nystagmus waveform and velocity. Our study provides deeper insight into gabapentin and memantine treatment effect in the zebrafish INS model. Moreover, this study should establish zebrafish as a pharmacologic animal model for treating nystagmus and ocular motor disease, serving as a basis for future large-scale drug screenings.

  17. Perbandingan Gabapentin 600 mg dengan 1.200 mg per Oral Preoperatif terhadap Nilai Visual Analogue Scale dan Pengurangan Kebutuhan Petidin Pascaoperasi pada Modifikasi Mastektomi Radikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Zulfariansyah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a GABA analog which has the effect of anti hyperalgesia, anti allodynia, and anti nociceptive. This research was conducted in order to assess the effect of 600mg and 1,200 mg gabapentin given preoperatively to assess visual analogue scale (VAS score and reduction of pethidine requirement. The study was done by conducting a double blind randomized controlled trial on 38 patients, aged 18–65 years, with ASA physical status I–II. Patients were divided into two groups: 600 mg gabapentin and 1,200 mg gabapentin group. The quality of pain was assessed using VAS score. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney Test with 95% confidence interval and considered significant if p value <0.05. From the results, the VAS values obtained at rest and during mobilization were significantly different (p<0.05. The 1,200 mg gabapentin group received less additional pethidine (10.5% vs 15.8%, although no significant difference was shown (p=0.631. The conclusion of this study is that administration of 1,200 mg gabapentin per oral pre operatively is better when compared to 600 mg in reducing post operative visual analog scale score in modified radical mastectomy. However, it do not reduce the need for analgesic significantly.

  18. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  20. Co-administration of morphine and gabapentin leads to dose dependent synergistic effects in a rat model of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    dose combinations and investigate whether co-administration leads to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations in total) were evaluated in the rat...... plantar incision model using an electronic von Frey device. The percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and the area under the response curve (AUC) were used for evaluation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the drugs. Identification of synergistic interactions was based on Loewe additivity response...... surface analyses. The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response...

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of a Preoperative Single Dose of Gabapentin on Emergence Agitation in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Azemati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence agitation is a transient confusional state that usuallyoccurs within 10 to 30 minutes of recovery from general anesthesia. It may lead to seriousconsequences and increasing hospital costs. This study evaluates the effect of gabapentinon emergence agitation in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery.Methods: This randomized, double blind controlled trial enrolled 100 femalepatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists' classifications I and II who werecandidates for breast cancer surgery. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups(n=50 that received either oral gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Induction andmaintenance of anesthesia were similar in both groups. At the end of surgery, patient'sagitation score, pain score, and presence of nausea or vomiting were reported. In theward, the presence of headache or dizziness was checked during the first 8 h. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of agitation and pain scores between two groups.Chi-square test was used for comparing occurrence of nausea, vomiting and qualitative.The qualitative demographic variable and t-test compared quantitative demographicvariables.Results: There was a significantly lower incidence of emergence agitation in thegabapentin group before (P<0.001 and after (P=0.029 extubation. There weresignificantly lower mean agitation scores before (P<001 and after (P=0.006 extubationand in the pain score (P=0.005 in the gabapentin group. The need for remifentanilinfusion (P<0.05 during surgery was significantly lower in the gabapentin groupcompared with the placebo group. Occurrence of nausea and vomiting and gabapentinside effects that included headache or dizziness did not significantly differ between twogroups (P=0.126, P=1, P=0.629 respectively.Conclusion: Gabapentin not only decreased postoperative pain but also effectivelyreduced emergence agitation without any significant side effects in patients undergoingbreast cancer surgery.

  2. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  3. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  4. Premedication with gabapentin, alprazolam or a placebo for abdominal hysterectomy: Effect on pre-operative anxiety, post-operative pain and morphine consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Thomas Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims : Utility of gabapentin for pre-operative anxiolysis as compared to commonly administered alprazolam is not evident. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of pre-operative oral gabapentin 600 mg, alprazolam 0.5 mg or a placebo on pre-operative anxiety along with post-operative pain and morphine consumption. Methods: Seventy five patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy under general anaesthesia were included. Groups gabapentin, alprazolam and placebo, received oral gabapentin 600 mg, alprazolam 0.5 mg and one capsule of oral B-complex forte with Vitamin C respectively, on the night prior to surgery and 2 h prior to surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS was used to measure the anxiety and post-operative pain. All patients received patient-controlled analgesia. Statistical tests used were Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Alprazolam provided significant anxiolysis (median [interquartile range] baseline VAS score 35 [15.5, 52] to 20 [6.5, 34.5] after drug administration; P = 0.007. Gabapentin did not provide significant decrease in anxiety (median [interquartile range] VAS score 21 [7.5, 41] to 20 [6.5, 34.5]; P = 0.782. First analgesic request time (median [interquartile range in minutes] was longer in group gabapentin (17.5 [10, 41.25] compared to group placebo (10 [5, 15] (P = 0.019 but comparable to that in group alprazolam (15 [10, 30]. Cumulative morphine consumption at different time periods and total morphine consumption (mean [standard deviation] at the end of study period (38.65 [18.04], 39.91 [15.73], 44.29 [16.02] mg in group gabapentin, alprazolam and placebo respectively were comparable. Conclusion: Gabapentin 600 mg does not have significant anxiolytic effect compared to alprazolam 0.5 mg. Alprazolam 0.5 mg was found to be an effective anxiolytic in the pre-operative period. Neither alprazolam nor gabapentin, when compared to placebo showed any opioid

  5. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  6. Terapia farmacologica e suicidio: l’esperienza del Gabapentin e della Quetiapina. Considerazioni medico-legali basate su una meta-analisi / Thérapie pharmacologique et suicide : le cas de la gabapentine (Gabapentin et de la quétiapine (Quetiapina. Considérations médico-légales basées sur une méta-analyse / Pharmacological therapy and suicide: Gabapentin and Quietiapina experience. Forensic and medical considerations based on a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone Claudio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La gabapentine (Gabapentin et la quétiapine (Quetiapina sont deux médicaments appartenant à des catégories pharmaceutiques différentes ayant des indications thérapeutiques distinctes. Ils ont en commun la caractéristique négative d’être liés à une augmentation possible du risque de suicide. En outre, la prescription non conforme de médicaments (off-label use comme la gabapentine, récemment choisie a fait que les deux médicaments peuvent être utilisés pour le traitement des troubles bipolaires, ouvrant la possibilité de faire prendre les deux aux patients jugés réfractaires à la monothérapie : le risque est que l’effet secondaire de l’un se somme à celui de l’autre.Grâce à l’analyse de la littérature scientifique, l’objectif de cette étude est : d’évaluer la relation entre l’assomption de la gabapentine et de la quétiapine et le risque d’idéation suicidaire et/ou de passage à l’acte ; d’identifier un mécanisme d’action pouvant expliquer ce risque ; évaluer l’usage de ces médicaments comme moyen de passage à l’acte dans la crise suicidaire. Le médecin qui prescrit la gabapentine (Gabapentin ou la quétiapine (Quetiapina doit être conscient de leurs risques et doit en informer le patient le plus complètement possible afin que ce dernier puisse donner, en toute conscience, un son consentement à la thérapie. En outre, par le biais de consultations régulières, le médecin doit effectuer un monitorage attentif du traitement pour détecter les signaux d’alarme et trouver les échappatoires, comportementales et thérapeutiques, pour réduire ou prévenir le risque suicidaire chez les patients.Tout cela est plus important encore, vu la possibilité de l’association de deux médicaments sur laquelle il n’existe aucune étude spécifique.Gabapentin and Quietiapina are two drugs belonging to two different pharmaceutical classes thus offering different therapeutic indications. They

  7. A randomized study of the effects of single-dose gabapentin versus placebo on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirks, Jesper; Fredensborg, Birgitte B; Christensen, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The anticonvulsant gabapentin has proven effective for neuropathic pain in three large placebo-controlled clinical trials. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated antihyperalgesic effects in models involving central neuronal sensitization. It has been suggested that central...... neuronal sensitization may play an important role in postoperative pain. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gabapentin on morphine consumption and postoperative pain in patients undergoing radical mastectomy. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 patients...... received a single dose of oral gabapentin (1,200 mg) or placebo 1 h before surgery. Patients received patient-controlled analgesia with morphine at doses of 2.5 mg with a lock-out time of 10 min for 4 h postoperatively. Pain was assessed on a visual analog scale at rest and during movement, and side...

  8. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2015-01-01

    (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/d (group A), gabapentin 900 mg/d (group B), or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery......Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized......, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache...

  9. Progression-free survival results in postmenopausal Asian women: subgroup analysis from a phase III randomized trial of fulvestrant 500 mg vs anastrozole 1 mg for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (FALCON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Ellis, Matthew J; Robertson, John F R; Thirlwell, Jackie; Fazal, Mehdi; Shao, Zhimin

    2018-05-01

    The international, phase III FALCON study (NCT01602380) in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive, locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer (LA/MBC) who had not received prior endocrine therapy, demonstrated statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) for patients who received fulvestrant 500 mg vs anastrozole 1 mg. This subgroup analysis evaluated PFS in Asian (randomized in China, Japan, or Taiwan) and non-Asian patients from the FALCON study. Eligible patients (estrogen receptor- and/or progesterone receptor-positive LA/MBC; World Health Organization performance status 0-2; ≥ 1 measurable/non-measurable lesion[s]) were randomized. PFS was assessed via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1, surgery/radiotherapy for disease worsening, or death (any cause). Secondary endpoints included: objective response rate, clinical benefit rate, duration of response, and duration of clinical benefit. Consistency of effect across subgroups was assessed via hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a log-rank test. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Of the 462 randomized patients, the Asian and non-Asian subgroups comprised 67 and 395 patients, respectively. In the Asian subgroup, median PFS was 16.6 and 15.9 months with fulvestrant and anastrozole, respectively (hazard ratio 0.81; 95% CI 0.44-1.50). In the non-Asian subgroup, median PFS was 16.5 and 13.8 months, respectively (hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.62-1.01). Secondary outcomes were numerically improved with fulvestrant vs anastrozole in both subgroups. AE profiles were generally consistent between Asian and non-Asian subgroups. Results of this subgroup analysis suggest that treatment effects in the Asian patient subgroup are broadly consistent with the non-Asian population.

  10. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin(®)/Vandral(®)) in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR) of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio), health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969) and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471). Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, PBrand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, Pbrand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; Pbrand-name was associated with higher reduction in pain (7.8%; Pbrand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine were more likely to adhere and persist on treatment of pNP or GAD, have lower health care costs, and show further reduction of pain and anxiety symptoms than with generic drugs in routine medical practice.

  11. Combination of gabapentin and ramosetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery: a prospective randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mi; Huh, Jin; Lee, Soo Kyung; Park, Eun Young; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Hyo Ju

    2017-05-19

    As a drug originally introduced for its anticonvulsant effects, gabapentin has been recently shown to be effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in various clinical settings. This study compared the antiemetic efficacy of oral gabapentin, intravenous ramosetron and gabapentin plus ramosetron in patients receiving fentanyl-based patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. One hundred and thirty two patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia were allocated randomly into three groups: group G received 300 mg oral gabapentin 1 h before anesthesia, group R received 0.3 mg intravenous ramosetron at the end of surgery, and group GR received a combination of 300 mg oral gabapentin 1 h before anesthesia and 0.3 mg intravenous ramosetron at the end of surgery. Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, rescue antiemetic drug use, pain, rescue analgesic requirements and adverse effects were assessed at 0-2, 2-24 and 24-48 h after surgery. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was defined as the presence of nausea, retching or vomiting. The incidence of complete response (no PONV and no rescue antiemetics up to 48 h postoperatively) was significantly higher in group GR (26/40, 65%) than group G (16/40, 40%; P = 0.025) and group R (18/44, 41%; P = 0.027), whereas there was no significant difference between group G and group R (P = 0.932). There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of emetic episodes, use of rescue antiemetics, severe emesis, use of rescue analgesics or any adverse effects. Postoperative pain scores were also similar among groups. The combination with gabapentin and ramosetron is superior to either drug alone for prevention of PONV after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02617121 , registered November 25, 2015.

  12. Prophylactic gabapentin for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Chandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug. Its antiemetic effect is demonstrated in chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed onset of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Aim: To evaluate the antiemetic effect of gabapentin on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 600 mg gabapentin or matching placebo two hours before surgery. Standard anaesthesia technique was used. Fentanyl was used as rescue postoperative analgesic. Ondansetron 4 mg was used intravenously as rescue medication for emesis. The total number of patients who had nausea or vomiting, and its severity and total fentanyl consumption in the first 24 hours were recorded. Statistical Analysis: "Z test" was used to test the significance of severity of post-operative nausea and vomiting between groups. Fentanyl consumed in each group (Mean±SD within 24 hrs was compared using student t test. P value< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no demographic difference between the two groups. Incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting within 24 hrs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was significantly lower in gabapentin group (46/125 than in the placebo group (75/125 (37.8% vs 60%; P =0.04. There was a significantly decreased fentanyl consumption in gabapentin group (221.2±92.4 µg as compared to placebo group (505.9±82.0 µg; P =0.01. Conclusion: Gabapentin effectively suppresses nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and post-operative rescue analgesic requirement.

  13. Role of oral gabapentin as preemptive adjuvant with spinal anesthesia for postoperative pain in patients undergoing surgeries under spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Lal Gogna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate postoperative benefit in patients administered tablet gabapentin as premedication with the primary outcome determining the effect on duration of analgesia with total analgesic requirement and measurement of postoperative sedation scores as our secondary outcomes. Methods: The study was a prospective randomized observational study in sixty patients undergoing surgeries in spinal anesthesia (SA. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A (n = 30 patients received tablet gabapentin (600 mg while Group B (n = 30 received a placebo (Vitamin B complex orally 2 h before surgery. Postoperative pain was managed with intravenous tramadol 2 mg/kg. Postoperative monitoring and assessment included pain assessment every 2 h with Numeric Rating Scale (0–10 for 12 h and then at 24 h. Results: On comparison of intergroup data, the duration of analgesia was prolonged in Group A (288.79 ± 38.81 min as compared to Group B (218.67 ± 37.62 min with P (0.0001. Total opioid requirement was higher in placebo group as compared to the Group A (P = 0.025. Statistical difference in mean (standard deviation pain score at 24 h was statistically significant (P = 0.0002. Sedation scores were significantly higher in Group A at 2 and 4 h post-SA. Conclusion: Single dose of gabapentin administered 2 h before surgery provides better pain control as compared to placebo. It prolongs the duration of analgesia, reduces the total analgesic requirement during the postoperative period.

  14. Postoperative Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Tramadol and Gabapentin as Premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Farnoush; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Mirmansouri, Ali; Fakoor, Fereshteh; Atrkar Roshan, Zahra; Biazar, Gelareh; Zarei, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled postoperative pain, characteristic to abdominal hysterectomy, results in multiple complications. One of the methods for controlling postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia. Gabapentin and tramadol are both used for this purpose. This study aims to compare the effects of tramadol and gabapentin, as premedication, in decreasing the pain after hysterectomy. This clinical trial was performed on 120 eligible elective abdominal hysterectomy patients, divided in three groups of 40, receiving tramadol, gabapentin and placebo, respectively. Two hours before the surgery, the first group was given 300 mg gabapentin, the second one was given 100 mg tramadol, while the other group was given placebo, with 50 ml water. After the surgery, in case of visual analog pain scale (VAS) > 3, up to 3 mg of diclofenac suppository would be used. Pain score, nausea, vomiting, sedation, patient's satisfaction and the number of meperidine administered during 24 hours (1 - 4 - 8 - 12 - 16 - 20 - 24 hours) were recorded. If patients had VAS > 3, despite using diclofenac, intravenous meperidine (0.25 mg/kg) would be prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, chi-square test, general linear model and repeated measurement. The three groups were similar regarding age and length of surgery (up to 2 hours). The average VAS, in the placebo group, was higher than in the other two groups (P = 0.0001) and the average received doses of meperidine during 24-hour time were considerably higher in placebo group, compared to the other two groups (55.62 mg in placebo, 18.75 mg in gabapentin and 17.5 mg in tramadol groups, P = 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting and sedation, in the tramadol group, were higher than in the other two groups, although they were not significant. Patients' dissatisfaction, in the placebo group, during initial hours, especially in the fourth hour, was higher (P = 0.0001). In the gabapentin and tramadol groups, the trend of changes in satisfaction score was similar

  15. Response surface analysis of synergistic interactions of morphine and gabapentin in a rat model of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    of combination doses and investigate whether co-administration can lead to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. Methods The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations of the above doses) were...... [Internet]. 1995 [cited 2014 Nov 27]; Available from: http://intl.pharmrev.org/content/47/2/331.full.pdf+html 3. R Development Core Team R. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing [Internet]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. 2011. p. 409. Available from: http://www.r-project.org...

  16. TO STUDY EFFECT OF GABAPENTIN ON ATTENUATION OF PRESSOR RESPONSE TO DIRECT LARYNGOSCOPY AND TRACHEAL INTUBATION AND ON PERIOPERATIVE PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Chandapet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endotracheal intubation was first described by Rowbotham and Magill in 1921. 1 In 1940 Reid and Brace first described hemodynamic response to Laryngoscopy and Intubation due to Noxious stimuli. 2 The circulatory responses to laryngeal and tracheal stimulation are due to sympathoadrenal stimulation. 3 Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation induces changes in circulating Catecholamine levels significantly. Norepinephrine, Epinephrine and Dopamine levels rise, but the raise in Norepinephrine levels is consistently associated with elevation of Blood pressure and Heart rate. 4 Even though the elevation in Blood pressure and Heart rate due to Laryngoscopy and Intubation are brief, they may have detrimental effects in high risk patients including Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac failure, Intracranial haemorrhage and increases in Intracranial pressure. 5 Many strategies have been advocated to minimize these hemodynamic adverse responses and aimed at different levels of the reflex arc. 6 Block of the peripheral sensory receptors and afferent input is by topical application and infiltration of Local Anaesthetic to Superior laryngeal nerve. Block of central mechanism of integration and sensory input by drugs like Fentanyl, Morphine etc. Block of efferent pathway and effector sites IV Lignocaine, Beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Hydralazine etc. No single drug or technique is satisfactory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Gabapentin in attenuating hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in a placebo controlled double blind study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A clinical comparative study of attenuation of sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation was done in 150 patients posted for elective surgery divided into two groups and were randomly allocated Group 1 – placebo capsules with sugar and Group 2 – Gabapentin 300 mg capsules. Heart rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure were

  17. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  18. The neurotoxic effects of prenatal gabapentin and oxcarbazepine exposure on newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisgin, Zuleyha; Ayas, Bulent; Nyengaard, Jens R; Ercument Beyhun, N; Terzi, Yuksel

    2017-10-05

    Teratogenicity is a problematic issue for pregnant women because of X-ray radiation, drugs, and genetic and unknown variables. First-generation antiepileptic drugs (AED) like valproic acid are well-known teratogens for developing fetuses. However, their usage is necessary in order to prevent maternal seizures. The underlying mechanism of birth defects associated with AED exposure remains unclear and information about the neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to AED is still limited. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) and gabapentin (GBP) are second-generation AED. It still remains unclear how much these drugs are safe during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate whether any neurotoxic effect of OXC and GBP in utero exposure on the developing brain. Eighteen pregnant Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. The first group was exposed to OXC at 100 mg/kg/day, the second to GBP at 50 mg/kg/day, and third to saline (0.9% NaCl) at 1.5 ml/day between the first and the fifth days of gestation. The same procedure was applied at the same dosages between the 6th and the 15th days of gestation for the 2nd three groups. Five female offspring (total n = 30, 45 days old) were taken from each group and stereological methods were applied in order to analyze the total and dopaminergic neuron number of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The result is that the OXC and GBP exposure at different gestational periods may not give rise to congenital malformation and it appears that the GBP exposure during the organogenesis period proliferatively affects the total number of neurons.

  19. Gabapentin reverses central pain sensitization following a collagenase-induced intrathalamic hemorrhage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aude Castel, Pascal VachonFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Biomedicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, CanadaPurpose: The treatment of central neuropathic pain remains amongst the biggest challenges for pain specialists. The main objective of this study was to assess gabapentin (GBP, amitriptyline (AMI, and carbamazepine (CARBA for the treatment of a rodent central neuropathic pain model.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were trained on the rotarod, Hargreaves, Von Frey and acetone behavioral tests, and baseline values were obtained prior to surgery. A stereotaxic injection of either a collagenase solution or saline was made in the right ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus. The rats were tested on days 2, 4, 8, and 11 postsurgery. They were retested at regular intervals from day 15 to day 25 postsurgery, after oral administration of either the vehicle (n=7 and n=8 rats with intracerebral injections of collagenase and saline, respectively or the different drugs (GBP [60 mg/kg], AMI [10 mg/kg], CARBA [100 mg/kg]; n=8 rats/drug.Results: A significant decrease in the mechanical thresholds and no change in heat threshold were observed in both hind limbs in the collagenase group, as we had previously shown elsewhere. Reversal of the mechanical hypersensitivity was achieved only with GBP (P<0.05. AMI and CARBA, at the dosages used, failed to show any effect on mechanical thresholds. Transient cold allodynia was observed in some collagenase-injected rats but failed to be statistically significant.Conclusion: Intrathalamic hemorrhaging in the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus induced a bilateral mechanical allodynia, which was reversed by GBP but not AMI or CARBA.Keywords: central pain, thalamus, amitriptyline, carbamazepine

  20. The effect of gabapentin and pregabalin on intestinal incision wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Korkmaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the macroscopic and histologic effects of pregabalin (PG gabapentin (GB on longitudinal intestinal wound healing in New Zealand rabbits. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups randomly; the control group (n=6, PG group (n=6 and GB group (n=6. All animals were premedicated with xylazine HCI, 5 mg/kg i.m. and general anaesthesia was performed by ketamine HCI 50 mg/kg i.m injection. A 4 cm incision in the caecum through median laparotomy was achieved under aseptic surgery. Intestinal wound was closed with double-sutured. All animals were received parenteral antibiotic treatment for 5 days. PG and GB groups were treated by PG (30 mg/kg, oral, daily and GB (30 mg/kg, oral, daily for 10 days respectively. Control group did not receive any treatment. The animals were euthanized on day 10 and the caecum was examined by laparotomy. Adhesion formation was observed, and tissue samples were taken from suture lines for histologic examination. Cellular infiltration (polymorphonuclear white blood cells and mononuclear cells, accumulation of connective tissue, vascularization and extent of necrosis were evaluated and scored separately for each of mucosal, submucosal, muscular and serosal layers of caecum. Results: Adhesions were more severe in the GB group compared to other groups. No statistically significant differences were detected among the three groups about the wound healing. Conclusion: It was suggested that the use of gabapentinoids had no significant effect on wound healing in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery and further studies with treatment periods longer than 10 days are needed.

  1. Study of neurontin: titrate to effect, profile of safety (STEPS) trial: a narrative account of a gabapentin seeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D; Egilman, David S; Ross, Joseph S

    2011-06-27

    Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices, and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing vs Pfizer and Franklin vs Warner-Lambert, most which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial in order to identify key themes related to the trial's conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company's marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that at least 2 external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in 2 published articles. The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation.

  2. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  3. Gabapentin in traumatic nerve injury pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordh, Torsten E; Stubhaug, Audun; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by traumatic or postsurgical peripheral nerve injury, using doses up to 2400mg/day. The study comprised a run...

  4. Comparative effectiveness and costs of generic and brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine in patients with neuropathic pain or generalized anxiety disorder in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicras-Mainar A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antoni Sicras-Mainar,1 Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez,2 Ruth Navarro-Artieda3 1Planning Directorate, Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain; 3Medical Documentation, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Objective: To explore adherence/persistence with generic gabapentin/venlafaxine versus brand-name gabapentin/venlafaxine (Neurontin®/Vandral® in peripheral neuropathic pain (pNP or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, respectively, and whether it is translated into different costs and patient outcomes in routine medical practice. Methods: A retrospective, new-user cohort study was designed. Electronic medical records (EMR of patients included in the health plan of Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Barcelona, Spain were exhaustively extracted for analysis. Participants were beneficiaries aged 18+ years, followed between 2008 and 2012, with a pNP/GAD International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM code, who initiated treatment with generic or brand-name gabapentin or venlafaxine. Assessments included 1-year treatment persistence and adherence (medication possession ratio, health care costs, and reduction in severity of pain and anxiety symptoms. Results: A total of 2,210 EMR were analyzed; 1,369 on gabapentin (brand 400; generic 969 and 841 on venlafaxine (brand 370 and generic 471. Brand-name gabapentin and venlafaxine were both significantly associated with longer persistence than generic: 7.3 versus 6.3 months, P<0.001; and 8.8 versus 8.1 months, P<0.05, respectively. Brand-name was associated with higher adherence: 86.5% versus 81.3%, P<0.001; and 82.1% versus 79.0%, P<0.05, respectively. Adjusted average costs were higher with generic compared with brand: €1,277 versus €1,057 (difference of €220 per patient; P<0.001 for gabapentin; and €1,110 versus €928

  5. Gabapentin Superadded to a Pre-Existent Regime Containing Amytriptyline for Chronic Sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kelvin L; Marshman, Laurence A G

    2016-11-01

    There is currently a gross lack of evidence base guiding the medical management of chronic sciatica (CS). Only scant previous studies have assessed gabapentin (GBP) in CS. Extrapolating NICE-UK guidelines, prescribing authorities often insist on trialling anti-depressants (e.g., amytriptyline, AMP) as a first line for neuropathic pain states such as CS. When super-adding second-line agents, such as GBP, NICE-UK encourages overlap with first-line agents to avoid decreased pain-control. No study has reflected this practice. Evaluate efficacy and side effects (SE) of GBP superadded to a pre-existent regime containing AMP for CS. Prospective cohort of patients with unilateral CS attending a specialist spine clinic. Eligible patients had experienced partial benefit to a pre-existent regime containing AMP: none had significant SE. No drugs other than GBP were added or discontinued (the latter was considered inequitable) for 3 months. Visual analog pain score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and SE were recorded. Efficacy: in 56% (43/77) there were reductions in VAS (5.3 ± 3.6→2.8 ± 2.7, P < 0.0001) and ODI (42.8 ± 31.1→30.7 ± 25.2, P = 0.008). SE: Eighty-two SE (23 types) were reported in 53% (41/77). Efficacy was less in those with SE: a trend existed for a lesser reduction in VAS (2.0 ± 2.4 v 3.0 ± 2.7, P = 0.08), which proved significant for ODI (8.1 ± 11.4 v 16.7 ± 18.2, P = 0.01). Thirty-four percent (26/77) discontinued GBP all within 1 week (i.e., during titration). This is the first prospective cohort study of GBP super-added to a pre-existent regime containing AMP for CS, as per routine clinical practice and NICE-UK principles. Super-added GBP demonstrated further efficacy over the previous regime in 56%; however, SE were frequent (53%) and diverse (23 types), and 34% abruptly discarded GBP. Although SE were associated with decreased efficacy, 37% nevertheless tolerated GBP despite SE. © 2016

  6. Electroacupuncture Versus Gabapentin for Hot Flashes Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun J.; Bowman, Marjorie A.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bruner, Deborah; DeMichele, Angela; Farrar, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hot flashes are a common and debilitating symptom among survivors of breast cancer. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) versus gabapentin (GP) for hot flashes among survivors of breast cancer, with a specific focus on the placebo and nocebo effects. Patients and Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 120 survivors of breast cancer experiencing bothersome hot flashes twice per day or greater. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of EA or GP once per day with validated placebo controls (sham acupuncture [SA] or placebo pills [PPs]). The primary end point was change in the hot flash composite score (HFCS) between SA and PP at week 8, with secondary end points including group comparisons and additional evaluation at week 24 for durability of treatment effects. Results By week 8, SA produced significantly greater reduction in HFCS than did PP (−2.39; 95% CI, −4.60 to −0.17). Among all treatment groups, the mean reduction in HFCS was greatest in the EA group, followed by SA, GP, and PP (−7.4 v −5.9 v −5.2 v −3.4; P = < .001). The pill groups had more treatment-related adverse events than did the acupuncture groups: GP (39.3%), PP (20.0%), EA (16.7%), and SA (3.1%), with P = .005. By week 24, HFCS reduction was greatest in the EA group, followed by SA, PP, and GP (−8.5 v −6.1 v −4.6 v −2.8; P = .002). Conclusion Acupuncture produced larger placebo and smaller nocebo effects than did pills for the treatment of hot flashes. EA may be more effective than GP, with fewer adverse effects for managing hot flashes among breast cancer survivors; however, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in larger randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. PMID:26304905

  7. Effect of gabapentin pretreatment on myoclonus after etomidate: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensure Yılmaz Çakirgöz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of three different doses of gabapentin pretreatment on the incidence and severity of myoclonic movements linked to etomidate injection. Method: One hundered patients, between 18 and 60 years of age and risk category American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II, with planned elective surgery under general anesthetic were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into four groups and 2 h before the operation were given oral capsules of placebo (Group P, n = 25, 400 mg gabapentin (Group G400, n = 25, 800 mg gabapentin (Group G800, n = 25 or 1200 mg gabapentin (Group G1200, n = 25. Side effects before the operation were recorded. After preoxygenation for anesthesia induction 0.3 mg kg−1 etomidate was administered for 10 s. A single anesthetist with no knowledge of the study medication evaluated sedation and myoclonic movements on a scale between 0 and 3. Two minutes after induction, 2 μg kg−1 fentanyl and 0.8 mg kg−1 rocuronium were administered for tracheal intubation. Results: Demographic data were similar. Incidence and severity of myoclonus in Group G1200 and Group G800 were significantly lower than in Group P; sedation incidence and level were appreciably higher compared to Group P and Group G400. While there was no difference in the incidence of myoclonus between Group P and Group G400, the severity of myoclonus in Group G400 was lower than in the placebo group. In the two-hour period before induction other than sedation none of the side effects related to gabapentin were observed in any patient. Conclusion: Pretreatment with 800 mg and 1200 mg gabapentin 2 h before the operation increased the level of sedation and reduced the incidence and severity of myoclonic movements due to etomidate. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de três doses diferentes de gabapentina como pré-tratamento sobre a incidência e gravidade dos movimentos mioclônicos associados à inje

  8. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  9. Palbociclib in Combination With Fulvestrant in Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive/HER2-Negative Advanced Metastatic Breast Cancer: Detailed Safety Analysis From a Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Study (PALOMA-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sunil; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Schnell, Patrick; DeMichele, Angela M; Loi, Sherene; Ro, Jungsil; Colleoni, Marco; Iwata, Hiroji; Harbeck, Nadia; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Zhang, Ke; Thiele, Alexandra; Turner, Nicholas C; Rugo, Hope S

    2016-10-01

    Palbociclib enhances endocrine therapy and improves clinical outcomes in hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Because this is a new target, it is clinically important to understand palbociclib's safety profile to effectively manage toxicity and optimize clinical benefit. Patients with endocrine-resistant, HR-positive/HER2-negative MBC (n = 521) were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive fulvestrant (500 mg intramuscular injection) with or without goserelin with oral palbociclib (125 mg daily; 3 weeks on/1 week off) or placebo. Safety assessments at baseline and day 1 of each cycle included blood counts on day 15 for the first 2 cycles. Hematologic toxicity was assessed by using laboratory data. A total of 517 patients were treated (palbociclib, n = 345; placebo, n = 172); median follow-up was 8.9 months. With palbociclib, neutropenia was the most common grade 3 (55%) and 4 (10%) adverse event; median times to onset and duration of grade ≥3 episodes were 16 and 7 days, respectively. Asian ethnicity and below-median neutrophil counts at baseline were significantly associated with an increased chance of developing grade 3-4 neutropenia with palbociclib. Dose modifications for grade 3-4 neutropenia had no adverse effect on progression-free survival. In the palbociclib arm, febrile neutropenia occurred in 3 (<1%) patients. The percentage of grade 1-2 infections was higher than in the placebo arm. Grade 1 stomatitis occurred in 8% of patients. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant treatment was well-tolerated, and the primary toxicity of asymptomatic neutropenia was effectively managed by dose modification without apparent loss of efficacy. This study appears at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01942135. Treatment with palbociclib in combination with fulvestrant was generally safe and well-tolerated in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Consistent with the drug's proposed

  10. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  11. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  12. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  13. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  14. Comparison between the combination of gabapentin, ketamine, lornoxicam, and local ropivacaine and each of these drugs alone for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsovolis, Georgios; Karakoulas, Konstantinos; Grosomanidis, Vasileios; Tziris, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of the study was to test whether the combination of gabapentin (600 mg 4 hours before surgery, 600 mg after 24 hours), ketamine (0.3 mg/kg before anesthesia), lornoxicam (8 mg before anesthesia and 8 mg/12 hours), and local ropivacaine (5 mL 7.5% at insertion sites) provides superior analgesia to each of these drugs alone in the first 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The secondary purpose was to examine whether this combination has less opioid-related side effects. This was a 2-center randomized placebo-controlled trial. One hundred forty-eight patients, between 18 and 70 years of age, were randomly assigned to 6 groups (28 in each group) with the use of computer software: A(gabapentin/ketamine/lornoxicam/ropivacaine); B(gabapentin/placebo/placebo/placebo); C (placebo/ketamine/placebo/placebo); D (placebo/placebo/lornoxicam/placebo); E (placebo/placebo/placebo/ropivacaine); and F (placebo/placebo/placebo/placebo). Only the principal investigator was aware of patients' allocation and provided drugs and placebo in covered prefilled syringes. The primary outcome of the study was the 24-hour morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of opioid-related side effects (nausea, vomiting, sedation, pruritus, and dysuria). Only groups A (6.4 mg), B (9.46 mg), and D (9.36 mg) had lower morphine consumption than control group (20.29 mg) (P ketamine, lornoxicam, and local ropivacaine does not provide superior analgesia than gabapentin alone or lornoxicam alone after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The combination reduces only the frequency of postoperative nausea, but larger studies are needed for safer results. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  15. The Effect of a Novel form of Extended-Release Gabapentin on Pain and Sleep in Fibromyalgia Subjects: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, James M; Hong, Kyung-Soo J; Rauck, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the efficacy and safety of extended-release gabapentin in a 15-week, open-label, single-arm, single-center study in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Subjects with documented diagnosis of FM were allowed to participate in the study. We opened enrollment to those who have tried and failed gabapentinoids such as gabapentin or pregabalin due to side effects. Subjects with autoimmune conditions, and or taking opioids for management of their FM pain, were excluded from the study. Subjects were given an extended-release gabapentin starter pack and treated for total of 12 weeks. The primary study endpoint of pain relief was measured using Numeric Pain Rating System (NPRS) scores, and secondary study endpoints were measured with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Patient's Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and Medical Outcome Sleep questionnaires (MOS). A total of 34 subjects were enrolled and 29 subjects completed the starter pack (85%). Patients reported significant pain relief on NPRS by end of 4 weeks (P life by end of 4 weeks on FIQ (P quality. Improvements in primary and secondary measurements were reflected in PGIC, with significant improvement in patient's impression of FM by week 8. Small sample size, geographical bias, relatively short duration of treatment, and single-arm study without control group. Extended-release gabapentin relieved FM pain symptoms and improved quality-of-life for the FM subjects studied. Subjects reported improvements in both quantity and quality of sleep. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  16. A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial w...

  17. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  18. An open-label, non-randomized comparison of venlafaxine and gabapentin as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy in the management of neuropathic pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Eardley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available William Eardley, Cory TothDepartment of Clinical Neurosciences and the University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Although many therapies are used in the management of neuropathic pain (NeP due to polyneuropathy (PN, few comparison studies exist. We performed a prospective, non-randomized, unblended, efficacy comparison of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, as either monotherapy or adjuvant therapy, with a first-line medication for NeP, gabapentin, in patients with PN-related NeP. VAS pain scores were assessed after 3 and 6 months in intervention groups and in a cohort of patients receiving no pharmacotherapy. In a total of 223 patients, we analyzed pain quantity and quality (visual analogue scale [VAS] score, Brief Pain Inventory [BPI], quality of life and health status measures [EuroQol 5 Domains, EQ-5D], Medical Outcomes Sleep Study Scale [MOSSS], Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] and Short Form 36 Health Survey [SF-36] after 6 months of therapy. Significant improvements in VAS pain scores occurred for all treatment groups after 6 months. Improvements in aspects of daily life and anxiety were identified in all treatment groups. Our data suggest that monotherapy or adjuvant therapy with venlafaxine is comparable to gabapentin for NeP management. We advocate for head-to-head, randomized, double-blinded studies of current NeP therapies.Keywords: peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, pharmacotherapy, venlafaxine, gabapentin

  19. A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18–65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (pbrain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

  20. Geranisetron versus gabapentin in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery in adults: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Heidari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV after middle ear surgery is high. In this study we want to compare the effects of intravenous granisetron and oral gabapentin as a premedication before surgery on the incidence and severity of PONV after middle ear surgery in adult patents. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients that were randomly divided into the three groups of 30 in each. Group I received granisetron 3 mg iv 2 minutes before induction of anesthesia; Group II received oral gabapentin 300 mg 1 hour before anesthesia and Group III received placebo. The incidence and severity of PONV were recorded each 15 minutes in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU and each 8 hours until 24 hours after discharge from the PACU. Result: The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting at different time intervals in Groups I and Group II was significantly lower compared with Group III (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects of study drug administration including respiratory depression, apnea, extra pyramidal disorders, drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo and headache in three groups. Conclusion: The study was shown that using gabapentin and granisetron have equal anti-emetic effects, but significant differences were seen between these two groups compared to the control group. These submit the efficiency of these drugs in preventing PONV.

  1. A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-06-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (pcannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  3. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  4. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  6. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  7. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  8. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  9. Posttraining administration of pentylenetetrazol dissociates gabapentin effects on memory consolidation from that on memory retrieval process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mariano G; Boccia, Mariano M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos María

    2004-09-23

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anticonvulsant drug, 10 mg/kg, i.p., but not 100 mg/kg, i.p., enhanced retention of an inhibitory avoidance task when given 20 min after training, as indicated by retention performance 48 h later. The immediate post-training administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired retention performance. The amnesic effects of the convulsant drug PTZ were not influenced by GBP at any level of doses. However, GBP 100 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, delayed the latency to first clonic body seizures and decreased the duration of convulsion induced by PTZ. The enhancing effect of GBP on retention was not prevented by the opiate receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), which completely prevented the impairment of retention caused by PTZ. Further, naltrexone did not modify the convulsions induced by PTZ. In mice pretreated with naltrexone and that received PTZ, the administration of GBP again, enhanced retention performance during the retention test. Since previous results indicate that the amnesic action of PTZ are due to an effect on memory retrieval, the present results provide additional pharmacological evidence suggesting that GBP influenced memory consolidation and not memory retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice.

  10. Flow cytometric examination of apoptotic effect on brain tissue in postnatal period created by intrauterine oxcarbazepine and gabapentin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisgin, Z; Tekelioglu, Y

    For epileptics, pregnancy contains the balance between no seizure period and antiepileptic use having the least teratogenicity risk. The purpose is to analyse with flow cytometry the apoptotic effects on postnatal brain tissue caused by prenatal use of second generation antiepileptics oxcarbazepine (OXC) and gabapentin (GBP) having different effect mechanisms. 30 (n = 5 each group) Wistar albino male rats (45-days-old) are used. First 3 groups are exposed to OXC (100 mg/kg/day), GBP (50 mg/kg/day), and saline, respectively on the 1st-5th prenatal days (preimplantation-implantation period) while the second 3 groups are exposed to the same substances on the 6th-15th prenatal days (organogenesis), respectively. After sacrifice, brain tissue samples were made into suspension with mechanic and enzymatic digestion and examined with flow cytometry. While apoptosis rate appeared high in rats exposed to OXC on the 1st-5th (p effect in three treatment groups, while difference was not significant for PSS and GBP groups (p = 0.847 and p = 0.934), apoptosis rate was significantly high for OXC on the 6th-15th days compared to the 1st-5th days (p < 0.001). It is observed that the use of OXC causes neurotoxicity during preimplantation, implantation and, especially, organogenesis period (neurogenesis) whereas GBP does not (Fig. 3, Ref. 32).

  11. The Antinociceptive Effects of Tramadol and/or Gabapentin on Rat Neuropathic Pain Induced by a Chronic Constriction Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Ramos, Janette Nallely; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Medina-López, José Raúl; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical Research The current work evaluates the interaction between two commonly used drugs, tramadol (Tra) and gabapentin (Gbp). Dose-response curves (DRC) and isobolographic analysis were used to confirm their synergistic antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic responses in a rat neuropathic pain model involving chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and in von Frey and acetone tests. Tra and Gbp produced dose-dependent antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects. Dose-response studies of combinations of Tra and Gbp in combination showed the DRC was leftward-shifted compared to the DRCs for each compound alone. One combination demonstrated both antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects greater than those observed after individual administration. The remaining combinations demonstrated an additive effect. The Tra+Gbp combination demonstrated a potentiative effect with smaller doses of Tra. Additionally, it was determined lethal dose 50 (LD50 ) of Tra alone and tramadol + Gbp 10 using mice to 48 h post administration. The DRC (death) were similar for Tra alone and in Tra in combination, despite the improved effectiveness of Tra in the presence of GBP, 10 mg/kg. A combination of these drugs could be effective in neuropathic pain therapy because they can produce potentiative (at a low dose) or additive effects. Drug Dev Res 77 : 217-226, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The α2δ-1-NMDA Receptor Complex Is Critically Involved in Neuropathic Pain Development and Gabapentin Therapeutic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available α2δ-1, commonly known as a voltage-activated Ca2+ channel subunit, is a binding site of gabapentinoids used to treat neuropathic pain and epilepsy. However, it is unclear how α2δ-1 contributes to neuropathic pain and gabapentinoid actions. Here, we show that Cacna2d1 overexpression potentiates presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons to cause pain hypersensitivity. Conversely, Cacna2d1 knockdown or ablation normalizes synaptic NMDAR activity increased by nerve injury. α2δ-1 forms a heteromeric complex with NMDARs in rodent and human spinal cords. The α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction predominantly occurs through the C terminus of α2δ-1 and promotes surface trafficking and synaptic targeting of NMDARs. Gabapentin or an α2δ-1 C terminus-interfering peptide normalizes NMDAR synaptic targeting and activity increased by nerve injury. Thus, α2δ-1 is an NMDAR-interacting protein that increases NMDAR synaptic delivery in neuropathic pain. Gabapentinoids reduce neuropathic pain by inhibiting forward trafficking of α2δ-1-NMDAR complexes.

  13. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  14. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  15. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  16. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  17. Evaluation of the Percutaneous Absorption of Ketamine HCl, Gabapentin, Clonidine HCl, and Baclofen, in Compounded Transdermal Pain Formulations, Using the Franz Finite Dose Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, August S; Banov, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the ability of four commonly used analgesics (ketamine HCl, gabapentin, clonidine HCl, and baclofen), when incorporated into two transdermal compounding bases, Lipoderm and Lipoderm ActiveMax, to penetrate human cadaver trunk skin in vitro, using the Franz finite dose model. In vitro experimental study. Methods. Ketamine HCl 5% w/w, gabapentin 10% w/w, clonidine HCl 0.2% w/w, and baclofen 2% w/w were compounded into two transdermal bases, Lipoderm and Lipoderm ActiveMax. Each compounded drug formulation was tested on skin from three different donors and three replicate skin sections per donor. The Franz finite dose model was used in this study to evaluate the percutaneous absorption and distribution of drugs within each formulation. Rapid penetration to peak flux was detected for gabapentin and baclofen at approximately 1 hour after application. Clonidine HCl also had a rapid penetration to peak flux occurring approximately 1 hour after application and had a secondary peak at approximately 40 hours. Ketamine HCl exhibited higher overall absorption rates than the other drugs, and peaked at 6–10 hours. Similar patterns of drug distribution within the skin were also observed using both transdermal bases. This study suggests that the combination of these 4 analgesic drugs can be successfully delivered transdermally, using either Lipoderm or Lipoderm ActiveMax. Compounded transdermal drug preparations may then provide physicians with an alternative to traditional oral pain management regimens that can be personalized to the specific patient with the potential for enhanced pain control.

  18. Costs and health resources utilization following switching to pregabalin in individuals with gabapentin-refractory neuropathic pain: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ana; Saldaña, María T; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the changes in pain severity and associated costs resulting from resource utilization and reduced productivity in patients with gabapentin-refractory peripheral neuropathic pain who switched to pregabalin therapy in primary care settings in Spain. This is a post hoc analysis of a 12-week, multicentre, noninterventional cost-of-illness study. Patients were included in the study if they were over 18 years of age and had a diagnosis of chronic, treatment-refractory peripheral neuropathic pain. The analysis included all pregabalin-naïve patients who had previously shown an inadequate response to gabapentin and switched to pregabalin. Severity of pain before and after treatment with pregabalin, alone or as an add-on therapy, was assessed using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and its related visual analogue scale (VA). Healthcare resource utilization, productivity (including lost-workday equivalents [LWDE]), and related costs were assessed at baseline and after pregabalin treatment. A total of 174 patients switched to pregabalin had significant and clinically relevant reductions in pain severity (mean [SD] change on SF-MPQ VA scale, -31.9 [22.1]; P use [in pregabalin add-on group], ancillary tests, and unscheduled medical visits) were observed at the end of trial. Additionally, there were substantial improvements in productivity, including a reduction in the number of LWDE following pregabalin treatment (-18.9 [26.0]; P < 0.0001). These changes correlated with substantial reductions in both direct (-652.9 ± 1622.4 €; P < 0.0001) and indirect healthcare costs (-851.6 [1259.6] €; P < 0.0001). The cost of care in patients with gabapentin-refractory peripheral neuropathic pain appeared to be significantly reduced after switching to pregabalin treatment, alone or in combination with other analgesic drugs, in a real-life setting. © 2011 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2011 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Dose-related beneficial and harmful effects of gabapentin in postoperative pain management – post hoc analyses from a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabritius ML

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Louise Fabritius,1 Jørn Wetterslev,2 Ole Mathiesen,3 Jørgen B Dahl1 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Anaesthesiology, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark Background: During the last 15 years, gabapentin has become an established component of postoperative pain treatment. Gabapentin has been employed in a wide range of doses, but little is known about the optimal dose, providing the best balance between benefit and harm. This systematic review with meta-analyses aimed to explore the beneficial and harmful effects of various doses of gabapentin administered to surgical patients.Materials and methods: Data in this paper were derived from an original review, and the subgroup analyses were predefined in an International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews published protocol: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42013006538. The methods followed Cochrane guidelines. The Cochrane Library’s CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Google Scholar, and FDA database were searched for relevant trials. Randomized clinical trials comparing gabapentin versus placebo were included. Four different dose intervals were investigated: 0–350, 351–700, 701–1050, and >1050 mg. Primary co-outcomes were 24-hour morphine consumption and serious adverse events (SAEs, with emphasis put on trials with low risk of bias. Results: One hundred and twenty-two randomized clinical trials, with 8466 patients, were included. Sixteen were overall low risk of bias. No consistent increase in morphine-sparing effect was observed with increasing doses of gabapentin from the trials with low risk of bias. Analyzing all trials, the smallest and the highest dose subgroups demonstrated numerically the most prominent reduction in morphine consumption

  20. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  1. The Comparison of Preemptive Oral Tramadol, Gabapentin Tramadol and Parasetamol Tramadol Combination on the Efficacy of Postoperative Pain Control in Breast Reduction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Can

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Application of tramadol by intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA is a routine method for controlling postoperative pain in the breast reduction operations. It was aimed to compare the efficacy of preemptive oral gabapentin/tramadol and parasetamol/tramadol combination usage on the postoperatif tramadol consumption in patients undergoing breast reduction operation. Material and Methods: Our study was held on 54 patients (ASA I-III, aged between 18-65 yr undergoing breast reduction operation. Patients randomly divided into three groups. Group I were received 600mg tablet gabapentin and 35mg drop tramadol one hour before the operation. Group II were received 500mg tablet parasetamol and 35mg drop tramadol one hour before the operation. Group III (Control group were received 35mg drop tramadol one hour before the operation. 30 minutes before the end of operation, 1mg/kg i.v. tramadol and 10mg metoklopramid HCL three groups were administred. After the end of operation, three groups were started to receive tramadol infusion and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA application (300 mg diluated with 0,09% 100cc SF, 0,2 mg/kg PCA, 15 min locked in time. Peroperative SpO2, KH, SKB, DKB, extubation, disillusion, response time to the verbal stimuli, postoperative pain scores (VRS, VAS, total tramadol consumption, additional analgesic need and side effects (nausea and vomiting, diplopia, dizziness were recorded and evaluated. Results: Peroperative SpO2, KH, SKB, DKB, extubation, disillusion, response time to the verbal stimuli, postoperative pain scores (VRS, VAS, total tramadol consumption, additional analgesic need and side effects of groups were similar to each other. Peroperative second hour DKB values and postoperative twelfth hour additional analgesic need of second group was found higher compared to other groups. There were no significantly differences in the groups except diplopia. It was found higher in favour of the first

  2. Factors associated with prolonged time to treatment failure with fulvestrant 500 mg in patients with post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer: a sub-group analysis of the JBCRG-C06 Safari study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi; Masuda, Norikazu; Nakayama, Takahiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Anan, Keisei; Ito, Yoshinori; Ohtani, Shoichiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Saji, Shigehira; Takano, Toshimi; Tokunaga, Eriko; Nakamura, Seigo; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Hattori, Masaya; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Morita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Yamashita, Hiroko; Yamashita, Toshinari; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Yotsumoto, Daisuke; Toi, Masakazu; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    The JBCRG-C06 Safari study showed that earlier fulvestrant 500 mg (F500) use, a longer time from diagnosis to F500 use, and no prior palliative chemotherapy were associated with significantly longer time to treatment failure (TTF) among Japanese patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) advanced breast cancer (ABC). The objective of this sub-group analysis was to further examine data from the Safari study, focusing on ER + and human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (HER2-) cases. The Safari study (UMIN000015168) was a retrospective, multi-center cohort study, conducted in 1,072 patients in Japan taking F500 for ER + ABC. The sub-analysis included only patients administered F500 as second-line or later therapy (n = 960). Of these, 828 patients were HER2-. Results Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (≥65 years; p = .035), longer time (≥3 years) from ABC diagnosis to F500 use (p < .001), no prior chemotherapy (p < .001), and F500 treatment line (p < .001) were correlated with prolonged TTF (median = 5.39 months). In ER+/HER2- patients receiving F500 as a second-line or later therapy, treatment line, advanced age, no prior palliative chemotherapy use, and a longer period from ABC diagnosis to F500 use were associated with longer TTF.

  3. Comparative analysis of molecular signatures suggests the use of gabapentin for the management of endometriosis-associated pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellessort B

    2018-04-01

    the progress of endometriosis. CACNA2D3, a component of the α2δ family of voltage-dependent calcium channel complex, was strongly overexpressed both in mutant mouse uteri and in endometriosis implants, were also CACNA2D1 and CACNA2D2, other members of the α2δ family involved in nociception, are upregulated. Conclusion: Comparative analysis of gene expression signatures from endometriosis and mouse models showed that calcium channel subunits α2δ involved in nociception can be targets for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. CACNA2D3 has been associated with pain sensitization and heat nociception in animal models. In patients, CACNA2D3 variants were associated with reduced sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli. As α2δs were targets of gabapentinoid analgesics, the results suggested the use of these drugs for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain. Indeed, recent small-scale clinical studies have shown that gabapentin could be effective in women with CPP. The findings of this study reinforce the need for a large definitive trial. Keywords: endometriosis, gabapentin, CACNA2D3, Dlx5, pain

  4. Meta-analysis of duloxetine vs. pregabalin and gabapentin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Trong

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few direct head-to-head comparisons have been conducted between drugs for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP. Approved or recommended drugs in this indication include duloxetine (DLX, pregabalin (PGB, gabapentin (GBP and amitriptyline (AMT. We conducted an indirect meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and tolerability of DLX with PGB and GBP in DPNP, using placebo as a common comparator. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL databases and regulatory websites for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group or crossover clinical trials (RCTs assessing DLX, PGB, GBP and AMT in DPNP. Study arms using approved dosages with assessments after 5–13 weeks were eligible. Efficacy criteria were: reduction in 24-hour pain severity (24 h PS for all three drugs, and response rate (≥ 50% pain reduction and Patient Global Impression of Improvement/Change (PGI-I/C for DLX and PGB only. Tolerability criteria included: discontinuation, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, nausea and somnolence. Direct comparisons versus placebo were conducted with pooled fixed – and random-effects analyses on endpoints reported in at least two studies of each drug. Indirect comparisons were performed between DLX and each of PGB and GBP using Bayesian simulation. Results Three studies of DLX, six of PGB, two of GBP and none of AMT met the inclusion criteria. In random-effects and fixed-effects analyses of DLX, PGB and GBP, all were superior to placebo for all efficacy parameters, with some tolerability trade-offs. Indirect comparison of DLX with PGB found no differences in 24 h PS, but significant differences in PGI-I/C, favouring PGB, and in dizziness, favouring DLX were apparent. Comparing DLX and GBP, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion From the few available studies suitable for indirect comparison, DLX shows comparable efficacy and tolerability to GBP and PGB in DPNP. Duloxetine

  5. Effects of gabapentin on muscle spasticity and both induced as well as spontaneous autonomic dysreflexia after complete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Rabchevsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that the neuropathic pain medication, gabapentin (GBP; Neurontin, significantly attenuated both noxious colorectal distension (CRD-induced autonomic dysreflexia (AD and tail pinch-induced spasticity compared to saline-treated cohorts 2-3 weeks after complete high thoracic (T4 spinal cord injury (SCI. Here we employed long-term blood pressure telemetry to test, firstly, the efficacy of daily versus acute GBP treatment in modulating AD and tail spasticity in response to noxious stimuli at 2 and 3 weeks post-injury. Secondly, we determined whether daily GBP alters baseline cardiovascular parameters, as well as spontaneous AD events detected using a novel algorithm based on blood pressure telemetry data. At both 14 and 21 days after SCI, irrespective of daily treatment, acute GBP given 1 hr prior to stimulus significantly attenuated CRD-induced AD and pinch-evoked tail spasticity; conversely, acute saline had no such effects. Moreover, daily GBP did not alter 24 hr mean arterial pressure (MAP or heart rate values compared to saline treatment, nor did it reduce the incidence of spontaneous AD events compared to saline over the three week assessment period. Power spectral density analysis of the MAP signals demonstrated relative power losses in mid frequency ranges (0.2-0.8 Hz for all injured animals relative to low frequency MAP power (0.02-0.08 Hz. However, there was no significant difference between groups over time post-injury; hence, GBP had no effect on the persistent loss of MAP fluctuations in the mid frequency range after injury. In summary, the mechanism(s by which acute GBP treatment mitigate aberrant somatosensory and cardiophysiological responses to noxious stimuli after SCI remain unclear. Nevertheless, with further refinements in defining the dynamics associated with AD events, such as eliminating requisite concomitant bradycardia, the objective repeatability of automatic detection of hypertensive crises provides a

  6. Intervertebral Foramen Injection of Ozone Relieves Mechanical Allodynia and Enhances Analgesic Effect of Gabapentin in Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Jun; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Jiang-Lin; Wang, Jia-Shuang; Guan, Su-Min; Chen, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In a 5-year follow-up study in a hospital in southern China, it was shown that intervertebral foramen (IVF) injection of ozone at the involved segmental levels could significantly alleviate paroxysmal spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in patients with chronic, intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and improve the quality of life. However, so far no proof-of-concept studies in animals have been available. This study was designed to investigate whether IVF ozone has an analgesic effect on animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Experimental trial in rats. Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain. By IVF injection, a volume of 50 µl containing 30 µg/mL ozone-oxygen mixture or 50 µl air was carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats of naïve, inflammatory pain states produced by injections of either bee venom or complete Freud's adjuvant, and neuropathic pain state produced by spared nerve injury, respectively. The effects of IVF ozone on pain-related behaviors were evaluated for 2 weeks or one month. Then combined use of gabapentin (100 mg/1 kg body weight) with IVF ozone was evaluated in rats with neuropathic pain by intraperitoneal administration 5 days after the ozone treatment. Finally, the analgesic effects of another 4 drugs, AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist), A-803467 (a selective Nav1.8 blocker), rapamycin (the mTOR inhibitor), and MGCD0103 (a selective histone deacetylase inhibitor) were evaluated for long term through IVF injection, respectively. (1) IVF injection of ozone at L4-5 was only effective in suppression of mechanical allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain but not with inflammatory pain; (2) the analgesic effects of IVF ozone lasted much longer (> 14 days) than other selective molecular target drugs (bee venom, complete Freud's adjuvant.

  7. Brain GABA and Glutamate Concentrations Following Chronic Gabapentin Administration: A Convenience Sample Studied During Early Abstinence From Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter J. Meyerhoff

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GBP, a GABA analog that may also affect glutamate (Glu production, can normalize GABA and Glu tone during early abstinence from alcohol, effectively treating withdrawal symptoms and facilitating recovery. Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we tested the degree to which daily GBP alters regional brain GABA and Glu levels in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals. Regional metabolite levels were compared between 13 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals who had received daily GBP for at least 1 week (GBP+ and 25 matched alcohol-dependent individuals who had not received GBP (GBP−. Magnetic resonance spectra from up to five different brain regions were analyzed to yield absolute GABA and Glu concentrations. GABA and Glu concentrations in the parieto-occipital cortex were not different between GBP− and GBP+. Glu levels in anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and basal ganglia did not differ between GBP− and GBP+. However, in a subgroup of individuals matched on age, sex, and abstinence duration, GBP+ had markedly lower Glu in the frontal white matter (WM than GBP−, comparable to concentrations found in light/non-drinking controls. Furthermore, lower frontal WM Glu in GBP+ correlated with a higher daily GBP dose. Daily GBP treatment at an average of 1,600 mg/day for at least 1 week was not associated with altered cortical GABA and Glu concentrations during short-term abstinence from alcohol, but with lower Glu in frontal WM. GBP for the treatment of alcohol dependence may work through reducing Glu in WM rather than increasing cortical GABA.

  8. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  9. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  10. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  11. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  14. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  15. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  16. Determination of gabapentin in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection with and without solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.; Liang, S.; Tan, X.; Meng, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed two methods for the quantitation of gabapentin in human plasma. They are based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) with and without solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the derivatizing reagent 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)amino fluoresencin. The conditions for derivatization, separation and extraction were investigated in detail, and the optimal labeling conditions include a temperature of 40 0 C, a reaction time of 30 min, and the use of a borate buffer of pH 9.0 as the reaction medium. A borate buffer of pH 9.2 served as a background electrolyte for CE separations. The CE-LIF and SPE-CE-LIF methods have linear ranges of 5-200 nmol L -1 and 0.2-10 nmol L -1 , respectively, and the limits of detection are 0.5 and 0.02 nmol L -1 , respectively. The SPE-CE-LIF method was successfully applied to the determination of gabapentin in blood plasma samples. (author)

  17. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  18. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  19. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  20. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  1. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wan, Lei [Department of Pharmacology, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China); Wang, Xudong, E-mail: xdwang@gmc.edu.cn [Department of Physiology/Cancer Research Group, Guiyang Medical University School of Basic Medicine, 9 Beijing Road, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou (China)

    2014-03-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI.

  2. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia; Wan, Lei; Wang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI

  3. A comparison of effect of preemptive use of oral gabapentin and pregabalin for acute post-operative pain after surgery under spinal anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafna, Usha; Rajarajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Khandelwal, Mamta; Verma, Anand Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Preemptive analgesia is an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered processing of afferent input. Pregabalin has been claimed to be more effective in preventing neuropathic component of acute nociceptive pain of surgery. We conducted a study to compare the effect of oral gabapentin and pregabalin with control group for post-operative analgesia Materials and Methods: A total of 90 ASA grade I and II patients posted for elective gynecological surgeries were randomized into 3 groups (group A, B and C of 30 patients each). One hour before entering into the operation theatre the blinded drug selected for the study was given with a sip of water. Group A- received identical placebo capsule, Group B- received 600mg of gabapentin capsule and Group C — received 150 mg of pregabalin capsule. Spinal anesthesia was performed at L3-L4 interspace and a volume of 3.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy injected over 30sec through a 25 G spinal needle. VAS score at first rescue analgesia, mean time of onset of analgesia, level of sensory block at 5min and 10 min interval, onset of motor block, total duration of analgesia and total requirement of rescue analgesia were observed as primary outcome. Hemodynamics and side effects were recorded as secondary outcome in all patients. Results: A significantly longer mean duration of effective analgesia in group C was observed compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The mean duration of effective analgesia in group C was 535.16 ± 32.86 min versus 151.83 ± 16.21 minutes in group A and 302.00 ± 24.26 minutes in group B. The mean numbers of doses of rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours in group A, B and C was 4.7 ± 0.65, 4.1 ±0.66 and 3.9±0.614. (P value <0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that preemptive use of gabapentin 600mg and pregabalin 150 mg orally significantly reduces the postoperative rescue analgesic requirement and increases the duration of postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing

  4. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  5. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  6. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  7. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  8. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  9. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  10. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  11. Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Gabapentin Plus B Complex (B1/B12 versus Pregabalin for Treating Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mimenza Alvarado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN is a prevalent and impairing disorder. The objective of this study was to show the efficacy and safety of gabapentin (GBP plus complex B vitamins: thiamine (B1 and cyanocobalamine (B12 compared to pregabalin in patients with moderate to severe intensity PDN. Method. Multicenter, randomized, blind study. Two hundred and seventy patients were evaluated, 147 with GBP/B1/B12 and 123 with PGB, with a 7/10 pain intensity on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Five visits (12 weeks were scheduled. The GBP/B1 (100 mg/B12 (20 mg group started with 300 mg at visit 1 to 3600 mg at visit 5. The PGB group started with 75 mg/d at visit 1 to 600 mg/d at visit 5. Different safety and efficacy scales were applied, as well as adverse event assessment. Results. Both drugs showed reduction of pain intensity, without significant statistical difference (P=0.900. In the GBP/B1/B12 group, an improvement of at least 30% on VAS correlated to a 900 mg/d dose, compared with PGB 300 mg/d. Likewise, occurrence of vertigo was lower in the GBP/B1-B12 group, with a significant statistical difference, P=0.014. Conclusions. Our study shows that GPB/B1-B12 combination is as effective as PGB. Nonetheless, pain intensity reduction is achieved with 50% of the minimum required gabapentin dose alone (800 to 1600 mg/d in classic NDD trials. Less vertigo and dizziness occurrence was also observed in the GBP/B1/B12 group. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364298.

  12. Differential upregulation in DRG neurons of an α2δ-1 splice variant with a lower affinity for gabapentin after peripheral sensory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Beatrice; Schlick, Bettina; Martin, Stuart; Pratt, Wendy S; Page, Karen M; Goncalves, Leonor; Rahman, Wahida; Dickenson, Anthony H; Bauer, Claudia S; Dolphin, Annette C

    2014-03-01

    The α2δ-1 protein is an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, critical for neurotransmitter release. It is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following sensory nerve injury, and is also the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are efficacious in both experimental and human neuropathic pain conditions. α2δ-1 has 3 spliced regions: A, B, and C. A and C are cassette exons, whereas B is introduced via an alternative 3' splice acceptor site. Here we have examined the presence of α2δ-1 splice variants in DRG neurons, and have found that although the main α2δ-1 splice variant in DRG is the same as that in brain (α2δ-1 ΔA+B+C), there is also another α2δ-1 splice variant (ΔA+BΔC), which is expressed in DRG neurons and is differentially upregulated compared to the main DRG splice variant α2δ-1 ΔA+B+C following spinal nerve ligation. Furthermore, this differential upregulation occurs preferentially in a small nonmyelinated DRG neuron fraction, obtained by density gradient separation. The α2δ-1 ΔA+BΔC splice variant supports CaV2 calcium currents with unaltered properties compared to α2δ-1 ΔA+B+C, but shows a significantly reduced affinity for gabapentin. This variant could therefore play a role in determining the efficacy of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  14. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  15. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  16. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  17. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  18. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  19. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  20. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  1. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  2. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  3. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  4. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  5. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  6. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  7. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  8. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  9. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  10. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  11. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  12. 77 FR 74669 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride Q Quinine sulfate R Risedronate sodium T Tacrolimus Thalidomide Tinidazole For a... Gabapentin P Piroxicam S Sodium Phosphate, dibasic, anhydrous; sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate [[Page 74670

  13. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  14. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  15. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  16. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  17. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pregabalin, gabapentin and vigabatrin in human serum by precolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, T A C; Edelbroek, P M

    2004-10-25

    A rapid, simple and robust method is presented for the simultaneous determination of the gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) derivatives pregabalin (PGB), gabapentin (GBP) and vigabatrin (VGB) in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum is deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid and aliquots of the supernatant are precolumn derivatized with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Separation is achieved on a Alltima 3C18 column using isocratic elution; the drugs are monitored using fluorescence detection. Norvaline is used as an internal standard. Within-day precision (COV; n = 10) is 1.2% for PGB (serum concentration 10.0 mg/l), 1.1% for GBP (serum concentration 15.8 mg/l) and 0.3% for VGB (serum concentration 15.5 mg/l). The method is linear up to at least 63 mg/l for PGB, 40 mg/l for GBP and 62 mg/l for VGB. Lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.13 mg/l for PGB, 0.53 mg/l for GBP and 0.06 mg/l for VGB. No interferences were found from commonly coadministered antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and from endogenous amino acids. Experimental design in combination with statistical evaluation (ANOVA) was used to study the robustness of chromatography and sample preparation. The method is very suitable for routine therapeutic drug monitoring and for pharmacokinetic studies.

  18. Biotransformation of gabapentin in surface water matrices under different redox conditions and the occurrence of one major TP in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Nina; Kunkel, Uwe; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A

    2018-06-15

    Laboratory-scale incubation experiments in water/sediment systems were conducted to test the transformation behavior of the anticonvulsant gabapentin (GBP) under different environmental conditions (aerobic, anaerobic, with abiotic controls). GBP was transformed by biological processes as it was eliminated quickly under aerobic conditions (dissipation time 50% of initial concentration (DT 50 ): 2-7 days) whereas no decrease was observed under anaerobic conditions. Measurements via high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap-MS) revealed eight biological transformation products (TPs). Three of them were identified with reference standards (GBP-Lactam, TP186, TP213), while for the other five TPs tentative structures were proposed from information by MS 2 /MS 3 experiments. Furthermore, the quantitatively most relevant TP GBP-Lactam was formed via intramolecular amidation (up to 18% of initial GBP concentration). Incubation experiments with GBP-Lactam revealed a higher stability against biotic degradation (DT 50 : 12 days) in contrast to GBP, while it was stable under anaerobic and abiotic conditions. Besides GBP, GBP-Lactam was detected in surface water in the μg L -1 range. Finally, GBP and GBP-Lactam were found in potable water with concentrations up to 0.64 and 0.07 μg L -1 , respectively. According to the elevated environmental persistence of GBP-Lactam compared to GBP and its presumed enhanced toxicity, we recommend to involve GBP-Lactam into monitoring programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  20. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  1. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  2. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  3. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  4. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  5. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  6. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  7. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  8. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  9. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  10. "From safe source to safe sink" development of colorimetric assay for gabapentin in bulk drug and capsules using naturally derived genipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winotapun, Weerapath; Kongpakwattana, Khachen; Dejpittayanunt, Sirirat; Pathomcharoensukchai, Suwaparp; Suksaran, Udomluck; Nuntharatanapong, Nopparat; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2012-09-15

    A novel colorimetric assay for gabapentin in bulk drug and capsules has been developed via a safety-and-sustainability concerning concept. The method relied on the reaction of primary amino group of drug with non-toxic and eco-friendly genipin in totally aqueous medium to form the blue product which was subsequently measured by visible spectrophotometry at 590 nm. Under the optimized conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.15-0.50 mM (r(2)=0.9998). It was accurate, precise and insensitive to the interferences from all related compounds specified in the United States Pharmacopeia as well as commonly used excipients. Furthermore, it gave the assay results in agreement with the pharmacopeial chromatographic method. Owing to the environmental concern and responsibility, a fast and facile method was also proposed for the treatment of waste generated from the assay based on the decoloration by using gypsum as a cheap and commonly available adsorbent. After the treatment, more than 95% of the initial blue product was removed from the waste solution and the treated waste was proven to be safe for aquatic organisms, as studied in brine shrimp and guppy fishes. Therefore, this work not only reports for the first time the application of naturally derived genipin to drug analysis, but also presents a new and contemporary paradigm that illustrates the fully benign-by-design development of the analytical methodologies in the era of Green Chemistry, starting from the safe source of reagents toward the safe sink when waste is released into the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast Track Liver Resection: The Effect of a Comprehensive Care Package and Analgesia with Single Dose Intrathecal Morphine with Gabapentin or Continuous Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Koea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A comprehensive care package for patients undergoing hepatectomy was developed with the aim of minimal physiological disturbance in the peri-operative period. Peri-operative analgesia with few gastrointestinal effects and reduced requirement for intravenous (IV fluid therapy was central to this plan. Methods. Data on 100 consecutive patients managed with continuous epidural infusion (n = 50; bupivicaine 0.125% and fentanyl 2 g/mL at 0.1 mL/kg/hr or intrathecal morphine (n = 50; 300 g in combination with oral gabapentin 1200 mg preoperatively and 400 mg bd postoperatively was compared. Results. The epidural and intrathecal morphine groups were equivalent in terms of patient demographics, procedures and complications. Patients receiving intrathecal morphine received less intra-operative IV fluids (median 1500 mL versus 2200 mL, =.06, less postoperative IV fluids (median 1200 mL versus 4300 mL, =.03 than patients receiving epidural infusion. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine established a normal dietary intake sooner (16 hours versus 20 hours, =.05 and had shorter hospital stays than those managed with epidural infusions (4.7 ± 0.9 days versus 6.8 ± 1.2 days, =.02. Conclusions. Single dose intrathecal morphine is a safe and effective means of providing peri-operative analgesia. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine have reduced peri-operative physiological disturbance and return home within a few days of hepatic resection.

  12. Molecular structure, electronic properties, NLO, NBO analysis and spectroscopic characterization of Gabapentin with experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Leena; Karabacak, Mehmet; Narayan, V.; Cinar, Mehmet; Prasad, Onkar

    2013-05-01

    Gabapentin (GP), structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), mimics the activity of GABA and is also widely used in neurology for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. It exists in zwitterionic form in solid state. The present communication deals with the quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of GP using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In view of the fact that amino acids exist as zwitterions as well as in the neutral form depending on the environment (solvent, pH, etc.), molecular properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP have been analyzed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers as well as their intensities were calculated and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The electric dipole moment, polarizability and the first hyperpolarizability values of the GP have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of zwitterionic and neutral form has been compared. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using TD-DFT method. The thermodynamic properties of both the zwitterionic and neutral form of GP at different temperatures have been calculated.

  13. Influence of caffeine on the protective activity of gabapentin and topiramate in a mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Andres-Mach, Marta; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine may interact with classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), reducing their anticonvulsant effects in basic seizure models. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether intraperitoneal caffeine (acute or chronic for 15 days) could attenuate the anticonvulsant effect of some newer AEDs: gabapentin (GBP) and topiramate (TPM) against electroconvulsions in mice. Maximal electroshock (MES)-induced mouse seizure model was used for the estimation of the anticonvulsant activity of TPM whilst the protective activity of GBP was evaluated in the threshold test for maximal (tonic) convulsions. Adverse effects were evaluated by measurement of long-term memory (the step-through passive avoidance task) and motor coordination (chimney test). Plasma AED concentrations were also measured to determinate any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed effects. Caffeine (both acute and chronic at 23.1 and 46.2mg/kg) significantly reduced the protective effects of TPM against MES. As regards GBP, caffeine (acutely at 46.2mg/kg and chronically at 23.1 or 46.2mg/kg) significantly diminished the GBP-induced increases in the electroconvulsive threshold. In addition, caffeine did not affect the free plasma concentrations of TPM or GBP. Acute and chronic caffeine (23.1 and 46.2mg/kg) enhanced the impairment of motor coordination in mice pretreated with GBP whilst an opposite effect was observed in TPM injected mice and pretreated with chronic caffeine at 46.2mg/kg. The results indicate that newer AEDs, GBP or TPM behave in the exactly same way as classical antiepileptics in mice challenged with caffeine. This hazardous effect of caffeine is not subject to tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in reporting of analyses in internal company documents versus published trial reports: comparisons in industry-sponsored trials in off-label uses of gabapentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Swaroop Vedula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Details about the type of analysis (e.g., intent to treat [ITT] and definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in the analysis are necessary for interpreting a clinical trial's findings. Our objective was to compare the description of types of analyses and criteria for including participants in the publication (i.e., what was reported with descriptions in the corresponding internal company documents (i.e., what was planned and what was done. Trials were for off-label uses of gabapentin sponsored by Pfizer and Parke-Davis, and documents were obtained through litigation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each trial, we compared internal company documents (protocols, statistical analysis plans, and research reports, all unpublished, with publications. One author extracted data and another verified, with a third person verifying discordant items and a sample of the rest. Extracted data included the number of participants randomized and analyzed for efficacy, and types of analyses for efficacy and safety and their definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in each type of analysis. We identified 21 trials, 11 of which were published randomized controlled trials, and that provided the documents needed for planned comparisons. For three trials, there was disagreement on the number of randomized participants between the research report and publication. Seven types of efficacy analyses were described in the protocols, statistical analysis plans, and publications, including ITT and six others. The protocol or publication described ITT using six different definitions, resulting in frequent disagreements between the two documents (i.e., different numbers of participants were included in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptions of analyses conducted did not agree between internal company documents and what was publicly reported. Internal company documents provide extensive documentation of methods planned and used, and trial

  15. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  17. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  18. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  19. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  20. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  1. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  2. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  3. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  5. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  6. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  7. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  8. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  9. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  10. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  11. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  12. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  13. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  14. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  15. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  16. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  17. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  18. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  19. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  20. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  1. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  2. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  4. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  5. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  6. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  7. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  8. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  9. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  10. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  11. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  12. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  13. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  14. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  15. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  16. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  17. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  18. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  19. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  20. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical costs. Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing ... for lower sodium choices. About 25% comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person ...

  2. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  3. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  4. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  6. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  7. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  9. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  10. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  14. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  17. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  18. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  19. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  20. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  1. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  2. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  3. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  5. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  7. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  8. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  9. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  10. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  11. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  12. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  13. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  14. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  15. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  16. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  17. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  18. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  19. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  20. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  1. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  2. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  3. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  4. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Lamykin, E V; Alekseev, V V; Sergeev, G P [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  5. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kovalev, Yu.P.; Lamykin, E.V.; Alekseev, V.V.; Sergeev, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  6. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  7. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  8. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  9. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  10. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  11. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  12. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  13. Sodium pool fire analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor by calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Xu Mi; Jin Degui

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical models were established according to the characteristic of sodium pool fire, and the SPOOL code was created independently. Some transient processes in sodium pool fire were modeled, including chemical reaction of sodium and oxygen; sodium combustion heat transfer modes in several kids of media; production, deposition and discharge of sodium aerosol; mass and energy exchange between different media in different ventilating conditions. The important characteristic parameters were calculated, such as pressure and temperature of gas, temperature of building materials, mass concentration of sodium aerosol, and so on. The SPOOL code, which provided available safety analysis tool for sodium pool fire accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactor, was well demonstrated with experimental data

  14. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  15. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  16. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  17. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, M; Kanbe, M; Yagisawa, H; Sasaki, S; Kataoka, H; Fukada, T; Ishii, Y; Saito, R; Mimoto, Y [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  18. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  19. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  20. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  1. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  2. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  3. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.

    1978-02-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO'', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of ''JOYO'', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of ''JOYO'' and a proto-type Isolation valve of ''JOYO'' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental subassemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of ''MONJU'' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of Sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a ''JOYO'' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  4. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammers, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, whose reactor tank contains the primary circuit, shielding surrounding the reactor core and a primary/secondary heat exchanger, particularly a fast breeder reactor on the module principle. In order to achieve this module principle it is proposed to have electromagnetic circulating pumps outside the reactor tank, where the heat exchanger is accomodated in an annular case above the pumps. This case has several openings at the top end to the space above the reactor core, some smaller openings in the middle to the same space and is connected at the bottom to an annular space between the tank wall and the reactor core. As a favoured variant, it is proposed that the annular electromagnetic pumps should be arranged concentrically to the reactor tank, where there is an annual duct on the inside of the reactor tank. In this way the sodium-cooled nuclear reactor is made suitable as a module with a large number of such elements. (orig.) [de

  6. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  7. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  8. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  10. Control of sodium fires and sodium-water reactions in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Ruloff, G.; Voss, J.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent neutronic and thermodynamic properties of sodium as a fast-reactor coolant are somewhat counterbalanced by its high oxygen affinity. Because incidents like sodium fires and sodium-water reactions cannot be absolutely excluded, their effects and preventive measures have to be investigated. Characteristics and counter-measures are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  12. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  13. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  14. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  15. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewith, H A; Johnson, R P; Nelson, C T; Otter, J M [Energy System Group, Rockwell International, Rockwell (United States)

    1979-03-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, {approx}23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-{mu}m sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 {mu}m) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m{sup 2} burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m{sup 2} at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na{sub 2}O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} m. (author)

  16. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morewith, H.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.; Otter, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, ∼23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-μm sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 μm) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m 2 burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m 2 at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na 2 O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10 2 and 10 4 m. (author)

  17. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  18. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  19. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  20. Development of industrial utilization of metallic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Shunichi

    1995-01-01

    Sodium exists in large quantity, being ranked to 6th in the existence proportion of elements, and takes 2.83% of the matters composing earth crust. Sodium is an alkali metal which is light weight, chemically very active and a strong reducing substance. It is excellent in the compatibility with iron and steel materials, and it possesses good heat conduction and flow characteristics and stable nuclear characteristics. Since the industrial production of sodium became practical, its utilization was developed as the reducing agent and catalyst in chemical industry, the core coolant and heat transport medium for nuclear reactors, the material composing the secondary batteries for storing electric power, and the auxiliaries for metal refining and so on. The industrial production of metallic sodium is carried out by the electrolysis of melted salt, namely Downs process. The production of metallic sodium in Japan is 3000-6000 t yearly, and its import is 300-350 t. Its main use is for organic chemical industry including dye production. The grades of metallic sodium products and their uses are shown. The utilization of sodium for large fast reactors, the utilization of NaK as the heat transport and cooling medium for space use nuclear reactors and deep sea fast reactor system, and the utilization of sodium as the catalyst in dye production, for silicon carbide fiber production and for agricultural and medical chemical production are reported. (K.I.)

  1. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of...

  2. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions... finished meat product and the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the...

  3. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  4. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  5. Visualizing individual sodium channels on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Stefan H

    2012-07-27

    Visualization of voltage-gated sodium channels at work is an important requirement for the understanding of rapid electrical signaling in nerve cells. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Ondrus and colleagues have mastered this challenge by chemical synthesis of a fluorescent antagonist and by monitoring single sodium channels in living cells with unprecedented optical resolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  7. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  8. Sodium removal, storage, and requalification of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Oliva, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium removal and storage of test specimens and components, and to expand and refine, by test and analysis, the sodium removal and storage techniques and procedures for use in processing typical LMFBR components

  9. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product....

  10. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  11. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  12. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  13. Destruction of mechanical structures by sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.

    1992-01-01

    With respect to pipe ruptures and leakages in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, it can be assumed that relatively large amounts of liquid sodium will be poured or sprayed into an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Under reactor conditions, the sodium will burn immediately, leading to temperature and pressure rises in the containment, and the strong aerosol release may influence ventilation and filter systems. In addition to these consequences, which are well known, it must be taken into account that the sodium fire also attacks mechanical structures like steel and concrete. In the frame work of the sodium fire research program (FAUNA) at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, extensive experiments were performed to investigate the consequences of sodium pool, spray, and combined fires

  14. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1975-01-01

    Evaporation from a rectangular sodium free surface into an argon flow was measured. Tests were carried out with varying sodium temperature, argon velocity and argon temperature respectively under conditions of fog formation being possible. In order to clarify the enhancement of evaporation by fog formation, convection heat transfer from a plate of the same geometry into an air flow was also measured. The evaporation rate and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by both the heat transfer experiment and the theory proposed by Hill and Szekely, and also a comparison was run with the previously reported experimental results of sodium evaporation. As a result it was shown that the sodium evaporation rate in this experiment is at least four times as large as that predicted by the heat transfer experiment and varies almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and the sodium vapour pressure. (auth.)

  15. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  16. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  17. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  18. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium in older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? ... treated? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an ...

  19. Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiyuki; Ohura, Masato; Yatoh, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

  20. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin, F [DSN/Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1979-03-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Simulation towards Sodium Safety in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Rao, Hemanth; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Punitha; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future program on sodium fire: Past - Design verification of LCT by experiments; Small scale experiments on sodium resistant concrete; Small sodium spray: - Fire senario; - particle distribution. Current activities - Containment code development; Demonstration of LCT system, effective LCT design; Qualification of extinguishers and sodium resistant contrete; LBB justification; Aerosol distribution. Future - Sodium school; HR development in handing sodium systems; Collaboration with AERB, IRSN, CEA and other International Organizations; Design guidelines

  2. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, in a mixture containing water and an organic, water miscible or partly water miscible solvent, which solvent influences the transition temperature below which sodium...

  3. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1979-01-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  5. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, K.Y.

    1982-05-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments (SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test section with the pressure-velocity boundary condition and subsequently extended to the whole loop. For the test section simulation, a steady-state and transient calculations are performed and compared with experimental data. For the loop simulation, two methods are used, a simulated 1-D loop and an actual 1-D loop. In the simulated 1-D loop analysis, the vapor density is increased by one hundred and two hundred times to avoid the code failure and the results still showed some of the important characteristics of the two-phase flow oscillation in a loop. A mathematical model is suggested for the two-phase flow oscillation. In the actual 1-D loop, only the single phase calculation was performed and turned out to be nearly the same as the simulated 1-D loop single phase results

  7. First principle study of sodium decorated graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com [Assam University, Silchar (India); Bhattacharya, Barnali [Assam University, Silchar (India); Seriani, Nicola [The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-05

    Highlights: • Presence of Na decreases the stability of the system. • Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic and might be used in electronics. • The sodium-adsorbed graphyne can be used as electrodes in Na-ion battery. - Abstract: We present first-principles calculations of the electronic properties of Na-decorated graphyne. This structure of the graphyne family is a direct band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.44 eV in absence of sodium, but Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic, and can then be employed as carbon-based conductors. Metallization is due to charge donation from sodium to carbon. Pristine graphyne is more stable than Na-decorated graphyne, therefore is seems probable that, if this material should be employed as electrode in Na-ion batteries, it would lead to the formation of metallic sodium rather than well dispersed sodium ions. On the other side, this property might be useful if graphyne is employed in water desalination. Finally, the abrupt change from a semiconducting to a metallic state in presence of a small amount of sodium might be exploited in electronics, e.g. for the production of smooth metal–semiconductor interfaces through spatially selective deposition of sodium.

  8. UK position paper on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, G J [National Nuclear Corporation Ltd., Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Glass, D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berekely Nuclear Laboratory, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Ramsdale, S A [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Snelling, K W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  9. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Jae Huem; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Sik; Lee, Choong Hui; Chung, Ki Hong; Keum, Choong Ki [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Sodium is commonly used as a coolant in liquid metal reactor. A large amount of its leakage may be possible in hypothetical accidents, even though the possibility is very low. In case that the leaked hot sodium comes in direct contact with structural concrete of liquid metal reactor, the reactor`s integrity can be challenged by the rupture of structure materials, hydrogen generation and its explosion, and release of radioactive aerosols due to sodium-concrete reaction. The knowledge of sodium-concrete reaction is evaluated to be one of the important and indispensable technologies for the establishment of safety measure in liquid metal reactor. In this study, the experimental facility of sodium-concrete reaction is to be designed, constructed and operated. And the reaction phenomena of sodium-concrete reaction is also to be analyzed through the experimental results. The aim of this study is to establish the measure of safety and protection for sodium-related facilities and to secure one of the fundamental technologies of liquid metal reactor safety. 47 refs., 7 figs., 13 tab.

  10. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  11. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  12. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  13. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  14. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  15. Computer simulation for sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Zhu Jizhou

    2006-01-01

    In the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), direct contacts between sodium and concrete is unavoidable. Due to sodium's high chemical reactivity, sodium would react with concrete violently. Lots of hydrogen gas and heat would be released then. This would harm the ignorantly of the containment. This paper developed a program to simualte sodium-conrete reactions across-the-board. It could give the reaction zone temperature, pool temperature, penetration depth, penetration rate, hydrogen flux and reaction heat and so on. Concrete was considered to be composed of silica and water only in this paper. The variable, the quitient of sodium hydroxide, was introduced in the continuity equation to simulate the chemical reactions more realistically. The product of the net gas flux and boundary depth was ably transformed to that of penetration rate and boundary depth. The complex chemical kinetics equations was simplified under some hypothesises. All the technique applied above simplified the computer simulation consumedly. In other words, they made the computer simulation feasible. Theoretics models that applied in the program and the calculation procedure were expatiated in detail. Good agreements of an overall transient behavior were obtained in the series of sodium-concrete reaction experiment analysis. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results showed the program presented in this paper was creditable and reasonable for simulating the sodium-concrete reactions. This program could be used for nuclear safety judgement. (authors)

  16. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  17. Review of the sodium fire experiments including sodium-concrete-reactions and summary of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the technical and design concept of containment systems of sodium cooled breeder reactors it has to be considered, that leakages in sodium pipes lead to sodium fires. The temperature and pressure rise caused by sodium fires makes it indispensable to analyse these accidents to be able to assess the safety of the whole system. Generally sodium leakages may lead to three different types of fires with different consequences. The main influences are the geometry of the leakage, shape, size, location, and the sodium conditions, such as temperature, flow rate and velocity. It must be also considered the reaction of sodium with surfaces like concrete. The paper gives an overview over all the sodium fire experiments performed in the FAUNA-facility (220 m 3 ) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the years 1979 to 1993. The experimental program started with the investigation of pool fires on burning areas between 2 and 12 m 2 with up to 500 kg of Sodium. The experiments had been continued with 3 combined fires and 40 experiments on spray fires. 7 experiments on sodium-concrete reactions completed the program. (author)

  18. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  19. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  20. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)

  1. Dynamic thermal baffle on lower head of FBR sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, A.; Foussat, C.

    1981-01-01

    The cover head of the heat exchanger is bathed on the one side by the primary sodium of the 'cold' header of the vessel and on the other side by the secondary sodium which feeds the heat exchange tube bank through the lower tubesheet. In the case of transient or permanent operating conditions at partial ratings, there are large temperature differences between the inner sodium (inlet temperature conditions of secondary sodium) and the outer sodium (mean temperature conditions in the primary sodium outlet port), hence the necessity of designing a thermal baffle which protects the head and its connection to the tubesheet. A 'static' thermal baffle consisting of a thick steel plate enclosing static sodium around the head proves inadequate during transient operating conditions. This is why a 'dynamic' thermal baffle is used whose design is based on the fact that the primary sodium in the lower part of the outlet port is always at a temperature close to that of the secondary sodium in the inlet header and the head. The primary sodium is taken from the bottom of the outlet port by a ring deflector and circulates in an annulus created by a double housing and the head. It flows out through openings in the lower part of the housing. (orig./GL)

  2. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  3. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  4. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ''Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated

  5. Conceptural design of multipurpose sodium test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Yuh, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the conceptural design of the multipurpose sodium test loop (MSTL). This MSTL consists mainly of impurity control and measurement system, corrosion and masstransfer system and heat transfer system. Problems associated with liquid sodium coolant will be studied and operating experiences will be obtained by the use of this facility. This technology will be used to evaluate safety and reliability of large sodium facility in the future. The total cost excluding the cost of building construction is estimated to 175 thousand dollars. (Author)

  6. Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium

  7. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K; Gardner, J J; Lockley, W J.S.; Preston, J R; Wilkinson, D J [Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  9. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  10. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  11. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Background: In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. Objectives: To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum...... results: A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level). The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP.......0005) and triglyceride (P sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. All effects were stable in 125 study populations with a sodium intake below 250 mmol/day and a sodium reduction intervention of at least one week. Authors' conclusions: Sodium reduction from an average high usual sodium...

  12. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dogs, sausage and ham. Buy fresh or frozen poultry or meat that hasn't been injected with ... use of sodium-laden condiments. Soy sauce, salad dressings, sauces, dips, ketchup, mustard and relish all contain ...

  13. Ultrasonic sweep arm for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, H.A.; Bartholomay, R.

    1975-05-01

    This report describes experience in the use of a new type of monitoring and testing device to be applied in conjunction with components under sodium. In the method outlined, ultrasonic pulses are used which are emitted into the sodium plenum of fast breeder reactors by newly developed high temperature transducers. The basic work was conducted under out-of-pile conditions in a sodium tank of the sodium tank facility of the Karlsruhe Institute for Reactor Development. The sensor development, which preceded this phase, resulted in the use of soldered lithium niobate crystals whose operating characteristics were improved by the preliminary treatment outlined in the report. Special materials and techniques suitable for sensor fabrication are proposed. An alternative to soldering is suggested for contacting the crystals with their diaphragms, i.e. a contact pressure concept for the range of application up to 2 MHz. (orig.) [de

  14. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanosilver, sodium hypochlorite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Two tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone of inhibition were carried out using NS, NaOCl and CHX. 70-fold ...

  16. Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexas, A.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1979-01-01

    Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time. Efficiencies on the order of 99.98 and 98.8% were reached for loading capacities of 500 and 1000 g/m 2 , respectively. Unlimited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols can be filtered by wet scrubbers with an efficiency of 70% per scrubber stage. Fiberglas filters connot be used for the filtration of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time because the filter material can be destroyed after several days of operating

  17. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  18. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  19. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.; Elie, X.; Vercasson, M.; Nedelec, J.

    1974-01-01

    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  20. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  1. CRBRP sodium circulating pump design evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrujo, F.; Cook, M.; Manners, L.; Cothran, H.

    1977-12-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) primary sodium pump design concept; (2) pump level control system; (3) resolution of design problems in stress analysis, dynamics analysis, and mechanical design; (4) model testing; (5) planned performance tests; and (6) fabrication status

  2. Parabrachial and hypothalamic interaction in sodium appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, S.; Peckins, S.; Ruch, S.

    2011-01-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) fail to exhibit sodium appetite. Lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) also block salt appetite. The PBN projection to the LH is largely ipsilateral. If these deficits are functionally dependent, damaging the PBN on one side and the LH on the other should also block Na appetite. First, bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LH were needed because the electrolytic damage used previously destroyed both cells and axons. The ibotenic LH lesions produced substantial weight loss and eliminated Na appetite. Controls with ipsilateral PBN and LH lesions gained weight and displayed robust sodium appetite. The rats with asymmetric PBN-LH lesions also gained weight, but after sodium depletion consistently failed to increase intake of 0.5 M NaCl. These results dissociate loss of sodium appetite from the classic weight loss after LH damage and prove that Na appetite requires communication between neurons in the LH and the PBN. PMID:21270347

  3. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan S, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  4. Sodium removal from Hallam Reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsman, L.K.; Meservey, R.H.

    1979-08-01

    This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy assigned EG and G Idaho, Inc., the task of carrying out this decontamination and decommissioning program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since their shipment to the INEL from Lincoln, Nebraska in 1968, the Hallam Reactor components had been stored in inert nitrogen to prevent the sodium in the components from reacting with moisture in the air. The procedure used to react the sodium in the components and to decontaminate them is discussed. Problems and unusual occurrences in the decontamination and decommissioning process are also reported

  5. Sodium vapour aerosol formation and sodium deposition current work within the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawtin, P [Chemical Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Seed, G [Nuclear Power Company (Risley) Ltd, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    The significance to reactor operation of sodium transport through the cover gas of a sodium-cooled fast reactor and its subsequent deposition on cooled reactor surfaces is fully appreciated in the UK. A programme of work is therefore underway designed to understand the mechanism of sodium transport under these conditions. This paper described the work which has so far been completed, discussed the work presently in progress, and outlines future plans. (author)

  6. Apparatus for removing impurities in the sodium of sodium cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, A

    1970-11-11

    An apparatus is provided for removing oxygen from liquid sodium flowing in a sodium cooled reactor. The removal of oxygen is complete with high efficiency. The liquid sodium to be purified is disposed outside a cylindrical wall and negatively charged, whereas sodium as a reducing material is disposed inside the same wall. The cylindrical wall is made of zirconia-calcia (ZrO/sub 2/)sub(0.87)(CaO)sub(0.13) solid electrolyte, the cylinder having a thickness of 2.5mm, a diameter of 3cm and a depth of 20cm under the sodium level. Electric resistance of the solid electrolyte is 2.3 ohm at 500/sup 0/C. A current of 1A by the application of 25 volts treats 0.3g of oxygen. Consequently, 1 liter or 1kg of liquid sodium containing 1,000ppm of oxygen can be purified for about 3 hours at an electrical consumption of 7.5 watt-hour. In one embodiment, a cylindrical electrolytic solid made of zirconia-calcia or zirconia-yttria was disposed in a container. Liquid sodium containing oxygen flowed outside of the cylinder. Liquid sodium as a reducing material was present inside the cylinder and the container and the cylinder were electrically insulated. An electrode was inserted at the center of the cylinder and a baffle plate at the upper portion of the electrode to shield heat and rising sodium vapor was provided. The space above the container was filled with an inert gas. The oxygen in the liquid sodium to be purified transferred through the wall of the cylinder into the interior of the cylinder so as to oxydize the reducing sodium material. The supersaturated sodium oxide inside the cylinder was deposited.

  7. Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Behrouz; Hammel, Evelyn L; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2017-09-01

    In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal application of glutamate induced sodium transients in SR101-positive astrocytes. These were largely unaltered in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors blockers, but strongly dampened upon pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake. Sodium signals induced in individual astrocytes readily spread into neighboring SR101-positive cells with peak amplitudes decaying monoexponentially with distance from the stimulated cell. In addition, spread of sodium was largely unaltered during pharmacological inhibition of purinergic and glutamate receptors, indicating gap junction-mediated, passive diffusion of sodium between astrocytes. Using cell-type-specific, transgenic reporter mice, we found that sodium signals also propagated, albeit less effectively, from astrocytes to neighboring oligodendrocytes and NG2 cells. Again, panglial spread was unaltered with purinergic and glutamate receptors blocked. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters induces sodium signals in white matter astrocytes, which spread within the astrocyte syncytium. In addition, we found a panglial passage of sodium signals from astrocytes to NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes, indicating functional coupling between these macroglial cells in white matter.

  8. Behaviour of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the vacuum distillation method has been used for the determination of oxygen concentration in liquid sodium. During this investigation, more than 800 analyses have been made and a fluctuation of between 15 and 20$ has been noted in the results. The performance of a cold trap to remove oxygen from sodium has been studied and the corresponding mass transfer coefficient evaluated. The value of this coefficient was in good agreement with those achieved by other workers. (Authors) 69 refs

  9. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  10. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.; Mehmet Kanik, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH) in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS) solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching...

  11. Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbolla, M.G.; Rosen, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22 Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter

  12. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  13. Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in; Thirumalai, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion.

  14. Parametric study of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.

    1975-03-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of a sodium-cooled reactor. A review of the literature was first made to examine methods of aerosol generation, mathematical expressions representing aerosol behavior, and pertinent experimental investigations of sodium aerosols. In the development of the model, some terms were derived from basic principles and other terms were estimated from available correlations. The model was simulated on a computer, and important parameters were studied to determine their effects on the overall behavior of sodium aerosols. The parameters studied were sodium pool temperature, source and initial size of particles, film thickness at the sodium pool/cover gas interface, wall plating parameters, cover-gas flow rate, and type of cover gas (argon and helium). The model satisfactorily describes the behavior of sodium aerosol in argon, but not in helium. Possible reasons are given for the failure of the model with helium, and further experimental work is recommended. The mathematical model, with appropriate modifications to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in helium, would be very useful in designing traps to remove aerosols from the cover gas of sodium-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  15. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  16. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  17. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  18. Pet food safety: sodium in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2008-08-01

    Healthy dogs and cats appear to be able to adjust to differing amounts of sodium in their diet via the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanisms. There is no strong evidence that increased dietary sodium increases the risk of hypertension in dogs and cats, and the current recommendation for hypertensive animals is to avoid high dietary salt intake without making a specific effort to restrict it. The prevalence of salt sensitivity and its effect on blood pressure has not been determined for cats or dogs. The ideal amount of sodium in the diet of dogs and cats with cardiac deficiency has not been determined, as increasing may detrimentally increase the extracellular fluid volume, but decreasing it may detrimentally increase the activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Increased dietary sodium increases urine output and may decrease the risk of forming calcium oxalate uroliths due to the decrease in relative supersaturation of solutes. However, caution should be used in increasing the sodium intake of patients with renal disease as increased dietary sodium may have a negative effect on the kidneys independent of any effect on blood pressure.

  19. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  20. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  1. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  2. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  3. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium

  4. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  5. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  6. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are

  8. Development of sodium leak detectors for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Babu, B.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium leak detection system developed for PFBR using diverse principle. ► Miniature, remotely locatable diverse leak detector developed for Main Vessel. ► Mutual inductance type leak detectors designed and adapted for different locations. ► Sodium Ionisation detectors used for area monitoring. ► Crosswire type leak detector designed, developed and tested. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam near Chennai in India. The wide and high operating temperature, highly chemically active nature of sodium and its reaction with air make the sodium instrumentation complex over the conventional instrumentation. Over the years, traditional instruments such as wire type leak detectors, spark plug type leak detectors were developed and used in different sodium systems. The redundant and diverse leak detection method calls for development of special instrumentation for sodium systems which include sodium ionization (leak) detector for detecting minute sodium leak in addition to those systems based on mutual inductance principle. For detection of sodium leak from reactor Main Vessel (MV), diverse methods are used such as miniature, remotely locatable, Mutual Inductance type Leak Detector(MILD) and specially modified spark plug type leak detector. The design of MILD is suitably modified for detecting leak in double wall pipes and Diverse Safety Rod drive Mechanism (DSRDM). Steam/water leak in steam generator produces hydrogen and leads to high pressure and temperature in the system. Rupture disc is used as a safety device which punctures itself due to sudden pressure rise. To detect the discharge of sodium and its reaction products at the downstream of the rupture disc due to bursting of the rupture disc, cross wire type leak detector has been designed, developed and tested. The selection of the leak detection system depends on the location where leak has to be detected. This paper

  9. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were 1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Different stages of N2 pressure decay were identified and linked to

  10. Investigation for the sodium leak in Monju. Sodium leak and fire test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju) on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) a sodium leak test, (2) a sodium leak and fire test-1, and (3) a sodium leak and fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PEC. The main objectives of these tests were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. This report describes the results of the sodium fire test-I carried out as a preliminary test. The test was performed using the SOLFA-2 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility on April 8, 1996. In this test, sodium heated to 480degC was leaked for approximately 1.5 hours from a leak simulating apparatus and caused to drop onto a ventilation duct and a grating with the same dimensions and layout as those in Monju. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: 1) Observation from video cameras in the test revealed that in the early stages of the sodium leak, sodium dripped out of the flexible tube of the thermometer. This dripping and burning expanded in range as the sodium splashed on the duct. 2) No damage to the duct itself was detected. However, the aluminum louver frame of the ventilation duct's lower inlet was damaged. Its machine screws came off, leaving half of the grill (on the grating side) detached. 3) No large hole, like the one seen at Monju, was found when the grating was removed from the testing system for inspection, although the area centered on the point were the sodium dripped was damaged in a way indicating the first stages of grating failure. The 5mm square lattice was corroded through in some parts, and numerous blades (originally 3.2 mm thick) had become sharpened like the blade of a knife. 4) The burning pan underside thermocouple near the leak point measured 700degC in within approximately 10 minutes, and for the next hour remained

  11. Corrosion behaviors of ceramics against liquid sodium. Sodium corrosion characteristics of sintering additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kano, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    It has been progressed as the Frontier Materials Research to research and develop ceramics to apply for several components of fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as coolant instead of metallic materials. Grain boundary of ceramics has peculiar properties compared with matrix because most of ceramics are produced by hardening and firing their raw powders. Some previous researchers indicated that ceramics were mainly corroded at grain boundaries by liquid sodium, and ceramics could not be used under corrosive environment. Thus, it is the most important for the usage of ceramics in liquid sodium to improve corrosion resistance of grain boundaries. In order to develop the advanced ceramics having good sodium corrosion resistance among fine ceramics, which have recently been progressed in quality and characteristics remarkably, sodium corrosion behaviors of typical sintering additives such as MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN etc. have been examined and evaluated. As a result, the followings have been clarified and some useful knowledge about developing advanced ceramics having good corrosion resistance against liquid sodium has been obtained. (1) Sodium corrosion behavior of MgO depended on Si content. Samples containing large amount of Si were corroded severely by liquid sodium, whereas others with low Si contents showed good corrosion resistance. (2) Both Y 2 O 3 and AlN, which contained little Si, showed good sodium corrosion resistance. (3) MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN are thought to be corroded by liquid sodium, if they contain some SiO 2 . Therefore, in order to improve sodium corrosion resistance, it is very important for these ceramics to prevent the contamination of matrix with SiO 2 through purity control of their raw powders. (author)

  12. Current status of sodium fire and aerosol research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-art of the research and development related to sodium fire and aerosol behaviour is presented. This paper covers the Japanese work on sodium leak, leak detector, sodium oxidation and combustion, sodium aerosol release, fire mitigation, reliabilities of the electrical instruments and the reactor components under the sodium aerosols suspended atmosphere, aerosol plugging in a leak path, and the computer codes are presented. (author)

  13. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  14. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  15. Development of Sodium Technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    In the experiments to investigate the characteristics of the free surface fluctuation in a vessel, the experimental correlation was modeled to describe the free surface fluctuation in the upper plenum of a liquid metal reactor within 95% reliability and 2.4% error. The correlation was used to verify the computational model. The new conceptual flowmeters were suggested to measure the sodium flow for the reliability enhancement. The electromagnetic flowmeter with permanent magnet showed a good linearity and repeatability. For reuse of the sodium contaminated component, CO{sub 2} bubbling method was developed. Sodium in 0.3mm crevice specimen was removed completely. The optimum condition for the used sodium treatment was deduced to estimate which reaction is more safe and adequate for operation condition by analyzing the reactivity alleviation condition and the reaction rate with the control of sodium hydroxide concentration A series of tests were carried out to investigate the enlargement rate of the nozzle hole itself and the sodium-water reaction temperature associated with needle-like jets of a high-pressure water/steam into the sodium side of a steam generator. The size of the nozzle hole became larger with an increased duration of the steam injection both for the 2.25Cr-1Mo and M9Cr-1Mo steels by a self-wastage phenomenon. For developing the SWR acoustic leak detection technology, the tool prepared by the LabVIEW was installed with the system, and confirmed the performance of the on-line acoustic leak detection tool using the SWR leak signal acquired in the KAERI facility.

  16. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  17. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  18. Sodium tests on an integrated purification prototype for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes sodium tests performed on the integrated primary sodium purification prototype of the Creys Malville Super Phenix 1 fast breeder reactor. These tests comprised: - hydrostatic test, - thermal tests, - handling tests. They enabled a number of new technological arrangements to be qualified and provided the necessary information for the design and construction of the Super Phenix 1 purification units

  19. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  20. Sodium and cover gas chemistry in the high temperature sodium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Duncan, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment and procedures used in following sodium and cover gas chemistry changes in the High Temperature Sodium Facility are presented. The methods of analysis and results obtained are given. Impurity trends which have been measured during the facility operations are discussed