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Sample records for sodium d2 emission

  1. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  2. The dissipation and risk assessment of 2,4-D sodium, a preharvest anti-fruit-drop plant hormone in bayberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiyu; Yang, Guiling; Liang, Senmiao; Huang, Qianbin; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Wanze; Zhang, Zhiheng; Wang, Wen; Song, Wen; Cai, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Preharvest fruit-drop is a challenge to bayberry production. 2,4-D sodium as a commonly used anti-fruit-drop hormone on bayberry can reduce the yield loss caused by preharvest fruit-drop. The persistence and risk assessment of 2,4-D sodium after applying on bayberries were investigated. A method for determining 2,4-D sodium in bayberry was established based on LC-MS-MS. The average recoveries of 2,4-D sodium were at the range of 93.7-95.8% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 0.9 to 2.8%. The dissipation rates of 2,4-D sodium were described using first-order kinetics, and its half-life ranged from 11.2 to 13.8 days. A bayberry consumption survey was carried out for Chinese adults for the first time. The safety assessments of 2,4-D sodium were conducted by using field trail data as well as monitoring data. Results showed that the chronic risk quotient and the acute risk quotient were calculated to be 0.23-0.59 and 0.02-0.05%, respectively, for Chinese adults, indicating low dietary risk for adults and children. In the end, the household cleaning steps were compared, and results showed that water rinsing for 1 min can remove 49.9% 2,4-D sodium residue, which provides pesticide removal suggestion for consumers.

  3. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  4. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-05-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

  5. Continuum emission of excited sodium dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Poyato, J.M.L.; Alonso, J.I.; Rico, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of the behaviour of excited molecular sodium using high-power Ar + laser radiation. A continuum emission was observed in the red wavelength region. This emission was thought to be caused by the formation of excited triatomic molecules. Energy transfer was observed from excited molecules to atoms. (orig.)

  6. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  7. Multimedia in physics education: two teaching videos on the absorption and emission spectrum of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Andreas; Altherr, Stefan; Eckert, Bodo; Jodl, Hans Joerg

    2006-01-01

    In a series of letters we present teaching videos on topics where the learners of physics used to have problems. The first video presents an experimental set-up by which the absorption lines (D 1 , D 2 ) of sodium can be resolved simultaneous with the emission lines. The second video allows us to determine their wavelengths in comparison with calibrated spectral lines of mercury. This type of multimedia should not replace the real demonstration experiment, but is of good support for a long distant learner or for simply reading a textbook. (letters and comments)

  8. On Secondary Electron Emission from Solid H2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    The emission of secondary electrons from solid hydrogen (H2 , D2, T2) is often considered to be of importance for the interaction between a fusion plasma and pellets of solid hydrogens. A set-up was therefore built for studies of interactions between energetic particles and solid hydrogens. Studies...... of secondary electron emission (SEE) from solid H2 and D2 were made for incidence of electrons up to 3 keV and for incidence of ions of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium up to 10 keV. The measurements were made for normal incidence, and in some cases also for oblique incidence. The SEE coefficients for solid H2...... is always 0.65-0.70 times that for solid D2. This difference is attributed to different losses to vibrational states in H2 and D2 for the low energy electrons. Measurements were also made on solid para-H2 with both electrons and hydrogen ions. There was no difference from the results for normal H2, which...

  9. Solar radio emissions: 2D full PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, H.; Sgattoni, A.; Briand, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Riconda, C.

    2016-12-01

    Solar radio emissions are electromagnetic waves observed at the local plasma frequency and/or at twice the plasma frequency. To describe their origin a multi-stage model has been proposed by Ginzburg & Zhelezniakov (1958) and further developed by several authors, which consider a succession of non-linear three-wave interaction processes. Electron beams accelerated by solar flares travel in the interplanetary plasma and provide the free energy for the development of plasma instabilities. The model describes how part of the free energy of these beams can be transformed in a succession of plasma waves and eventually into electromagnetic waves. Following the work of Thurgood & Tsiklauri (2015) we performed several 2D Particle In Cell simulations. The simulations follow the entire set of processes from the electron beam propagation in the background plasma to the generation of the electromagnetic waves in particular the 2ωp emission, including the excitation of the low frequency waves. As suggested by Thurgood & Tsiklauri (2015) it is possible to identify regimes where the radiation emission can be directly linked to the electron beams. Our attention was devoted to estimate the conversion efficiency from electron kinetic energy to the em energy, and the growth rate of the several processes which can be identified. We studied the emission angles of the 2ωpradiation and compared them with the theoretical predictions of Willes et. al. (1995). We also show the role played by some numerical parameters i.e. the size and shape of the simulation box. This work is the first step to prepare laser-plasma experiments. V. L. Ginzburg, V. V. Zhelezniakov On the Possible Mechanisms of Sporadic Solar Radio Emission (Radiation in an Isotropic Plasma) Soviet Astronomy, Vol. 2, p.653 (1958) J. O. Thurgood and D. Tsiklauri Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations of funda- mental and harmonic plasma radio emission mechanisms. Astronomy & Astrophysics 584, A83 (2015). A. Willes, P

  10. Optical properties of 3d transition metal ion-doped sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Hongli; Tanner, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Photographs of undoped (SiO 2 ) 50 (Na 2 O) 25 (B 2 O 3 ) 25 (SiNaB) glass and transition metal ion-doped (TM) 0.5 (SiO 2 ) 49.5 (Na 2 O) 25 (B 2 O 3 ) 25 glass samples. - Highlights: • 3d transition metal ion (from Ti to Zn) doped SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses. • Optical properties of doped glasses investigated. • V(IV,V); Cr(III, VI); Mn(II,III); Fe(II,III); Co(II); Ni(II); Cu(II) by XANES, DRS. • Strong visible absorption but only vanadium ion gives strong emission in glass. - Abstract: SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses doped with 3d-transition metal species from Ti to Zn were prepared by the melting-quenching technique and their optical properties were investigated. The X-ray absorption near edge spectra of V, Cr, and Mn-doped glasses indicate that the oxidation states of V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI) and Mn(II, III) exist in the studied glasses. The oxidation states revealed from the diffuse reflectance spectra of the glasses are V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI), Mn(III), Fe(II, III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II). Most of the 3d transition element ions exhibit strong absorption in the visible spectral region in the glass. Under ultraviolet excitation, the undoped sodium borosilicate glass produces weak and broad emission, while doping of vanadium introduces strong and broad emission due to the V(V) charge transfer transition. Only weak emission is observed from Ti(IV), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II), partly resulting from the strong electron–phonon coupling of the 3d-electrons and the relatively high phonon energy of the studied glass host, with the former leading to dominant nonradiative relaxation based on multiphonon processes for most of the 3d excited states

  11. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  12. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  13. Thermal Instability Induced Oriented 2D Pores for Enhanced Sodium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingjun; Xie, Chen-Chao; Gu, Haichen; Wang, Chao-Peng; Zhou, Xianlong; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Zhen; Li, Zhao-Yang; Zhu, Jian; Bu, Xian-He

    2018-04-19

    Hierarchical porous structures are highly desired for various applications. However, it is still challenging to obtain such materials with tunable architectures. Here, this paper reports hierarchical nanomaterials with oriented 2D pores by taking advantages of thermally instable bonds in vanadium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). High-temperature calcination of these MOFs accompanied by the loss of coordinated water molecules and other components enables the formation of orderly slit-like 2D pores in vanadium oxide/porous carbon nanorods (VO x /PCs). This unique combination leads to an increase of the reactive surface area. In addition, optimized VO x /PCs demonstrate high-rate capability and ultralong cycling life for sodium storage. The assembled full cells also show high capacity and cycling stability. This report provides an effective strategy for producing MOFs-derived composites with hierarchical porous architectures for energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simultaneous Formation of Artificial SEI Film and 3D Host for Stable Metallic Sodium Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Li, Bin; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Shubin

    2017-11-22

    Metallic sodium is a promising anode for sodium-based batteries, owing to its high theoretical capacity (1165 mAh g -1 ) and low potential (-2.714 V vs standard hydrogen electrode). However, the growth of sodium dendrites and the infinite volume change of metallic sodium during sodium striping/plating result in a low Coulombic efficiency and poor cycling stability, generating a safety hazard of sodium-based batteries. Here, an efficient approach was proposed to simultaneously generate an artificial SEI film and 3D host for metallic sodium based on a conversion reaction (CR) between sodium and MoS 2 (4Na + MoS 2 = 2Na 2 S + Mo) at room temperature. In the resultant sodium-MoS 2 hybrid after the conversion reaction (Na-MoS 2 (CR)), the production Na 2 S is homogeneously dispersed on the surface of metallic sodium, which can act as an artificial SEI film, efficiently preventing the growth of sodium dendrites; the residual MoS 2 nanosheets can construct a 3D host to confine metallic sodium, accommodating largely the volume change of sodium. Consequently, the Na-MoS 2 (CR) hybrid exhibits very low overpotential of 25 mV and a very long cycle stability more than 1000 cycles. This novel strategy is promising to promote the development of metal (lithium, sodium, zinc)-based electrodes.

  15. 2D VS 3D imaging of brain tumours with 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathmaraj, K.; Scott, A.M.; Egan, G.F.; Hannah, A.; Tauro, A.; Tochon-Danguy, A.; Sachinidis, J.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Fabinyi, G.; McKay, W.J.; Cher, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: 18 F-FMISO accumulates in hypoxic cells and can be used in the PET imaging of brain tumours containing viable but hypoxic cells. The limited activity (typically 130 MBq) of injected 18 F-FMISO yield poor statistics, requiring prolonged imaging in the conventional 2D mode of PET scanning. 3D (septa retracted) imaging allows for more counts to be collected over a shorter time period making it a more practical alternative. This study investigates the contrast resolution that can be obtained from 3D PET scans compared to the corresponding 2D scan. A patient recently diagnosed with brain tumour was injected with 18 -FMISO 2 hours prior to scanning and imaged supine on a 951/31R PET scanner with the head secured firmly in a head holder. The imaging protocol consisted of a 3 min emission rectilinear scan to position the brain in the FOV, a 10 min post-emission transmission scan, a 20 min 2D emission scan and a 5X10 min frames 3D emission scan. Both the 2D and 3D scans were reconstructed with filtered backprojection algorithm. The first 10 min frame of the 3D acquisition was reconstructed. The total true counts were 3 million and 6.06 million in the 2D image and 3D images respectively. The random events were 0.24 million and 0.96 million in the 2D and 3D images respectively. The Noise Equivalent Counts (NEC) were 2.2 million and 2.02 million for the 2D and 3D images respectively indicating that the 2D and 3D scans (in spite of the nominal true events being vastly different in the 2 scans) had similar Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Circular ROI's were defined in the tumour and the contralateral cortex in comparable transaxial slices of the 2D and 3D images. Contrast resolution of the tumour to the background was calculated as 1.4 and 1.38 in the 2D and 3D images respectively. Thus comparable contrast resolution is obtained in the brain with both 3D and 2D images, making 3D imaging a viable alternative to 2D imaging and greatly reducing imaging time. Optimum time

  16. Crystal Structure of the Sodium Cobaltate Deuterate Superconductor NaxCoO2o4xD2O (x=1/3)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J. D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D. G.; Burley, J. C.; Short, S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na0.31(3)CoO2o1.25(2)D2O and its anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D2O molecules (two above and two below) to each Na ion in a way that gives Na-O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D2...

  17. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  18. Estimating CO{sub 2} Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO{sub 2} Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co., LTD(ETP), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Estimating potential of CO{sub 2} emission reduction of non-capture CO{sub 2} utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO{sub 2} emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO{sub 2} of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO{sub 2} emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO{sub 3} (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO{sub 3}). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO{sub 2} reduction through the CO{sub 2} carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO{sub 2} emission technology.

  19. Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Catalytic Degradation of Diclofenac Sodium over the Catalyst of 3D Flower-like alpha-FeOOH Synergized with H2O2 Under Visible Light Irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-ge; Li, Yun-qin; Huang, Hua-shan; Yuan, Bao-ling; Cui, Hao-jie; Fu, Ming-lai

    2015-06-01

    Three dimensional (3D) flower-like alpha-FeOOH nanomaterials were prepared by oil bath reflux method using FeSO4, urea, ethanol and water, and the products which were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and SEM techniques. The SEM images showed that the 3D flower-like samples consisted of nanorods with a length of 400-500 nm and a diameter of 40-60 nm. The catalytic performance of the samples was evaluated by catalytic degradation of diclofenac sodium using H2O2 as the oxidant under simulated visible light. The results showed that the as-prepared samples presented high efficient catalytic performances, and more than 99% of the initial diclofenac sodium (30 mg x L(-1)) was degraded in 90 min. A radical mechanism can be proposed for the catalytic degradation of diclofenac sodium solution.

  1. Performance Evaluation in Sodium-to-Sodium Heat Exchangers in STELLA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Youngchul; Son, Seok-kwon; Yoon, Jung; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    The program aiming at an integral effect test is called STELLA-2, which will be used for synthetic review of the key safety issues of PGSFR. The basic and detailed design phases of the STELLA-2 test facility are underway in accordance with the specific design requirements reflecting the whole design features of PGSFR. Based on the STELLA-2 platform, a simulation of the PGSFR transient will be made to evaluate the plant dynamic behaviors and demonstrate the decay heat removal performance. The multi-dimensional effects coming from a large sodium pool system will be identified as well. Among several components of STELLA-2, there are five different types of model heat exchangers such as IHX, DHX, FHX, AHX, and UHX. Each heat exchanger has different characteristics, and it is very important to verify the heat transfer and pressure drop performance in each heat exchanger. The performance evaluation of the sodium-to-sodium heat exchangers (IHX and DHX) in STELLA-2 is performed using CFD. Also, these results are compared with 1-D heat exchanger design code. The shell/tube outlet temperature and heat transfer rate of the heat exchanger obtained by the CFD is not significantly

  2. Measuring the separation of the sodium D-doublet with a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, M.; Corridoni, T.

    2018-01-01

    Revisiting a method proposed by Fizeau in 1862, in this paper we measure the separation of the Na-doublet (the wavelength difference {{Δ }}λ between the two emission D-lines of the sodium spectrum) with a didactical Michelson interferometer. We describe the setup, how the measurements have been done and develop a mathematical model in order to explain the principal features of the collected data. Discussing the limits of this model, we suggest further experimental and theoretical extensions of the experience, also focusing on the didactical aspects to show how this experiment could bring advanced modern physics topics into high schools.

  3. Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid H2-D2 mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.; Hao-Ming, Chen

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid 0.6 H2 + 0.4 D2 mixture has been studied for electron and hydrogen ion bombardment at primary energies from 0.5 to 3 keV and 2 to 10 keV/amu, respectively. The yield for solid HD is well explained by a simple stoichiometric model of the low...

  4. Modeling of under-expanded reactive CO2-into-sodium jets, in the frame of sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivaldi, D.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD work was motivated by the investigations in the frame of supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles as possible energy conversion cycles for the Sodium-cooled Fast nuclear Reactors (SFRs). This technology represents an alternative to conventional steam Rankine cycles, with the main advantage represented by the elimination of the accidental sodium-water reaction scenario. Nevertheless, CO 2 chemically reacts with sodium, through an exothermic reaction leading to solid reaction products, mainly sodium carbonate. Following an accidental leakage inside the sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger of a SFR, the CO 2 , having an operating pressure of about 200 bars, would be injected into the low-operating pressure liquid sodium, creating an under-expanded reactive CO 2 -into-sodium jet. The under-expanded jet features a sonic gas injection velocity and an under-expansion in the first region downstream the leakage, where the CO 2 is accelerated to supersonic velocities. The exothermic reaction between the CO 2 and the sodium causes an increasing of the temperature inside the heat exchanger. An experimental facility was built at CEA Cadarache, for the realization of CO 2 -into-sodium jets: this facility has provided preliminary results in terms of temperature variations inside the jet due to the exothermic reaction. However, this type of experimental tests are complicated to realize and to analyse, due to the technical difficulties of realizing the contact between CO 2 and sodium, and to the incertitude of temperature measurement inside a two-phase high velocity jet. It follows that a numerical model of this kind of jets is required, in order to understand the CO 2 -sodium kinetics of reaction inside the jet and being able to transpose the phenomenon to relevant SFR sodium-CO 2 heat exchangers. This would allow to understand the consequences of a leakage inside a sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger, in terms of, for instance, temperature profiles inside the heat exchanger and on tube surfaces

  5. Host sensitized near-infrared emission in Nd3+ doped different alkaline-sodium-phosphate phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, A.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2018-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) emitting phosphors of different alkaline based sodium-phosphate (MNa[PO4], where M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba were prepared by a conventional solution combustion method with fixed doping concentration of Nd3+ (1.0 mol%). The phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescent spectrophotometry. The optical properties including reflectance, excitation and emission were investigated. The excitation spectra of the phosphors were characterized by a broadband extending from 450 to 900 nm. Upon excitation with a wavelength of 580 nm, the phosphor emits intensely infrared region at 872 nm, 1060 nm and 1325 nm which correspond to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions and were found to vary for the different hosts. The strongest emission wavelength reaches 1060 nm. The most intense emission of Nd3+ was observed from Ca2+ incorporated host. The down conversion emissions of the material fall in the NIR region suggesting that the prepared phosphors have potential application in the development of photonic devices emitting in the NIR.

  6. Sodium alginate/gelatin with silica nanoparticles a novel hydrogel for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Raghav; Roopavath, Uday Kiran; Mahanta, Urbashi; Deshpande, A. S.; Rath, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate/gelatin hydrogels are promising materials for 3D bio-printing due to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Gelatin is used for thermal crosslinking and its cell adhesion properties. Hence patient specific sodium alginate/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds can be bio-fabricated in a temperature range of 4-14 oC. In this study we made an attempt to introduce silica (SiO2) nanoparticles in the polymer network of sodium alginate (2.5%)/gelatin (8%) hydrogel at different concentrations (w/v) as 0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%. The effect of silica nanoparticles on viscosity, swelling behavior, and degradation rate are analyzed. Hydrogels with 5% silica nanoparticles show significantly less swelling and degradation when compared to other concentrations. The viscosity of the hydrogels gradually increases up to 5% addition of silica nanoparticles enhancing the stability of 3D printed structures.

  7. Necrotic enteritis challenge and high dietary sodium level affect odorant composition or emission from broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishchal K; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao; Swick, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge and high dietary sodium (from sodium chloride) level on odor flux from broiler litter was investigated using 160 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: presence or absence of NE challenge and normal (1.6 g/kg) or high (4.0 g/kg) dietary sodium (Na) level. On d 20, odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). On d 33, while challenge did not lead to higher mortality, it reduced feed intake by 5.48% (P litter moisture and litter headspace concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (P litter moisture (P litter headspace concentration of sulfur compounds and phenol (P litter flux of some additional odorants, which included 2,3-butanedione (P broiler farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E): seasonal and nocturnal variations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prasanth, PV

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available , Dordrecht, Holland, 200 pp, 1970. Clemesha, B. R., Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H., Kirchhoff, D. M., Taka- hashi, H., and Batista, P. P.: Simultaneous observations of sodium density and the NaD, OH(8,3), and OI5577- Ao night- glow emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 84....: Nighttime Na-D Emission observed from a Polar-Orbiting DMSP Satellite – Comment, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 6601–6606, 1990. Clemesha, B. R., Simonich, D. M., Takahasi, H., Melo, S. M. L., and Plane, J. M. C.: Experimental evidence for photochemical control...

  9. Experimental and theoretical studies of the VUV emission and absorption spectra of H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} molecules; Etude experimentale et theorique des spectres d'emission et d'absorption VUV des molecules H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} et HD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudjane, M

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to carry out an experimental study of the absorption and emission spectra of the D{sub 2} and HD isotopes, with high resolution, in the VUV domain and to supplement it by a theoretical study of the excited electronic states involved in the observed transitions. The emission spectra of HD and D{sub 2} are produced by Penning discharge source operating under low pressure and are recorded in the spectral range 78 - 170 nm. The recorded spectra contains more than 20.000 lines. The analysis of the spectrum consists in identifying and assigning the lines to the electronic transitions between energy levels of the molecule. The present analysis is based on our theoretical calculations of the ro-vibrational energy levels of the excited electronic states and the transition probabilities from these states towards the energy levels of the fundamental state. The theoretical results are obtained by resolving the coupled equations between the excited electronic states B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup 1}, B'{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup 1}, C{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}{sup 1} and D{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}{sup 1}, taking into account the nonadiabatic couplings between these states, and they are obtained in the adiabatic approximation for the excited electronic states B''B-bar{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}, D'{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}{sup 1} and D''{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}{sup 1}. The equations are resolved using a modern method based on the discretization variables representation method. In addition, we have carried out a study of the absorption spectra of the HD and D{sub 2} molecules.

  10. Influence of the ac Stark effect on stimulated hyper-Raman profiles in sodium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.A.; Garrett, W.R.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-08-01

    When pumping near the two-photon 3d resonance in pure sodium vapor and observing the backward hyper-Raman emission to the 3p substates, an asymmetry in ratios of 3p/sub 1/2/, 3p/sub 3/2/ associated emissions was observed dependent upon the direction of the initial laser detuning from the resonance. It has been determined that this asymmetry can be attributed to the ac Stark effect induced by the hyper-Raman emission itself. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. Capturing PM2.5 Emissions from 3D Printing via Nanofiber-based Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chengchen; Gu, Fu; Zhao, Peng; Sharmin, Nusrat; Gu, Haibing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2017-09-04

    This study investigated the feasibility of using polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber-based air filters to capture PM2.5 particles emitted from fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. Generation and aggregation of emitted particles were investigated under different testing environments. The results show that: (1) the PCL nanofiber membranes are capable of capturing particle emissions from 3D printing, (2) relative humidity plays a signification role in aggregation of the captured particles, (3) generation and aggregation of particles from 3D printing can be divided into four stages: the PM2.5 concentration and particles size increase slowly (first stage), small particles are continuously generated and their concentration increases rapidly (second stage), small particles aggregate into more large particles and the growth of concentration slows down (third stage), the PM2.5 concentration and particle aggregation sizes increase rapidly (fourth stage), and (4) the ultrafine particles denoted as "building unit" act as the fundamentals of the aggregated particles. This work has tremendous implications in providing measures for controlling the particle emissions from 3D printing, which would facilitate the extensive application of 3D printing. In addition, this study provides a potential application scenario for nanofiber-based air filters other than laboratory theoretical investigation.

  12. 2-¹⁸fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for postchemotherapy seminoma residual lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, M; Loriot, Y; Gross-Goupil, M

    2012-01-01

    2-¹⁸fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been recommended in international guidelines in the evaluation of postchemotherapy seminoma residuals. Our trial was designed to validate these recommendations in a larger group of patients.......2-¹⁸fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been recommended in international guidelines in the evaluation of postchemotherapy seminoma residuals. Our trial was designed to validate these recommendations in a larger group of patients....

  13. Electrochemical investigation of MoTe2/rGO composite materials for sodium-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Manas Ranjan; Anish Raj, K.; Sarkar, Ananta; Bao, Qiaoliang; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-05-01

    2D layered materials are found to be promising anode materials for renewable energy storage devices like sodium and Li-ion batteries and have become attractive options due to their high specific capacity, abundance and low cost. In this work, we synthesized 2D MoTe2 layers embedded in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) anode material for sodium-ion battery applications. 2D MoTe2 was prepared by a solid-state reaction in vacuum at a temperature of 800 °C. The prepared composite material MoTe2/rGO showed excellent electrochemical performance against the sodium metal. The discharge capacity of MoTe2/rGO was observed to be 280 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1.0 A g-1 for 100 cycles. rGO plays an important role in embedding the MoTe2 structure, thus improving the electrical and mechanical properties, leading to a superior cycling stability and excellent electrochemical performances of MoTe2 for sodium-ion battery applications.

  14. Carbon in sodium: a status review of the USA R and D work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Bagnall, C.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented concerning R and D work on carbon in sodium with reference to LMFBR primary coolant circuits. The chemistry of carbon in sodium, analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium, carbon meters, and problems of carbon in sodium are described. 31 references

  15. One-Pot Synthesis of Some New Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives Catalyzed by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized by the three-component reaction of aromatic aldehyde, malononitrile and 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine catalyzed by sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS in aqueous media. It was interesting that further aromatization took place automatically. This method provides several advantages such as easier work-up, milder reaction conditions and environmental friendly.

  16. Capturing PM2.5 emissions from 3D printing via nanofiber-based air filter

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Chengchen; Gu, Fu; Zhao, Peng; Sharmin, Nusrat; Gu, Haibing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber-based air filters to capture PM2.5 particles emitted from fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. Generation and aggregation of emitted particles were investigated under different testing environments. The results show that: (1) the PCL nanofiber membranes are capable of capturing particle emissions from 3D printing, (2) relative humidity plays a signification role in aggregation of the captured particles, ...

  17. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-07

    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Improving pure red upconversion emission of Co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} nanocrystals with a combination of sodium sulfide and surfactant Pluronic-F127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Luke, T., E-mail: tzarara@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); Campos Villalobos, I. [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); Rodriguez, R.A. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Unidad Lagos, Lagos de Moreno, Jal. 47460, México (Mexico); Ángles-Chávez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Cd. México, D.F. 07730, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Querétaro, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Wheeler, Damon A.; Zhang, J.Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Nanocrystals of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} (2:1 mol% Yb{sup 3+}:Er{sup 3+}) were prepared by a novel precipitation technique using Na{sub 2}S and Pluronic-F127 (PF127) surfactant. Crystal structure, particle size, red emission intensity and fluorescence decay lifetimes were determined using microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM analysis indicates that the average particle size ranged from 40 to 70 nm. The nanocrystals showed a strong red emission band centered at 663 nm after excitation at 970 nm. The upconverted signal intensity was improved 250% with an optimum concentration of Na{sub 2}S (0.48 M) and PF127 (0.1 mM). The improvement was explained in terms of the reduction of surface contaminants as well as the cubic crystalline phase of the parent Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} material. Interestingly, the formation of sulfates (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) is faster than that of O–H, which is responsible for quenching the red and green emissions. The results suggest that Na{sub 2}S and PF127 are good candidates for surface passivation, especially when used in conjunction. The preparation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} using Na{sub 2}S with strong red emission band was produced at a lower cost than that of other sulfuration processes. -- Highlights: • . • Strong red emission band centered at 663 nm was obtained after excitation at 970 nm. • Yb-Er codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals with average size ranging from 40 to 70 nm. • Improvement of the red emission in Y2O3:Yb-Er nanocrystals by the introduction of sodium sulfide and pluronic. • Passivation of nanocrystal surface with sodium sulfide and pluoronic.

  19. Preparation and luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped CaSi2O2-dN2+2/3d phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yunxin; Zhang Qinghong; Wang Hongzhi; Li Yaogang

    2009-01-01

    Eu 2+ -doped CaSi 2 O 2-d N 2+2/3d phosphors for white LED lamps were prepared by solid-state reaction, and the effects of heat-treatment conditions and the overall composition of host lattice on the optical properties have been discussed. Eu 2+ -doped CaSi 2 O 2-d N 2+2/3d displayed a single broad emission band peak at 540 nm, which could be assigned to the allowed transition of Eu 2+ from the lowest crystal field component of 4f 6 5d to 4f 7 ground-state level. The excitation band of samples, extending from UV to blue, is extremely wide, so the phosphors are suitable for white LED lamps in combination with a UV or blue LED dies. The highest PL intensity is found for the sample sintered at 1400 0 C. Moreover, the emission intensity decreases when N partially replaces O. A red shift of emission wavelength did not occur with increasing of the N content.

  20. 3D organic Na4C6O6/graphene architecture for fast sodium storage with ultralong cycle life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianan; Gu, Yue; Yang, Shubin

    2017-11-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have aroused increasing interest as one of the most promising replacements for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, a novel organic-inorganic 3D Na 4 C 6 O 6 -graphene architecture was successfully fabricated from commercial Na 2 C 6 O 6 and for the first time applied for sodium storage. Hence, the 3D Na 4 C 6 O 6 -graphene architecture exhibits a high reversible capacity, good cyclic performance and high-rate capability for sodium storage.

  1. Synthesizing Porous NaTi2(PO4)3 Nanoparticles Embedded in 3D Graphene Networks for High-Rate and Long Cycle-Life Sodium Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Kopold, Peter; Ding, Yuan-Li; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2015-06-23

    Sodium ion batteries attract increasing attention for large-scale energy storage as a promising alternative to the lithium counterparts in view of low cost and abundant sodium source. However, the large ion radius of Na brings about a series of challenging thermodynamic and kinetic difficulties to the electrodes for sodium-storage, including low reversible capacity and low ion transport, as well as large volume change. To mitigate or even overcome the kinetic problems, we develop a self-assembly route to a novel architecture consisting of nanosized porous NASICON-type NaTi2(PO4)3 particles embedded in microsized 3D graphene network. Such architecture synergistically combines the advantages of a 3D graphene network and of 0D porous nanoparticles. It greatly increases the electron/ion transport kinetics and assures the electrode structure integrity, leading to attractive electrochemical performance as reflected by a high rate-capability (112 mAh g(-1) at 1C, 105 mAh g(-1) at 5C, 96 mAh g(-1) at 10C, 67 mAh g(-1) at 50C), a long cycle-life (capacity retention of 80% after 1000 cycles at 10C), and a high initial Coulombic efficiency (>79%). This nanostructure design provides a promising pathway for developing high performance NASICON-type materials for sodium storage.

  2. High resolution emission spectra of H2 and D2 near 80 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larzilliere, M.; Roncin, J.-Y.; Launay, F.

    1980-01-01

    A few lines have been observed in the far ultraviolet emission spectrum of molecular hydrogen and deuterium. They are assigned to transitions from levels of the 3pπD 1 PIsub(u)sup(-) state, lying above the dissociation limit into H(ls) + H(n=2), near 84.5 nm, and, for some of them, above the first ionization limit near 80.4 nm, the lower state being X 1 Σsub(g)sup(+) (v''=1). This is in fair agreement with measured predissociation and preionization yields. Accurate line position measurements lead to molecular constants in very good agreement with theoretical calculations

  3. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system: integrated system test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Program, is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the final phase of the test program, in which the overall performance of the integrated system was evaluated. Previous testing has shown that the goal of 70 percent NO{sub x} removal was easily achieved with the combination of low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and urea-based SNCR. Similarly, the ability of the sodium-based DSI system to achieve 70 percent SO{sub 2} removal was also demonstrated previously. The integrated tests demonstrated the synergistic benefit of operating the SNCR and sodium-based DSI systems concurrently. With the automatic control system set to limit the NH{sub 3} emissions to less than 8 ppm, the NO{sub 2} emissions from the sodium-based DSI system were reduced by nominally 50 percent compared to operation with the DSI system alone. Comparably, the combined operation reduced NH{sub 3} emissions, as reflected by a higher urea injection rate for a fixed NH{sub 3} emission limit. With combined DSI and SNCR operation, an ammonia odor problem was encountered around the Unit 4 ash silo (this did not occur with the SNCR system operated alone at comparable NH{sub 3} slip levels). This odor problem is attributed to the sodium changing the rate at which NH{sub 3} is released from the ash when it is wetted for truck transport to the disposal site.

  4. Lack of Effect of Sodium Benzoate at Reported Clinical Therapeutic Concentration on d-Alanine Metabolism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek, Michael; Tierney, Brendan; Steyn, Stefanus J; DeVivo, Michael

    2018-06-19

    Cognitive decline and psychosis have been hypothesized to be mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. Consistent with this hypothesis, chronic treatment with d-alanine, a coagonist at the glycine site of the NMDAR, leads to an improvement of positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. d-alanine is oxidized by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO); thus, an inhibitor of DAAO would be expected to enhance d-alanine levels and likewise lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Sodium benzoate, on the basis of d-amino acid inhibition, was observed to display beneficial clinical effects in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients. However, in the clinical pilot studies using sodium benzoate, d-amino acids were not quantified to verify that sodium benzoate's efficacy was mediated through DAAO inhibition. In this study, d-alanine content was monitored in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of dogs treated with daily injections of d-alanine (30 mg/kg) alone and in combination with sodium benzoate (30 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. We reasoned that the cerebral spinal fluid d-alanine quantity is reflective of the brain d-alanine levels and it would increase as a consequence of DAAO inhibition with sodium benzoate. We found that d-alanine treatment lead to maximal concentration of 7.51 μM CSF d-alanine level; however, coadministration of sodium benzoate and d-alanine did not change CSF d-alanine level beyond that of d-alanine treatment alone. As a consequence, we conclude that clinical efficacy associated with chronic administration of sodium benzoate in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients is likely not mediated through inhibition of DAAO.

  5. Acoustic emission events from sodium vapour bubble collapsing: a stochastic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombino, A; Dentico, G; Pacilio, N; Papalia, B; Taglienti, S; Tosi, V; Vigo, A [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Casaccia (Italy). Centro di Studi Nucleari; Galli, C [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1981-01-01

    The forward Kolomogorov equation method has been applied to a zero-dimensional model which describes the time distribution of acoustic emissions from sodium vapour bubble collapsing. Processes taken into account as components for outlining the upstated phenomenon are: energy generation, energy dissipation, bubble creation, acoustic emission and energy release from bubble collapsing. Processes involve affect or are induced by a population of particles (bubbles, acoustic pulses) and pseudoparticles (energetic units). A formulation is obtained for the expected values of some stochastic indicators, i.e., factorial moments and cumulants, autocorrelation functions, waiting time distribution between contiguous events, of the time series consisting of acoustic emission pulses as detected by a suitable sensor. Preliminary, but promising, validation of the model and a sound prelude to effective boiling regime diagnosing is obtained by processing data from the out-of-pile CFNa loop in Grenoble, France. Data are collected from a piezoelectric accelerometer located nearby the circuit.

  6. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions guidelines. 60.31d Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission...

  7. Sodium bicarbonate injection: a small-plant SO sub 2 /NO sub x option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmstaedter, E. (NaTec Resources Inc. (USA). Environmental Systems Division)

    1990-12-01

    The sodium bicarbonate injection process provides a cost effective alternative to flue gas desulfurization for smaller power plants. EPRI and NaTec Resources have been conducting demonstrations on coal-fired utility boilers. 90% SO{sub 2} reduction was achieved in EPRI's High-Sulfur Test Centre 4 MW pilot HYPAS installation near Barker, NY. During 1990 Public Service Company of Colorado and NaTec completed a two-phase commercial demonstration for continuous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control on Cherokee Unit 1 to determine levels of urea and injection locations for urea and sodium bicarbonate to minimise NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} emissions while maintaining a high level of SO{sub 2} reduction. Methods for sodium sulphate by-product recovery/sale are described - these are higher value than those from the limestone process. Costs for the whole process, driven by sorbent costs, work out typically for a dry sorbent injection/HYPAS system at $610/ton SO{sub 2} removed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Crystal structure of the sodium cobaltate deuterate superconductor NaxCoO2ṡ4xD2O (x≈1/3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D. G.; Burley, J. C.; Short, S.

    2003-12-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na0.31(3)CoO2ṡ1.25(2)D2O and its anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2. The anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2 has two partially occupied Na sites sandwiched, in the same plane, between CoO2 layers. When Na is removed to make the superconducting composition, the Na site that experiences the strongest Na Co repulsion is emptied while the occupancy of the other Na site is reduced to about one third. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D2O molecules (two above and two below) to each remaining Na ion in a way that gives Na O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D2O molecule is hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in the CoO2 plane and the oxygen atom and the second deuteron of each D2O molecule lie approximately in a plane between the Na layer and the CoO2 layers. This coordination of Na by four D2O molecules leads in a straightforward way to ordering of the Na ions and D2O molecules consistent with the observation of additional shorter-range scattering features in the diffraction data. The sample studied here, which has Tc=4.5 K, has a refined composition of Na0.31(3)CoO2ṡ1.25(2)D2O, in agreement with the expected 1:4 ratio of Na to D2O. These results show that the optimal superconducting composition should be viewed as a specific hydrated compound, not a solid solution of Na and D2O (H2O) in NaxCoO2D2O. The hydrated superconducting compound may be stable over a limited range of Na and D2O concentration, but studies of Tc and other physical properties vs Na or D2O composition should be viewed with caution until it is verified that the compound remains in the same phase over the composition range of the study.

  9. Crystal structure of the sodium cobaltate deuterate superconductor NaxCoO2·4xD2O (x≅(1/3))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D.G.; Burley, J.C.; Short, S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na 0.31(3) CoO 2 ·1.25(2)D 2 O and its anhydrous parent compound Na 0.61(1) CoO 2 . The anhydrous parent compound Na 0.61(1) CoO 2 has two partially occupied Na sites sandwiched, in the same plane, between CoO 2 layers. When Na is removed to make the superconducting composition, the Na site that experiences the strongest Na-Co repulsion is emptied while the occupancy of the other Na site is reduced to about one third. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D 2 O molecules (two above and two below) to each remaining Na ion in a way that gives Na-O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D 2 O molecule is hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in the CoO 2 plane and the oxygen atom and the second deuteron of each D 2 O molecule lie approximately in a plane between the Na layer and the CoO 2 layers. This coordination of Na by four D 2 O molecules leads in a straightforward way to ordering of the Na ions and D 2 O molecules consistent with the observation of additional shorter-range scattering features in the diffraction data. The sample studied here, which has T c =4.5 K, has a refined composition of Na 0.31(3) CoO 2 ·1.25(2)D 2 O, in agreement with the expected 1:4 ratio of Na to D 2 O. These results show that the optimal superconducting composition should be viewed as a specific hydrated compound, not a solid solution of Na and D 2 O (H 2 O) in Na x CoO 2 ·D 2 O. The hydrated superconducting compound may be stable over a limited range of Na and D 2 O concentration, but studies of T c and other physical properties vs Na or D 2 O composition should be viewed with caution until it is verified that the compound remains in the same phase over the composition range of the study

  10. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: ► In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. ► The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). ► Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. ► Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  11. Background noise of acoustic emission signals in sodium piping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Aoki, K.; Kuribayashi, K.; Kishi, T.; Sakakibara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Background noise measurement in the frequency range of acoustic emission (AE) signals was made on the sodium piping loops of a 50 MW steam generator test facility in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). During the dynamic characteristics test of the steam generator over a wide range of operating conditions, the background noise generated on the pipe surface was measured using wideband AE sensor externally mounted with waveguide. Data were obtained for the effect of power loads of steam generator on both amplitude and frequency spectra of background noise signals. Source and nature of background noise were established

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies of the VUV emission and absorption spectra of H2, HD and D2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudjane, M.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to carry out an experimental study of the absorption and emission spectra of the D 2 and HD isotopes, with high resolution, in the VUV domain and to supplement it by a theoretical study of the excited electronic states involved in the observed transitions. The emission spectra of HD and D 2 are produced by Penning discharge source operating under low pressure and are recorded in the spectral range 78 - 170 nm. The recorded spectra contains more than 20.000 lines. The analysis of the spectrum consists in identifying and assigning the lines to the electronic transitions between energy levels of the molecule. The present analysis is based on our theoretical calculations of the ro-vibrational energy levels of the excited electronic states and the transition probabilities from these states towards the energy levels of the fundamental state. The theoretical results are obtained by resolving the coupled equations between the excited electronic states B 1 Σ u 1 , B' 1 Σ u 1 , C 1 Π u 1 and D 1 Π u 1 , taking into account the nonadiabatic couplings between these states, and they are obtained in the adiabatic approximation for the excited electronic states B''B-bar 1 Σ u + , D' 1 Π u 1 and D'' 1 Π u 1 . The equations are resolved using a modern method based on the discretization variables representation method. In addition, we have carried out a study of the absorption spectra of the HD and D 2 molecules

  13. 24,25,28-Trihydroxyvitamin D2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D2: Novel metabolites of vitamin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.S.; Tserng, K.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding of the inactivation pathways of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , the two physiologically significant monohydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D 2 , is of importance, especially during hypervitaminosis D 2 . At present, little information is available regarding the inactivation pathway of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 except its further metabolism into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 . In our present study, the authors investigated the metabolic fate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the isolated perfused rat kidney and demonstrated its conversion not only into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 but also into two other new metabolites, namely, 24,25,28-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 . The structure identification of the new metabolites was established by the techniques of ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry and by the characteristic nature of each new metabolite's susceptibility to sodium metaperiodate oxidation. In order to demonstrate the physiological significance of the two new trihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , induced hypervitaminosis D 2 in a rat using [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 and analyzed its plasma for the various [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 metabolites on two different high-pressure liquid chromatography systems. The results indicate that both 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 circulate in the vitamin D 2 intoxicated rat in significant amounts along with other previously identified monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , namely, 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2

  14. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  15. The Synergistic Roles of Cholecystokinin B and Dopamine D5 Receptors on the Regulation of Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Jiang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R and the gastrin receptor (CCKBR are involved in the maintenance of sodium homeostasis. The D1R has been found to interact synergistically with CCKBR in renal proximal tubule (RPT cells to promote natriuresis and diuresis. D5R, which has a higher affinity for dopamine than D1R, has some constitutive activity. Hence, we sought to investigate the interaction between D5R and CCKBR in the regulation of renal sodium excretion. In present study, we found D5R and CCKBR increase each other's expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the HK-2 cell, the specificity of which was verified in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing both human D5R and CCKBR and in RPT cells from a male normotensive human. The specificity of D5R in the D5R and CCKBR interaction was verified further using a selective D5R antagonist, LE-PM436. Also, D5R and CCKBR colocalize and co-immunoprecipitate in BALB/c mouse RPTs and human RPT cells. CCKBR protein expression in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of renal cortex (PMFs is greater in D5R-/- mice than D5R+/+ littermates and D5R protein expression in PMFs is also greater in CCKBR-/- mice than CCKBR+/+ littermates. High salt diet, relative to normal salt diet, increased the expression of CCKBR and D5R proteins in PMFs. Disruption of CCKBR in mice caused hypertension and decreased sodium excretion. The natriuresis in salt-loaded BALB/c mice was decreased by YF476, a CCKBR antagonist and Sch23390, a D1R/D5R antagonist. Furthermore, the natriuresis caused by gastrin was blocked by Sch23390 while the natriuresis caused by fenoldopam, a D1R/D5R agonist, was blocked by YF476. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCKBR and D5R synergistically interact in the kidney, which may contribute to the maintenance of normal sodium balance following an increase in sodium intake.

  16. Carbon in sodium - A status review of the U.S.A. R and D work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Bagnall, C.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors contain several types of steel in primary and secondary sodium systems. Austenitic stainless steels are used for in-core components, valves, heat exchangers, tanks and fuel cladding in primary systems. In power generating plants, the secondary or intermediate heat transport system may contain both austenitic and ferritic steel such as 2-1/4 Cr-l Mo type. Sodium circulating throughout the plant contains a number of impurities, metallic and non-metallic, with the steel interstitial elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen being of prime importance. These elements can affect corrosion rates and mechanical behavior of materials. In the case of carbon, the sodium provides a transport medium with carburization and decarburization occurring in several parts of a system at rates depending upon temperature and types of steel. The US Sodium Technology R and D programs have investigated the behavior, transport, measurement and control of carbon in sodium. Measurement and control methods for carbon-containing materials which might contaminate the plant systems during reactor operation have also been studied. During the early 1970's, several US laboratories were active in studying carbon solubility, activity in sodium and interstitial transfer using both theoretical and experimental approaches. Modelling studies were done and models were used to predict FFTF and CRBRP materials requirements, component design and plant operating conditions. Over the past several years, carbon work has not been heavily emphasized. Most of the R and D studies have centered on improving chemical analysis methods for measuring active carbon, both by on-line monitors and by metal foil equilibration procedures; and on studies of pump oil-sodium reactions, reaction products, temperature effects and oil leak detection methods. One program at General Electric is investigating carburization-decarburization in a ferritic-austenitic system simulating conditions expected in

  17. Carbon in sodium - A status review of the U.S.A. R and D work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, J J; Bagnall, C [HEDL, Richland, WA (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors contain several types of steel in primary and secondary sodium systems. Austenitic stainless steels are used for in-core components, valves, heat exchangers, tanks and fuel cladding in primary systems. In power generating plants, the secondary or intermediate heat transport system may contain both austenitic and ferritic steel such as 2-1/4 Cr-l Mo type. Sodium circulating throughout the plant contains a number of impurities, metallic and non-metallic, with the steel interstitial elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen being of prime importance. These elements can affect corrosion rates and mechanical behavior of materials. In the case of carbon, the sodium provides a transport medium with carburization and decarburization occurring in several parts of a system at rates depending upon temperature and types of steel. The US Sodium Technology R and D programs have investigated the behavior, transport, measurement and control of carbon in sodium. Measurement and control methods for carbon-containing materials which might contaminate the plant systems during reactor operation have also been studied. During the early 1970's, several US laboratories were active in studying carbon solubility, activity in sodium and interstitial transfer using both theoretical and experimental approaches. Modelling studies were done and models were used to predict FFTF and CRBRP materials requirements, component design and plant operating conditions. Over the past several years, carbon work has not been heavily emphasized. Most of the R and D studies have centered on improving chemical analysis methods for measuring active carbon, both by on-line monitors and by metal foil equilibration procedures; and on studies of pump oil-sodium reactions, reaction products, temperature effects and oil leak detection methods. One program at General Electric is investigating carburization-decarburization in a ferritic-austenitic system simulating conditions expected in

  18. Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-01-01

    Adding UO 2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 920 0 C the measurements with the borax-UO 2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO 2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

  19. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  20. Lack of cortical endoplasmic reticulum protein Ist2 alters sodium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, Klára; Andršová, Markéta; Sychrová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), č. článku fox011. ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Ist2 * alkali-metal- cation homeostasis * sodium tolerance * sodium uptake * alkali-metal- cation transporters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Mycology Impact factor: 3.299, year: 2016

  1. Investigation of the diffusion behavior of sodium in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemmle, Anke, E-mail: anke.laemmle@zsw-bw.de; Wuerz, Roland; Powalla, Michael [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden Württemberg, Industriestraße 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Schwarz, Torsten; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Choi, Pyuck-Pa [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-04-21

    Sodium diffusion in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) layers was investigated over a temperature range from 157 °C to 400 °C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Sodium ions diffused from a sodium fluoride (NaF) layer on the CIGS surface into the CIGS layer. From Na diffusion profiles, the diffusion along grain boundaries could be distinguished from the diffusion into the grain interior. Atom-probe tomography measurements reveal that even at a low temperature of 157 °C bulk diffusion of sodium into CIGS occurs. Based on this data, the slower diffusion coefficient in the volume can be described by the Arrhenius equation D{sub Na}{sup V} = 9.7 × 10{sup −9} exp(−0.36 eV/k{sub B}T) cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and the fast diffusion along the grain boundaries by D{sub Na}{sup GB} = 6.5 × 10{sup −9} exp(−0.21 eV/k{sub B}T) cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Hence, we propose that sodium ions do not only passivate grain boundaries, but also act as dopants in the CIGS bulk.

  2. Sodium and potassium ions and accumulation of labelled D-aspartate and GABA in crude synaptosomal fraction from rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, G.

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of labelled D-aspartate into crude synaptosomal fraction (P 2 ) prepared from the rat cerebral cortex proceeded by a 'high affinity' system (Ksub(m) = 15.1 μM). The maximal velocity of D-aspartate uptake was higher than that of the 'high affinity' component of L-aspartate uptake and almost equal to that of L-glutamate under the same incubation conditions. Negligible metabolism of labelled D-aspartate was observed in the P 2 fraction. These findings are in accord with those which have been reported for rat cerebral cortical slices. The following observations were made on D-aspartate uptake into rat cerebral P 2 fraction. The requirement of sodium were almost absolute and obligatory. The affinity of the carrier for the substrate was increased by increasing sodium concentration in the medium, but the maximal velocity was not altered. It is suggested that sodium ion is co-transported mole for mole with the substrate molecule. Omission of potassium from the medium inhibited the uptake competitively. Ouabain was a competitive inhibitor on the uptake. Whereas thallium, rubidium and ammonium were efficient substitutes for potassium in exhibiting Na-K ATPase activity of the P 2 fraction, the uptake was activated only by rubidium in the absence of potassium. These observations were in common with the uptake of L-aspartate as well as of L- and D-glutamate, but not with GABA uptake. The requirement of sodium for the uptake of D-glutamate was indicated to be higher than that in the uptake of the other amino acids. Mutual inhibitions of the uptake among L- and D-isomers of glutamate and aspartate suggested that a common carrier is involved in the transport. Mechanisms of the transport of these amino acids in the crude synaptosomal fraction were discussed. (author)

  3. Observation of correlated anti-Stokes emissions by multiwave mixing in sodium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomura, Koji; Tsukamoto, Mayumi; Wakiyama, Akira; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mitsunaga, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    We study experimentally nonlinear optical processes in which Stokes and anti-Stokes fields build up under strong, resonant, counterpropagating pump laser excitation in atomic sodium vapor. We find that, at some pump frequency, two off-axis anti-Stokes emissions propagating along reflection-symmetric directions are strongly temporally correlated, with a correlation time of 0.5 μs and a correlation range of 1 mrad. It is shown by the numerical analysis based on six-wave mixing process involving pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes waves in the forward and the backward directions that such correlated anti-Stokes emissions are possible when the medium is opaque for the Stokes field and transparent for the anti-Stokes field. Possibilities of quantum correlation for entangled photon generation using this system are discussed

  4. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  5. Theoretical study of Cherenkov radiation emission in anisotropic uniaxial crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbart, A; Derre, J

    1996-04-01

    A theoretical review of the Cherenkov radiation emission in uniaxial crystals is presented. The formalism of C. Muzicar in terms of energetic properties of the emitted waves are corrected. This formalism is used to simulate the Cherenkov radiation emission in a strongly birefringent sodium nitrate crystal (NaNO{sub 3}) and to investigate the consequences of the slight anisotropy of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the design of the Optical Trigger. (author). 12 refs. Submitted to Physical Review, D (US).

  6. [Dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting for small part.

  7. Directed emission of CdSe nanoplatelets originating from strongly anisotropic 2D electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Riccardo; Heckmann, Jan; Prudnikau, Anatol V.; Antanovich, Artsiom; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Owschimikow, Nina; Artemyev, Mikhail; Climente, Juan I.; Woggon, Ulrike; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Achtstein, Alexander W.

    2017-12-01

    Intrinsically directional light emitters are potentially important for applications in photonics including lasing and energy-efficient display technology. Here, we propose a new route to overcome intrinsic efficiency limitations in light-emitting devices by studying a CdSe nanoplatelets monolayer that exhibits strongly anisotropic, directed photoluminescence. Analysis of the two-dimensional k-space distribution reveals the underlying internal transition dipole distribution. The observed directed emission is related to the anisotropy of the electronic Bloch states governing the exciton transition dipole moment and forming a bright plane. The strongly directed emission perpendicular to the platelet is further enhanced by the optical local density of states and local fields. In contrast to the emission directionality, the off-resonant absorption into the energetically higher 2D-continuum of states is isotropic. These contrasting optical properties make the oriented CdSe nanoplatelets, or superstructures of parallel-oriented platelets, an interesting and potentially useful class of semiconductor-based emitters.

  8. Detection Test for Leakage of CO2 into Sodium Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO 2 into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO 2 leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO 2 ) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO 2 exchanger, detection of CO 2 leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO 2 such as sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na 2 CO 3 in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO 2 and CO from reaction of sodium and CO 2 are proper to detect CO 2 leakage into sodium loop

  9. Synthesis and fluorescence study of sodium-2-(4'-dimethyl-aminocinnamicacyl)-3,3-(1',3'-alkylenedithio) acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Zhenjun; Shao Yun; Li Chunxia; Liu Qun

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized two new compounds: Sodium 2-(4'-dimethyl-aminocinnamicacyl)-3,3-(1',3'- ethyl- enedithio) acrylate (STAA-1) and Sodium 2-(4'-dimethyl-aminocinnamicacyl)-3, 3-(1',3'-propylenedithio) acrylate (STAA-2). The maximum absorption of these compounds ranges from 460 to 520 nm with different molecular structures in different solvents. Meanwhile, the emission peak of these compounds arranges from yellow (510 nm) to red (605 nm). The emission spectra show red shift according to the strength of the hydrogen bonding property of the solvent. But the absorption spectra do not show clearly relationship with the strength of the hydrogen bonding property of the solvent. The Stoke shift of the compounds ranges from 42 to 102 nm. It changes in the following order, EtOH>H 2 O>DMF, and STAA-1>STAA-2 in the same solvent. The fluorescent quantum yield of STAA-1 was measured to be 7.12% with quinine sulphate as the standard compound in ethanol. Furthermore, the relationship of the fluorescence of STAA-1 with pH (ranges form 4 to 14) in water (c=∼10 -4 ) was studied to make sure that these compounds could be used as proton sensors

  10. 3-D numerical simulation on the vibration of liquid sodium's free surface in sodium pool of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Biao; Yao Zhaohui; Ye Hongkai; Wang Xuefang

    1997-01-01

    This paper succeeds in simulating three-dimensional incompressible flows with free surface, complicated in-flow and out-flow boundary conditions and internal obstacles, and also can treat these fluid flows in arbitrary shape vessel using a partial cell. According to all kinds of the element influencing the free surface's vibration in sodium pool it may give the various wave's form, the highest and lowest position, and the amount of the vibration. This paper introduces the brief principle of VOF numerical method, develops the computational program based on NASA-VOF3D, provides some results about the free surface's vibration in sodium pool of FBR

  11. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2004-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for extended free-stream velocity range of dry air up to 200 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature T i =300degC and 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined by using high speed video camera. The obtained experimental results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended spherical shape droplet were observed for all examined experimental conductions except the case of free-stream velocity U=200 cm/s at 300degC, where detachment of droplet from the support due to strained oxide film occurred. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange-light emitting zone or flame zone decreases with the increase of the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition delay time are 0.68 s at U=20 cm/s, 0.52 s at U=100 cm/s, and 0.37 s at 200 cm/s for T i =400degC. (3) The orange-light emission at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole surface except the top region of the droplet. The intensity of the emission at the moment of ignition takes its maximum at the bottom region or upstream region of the droplet, and the emission intensity during the stable burning period increases with the increase of U. (4) When T i is 300degC, formation of temporal multiple short projections are observed before ignition for all examined free-stream velocities. The projections often do not disappear before ignition when the velocity is relatively high. (5) The layer or cloud composed of aerosol is formed

  12. Introduction to 2D and 3D tomographic methods based on straight line propagation: X-ray, emission and ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, F.; Magnin, I.; Garnero, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of computerized tomography (CT), and its evolution towards three dimensional (3D) imaging. Since the modeling of CT reconstruction relies on the Radon transform, its definition and major properties are first recalled. After a brief summary on conventional 2D methods, we present the imaging principles for two modalities appropriated to this modeling: X-Ray and emission tomography. We describe the evolution of the instrumentation for these two techniques, and emphasize the approximations introduced by a modeling using the Radon transform taking into account the physics of the problem. We also describe the principles of ultrasonic tomography systems, and their major differences with the two previous techniques. At last, we formulate the general problematic of 3D image reconstruction from 2D projections. We consider four classes of reconstruction methods corresponding to the classification to the classification chosen for the synthetic presentation of methods, accompanying this paper. (authors)

  13. Study of the secondary electron emission during bombardment of metal targets by positive D{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +} ions (1960); Etude de l'emission secondaire d'electrons au cours du bombardement de cibles metalliques par des ions positifs D{sup +} et D{sub 2}{sup +} (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Prelec, K [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1960-07-01

    The secondary electron yield {gamma}-bar due to primary positive ions D{sup +} and D{sup +}{sub 2} has been measured in the 70 keV to 300 keV ion energy range. Several metallic targets have been used. The variation of this yield with the angle of incidence is proportional to sec {theta} where {theta} is the angle between the beam of primary ions and the normal to the target surface. The values {gamma}-bar decrease for increasing energy ions. At a given energy all the targets tried gave approximately the same electron yield. (author) [French] Le facteur d'emission secondaire a ete mesure pour des ions positifs D{sup +} et D{sup +}{sub 2} ayant une energie comprise entre 70 keV et 300 keV, sur differentes cibles metalliques. La variation de ce facteur avec l'angle d'incidence suit une loi de la forme {gamma}{sub 0} sec {theta}, {theta} etant l'angle entre le faisceau et la normale a la cible. Les valeurs de {gamma}-bar trouvees decroissent lorsque l'energie des ions incidents augmente, mais sont assez voisines les unes des autres, a une energie donnee, pour les differentes cibles essayees. (auteur)

  14. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (1). Sodium/CO2 heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. The Na/CO 2 heat exchanger is one of the key components for the secondary sodium system eliminated SFR, and this report describes its structure and the safety in case of CO 2 leak. A Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE), which has a greater heat transfer performance, is employed to the heat exchanger. Another advantage of the PCHE is to limit the area affected by a leak of CO 2 because of its partitioned flow path structure. A SiC/SiC ceramic composite material is used for the PCHE to prevent crack growth and to reduce thermal stress. The Na/CO 2 heat exchanger has been designed in such a way that a number of small heat transfer modules are combined in the vessel in consideration of manufacture and repair. The primary sodium pump is installed in the center of the heat exchanger vessel. CO 2 leak events in the heat exchanger have been also evaluated, and it revealed that no significant effect has arisen on the core or the primary sodium boundary. (author)

  15. SnSe2 Two Dimensional Anodes for Advanced Sodium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-30

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for large-scale renewable energy storage units due to the abundance of sodium resource and its low cost. However, the development of anode materials for SIBs to date has been mainly limited to some traditional anodes for LIBs, such as carbonaceous materials. SnSe2 is a member of two dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) family, which has been predicted to have high theoretical capacity as anode material for sodium ion batteries (756 mAh g-1), thanks to its layered crystal structure. Yet, there have been no studies on using SnSe2 as Na ion battery anode. In this thesis, we developed a simple synthesis method to prepare pure SnSe2 nanosheets, employing N2 saturated NaHSe solution as a new selenium source. The SnSe2 2D sheets achieve theoretical capacity during the first cycle, and a stable and reversible specific capacity of 515 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 100 cycles, with excellent rate performance. Among all of the reported transition metal selenides, our SnSe2 sample has the highest reversible capacity and the best rate performances. A combination of ex-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction was used to study the mechanism of sodiation and desodiation process in this SnSe2, and to understand the reason for the excellent results that we have obtained. The analysis indicate that a combination of conversion and alloying reactions take place with SnSe2 anodes during battery operation, which helps to explain the high capacity of SnSe2 anodes for SIBs compared to other binary selenides. Density functional theory was used to elucidate the volume changes taking place in this important 2D material.

  16. Theory of the 4d2p X-ray emission spectroscopy in Ce2O3, Pr2O3 and Dy2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Haruhiko; Okada, Kozo; Kotani, Akio.

    1995-01-01

    The 4d2p X-ray emission spectra (XES) of Ce 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and Dy 2 O 3 have been calculated with an impurity Anderson model with the full multiplet couplings, following the Kramers-Heisenberg formula in the second order optical process. Experimental results have been well reproduced with this model by using a constant value for the 4d core hole lifetime damping Γ(4d) in the case of Ce 2 O 3 and Pr 2 O 3 , while in the case of Dy 2 O 3 it is necessary to take into account the term dependence of Γ(4d), which is consistent with the previous theoretical analyses of 4d X-ray photoemission spectra. It was also shown that both the spin-orbit couplings of the 4d core level in the final state and the 4f level in the initial state are key factors to cause the branching ratio in the L γ line larger than that in the L β line. The phase matching of the wave functions between the intermediate and final states smears out the hybridization effect in the 4d2p XES in Ce 2 O 3 and Pr 2 O 3 . (author)

  17. Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, B.; Kelly, J. T.; Bash, J. O.

    2015-11-01

    Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. Model evaluations of SSA emissions have mainly focused on the global scale, but regional-scale evaluations are also important due to the localized impact of SSAs on atmospheric chemistry near the coast. In this study, SSA emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were updated to enhance the fine-mode size distribution, include sea surface temperature (SST) dependency, and reduce surf-enhanced emissions. Predictions from the updated CMAQ model and those of the previous release version, CMAQv5.0.2, were evaluated using several coastal and national observational data sets in the continental US. The updated emissions generally reduced model underestimates of sodium, chloride, and nitrate surface concentrations for coastal sites in the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) near Tampa, Florida. Including SST dependency to the SSA emission parameterization led to increased sodium concentrations in the southeastern US and decreased concentrations along parts of the Pacific coast and northeastern US. The influence of sodium on the gas-particle partitioning of nitrate resulted in higher nitrate particle concentrations in many coastal urban areas due to increased condensation of nitric acid in the updated simulations, potentially affecting the predicted nitrogen deposition in sensitive ecosystems. Application of the updated SSA emissions to the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study period resulted in a modest improvement in the predicted surface concentration of sodium and nitrate at several central and southern California coastal sites. This update of SSA emissions enabled a more realistic simulation of the atmospheric chemistry in coastal environments where marine air mixes with urban pollution.

  18. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirataki, K; Wada, H

    1978-11-18

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system.

  19. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirataki, Koji; Wada, Hozumi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. SnSe2 2D Anodes for Advanced Sodium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fan; Xia, Chuan; Zhu, Jiajie; Ahmed, Bilal; Liang, Hanfeng; Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    A simple synthesis method to prepare pure SnSe2 nanosheet anodes for Na ion batteries is reported. The SnSe2 2D sheets achieve a stable and reversible specific capacity of 515 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles, with excellent rate performance. The sodiation

  1. single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography - Part 1 (October 2012), Part 2 (October 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. Part 1 Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, gamma photon emitters, positon emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Gamma cameras; 4 - Quantification in emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion. Part 2 content: 1 - Positon emitters; 2 - Positons detection: Coincidence detection (electronic collimation, PET detectors with gamma cameras, dedicated PET detectors, spectrometry); PET detectors type; time-of-flight PET; 2D PET; 3D PET; 3 - Quantification in emission tomography: detected events, attenuation, scattering, fortuitous coincidences, standardisation; 4 - Common SPECT and PET problems: partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration, dead time; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  2. R and D needs for evaluation of sodium fire consequences and aerosol behavior for DFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S.; Hashiguchi, Y.; Okabe, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sodium fire is one of the important safety issues for the liquid metal cooled fast reactor system. In order to achieve the reasonable plant cost performance, the rational countermeasures for sodium fire should be provided and the influence of sodium fire should be evaluated properly. This paper describes the principle of the safety design against sodium leak in the Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor in Japan (DFBR). In addition, Research and Development (R and D) needs for the design of rational countermeasures against sodium fire and aerosol release are described which include the clarification of behaviors or phenomena, the accumulation of the database of the experimental parameters for the analysis codes, and the improvement of evaluation technique and method. (author)

  3. Detection Test for Leakage of CO{sub 2} into Sodium Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO{sub 2} into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO{sub 2} into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO{sub 2} leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO{sub 2}) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO{sub 2} exchanger, detection of CO{sub 2} leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO{sub 2} such as sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO{sub 2} and CO from reaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} are proper to detect CO{sub 2} leakage into sodium loop.

  4. Architecture of 3D ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} marigold flowers: Influence of annealing on cold emission and photocatalytic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokane, Sanjay B.; Suryawanshi, Sachin R. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Sasikala, R., E-mail: sasikala@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 411085 (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Sartale, Shrikrishna D., E-mail: sdsartale@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-06-15

    The present work demonstrates the field emission characteristics and photocatalytic behavior of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} marigold flowers synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The effect of annealing of these 3D porous hierarchical nanostructures on field emission and photocatalytic performances is studied. When compared with the as-synthesized sample, annealed ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits a ∼2-fold improvement in photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. The turn-on, threshold fields and high emission current densities are also strongly influenced as a result of annealing. The turn on field required to draw an emission current density of ∼1 μA/cm{sup 2} is found to be ∼2.4 and ∼1.8 V/μm for as-synthesized and annealed ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} marigold flowers, respectively. Field-emission measurements demonstrate remarkably large field enhancement and better stability for annealed samples. The X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis reveal that annealing improves the crystallinity and also help to remove the structural defects in ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The enhancement in the field emission and photocatalytic activity of annealed ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} marigold flowers is attributed to the modification of electronic properties as a result of dehydration, crystallite growth and reduced surface defects/impurity phases. - Highlights: • 3D hierarchical porous ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} marigold flowers synthesis by hydrothermal method. • Roles of CTAB as capping agent and thermal annealing are investigated. • Thermal annealing improves photocatalysis and field emission behavior drastically.

  5. CO2 emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Griffy-Brown, Charla; Jin, Yong

    2010-01-01

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO 2 emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO 2 emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry.

  6. Thirteen pump-probe resonances of the sodium D1 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Vincent; Boyd, Robert W.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Marino, Alberto M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a pump-probe laser spectroscopic investigation of the Doppler-broadened sodium D1 resonance line. We find 13 resonances in the resulting spectra. These observations are well described by the numerical predictions of a four-level atomic model of the hyperfine structure of the sodium D1 line. We also find that many, but not all, of these features can be understood in terms of processes originating in a two-level or three-level subset of the full four-level model. The processes we observed include forward near-degenerate four-wave mixing and saturation in a two-level system, difference-frequency crossing and nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a three-level V system, electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping in a three-level lambda system, cross-transition resonance in a four-level double-lambda system, and conventional optical pumping. Most of these processes lead to sub-Doppler or even subnatural linewidths. The dependence of these resonances on the pump intensity and pump detuning from atomic resonance are also studied

  7. Association of Novelty Seeking Scores and Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability of Healthy Volunteers: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography With 123I-iodobenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Yu Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been speculated that novelty seeking (NS behavior is related to the dopaminergic system. Fifty-two subjects completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and underwent single photon emission computed tomography with 123I-iodobenzamide. A marginally positive correlation was noted between NS and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (r = 0.25, p =0.07. A positive association was noted between the NS scores and left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability (r= 0.29, p =0.04. The results suggest that a relationship might exist between NS score and dopaminergic activity.

  8. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  9. Theoretical study of the D-->C emission spectrum of NO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, R

    2008-09-28

    The 3 (2)A(')(D)-->1 (2)A(")(C) emission spectrum of NO(2) has been calculated by means of exact dynamics calculations and an accurate potential energy surface for the C state. The potential energy surface has been obtained by electronic structure calculations employing the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method plus Davidson correction and the augmented correlation consistent polarized quadruple zeta basis set. The calculated spectrum, based on energies as well as intensities, agrees well with the measured one. Despite the two asymmetric C(s) potential wells of the C potential energy surface, the spectrum is best described by a C(2v) assignment in terms of symmetric stretch, bending, and antisymmetric stretch quantum numbers. The barrier separating the two wells is merely of the order of 500 cm(-1) with the consequence that only the two lowest states, (0,0,0) and (0,0,1), show a tunneling splitting. Essential for the correct assignment of the spectrum is the pronounced negative anharmonicity of the antisymmetric stretch mode. Excitation of the symmetric stretch mode is not directly seen in the main part of the spectrum.

  10. Effects of carbon sources and COD/N ratio on N2O emissions in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wanlin; Huang, Lei; Xiao, Guangquan; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-12-01

    A set of constructed wetlands under two different carbon sources, namely, glucose (CW) and sodium acetate (YW), was established at a laboratory scale with influent COD/N ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 7:1, 4:1, and 0 to analyze the influence of carbon supply on nitrous oxide emissions. Results showed that the glucose systems generated higher N 2 O emissions than those of the sodium acetate systems. The higher amount of N 2 O-releasing fluxes in the CWs than in the YWs was consistent with the higher NO 2 - -N accumulation in the former than in the latter. Moreover, electron competition was tighter in the CWs and contributed to the incomplete denitrification with poor N 2 O production performance. Illumina MiSeq sequencing demonstrated that some denitrifying bacteria, such as Denitratisoma, Bacillus, and Zoogloea, were higher in the YWs than in the CWs. This result indicated that the carbon source is important in controlling N 2 O emissions in microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. SnSe2 2D Anodes for Advanced Sodium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fan

    2016-08-22

    A simple synthesis method to prepare pure SnSe2 nanosheet anodes for Na ion batteries is reported. The SnSe2 2D sheets achieve a stable and reversible specific capacity of 515 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles, with excellent rate performance. The sodiation and desodiation process in this anode material is shown to occur via a combination of conversion and alloying reactions.

  12. Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Mattson, Claire N.; Peterson, Peter K.; May, Nathaniel W.; Prendergast, Rashad K.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of salts and salty brines to roads is common practice during the winter in many urban environments. Road salts can become aerosolized, thereby injecting sodium and chloride particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere. Here, data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network were used to assess temporal trends of sodium and chloride PM2.5 (PM road salt aerosols. Sodium and chloride PM2.5 concentrations were an average of three times higher in the winter, as compared to the summer, for locations with greater than 25 cm of average annual snowfall. Winter urban chloride PM2.5 concentrations attributed to road salt can even sometimes rival those of coastal sea spray aerosol-influenced sites. In most snow-influenced cities, chloride and sodium PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with snowfall; however, this relationship is complicated by differences in state and local winter maintenance practices. This study highlights the ubiquity of road salt aerosols in the United States and their potential impact on wintertime urban air quality, particularly due to the potential for multiphase reactions to liberate chlorine from the particle-phase. Since road salt application is a common practice in wintertime urban environments across the world, it is imperative that road salt application emissions, currently not included in inventories, and its impacts be investigated through measurements and modeling.

  13. Quantitative X-ray spectroscopy of sodium Z-pinch plasmas for Na/ne photopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Mehlman, G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Newman, D.A.; Scherrer, V.E.; Young, F.C.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of sodium K-shell x-ray emission were measured for implosions of sodium-bearing plasmas produced on the Naval Research Laboratory Gamble II pulsed-power generator. Sodium fluoride from a capillary discharge provided the initial plasma for these fast Z-pinch implosions. Spatially-resolved images, corresponding to sodium K-shell x-rays from a 3 to 4 cm long plasma column, were recorded with a curved-crystal spectrograph. Non-uniform emission was observed along this column. The diameter of the plasma along the column (1-5 mm) was determined from time-integrated pinhole-camera images, and the duration of the x-ray emission (15-23 ns FWHM) was measured with a vacuum x-ray diode. Absolute emissivities were determined for X-rays from the n=2-1 and n=3-1 transitions in Na X and Na XI. Emissivities calculated using a collisional-radiative equilibrium model were fitted to these measurements to determine plasma temperatures of 230 to 550 eV and electron densities of 0.2 to 4.0 x 10 20 cm -3 at several locations along the plasma column. The slope of the recombination continuum was also used to determine temperatures of 200 to 300 eV and 200 to 400 eV for Na X and Na XI ions, respectively. Absolute intensity measurements of the n=2-1 line emissions from Na X and Na XI, averaged over the entire plasma length, indicated shot-to-shot variations of more than a factor of two in these implosions. (author)

  14. Sources of Sodium in the Lunar Exosphere: Modeling Using Ground-Based Observations of Sodium Emission and Spacecraft Data of the Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sharma, A. Surjalal; Slavin, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the equatorial lunar sodium emission are examined to quantify the effect of precipitating ions on source rates for the Moon's exospheric volatile species. Using a model of exospheric sodium transport under lunar gravity forces, the measured emission intensity is normalized to a constant lunar phase angle to minimize the effect of different viewing geometries. Daily averages of the solar Lyman alpha flux and ion flux are used as the input variables for photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and ion sputtering, respectively, while impact vaporization due to the micrometeoritic influx is assumed constant. Additionally, a proxy term proportional to both the Lyman alpha and to the ion flux is introduced to assess the importance of ion-enhanced diffusion and/or chemical sputtering. The combination of particle transport and constrained regression models demonstrates that, assuming sputtering yields that are typical of protons incident on lunar soils, the primary effect of ion impact on the surface of the Moon is not direct sputtering but rather an enhancement of the PSD efficiency. It is inferred that the ion-induced effects must double the PSD efficiency for flux typical of the solar wind at 1 AU. The enhancement in relative efficiency of PSD due to the bombardment of the lunar surface by the plasma sheet ions during passages through the Earth's magnetotail is shown to be approximately two times higher than when it is due to solar wind ions. This leads to the conclusion that the priming of the surface is more efficiently carried out by the energetic plasma sheet ions.

  15. Control of sodium excretion in patients with cranial diabetes insipidus maintained on desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutters, M; Brace, C; Hatfield, E; Whitehurst, A; Lightman, S L; Peart, W S

    1993-11-01

    1. We have studied the response of six patients with cranial diabetes insipidus and six age-matched control subjects to dietary sodium restriction during constant administration of the synthetic vasopressin analogue desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin. 2. Urine flow increased on the first low salt day in the normal control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. Body weight fell 1.35 kg in the control subjects but was constant in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 3. Urinary sodium excretion fell at the same rate in both groups. Diurnal variation of urinary sodium excretion and creatinine clearance was present in the control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 4. Changes in plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were similar. Plasma protein concentration increased more in the control subjects (from 69.1 +/- 1.5 to 73 +/- 1.2 versus from 71.7 +/- 1 to 73.2 +/- 1.1 milligrams). The responses of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma renin activity and salivary aldosterone concentration were similar between the two groups. Salivary aldosterone concentration levels were consistently higher in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 5. We confirm that the low salt diuresis is triggered by release from the antidiuretic activity of arginine vasopressin. In the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus extracellular fluid osmoregulation appeared to be achieved by the movement of water out of and sodium into the extracellular fluid. 6. Absent posterior pituitary function and hypothalamic disturbances did not alter renal sodium conservation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Acoustic Emission Methodology to Evaluate the Fracture Toughness in Heat Treated AISI D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Sajad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Motasemi, Abed; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sindi, Cevat Teymuri

    2012-10-01

    In this article, fracture toughness behavior of tool steel was investigated using Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring. Fracture toughness ( K IC) values of a specific tool steel was determined by applying various approaches based on conventional AE parameters, such as Acoustic Emission Cumulative Count (AECC), Acoustic Emission Energy Rate (AEER), and the combination of mechanical characteristics and AE information called sentry function. The critical fracture toughness values during crack propagation were achieved by means of relationship between the integral of the sentry function and cumulative fracture toughness (KICUM). Specimens were selected from AISI D2 cold-work tool steel and were heat treated at four different tempering conditions (300, 450, 525, and 575 °C). The results achieved through AE approaches were then compared with a methodology proposed by compact specimen testing according to ASTM standard E399. It was concluded that AE information was an efficient method to investigate fracture characteristics.

  17. Study of mechanisms and kinetics of Sodium-CO2 interactions. Contribution to the evaluation of an energy conversion system with supercritical CO2 for sodium fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, L.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study consisted in studying reactive mechanisms and kinetics of sodium-CO 2 interactions, in the frame of the assessment of an energy conversion system with supercritical CO 2 for fast breeder reactors cooled by sodium. The approach was the following. First of all, the interactions between sodium and CO 2 have been brought to light by laboratory experiments associated with products analysis. They have enabled the establishment of a coherent mechanism, in agreement with literature data, and gave preliminary indications on the reaction kinetics. In order to estimate a more detailed reaction kinetics, we tried to approach the phenomenon that appears in the case of a leak in a sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger. Geometry of such heat exchangers is not fixed for the moment, even if the development of compact exchangers is foreseen. Then, free jets of CO 2 in liquid sodium have been modeled in order to obtain, by identification, kinetics parameters of the reaction. Those parameters, estimated with such a geometry, will remain valid with a much complex geometry, that will better represent the real exchanger. An experimental bench has been defined and built to realize those jets. The first laboratory experiments have concluded in the existence of different reactive mechanisms according to the temperature level. A threshold has been brought to light around 500 C. Below this one, reaction appears moderated, or even, slow, with a medium exothermicity, and appears after an induction period that depends on the temperature,and which duration could reach several hours. At contrary, above this threshold, it seems rapid and more exothermic. Below 500 C, sodium oxalate is produced, and then reacts with sodium in an exothermic way, following the reactions: CO 2 + Na →1/4 Na 2 C 2 O 4 + 1/4 CO + 1/4 Na 2 CO 3 (5) 4 Na + Na 2 C 2 O 4 → 3 Na 2 O + CO + C (6) Above 500 C, sodium carbonate is produced, and can then possibly react with sodium in an endothermic way, following the

  18. Electrostatic Self-Assembly Enabling Integrated Bulk and Interfacial Sodium Storage in 3D Titania-Graphene Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Xiao, Lisong; Sheng, Tian; Liu, Jianzhao; Hu, Yi-Xin; Ma, Tianyuan; Amine, Rachid; Xie, Yingying; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Yuzi; Ren, Yang; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Heald, Steve M; Kovacevic, Jasmina; Sehlleier, Yee Hwa; Schulz, Christof; Mattis, Wenjuan Liu; Sun, Shi-Gang; Wiggers, Hartmut; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2018-01-10

    Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop versatile electrode materials with favorable properties, which requires smart structure design and good mechanistic understanding. Herein, we reported a general and scalable approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) titania-graphene hybrid via electrostatic-interaction-induced self-assembly. Synchrotron X-ray probe, transmission electron microscopy, and computational modeling revealed that the strong interaction between titania and graphene through comparably strong van der Waals forces not only facilitates bulk Na + intercalation but also enhances the interfacial sodium storage. As a result, the titania-graphene hybrid exhibits exceptional long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles, and ultrahigh rate capability up to 20 C for sodium storage. Furthermore, density function theory calculation indicated that the interfacial Li + , K + , Mg 2+, and Al 3+ storage can be enhanced as well. The proposed general strategy opens up new avenues to create versatile materials for advanced battery systems.

  19. Electrostatic Self-Assembly Enabling Integrated Bulk and Interfacial Sodium Storage in 3D Titania-Graphene Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gui-Liang [Chemical; Xiao, Lisong [Center; Sheng, Tian [Collaborative; Liu, Jianzhao [Chemical; Hu, Yi-Xin [Chemical; Department; Ma, Tianyuan [Chemical; Amine, Rachid [Materials; Xie, Yingying [Chemical; Zhang, Xiaoyi [X-ray Science; Liu, Yuzi [Nanoscience; Ren, Yang [X-ray Science; Sun, Cheng-Jun [X-ray Science; Heald, Steve M. [X-ray Science; Kovacevic, Jasmina [Center; Sehlleier, Yee Hwa [Center; Schulz, Christof [Center; Mattis, Wenjuan Liu [Microvast Power Solutions, 12603; Sun, Shi-Gang [Collaborative; Wiggers, Hartmut [Center; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical; Amine, Khalil [Chemical

    2017-12-15

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop versatile electrode materials with favorable properties, which requires smart structure design and good mechanistic understanding. Herein, we reported a general and scalable approach to synthesize 3D titania-graphene hybrid via electrostatic-interaction-induced self-assembly. Synchrotron X-ray probe, transmission electron microscopy and computational modeling revealed that the strong interaction between Titania and graphene through comparably strong van-der-Waals forces not only facilitates bulk Na+ intercalation but also enhances the interfacial sodium storage. As a result, the titania-graphene hybrid exhibits exceptional long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles, and ultrahigh rate capability up to 20 C for sodium storage. Furthermore, density function theory calculation indicated that the interfacial Li+, K+, Mg2+ and Al3+ storage can be enhanced as well. The proposed general strategy opens up new avenues to create versatile materials for advanced battery systems.

  20. Measurements of density and of thermal expansion coefficient of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.

    1980-12-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 850 0 C to 1325 0 C. The data for the pure borax and for the sodium metaborate agree reasonably well with the data from the literature, giving confidence that the measurements are correct and the new data for the salts with UO 2 are reliable. (orig.) [de

  1. Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.; Darmstaedter, E.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO 2 removal with 0-40% NO x removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO 2 removal and 25% NO x removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na 2 SO 4 . Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na 2 SO 4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO 2 /NO x removal technology when couples with Na 2 SO 4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

  2. In vivo measurement of haloperidol affinity to dopamine D2/D3 receptors by [123I]IBZM and single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Toska, K; Friberg, L

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a steady-state bolus-integration method with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) tracer, [123I]IBZM, for determination of in vivo affinity of haloperidol. The nonspecific binding of [123I]IBZM was examined in the rat...... brain by infusion of haloperidol to plasma levels approximately 100 times the Kd level in man. In humans, Kd for haloperidol binding was measured in four healthy volunteers that were examined twice: once with partial dopamine D2/D3 receptor blockade obtained by a scheduled infusion of unlabeled...... haloperidol (0.7 mg total dosage), and once in an unblocked state. Blood sampling and SPECT were performed intermittently during 6 hours after intravenous [123I]IBZM bolus injection. Plasma [123I]IBZM was determined by octane extraction. Plasma haloperidol was determined by a radioimmunoassay, and plasma...

  3. New reddish-orange and greenish-yellow light emitting phosphors: Eu3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ in sodium germanate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, E.; Zayas, Ma. E.; Alvarado-Rivera, J.; Félix-Domínguez, F.; Duarte-Zamorano, R.P.; Caldiño, U.

    2014-01-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of sodium germanate glasses activated with Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ is performed from their photoluminescence spectra and decay times. In the Eu 3+ -singly doped glass reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.35 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Eu 3+ excitation at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67, 0.33) proposed by the National Television Standard Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium germanate glass is co-doped with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ greenish-yellow light emission, with (0.41, 0.46) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb 3+ excitation at 344 nm. Such greenish-yellow luminescence is due mainly to the terbium 5 D 4 → 7 F 6,5 and europium 5 D 0 → 7 F 1,2 emissions, Eu 3+ being sensitized by Tb 3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. The non-radiative nature of this energy transfer is inferred from the increase in the decay rate of the Tb 3+ emission when the glass is co-doped with Eu 3+ . From an analysis of the Tb 3+ emission decay time curves it is inferred that such energy transfer might take place between Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism. - Highlights: • Sodium germanate glasses are optically activated with Eu 3+ (GNE) and Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ (GNTE). • Reddish-orange light (0.64, 0.35) is generated by GNE pumped with 393 nm light. • Greenish-yellow light (0.41, 0.46) is generated by GNTE pumped with 344 nm light. • Non-radiative energy transfer Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ takes place in GNTE

  4. CW light sources at the 589 nm sodium D2 line by sum-frequency mixing of diode pumped neodymium lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Y F; Lu, J; Xu, L J; Sun, G C; Zhao, Z M; Gao, X; Lin, J Q

    2010-01-01

    We present a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (CW) light sources at the 589 nm sodium D2 line. A 808 nm diode-pumped a Nd:YLiF 4 (Nd:YLF) crystal emitting at 1053 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:YLF crystal. The remaining was used to pump a Nd:YAG crystal emitting at 1338 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1053 and 1338 nm was then realized in a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal to reach the yellow-orange radiation. We obtained a CW output power of 235 mW at 589 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 17.8 W at 808 nm

  5. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  6. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  7. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus

  8. Study on mechanism controlling {sup 5}D{sub 3}/{sup 5}D{sub 4}emissions of Tb{sup 3+} in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Siyuan; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Li, Lei; Zeng, Huidan; Chen, Guorong, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Tb{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-BaO glasses are prepared by melting quenching method and their unique photoluminescent properties for the UV excitation are studied by using emission/excitation spectra and decay curves. Glasses in the composition (mol%) of 60SiO{sub 2}-xZnO-(40-x)BaO-0.2Tb{sup 3+}(x=30, 20, 10) show the strongest emission peaking at 436 nm which is different from majority of other reported work. Lower content of the free OH groups mainly contribute to this phenomenon due to the decreased probability of the multi-phonon aided non-radiative relaxation process from {sup 5}D{sub 3} to {sup 5}D{sub 4} energy levels of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The Tb{sup 3+} concentration also affects the {sup 5}D{sub 3}/{sup 5}D{sub 4} emissions as a result of the cross-relaxation effect on two nearby Tb{sup 3+} ions ({sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 5}D{sub 4}⇒{sup 7}F{sub 6}-{sup 7}F{sub 0}). Moreover, by adjusting Tb{sup 3+} concentration and/or ZnO/BaO concentration ratio of the host glass we obtained the adjustable emission with the required CIE chromaticity from blue to green, suggesting that the present Tb{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-BaO glasses are potential as blue/green dual-color luminescent materials for different applications.

  9. Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis show distinct patterns of brain glucose metabolism in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Florian; Wilke, Florian; Raab, Peter; Tayeb, Said Ben; Boeck, Anna-Lena; Haense, Cathleen; Trebst, Corinna; Voss, Elke; Schrader, Christoph; Logemann, Frank; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Dengler, Reinhard; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Berding, Georg; Stangel, Martin; Nabavi, Elham

    2014-06-20

    Pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the recently identified leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and the subunit 1 of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induce autoimmune encephalitis. A comparison of brain metabolic patterns in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients has not been performed yet and shall be helpful in differentiating these two most common forms of autoimmune encephalitis. The brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake from whole-body positron emission tomography of six anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients and four patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein encephalitis admitted to Hannover Medical School between 2008 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed and compared to matched controls. Group analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis patients demonstrated regionally limited hypermetabolism in frontotemporal areas contrasting an extensive hypometabolism in parietal lobes, whereas the anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein syndrome was characterized by hypermetabolism in cerebellar, basal ganglia, occipital and precentral areas and minor frontomesial hypometabolism. This retrospective 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography study provides novel evidence for distinct brain metabolic patterns in patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

  10. Comparative study of Nd(3+) emission from 4f2 5d and 4f3 configurations induced by multiphotonic process in YLF, GLF and LLF crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Librantz, Andre Felipe Henriques

    2000-01-01

    Nd 3+ ultraviolet fluorescence induced by multiphotonic laser excitations was studied in Nd-doped YLiF 4 (YLF) and LuLiF 4 (LLF) crystals by using the time resolved spectroscopy technique. The UV luminescences are due to transitions between the 4f 2 5d and the 4f 3 electronic configurations of Nd 3+ ions. The 4f 2 5d configuration can be reached by direct pumping the UV transition or by multiphotonic excitation, both processes give raise to the UV emission band with a structure due to the strong phonon coupling, expected for a 5d orbital involvement in the transition. The multiphotonic excitation process is due to three photons (532 nm) sequential absorptions of 532 nm-photons by metastable levels of the 4f 3 configuration splitted by crystalline local field. The sequential excitation of Nd by the pumping laser is attributed to the 4 I 9/2 +532nm → 4 G 7/2 ground state absorption followed by the 4 G 7/2 +532 nm →2 F 5/2 and 2 F 5/2 +532 nm → 4f 2 5d excited state absorptions. The UV emissions due to 4f 2 5d configuration are parity allowed, having lifetime of 35 ns in contrast to UV emissions from 4f 3 configuration which are induced by two absorption steps and are parity forbidden showing longer lifetime of 8μs and narrow tines. The polarization effects of the UV emissions were studied and their behavior are dependent on the excited state configuration involving or not the 5d orbital. The allowed UV emissions positions were affected by the host variation more than the ones originating from the 4f 3 configuration as expected. The electronic energy of the 4f 2 5d configuration shifts to lower energy when increasing the crystal field. (author)

  11. Developing works to detect fatigue cracks (small sodium leak detector and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Sakakibara, Y.; Nagata, T.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of fatigue cracks was performed (using both sodium leak detector and AE measuring system) through the creep-fatigue test of 304 stainless steel long elbow as part of the test series to establish the structural reliability of the Prototype FBR primary heat transport piping system. The sodium leak detector was a system composed mainly of SID (Sodium Ionization Detector) and DPD (Deferential Pressure Detector), that was developed by HITACHI Ltd. under a contract with PNC. The AE system was Synthetic AE Measuring and Analyzing system that was developed at FBR Safety Section to measure and analyze AE at various piping component tests. The test was continued until a sodium leakage was detected by the contact-type sodium leak detector attached to the test assembly, after about 4 weeks operation under cyclic loading at 600 deg. C. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) The sodium leak detector, both SID and DPD, indicated sodium leakage clearly, some hours before the contact-type detector did, even under an environment of air that contains ordinary humidity (Leaked sodium was estimated to be less than 15 grams after completion of the test); (2) The AE method indicated location and seriousness of the fatigue cracks, apparently before the crack penetration occurred. (author)

  12. No association between dietary sodium intake and the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Marianna; Yuan, Changzheng; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2017-09-26

    To prospectively investigate the association between dietary sodium intake and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. In this cohort study, we assessed dietary sodium intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years to 80,920 nurses in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2002) and to 94,511 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) (1991-2007), and calibrated it using data from a validation study. There were 479 new MS cases during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effect of energy-adjusted dietary sodium on MS risk, adjusting also for age, latitude of residence at age 15, ancestry, body mass index at age 18, supplemental vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking, and total energy intake in each cohort. The results in both cohorts were pooled using fixed effects models. Total dietary intake of sodium at baseline was not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.2 g/d NHS; 3.5 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.5 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 0.98, 95% CI 0.74-1.30, p for trend = 0.75). Cumulative average sodium intake during follow-up was also not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.3 g/d NHS; 3.4 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.7 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 1.02, 95% CI 0.76-1.37, p for trend = 0.76). Comparing more extreme sodium intake in deciles yielded similar results ( p for trend = 0.95). Our findings suggest that higher dietary sodium intake does not increase the risk of developing MS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2 , and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825 0 C to 1300 0 C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250 0 C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures, with data for pure borax available from the literature. (orig.)

  14. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium; Contribution a l'etude des impuretees hydrogenees et oxygenees dans le sodium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte essentiellement deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la mise au point de methodes de dosages permettant de determiner selectivement les impuretes oxygenees et hydrogenees presentes dans le sodium, a savoir l'oxyde, l'hydrure et l'hydroxyde. La seconde met a profit ces methodes en vue de l'etude du systeme Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}. ainsi que du phenomene connexe d'attaque du verre pyrex par le sodium fondu. La methode classique de dosage de l'oxygene par amalgamation a d'abord ete adaptee au dosage simultane de l'hydrure. Nous avons ensuite mis au point le dosage de l

  15. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  16. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  17. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X M; Yang, Z J; Ma, X D; Zhu, Y L; Luhmann, N C; Domier, C W; Ruan, B W; Zhuang, G

    2016-11-01

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  18. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, X. M.; Yang, Z. J., E-mail: yangzj@hust.edu.cn; Ma, X. D.; Ruan, B. W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhu, Y. L. [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W. [Davis Millimeter Wave Research Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  19. Dopamine D/sub 2/ and D/sub 1/ receptors: biochemical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niznik, H B

    1986-01-01

    In order to label dopamine D/sub 2/ receptors reversibly and selectively the potent substituted benzamide neuroleptic, YM-09151-2, was tritium labeled and its binding characteristics to striatal homogenates investigated. (/sup 3/H) YM-09151-2 bound to D/sub 2/ receptors with high affinity in a specific, saturable, reversible and sodium dependent fashion, displaying an appropriate pharmacological D/sub 2/ receptor profile. (/sup 3/H) YM-09151-2 appears to be the ligand of choice for labeling D/sub 2/ receptors since it displays approximately 20-fold lower affinity for serotonergic S/sub 2/ receptors than does (/sup 3/H) spiperone. As an initial step towards the molecular identification of the ligand binding subunit of the striatal D/sub 2/ receptor, photolabile analogues of the substituted benzamide clebopride were synthesized and their reversible and irreversible binding interactions to D/sub 2/ receptors characterized. D/sub 2/ receptor photoinactivation was prevented in a concentration and stereoselective manner by dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. In vivo biodistribution studies with (/sup 125/I) iodoazidoclebopride confirmed the ligand's ability to bind to D/sub 2/ receptor-rich regions and as such, may become a useful tool for the molecular characterization of D/sub 2/ receptor proteins. Digitonin solubilized striatal dopamine D/sub 2/ and D/sub 1/ receptors can be completely separated with full retention of biological activity by steric exclusion High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with corresponding Stokes radii of 7.1 and 5.6 nm.

  20. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  1. Practical guidebook about the market of CO{sub 2} emission quotas; Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emission de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO{sub 2} emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO{sub 2} emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO{sub 2} quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO{sub 2} they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO{sub 2} quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  2. Measuring 20-100 T B-fields using Zeeman splitting of sodium emission lines on a 500 kA pulsed power machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasek, J. T., E-mail: jtb254@cornell.edu; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with a return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.

  3. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system performance summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, T. [Public Service Company of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Jones, D. [NOELL, Inc., Long Beach, CA (United States); Hebb, J.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stallings, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full-scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire, air, and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control and dry sorbent injection (DSI) with or without humidification for SO{sub 2} control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through 1996. Results of the NO{sub x} control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO{sub x} removal has been easily met and the combustion and SNCR systems can achieve NO{sub x} removals of up to 80% at full load. Duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide has achieved a maximum SO{sub 2} removal of nearly 40% while humidifying the flue gas to a 20 F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection has provided SO{sub 2} removal of over 70% without the occurrence of a visible NO{sub 2} plume. Recent test work has improved SNCR performance at low loads and has demonstrated that combined dry sodium injection and SNCR yields both lower NO{sub 2} levels and NH{sub 3} slip than either technology alone.

  4. Caracterisation environnementale des emissions atmospheriques d'une source fixe et creation d'un outil de gestion dynamique =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marie-Claude

    Une caracterisation des emissions atmospheriques provenant des sources fixes en operation, alimentees au gaz et a l'huile legere, a ete conduite aux installations visees des sites no.1 et no.2. La caracterisation et les calculs theoriques des emissions atmospheriques aux installations des sites no.1 et no.2 presentent des resultats qui sont en dessous des valeurs reglementaires pour des conditions d'operation normales en periode hivernale et par consequent, a de plus fortes demandes energetiques. Ainsi, pour une demande energetique plus basse, le taux de contaminants dans les emissions atmospheriques pourrait egalement etre en dessous des reglementations municipales et provinciales en vigueur. Dans la perspective d'une nouvelle reglementation provinciale, dont les termes sont discutes depuis 2005, il serait souhaitable que le proprietaire des infrastructures visees participe aux echanges avec le Ministere du Developpement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs (MDDEP) du Quebec. En effet, meme si le principe de droit acquis permettrait d'eviter d'etre assujetti a la nouvelle reglementation, l'application de ce type de principe ne s'inscrit pas dans ceux d'un developpement durable. L'âge avance des installations etudiees implique la planification d'un entretien rigoureux afin d'assurer les conditions optimales de combustion en fonction du type de combustible. Des tests de combustion sur une base reguliere sont donc recommandes. Afin de supporter le processus de suivi et d'evaluation de la performance environnementale des sources fixes, un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale a ete developpe. Dans ce contexte, la poursuite du developpement d'un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale faciliterait non seulement le travail des personnes affectees aux inventaires annuels mais egalement le processus de communication entre les differents acteurs concernes tant intra- qu'inter-etablissement. Cet outil serait egalement un bon

  5. Assessment of frequent litter amendment application on ammonia emission from broilers operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Lin, Chongyang; Collier, Stephen; Brown, William; White-Hansen, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Litter amendments have been used to control the ammonia (NH3) emission from the broiler litter during the brooding period. One of the commercially available litter amendments, sodium bisulfate, was frequently applied on the litter with two different rates on weekly basis in a laboratory setup and with a single rate on biweekly basis under field conditions. Repeated application ofsodium bisulfate led to significant reduction in NH3 emissions from broilers. The magnitude of NH3 emission reduction increases with the application rate of sodium bisulfate. The reduction rates of cumulative emissions with 366 g/wk-m2 (75 lb/wk-1000 ft) rate (from 14% to 64.5%) were higher than the reduction rate of 183 g/wk-m2 (37.5 lb/wk-1000 ft2) rate (from 0% to 55%) from 28 to 61 days of age. The cumulative NH3 emission was reduced by 51.7% with 244 g/2 wk-m2 (50 lb/2 wk-1000 ft2) rate over a three-flockperiod (8-wk average grow-out per flock) under field production conditions. Sodium bisulfate application showed no significant difference on body weight and feed conversion efficiency. However, footpad quality was significantly improved by sodium bisulfate application. Litter pH and ammonia nitrogen level of the litter were decreased by sodium bisulfate application with both rates. Organic and total nitrogen contents in the litter were higher, whereas less nitrogen was emitted as NH3. The laboratory-scale findings of emission reduction by the additives should be considered to be preliminary if the additives are to be applied under commercial production settings. This work demonstrated that frequent litter amendment application can be used to reduce NH3 emissions from broiler houses, with no adverse effect on the animal production performances. The NH3 reduction rates could vary with different application frequencies and rates. Using litter amendment during broiler grow-out to lower NH3 emissions should be applicable to boiler production systems. The results of this study also

  6. Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougher, Carly E; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S; Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown. Objective: We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. Design: We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3–4 CKD. Spot morning urine sodium was used in 4 estimating equations. Bias, precision, and accuracy were assessed and compared across each equation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 67 y, 52% were female, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31 ± 9 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m–2. The mean ± SD number of 24-h urine collections was 3.5 ± 0.8/participant, and the mean 24-h sodium excretion was 168.2 ± 67.5 mmol/d. Although the Tanaka equation demonstrated the least bias (mean: −8.2 mmol/d), all 4 equations had poor precision and accuracy. The INTERSALT equation demonstrated the highest accuracy but derived an estimate only within 30% of mean measured sodium excretion in only 57% of observations. Bland-Altman plots revealed systematic bias with the Nerbass, INTERSALT, and Tanaka equations, underestimating sodium excretion when intake was high. Conclusion: These findings do not support the use of spot urine specimens to estimate dietary sodium intake in patients with CKD and research studies enriched with patients with CKD. The parent data for this

  7. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Vance, J D; Acott, P E; Kawahara, T D

    2009-04-01

    With two cw single-mode Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, 11 mW of 2 kHz/100 ms bandwidth single-mode tunable 589 nm cw radiation has been detected using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is approximately 3.2%[W(-1) cm(-1)]. This compact solid-state light source has been used in a solid-state-dye laser hybrid sodium fluorescence lidar transmitter to measure temperatures and winds in the upper atmosphere (80-105 km); it is being implemented into the transmitter of a mobile all-solid-state sodium temperature and wind lidar under construction.

  8. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  9. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  10. Calculation of the energy of particles emitted by the reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He and D (d,p) T; Calcul de l'energie des particules emises par les reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He et D (d,p) T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oria, M; Sorriaux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    With a view to ease the work of research workers using 150 kV electrostatic accelerators, we have calculated the energy and the emission angle of particles emitted during the reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. The results are classified in tables and arranged according to the acceleration energy of the deuterons. Since the energies considered are relatively low we have limited our study to the non-relativistic domain; this simplification results in a maximum energy variation with respect to the real energy values of 1 per cent. We give also two curves representing the variations in the total cross-sections for the reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He and D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (authors) [French] De facon a faciliter la tache des experimentateurs utilisant des accelerateurs electrostatiques de 150 kV, nous avons calcule l'energie et l'angle d'emission des particules emises lors des reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. Les resultats ont ete classes dans des tableaux, et ordonnes en fonction de l'energie d'acceleration des deuterons. Les energies considerees etant relativement peu elevees, nous avons limite notre etude au domaine non relativiste, cette simplification n'entraine qu'une variation maximale de 1 pour cent sur les valeurs reelles des energies. Nous avons joint a ce calcul deux courbes representant la variation des sections efficaces totales des reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He et D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (auteurs)

  11. DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM IONS IN WATERS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF SODIUM IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the result of determination the strontium ions concentration has been registered at low levels of strontium. The influence of nitric acid on the results is also discussed. In the case of using atomic absorption spectroscopy method no influence of sodium ions and nitric acid on the results of determination the strontium ions concentration was revealed. The metrological characteristics of both methods are evaluated.

  12. Near-infrared emission bands of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, E. H.; Setzer, K. D.; Ramsay, D. A.; Vervloet, M.

    1989-11-01

    High-resolution emission spectra of TeH and TeD have been obtained in the region 4200 to 3600 cm -1 using a Bomem DA3.002 Fourier transform spectrometer. Analyses are given for the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of the X 22Π{1}/{2}-X 12Π{3}/{2} system of TeH and for the 0-0 band of TeD. In addition the 2-0 vibrational overtone bands of 130TeH, 128TeH, and 126TeH are observed and analyzed. Accurate molecular constants are given for the first time.

  13. New version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Evgeny [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany); Fridman, Emil; Bilodid, Yuri; Kliem, Soeren [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The reactor dynamics code DYN3D being developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is currently under extension for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses. This paper provides an overview on the new version of DYN3D to be used for SFR core calculations. The current article shortly describes the newly implemented thermal mechanical models, which can account for thermal expansion effects of the reactor core. Furthermore, the methodology used in Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses to generate homogenized few-group cross sections is summarized. The conducted and planned verification and validation studies are briefly presented. Related publications containing more detailed descriptions are outlined for the completeness of this overview.

  14. Dissociation of thirst and sodium appetite in the furo/cap model of extracellular dehydration and a role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitization of sodium appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Seth. W.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of extracellular fluids motivates many animals to seek out and ingest water and sodium. Animals with a history of extracellular dehydration display enhanced sodium appetite and in some cases thirst. The progressive increase in sodium intake induced by repeated sodium depletions is known as sensitization of sodium appetite. Administration of the diuretic and natriuretic drug, furosemide, along with a low dose of captopril (furo/cap), elicits thirst and a rapid onset of sodium appetite. In the present studies the furo/cap model was used to explore the physiological mechanisms of sensitization of sodium appetite. However, when thirst and sodium appetite were measured concurrently in the furo/cap model, individual rats exhibited sensitization of either thirst or sodium appetite. In subsequent studies, thirst and sodium appetite were dissociated by offering either water prior to sodium or sodium before water. When water and sodium intake were dissociated in time, the furo/cap model reliably produced sensitization of sodium appetite. It is likely that neuroplasticity mediates this sensitization. Glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) activation is critical for the development of most forms of neuroplasticity. Therefore, we hypothesized that integrity of NMDA-R function is necessary for the sensitization of sodium appetite. Pharmacological blockade of NMDA-Rs with systemic administration of MK-801 (0.15mg/kg) prevented the sensitization of fluid intake in general when water and sodium were offered concurrently, and prevented sensitization of sodium intake specifically when water and sodium intake were dissociated. The involvement of NMDA-Rs provides support for the possibility that sensitization of sodium appetite is mediated by neuroplasticity. PMID:24341713

  15. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  16. Studies of alpha-helicity and intersegmental interactions in voltage-gated Na+ channels: S2D4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongming Ma

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Much data, including crystallographic, support structural models of sodium and potassium channels consisting of S1-S4 transmembrane segments (the "voltage-sensing domain" clustered around a central pore-forming region (S5-S6 segments and the intervening loop. Voltage gated sodium channels have four non-identical domains which differentiates them from the homotetrameric potassium channels that form the basis for current structural models. Since potassium and sodium channels also exhibit many different functional characteristics and the fourth domain (D4 of sodium channels differs in function from other domains (D1-D3, we have explored its structure in order to determine whether segments in D4 of sodium channels differ significantly from that determined for potassium channels. We have probed the secondary and tertiary structure and the role of the individual amino acid residues of the S2D4 of Na(v1.4 by employing cysteine-scanning mutagenesis (with tryptophan and glutamine substituted for native cysteine. A Fourier transform power spectrum of perturbations in free energy of steady-state inactivation gating (using midpoint potentials and slopes of Boltzmann equation fits of channel availability, h(infinity-V plots indicates a substantial amount of alpha-helical structure in S2D4 (peak at 106 degrees, alpha-Periodicity Index (alpha-PI of 3.10, This conclusion is supported by alpha-PI values of 3.28 and 2.84 for the perturbations in rate constants of entry into (beta and exit from (alpha fast inactivation at 0 mV for mutant channels relative to WT channels assuming a simple two-state model for transition from the open to inactivated state. The results of cysteine substitution at the two most sensitive sites of the S2D4 alpha-helix (N1382 and E1392C support the existence of electrostatic network interactions between S2 and other transmembrane segments within Na(v1.4D4 similar to but not identical to those proposed for K+ channels.

  17. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)

  18. Infrared and near infrared emission spectra of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Shayesteh, Alireza; Fu, Dejian; Bernath, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    The vibration-rotation emission spectra for the X2Π ground state and the near infrared emission spectra of the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 system of the TeH and TeD free radicals have been measured at high resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. TeH and TeD were generated in a tube furnace with a DC discharge of a flowing mixture of argon, hydrogen (or deuterium), and tellurium vapor. In the infrared region, for the X2Π 3/2 spin component we observed the 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 vibrational bands for most of the eight isotopologues of TeH and the 1-0 and 2-1 bands for three isotopologues of TeD. For the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 transition, we observed the 0-0 and 1-1 bands for TeH and the 0-0, 1-1, and 2-2 bands for TeD. Except for a few lines, the tellurium isotopic shift was not resolved for the X2Π 1/2- X2Π 3/2 transitions of TeH and TeD. Local perturbations with Δ v = 2 between the two spin components of the X2Π state of TeH were found: X2Π 1/2, v = 0 with X2Π 3/2, v = 2; X2Π 1/2, v = 1 with X2Π 3/2, v = 3. The new data were combined with the previous data from the literature and two kinds of fits (Hund's case (a) and Hund's case (c)) were carried out for each of the 10 observed isotopologues: 130TeD, 128TeD, 126TeD, 130TeH, 128TeH, 126TeH, 125TeH, 124TeH, 123TeH, and 122TeH.

  19. Transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia: a case with whole-body 2- (18F) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    The case reported here was that of an old woman characterized by pancytopenia, chromosome clonal abnormality, fluctuation of the percent of blast cells at 20%, and negative evidence of malignancy in whole-body 2-( 18 F) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET). After about 10 months, the blast cells accounted for about 25%, the morphology of which was similar to that of previous ones, and 18 F-FDG PET demonstrated diffusing increased uptake in the right upper leg and lymph nodes and patchy high uptake of bone marrow. 2-( 18 F)-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose can reflect extramedullary infiltration and bone marrow cellularity of the whole body, compared with invasive, regional biopsies and aspirations. The value of 2-( 18 F)-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose or 3'-deoxy-3'-( 18 F)-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography as an indicator in predicting the transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia needs to be explored in the future. (author)

  20. Effect of refraction index and light sharing on detector element identification for 2D detector modules in Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornai, M.P.; Hoffman, E.J.; Cherry, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships among indices of refraction (n) of scintillation detectors, light sharing among discrete detector elements and accuracy of detector element identification in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 2-D detector arrays were examined with theory and experiment. Mismatches between the index of refraction of scintillators and the glass of photomultipliers (PMT) were seen to lead to nonlinear relationships between crystal position and ratio (positioning) signals derived from PMTs. Insight is provided into the empirically derived use of light sharing among elements of the crystals in PET 2-D array detectors to compensate for this nonlinear response. ((orig.))

  1. Initial clinical experiences with dopamine D2 receptor imaging by means of 2'-iodospiperone and single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Saji, Hideo; Iwasaki, Yasushi

    1995-01-01

    Dopamine D 2 receptor imaging was performed with 123 I labeled 2'-iodospiperone (2'-ISP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 9 patients: 4 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 2 with parkinsonism, 1 with Wilson's disease and 2 with pituitary tumor, and the results were compared with the data for 9 normal subjects. Following an intravenous injection of 123 I-2'-ISP, early (within 30 min) and late (between 2 and 4 hr) SPECT images were obtained by means of a multi-detector SPECT scanner or a rotating gamma camera. In normal subjects, early SPECT images demonstrated uniform distribution of radioactivity in the cerebral gray matter and cerebellum reflecting regional cerebral blood flow, whereas late SPECT images showed high radioactivity only in the basal ganglia. All the patients with Parkinson's disease also demonstrated symmetrical basal ganglia uptake in the late SPECT images, but it was diminished in parkinsonism and Wilson's disease. One patient with a growth hormone-producing pituitary tumor had a positive uptake in the tumor. These preliminary clinical data demonstrated that 2'-ISP can be used for SPECT imaging of D 2 dopamine receptors and may be of clinical value for the diagnosis and planning of the treatment of neurological diseases. (author)

  2. 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in paediatric oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; Freebody; Eva; A; Wegner; Monica; A; Rossleigh

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography(PET) is a minimally in-vasive technique which has been well validated for the diagnosis, staging, monitoring of response to therapy, and disease surveillance of adult oncology patients. Tra-ditionally the value of PET and PET/computed tomogra-phy(CT) hybrid imaging has been less clearly defined for paediatric oncology. However recent evidence has emerged regarding the diagnostic utility of these mo-dalities, and they are becoming increasingly important tools in the evaluation and monitoring of children with known or suspected malignant disease. Important indi-cations for 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose(FDG) PET in paediatric oncology include lymphoma, brain tumours, sarcoma, neuroblastoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, urogenital tumours and neurofibromatosis type Ⅰ. This article aims to review current evidence for the use of FDG PET and PET/CT in these indications. Attention will also be given to technical and logistical issues, the description of common imaging pitfalls, and dosimetric concerns as they relate to paediatric oncology.

  3. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  4. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy; Zur klinischen Wertigkeit der zerebralen Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larisch, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Klimke, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik

    1998-12-31

    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D{sub 2} receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 11}C- or {sup 18}F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using {sup 123}I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson`s disease show an increased D{sub 2} receptor binding (D{sub 2}-RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D{sub 2}-RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D{sub 2} receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D{sub 2} scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D{sub 2} binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D{sub 2} binding. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber Befunde und klinische Indikationen zur Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie. Methoden zur Untersuchung der D{sub 2}-Rezeptoren sind die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) mit {sup 11}C- oder {sup 18}F-markierten Butyrophenonen oder Benzamiden oder die Einzelphotonen-Emissions-Tomographie (SPECT) mit {sup 123}I

  5. Calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) using sodium combustion analysis code ASSCOPS version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Ohno, Shuji; Miyake, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-11-01

    The calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) was performed using the ASSCOPS (Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustions in Pool and Spray) code version 2.0 in order to determine the parameters used in the code for the calculations of sodium combustion behavior of small or medium scale sodium leak, and to validate the applicability of the code. The parameters used in the code were determined and the validation of the code was confirmed because calculated temperatures, calculated oxygen concentration and other calculated values almost agreed with the test results. (author)

  6. Clinical evaluation of 2D versus 3D whole-body PET image quality using a dedicated BGO PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visvikis, D.; Griffiths, D.; Costa, D.C.; Bomanji, J.; Ell, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D PET) results in higher system sensitivity, with an associated increase in the detection of scatter and random coincidences. The objective of this work was to compare, from a clinical perspective, 3D and two-dimensional (2D) acquisitions in terms of whole-body (WB) PET image quality with a dedicated BGO PET system. 2D and 3D WB emission acquisitions were carried out in 70 patients. Variable acquisition parameters in terms of time of emission acquisition per axial field of view (aFOV) and slice overlap between sequential aFOVs were used during the 3D acquisitions. 3D and 2D images were reconstructed using FORE+WLS and OSEM respectively. Scatter correction was performed by convolution subtraction and a model-based scatter correction in 2D and 3D respectively. All WB images were attenuation corrected using segmented transmission scans. Images were blindly assessed by three observers for the presence of artefacts, confidence in lesion detection and overall image quality using a scoring system. Statistically significant differences between 2D and 3D image quality were only obtained for 3D emission acquisitions of 3 min. No statistically significant differences were observed for image artefacts or lesion detectability scores. Image quality correlated significantly with patient weight for both modes of operation. Finally, no differences were seen in image artefact scores for the different axial slice overlaps considered, suggesting the use of five slice overlaps in 3D WB acquisitions. 3D WB imaging using a dedicated BGO-based PET scanner offers similar image quality to that obtained in 2D considering similar overall times of acquisitions. (orig.)

  7. Cardiovascular effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cavaiola T

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tricia Santos Cavaiola, Jeremy Pettus Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: As the first cardiovascular (CV outcome trial of a glucose-lowering agent to demonstrate a reduction in the risk of CV events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, the EMPAgliflozin Removal of Excess Glucose: Cardiovascular OUTCOME Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, which investigated the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin, has generated great interest among health care professionals. CV outcomes data for another SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, have been published recently in the CANagliflozin CardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS Program, as have CV data from the retrospective real-world study Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors (CVD-REAL, which compared SGLT2 inhibitors with other classes of glucose-lowering drugs. This review discusses the results of these three studies and, with a focus on EMPA-REG OUTCOME, examines the possible mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibitors may reduce CV risk in patients with T2DM. Keywords: canagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, mechanisms, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

  8. Dynamic 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography of liver tumours without blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, S; Munk, O L; Schiøtt, K M

    2000-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of tumours. Using dynamic FDG PET, net metabolic clearance of FDG, K, can be calculated by Gjedde-Patlak analysis of the time course of the radioactivity concentrations...... in tissue and arterial blood. We examined whether time-activity curves (TACs) based on arterial blood sampling could be replaced by TACs obtained from the descending aorta in dynamic PET scans of patients with liver tumours. The study was performed in two parts, using data from dynamic liver scans......, and 2.1-8.4:1 (mean, 4.6:1) based on blood sample TACs (P>0.3). We conclude that arterial blood sampling can be replaced by the present AORTA-VOI in the calculation of the net metabolic clearance of FDG in dynamic PET studies of liver tumours in human subjects. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Apr...

  9. Z/sub 1/ dependence of ion-induced electron emission from aluminum. [H/sup +/,H/sub 2//sup +/,D/sup +/,D/sub 2//sup +/,He/sup +/,B/sup +/,C/sup +/,N/sup +/,N/sub 2//sup +/,O/sup +/,O/sub 2//sup +/,F/sup +/,Ne/sup +/,S/sup +/,Cl/sup +/,Ar/sup +/,Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/, 1. 2-50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1980-07-01

    We have measured the electron emission yields ..gamma.. of clean aluminum under bombardment with H/sup +/, H/sub 2/ /sup +/, D/sup +/, D/sub 2/ /sup +/, He/sup +/, B/sup +/, C/sup +/, N/sup +/, N/sub 2/ /sup +/, O/sup +/, O/sub 2/ /sup +/, F/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, S/sup +/, Cl/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ in the energy range 1.2--50 keV. The clean surfaces were prepared by in situ evaporation of high-purity Al under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. It is found that kinetic electron emission yields ..gamma../sub k/, obtained after subtracting from the measured ..gamma.. a contribution due to potential emission, are roughly proportional to the electronic stopping powers, for projectiles lighter than Al. For heavier projectiles there is a sizable contribution to electron emission from collisions involving rapidly recoiling target atoms, which increases with the mass of the projectile, and which dominates the threshold and near-threshold behavior of kinetic emission. The results, together with recently reported data on Auger electron emission from ion-bombarded Al show that the mechanism proposed by Parilis and Kishinevskii of inner-shell excitation and subsequent Auger decay is negligible for light ions and probably small for heavy ions on Al and in our energy range. We thus conclude that kinetic electron emission under bombardment by low-energy ions results mainly from the escape of excited valence electrons.

  10. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  11. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  12. Towards Interpreting the Signal of CO2 Emissions from Megacities by Applying a Lagrangian Receptor-oriented Model to OCO-2 XCO2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lin, J. C.; Oda, T.; Ye, X.; Lauvaux, T.; Yang, E. G.; Kort, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban regions are large emitters of CO2 whose emission inventories are still associated with large uncertainties. Therefore, a strong need exists to better quantify emissions from megacities using a top-down approach. Satellites — e.g., the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2), provide a platform for monitoring spatiotemporal column CO2 concentrations (XCO2). In this study, we present a Lagrangian receptor-oriented model framework and evaluate "model-retrieved" XCO2 by comparing against OCO-2-retrieved XCO2, for three megacities/regions (Riyadh, Cairo and Pearl River Delta). OCO-2 soundings indicate pronounced XCO2 enhancements (dXCO2) when crossing Riyadh, which are successfully captured by our model with a slight latitude shift. From this model framework, we can identify and compare the relative contributions of dXCO2 resulted from anthropogenic emission versus biospheric fluxes. In addition, to impose constraints on emissions for Riyadh through inversion methods, three uncertainties sources are addressed in this study, including 1) transport errors, 2) receptor and model setups in atmospheric models, and 3) urban emission uncertainties. For 1), we calculate transport errors by adding a wind error component to randomize particle distributions. For 2), a set of sensitivity tests using bootstrap method is performed to describe proper ways to setup receptors in Lagrangian models. For 3), both emission uncertainties from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and the spread among three emission inventories are used to approximate an overall fractional uncertainty in modeled anthropogenic signal (dXCO2.anthro). Lastly, we investigate the definition of background (clean) XCO2 for megacities from retrieved XCO2 by means of statistical tools and our model framework.

  13. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    RAPSODIE. A description is given of the modifications carried out in connection with the mechanical zero adjustment and the measurement chain. (author) [French] Les instruments de mesure qui ont ete principalement etudies et experimentes au CEA pour les reacteurs ''a sodium comportent des debitmietres electromagnetiques, des indicateurs de niveau et des manometres differentiels. Les auteurs donnent les caracteristiques principales des debitmietres du reacteur RAPSODIE, qui sont a aimant permanent ou a electro -aimant (sur les circuits primaires). Ils decrivent les methodes d'etalonnage utilisees qui font appel a des diaphragmes ou des Venturis comme debitmietres etalons et indiquent les resultats de mesure obtenus pour des debits de sodium maximaux de 400 m{sup 3}/h. Trois types d'indicateurs continus de niveau ont ete etudies: Indicateur a resistance. Les auteurs decrivent deux variantes equipant les circuits d'essai de RAPSODIE de 1 et 10 MW. L'une comporte une resistance de compensation disposee sur toute la hauteur de l'element de mesure (les indicateurs continus du reacteur RAPSODIE sont actuellement de ce type). L'autre possede un dispositif permettant le chauffage d e l ''element de mesure en vue d {sup e}mpecher la formation- eventuelle de depots conducteurs (les essais en sodium de prototypes sont termines). Indicateur a induction Il comprend deux bobines couplees et un dispositif permettant une compensation des effets de temperature. Les auteurs decrivent le prototype qui a ete construit et indiquent les resultats obtenus au cours des essais en sodium. Indicateur ultra-sons. Il est caracterise par l'utilisation d'un transmetteur place en haut et a l'exterieur de la cuve de sodium, et d'un guide d'ondes vertical dont l'extremite inferieure plongeant dans le metal liquide possede un systeme reflechissant qui renvoie le faisceau ultra-sonore vera la surface. Des reperes fixes permettent un etalonnage permanent; l'ensemble de l'appareil est entierement soude. Cet

  14. Neutron emission from impacted solid LiD samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, T.C.; Shyam, A.; Kulkarni, L.V.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Nylon projectiles with 0.1 g to 0.3 g mass, accelerated to velocities of 0.2-1 km/s using a 60 cm long electromagnetic accelerator (railgun), have been impacted upon solid lithium deuteride (LiD) samples of 3 proportional counters. The output from the BF 3 set-up is monitored in several ways to characterize the possible neutron emission from the target. This includes a simple technique of counting the single channel analyser (SCA) output through a dead-time unit to identify bursts of < 100 μs duration. Counting is started after a delay of ∼ 1 ms to avoid the initial interference from the capacitor bank discharge. The signal is also recorded in a storage oscilloscope from the start of projectile acceleration along with a time marker just before the impact. From a number of shots taken with and without the samples, a significant evidence of neutron emission from the LiD samples appears to emerge. The experiments suggest that approximately 100 neutrons might be generated during every such impact in a duration of < 4 ms. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  15. Ultrafast atomic process in X-ray emission by using inner-shell ionization method for sodium and carbon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-07-01

    An ultrafast inner-shell ionization process with X-ray emission stimulated by high-intensity short-pulse X-ray is studied. Carbon and sodium atoms are treated as target matter. It is shown that atomic processes of the target determine the necessary X-ray intensity for X-ray laser emission as well as the features of X-ray laser such as wavelength and duration time. The intensity also depends on the density of initial atoms. Furthermore, we show that as the intensity of X-ray source becomes high, the multi-inner-shell ionization predominates, leading to the formation of hollow atoms. As the density of hollow atoms is increased by the pumping X-ray power, the emission of X-rays is not only of significance for high brightness X-ray measurement but also is good for X-ray lasing. New classes of experiments of pump X-ray probe and X-ray laser are suggested. (author)

  16. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  17. The application of the acoustic emission technique to stone decay by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission was monitored during salt crystallisation cycles in order to study the mechanisms of rock deterioration by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests. Some porous carbonate stones used in Spanish monuments (Cathedral of Oviedo, Murcia and Seo Vella of Lérida were selected for this study. The acoustic emission detected during the different stages of the cycles (immersion, drying and cooling was interpreted to be the result of the salt behaviour inside the stone. The use of this technique has confirmed that this behaviour depends on salt characteristics (solubility, hydration state and polymorphism of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stone porosity and pore network.

    Para determinar los mecanismos de deterioro de las rocas debidos a la acción del sulfato de sodio, se ha registrado la emisión acústica durante ensayos de cristalización de sales en el laboratorio. Para ello, se han seleccionado tres piedras porosas carbonatadas utilizadas como materiales de construcción en monumentos españoles (Catedrales de Oviedo, Murcia y Seo Vella de Lérida. La emisión acústica detectada durante las diferentes etapas de los ciclos (inmersión, secado y enfriamiento se ha interpretado como debida al comportamiento de la sal en el interior de la piedra. Mediante esta técnica se ha confirmado que este comportamiento depende de las características de la sal (solubilidad, diferentes estados de hidratación y el polimorfismo del sulfato de sodio anhidro y de la porosidad y configuración del sistema poroso de las rocas.

  18. Initial clinical experiences with dopamine D{sub 2} receptor imaging by means of 2`-iodospiperone and single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Schoool, Matsuoka (Japan). Biomedical Imaging Research Center; Saji, Hideo; Iwasaki, Yasushi [and others

    1995-08-01

    Dopamine D{sub 2} receptor imaging was performed with {sup 123}I labeled 2`-iodospiperone (2`-ISP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 9 patients: 4 with idiopathic Parkinson`s disease, 2 with parkinsonism, 1 with Wilson`s disease and 2 with pituitary tumor, and the results were compared with the data for 9 normal subjects. Following an intravenous injection of {sup 123}I-2`-ISP, early (within 30 min) and late (between 2 and 4 hr) SPECT images were obtained by means of a multi-detector SPECT scanner or a rotating gamma camera. In normal subjects, early SPECT images demonstrated uniform distribution of radioactivity in the cerebral gray matter and cerebellum reflecting regional cerebral blood flow, whereas late SPECT images showed high radioactivity only in the basal ganglia. All the patients with Parkinson`s disease also demonstrated symmetrical basal ganglia uptake in the late SPECT images, but it was diminished in parkinsonism and Wilson`s disease. One patient with a growth hormone-producing pituitary tumor had a positive uptake in the tumor. These preliminary clinical data demonstrated that 2`-ISP can be used for SPECT imaging of D{sub 2} dopamine receptors and may be of clinical value for the diagnosis and planning of the treatment of neurological diseases. (author).

  19. Ion cyclotron emission calculations using a 2D full wave numerical code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Colestock, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of radiation in the HF band due to cyclotron emission by energetic ions produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic on large devices which are entering the reactor regime of operation. A number of complications make the modelling and interpretation of such measurements difficult using conventional geometrical optics methods. In particular the long wavelength and lack of high directivity of antennas in this frequency regime make observation of a single path across the plasma into a viewing dump impractical. Pickup antennas effectively see the whole plasma and wall reflection effects are important. We have modified our 2D full wave ICRH code 2 to calculate wave fields due to a distribution of energetic ions in tokamak geometry. The radiation is modeled as due to an ensemble of localized source currents distributed in space. The spatial structure of the coherent wave field is then calculated including cyclotron harmonic damping as compared to the usual procedure of incoherently summing powers of individual radiators. This method has the advantage that phase information from localized radiating currents is globally retained so the directivity of the pickup antennas is correctly represented. Also standing waves and wall reflections are automatically included

  20. Ratiometric luminescence thermometry with different combinations of emissions from Eu3+ doped Gd2Ti2O7 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojpur, Vesna; Ćulubrk, Sanja; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, Eu 3+ doped Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles were tested for application in ratiometric luminescence thermometry. It is shown that two combinations of emissions: one that uses two emissions of Eu 3+ ions and one that uses one emission of Eu 3+ ions and trap emission of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 provide thermometry over the 303–423 K temperature range with relative sensitivities between 0.14% K −1 and 0.95% K −1 . Thermometry based on two Eu 3+ emissions from 5 D 0 to 5 D 1 levels has a higher relative sensitivity, but lower absolute sensitivity than thermometry based on one Eu 3+ emission and trap emission of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 . The tested material is prepared by Pechini-type polymerized complex route and is composed of agglomerated nanoparticles of ~30–50 nm in size with pure-phase cubic structure (space group Fd-3m) as evidenced from electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles can serve as probes for luminescence thermometry. • Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 trap emission is an excellent internal standard for luminescence thermometry. • Temperature is measured over 303–423 K range with sensitivity ranging 0.14–0.95% K −1 .

  1. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  2. New reddish-orange and greenish-yellow light emitting phosphors: Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} in sodium germanate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Zayas, Ma. E. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Alvarado-Rivera, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Félix-Domínguez, F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Centro de investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Duarte-Zamorano, R.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora (Mexico); Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, México City 09340, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    A spectroscopic analysis of sodium germanate glasses activated with Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} is performed from their photoluminescence spectra and decay times. In the Eu{sup 3+}-singly doped glass reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.35 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Eu{sup 3+} excitation at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67, 0.33) proposed by the National Television Standard Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium germanate glass is co-doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} greenish-yellow light emission, with (0.41, 0.46) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm. Such greenish-yellow luminescence is due mainly to the terbium {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6,5} and europium {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1,2} emissions, Eu{sup 3+} being sensitized by Tb{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer. The non-radiative nature of this energy transfer is inferred from the increase in the decay rate of the Tb{sup 3+} emission when the glass is co-doped with Eu{sup 3+}. From an analysis of the Tb{sup 3+} emission decay time curves it is inferred that such energy transfer might take place between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism. - Highlights: • Sodium germanate glasses are optically activated with Eu{sup 3+} (GNE) and Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (GNTE). • Reddish-orange light (0.64, 0.35) is generated by GNE pumped with 393 nm light. • Greenish-yellow light (0.41, 0.46) is generated by GNTE pumped with 344 nm light. • Non-radiative energy transfer Tb{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} takes place in GNTE.

  3. The UK contribution to the sodium-water reaction R and D programme in support of EFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.; McCrindle, K.B.; Wright, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The sodium-water reaction R and D programme for European Fast Reactor (EFR), is an integrated European project, as described in another paper at this Specialists Meeting. In this paper the UK contribution to this programme is described. The major sodium-water reaction test facility in the UK is the Super Noah Rig at Dounreay. This Rig is currently being modified to allow the following to be achieved during experiments: Provision of water/steam at the correct EFR Steam Generator Unit (SGU) flowrate, temperature and pressure in the 24 target tubes modelling the EFR SGU in the test section. Provision of sodium at the correct EFR SGU velocity, temperature and pressure through the test section modelling the EFR SGU during the experiments. Experiments in this facility to determine the leakrate at which overheating becomes important in various regions of the EFR SGU and to determine the damage caused by overheating will be the major UK contribution in the future. The modifications to the Rig and the future experimental programme are described. Several intermediate leak experiments have been carried out in the Super Noah Rig in the past, and the main results from them are summarized. These experiments have primarily been at PFR conditions but results have been obtained for 2.25 Cr 1Mo, 9 Cr 1 Mo and A800 steels, with and without internal water flow in the target tubes. During these previous experiments, the sodium was static and was at atmospheric pressure. Results from experiments carried out in the Small Water Leak Rig (SWLR) and the Small-Scale Test Facilities at Dounreay on microleak evolution, wastage of tubes and SGU walls, the behaviour of small leaks at the low temperature, bottom-tubeplate conditions and corrosion at sodium pool surfaces are presented. The future programme for these facilities is discussed. Fundamental experiments which have been carried out at Harwell on the behaviour of blocked microleaks are described. 2 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  4. N/S Co-Doped 3 D Porous Carbon Nanosheet Networks Enhancing Anode Performance of Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lei; Lai, Yanqing; Hu, Hongxing; Wang, Mengran; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Peng; Fang, Jing; Li, Jie

    2017-10-12

    A facile and scalable method is realized for the in situ synthesis of N/S co-doped 3 D porous carbon nanosheet networks (NSPCNNs) as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. During the synthesis, NaCl is used as a template to prepare porous carbon nanosheet networks. In the resultant architecture, the unique 3 D porous architecture ensures a large specific surface area and fast diffusion paths of both electrons and ions. In addition, the import of N/S produces abundant defects, increased interlayer spacings, more active sites, and high electronic conductivity. The obtained products deliver a high specific capacity and excellent long-term cycling performance, specifically, a capacity of 336.2 mA h g -1 at 0.05 A g -1 , remaining as large as 214.9 mA h g -1 after 2000 charge/discharge cycles at 0.5 A g -1 . This material has great prospects for future applications of scalable, low-cost, and environmentally friendly sodium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L; Action des hormones neurohypophysaires sur les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-06-25

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [French] Nous avons mesure les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus a l'aide de radiosodium 24. L'action d'extraits neuro-hypophysaires d'origine diverse a ete comparee a celle d'injection temoin de chlorure de sodium isotonique, aussi bien sur les flux d'entree et de sortie de sodium que sur l'excretion urinaire. De ces experiences faites in vivo, nous pouvons tirer les conclusions suivantes: 1 - L'extrait neurohypophysaire de Carassius auratus provoque une augmentation du flux d'entree de sodium au niveau de la branchie de cet animal alors que le flux de sortie reste inchange. Cet extrait semble plus actif qu'une dose d'ocytocine egale a son activite ocytocique propre. Parmi les hormones neurohypophysaires de mammiferes, seule l'ocytocine (a forte dose) produit une action analogue a celle decrite ci-dessus. L'extrait de Rana esculenta reste sans action. Nous en avons conclu a l'existence dans la neurohypophyse de Carassius auratus d'un facteur hormonal agissant au niveau de la branchie pour controler l'osmoregulation de ce poisson. 2 - Les extraits neurohypophysaires de Carassius auratus entrainent chez l'animal une augmentation de la diurese et de la concentration de sodium de l'urine. Cependant cette action reste discrete et fugace. Les hormones de mammiferes, et les extraits neurohypophysaires d'amphibiens restent sans action. 3 - D'autres auteurs ont montre que chez les amphibiens, l'action des hormones neurohypophysaires se traduit a la fois par une augmentation du transport actif de sodium a travers la peau et par un desequilibre de la balance hydrique (augmentation du

  6. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography findings--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Miwa, Shigeru; Noda, Tomoyuki; Sobajima, Atsuhiro; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Wada, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    A 51-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis rapidly developed anterior neck pain and paresis in the left upper and lower extremities and right lower extremity, sensory disturbance in the left upper and lower extremities, and bladder and rectal disorder. Adduction of the left eye and abduction of the right eye were also disturbed. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated severe edema in the C1-T5 levels, which then deteriorated rapidly over 3 days, and lesions enhanced with gadolinium in the C1-C3 and C5-T3 levels. 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography study demonstrated the inflammatory sites as segmental enhanced accumulation in the C1-C3, C5-C6, and T1 levels. The serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibody level was positive and she was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Marked improvement in the neurological conditions, concomitant with reduced spinal cord edema, was obtained by steroid pulse therapy.

  7. Behavior of the aerosols generated by sodium sheet fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.; Boulaud, D.; Madelaine, G.; Malet, J.C.; Casselman, C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1980-04-01

    In order to validate computing models an experimental programme of sodium sheet fire tests (weight of sodium = 10 kg - combustion area = 0.125 m 2 - initial sodium temperature = 450 0 C) is under way in a 4x4 m 3 steel chamber (diameter = 1.6 m - height = 2.2 m - wall surface/volume = 3.4 m -1 - floor surface/volume = 0.46 m -1 ) with weight concentrations of aerosol above 10 g Na 2 O 2 /m 3 . The following experimental data were obtained: changes in the weight concentration and in the mass distribution of particles in suspension, especially by the use of cascade impactors (Andersen 8 stages) with a dilution system; particle emission rate with time (fire divided into a number of sequences on the basis of the reference test and fire timed by placing a lid on the container); kinetics of the aerosol deposition on the chamber floor (0.24 g Na 2 O 2 /m 2 .s). The application of computing codes (HAARM 3 and PARDISEKO 3B) to these tests showed agreement between experiments and calculations [fr

  8. Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.

    The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)

  9. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on bovine muscle tissue. Ability of tissue solubility was conducted in four groups respectively with active ingredient including 1 sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water 2 sodium hypochlorite diluted with sodium bicarbonate 3 sodium hypochlorite diluted with hydrochloric acid and finally 4 distilled water (control group. Each sample was firstly weighed and then placed in contact with 10 m/L solution for 60 minutes (five 12 -minute intervals. The sample was weighted every five minutes and solution was renewed. The results were analyzed using SPSS-21 Software based on variance analysis, Tukey and T-test (α=0.05. The findings showed that there was significant difference between first, second and third groups in terms of ability of tissue solubility. However, the tissue solubility in second and third groups was lower than first group and it was similar in second and third groups (P Value <0.001. Reduction of sodium bicarbonate PH using sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid reduces ability of tissue solubility in sodium hypochlorite.

  10. Étude de l'effet modérateur de sels sur la réaction sodium-eau, pour le "lavage" d'assemblages de combustible irradiés issus de réacteurs à caloporteur sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix , Marie

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of generation IV reactors one of the research tracks is related to the development of fast neutron reactors using fluid sodium heat transfer...; Dans le cadre du développement des réacteurs de génération IV, une des voies de recherche concerne le développement des réacteurs à neutron rapide à caloporteur sodium. Le CEA a pour projet la construction d'un prototype de réacteur de ce type appelé " ASTRID ". En réponse aux besoins de développement de ce pro...

  11. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  12. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  13. [Effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane emission from paddy soil under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Cui, He-yang; Wang, Wei-qing

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane (CH4) emission in paddy field under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B radiation (elevated by 20%, E) ; with four silicon supply levels, i.e., Si0 (control, without silicon), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 hm-2) and Si3 (as slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, silicon supply obviously alleviated the depressive effect of elevated UV-B radiation on rice growth, and increased the tiller numbers, chlorophyll content, and shoot and root dry masses. Silicon supply promoted rice growth, which increased with the silicon supply level (sodium silicate). Slag fertilizer was better than*sodium silicate in promoting rice growth. CH4 flux and accumulated CH4emission were obviously increased by elevated UV-B radiation, but significantly decreased by silicon application. CH4 emission was reduced with increasing the silicon supply level. Under the same silicon supply level, slag fertilizer was better than sodium silicate in inhibiting CH4 flux and accumulated CH4 emission. This research suggested that fertilizing slag in rice production was helpful not only in utilizing industrial wastes, but also in significantly mitigating CH4 emissions in rice paddy under elevated UV-B radiation.

  14. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes After Initiation of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Bagger, Jonatan I; Knop, Filip K

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) were recently introduced for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). SGLT2i lower plasma glucose by inhibiting the renal reuptake of glucose leading to glucosuria. Generally, these drugs are considered safe to use. However, recently, SGLT2i have...... been suggested to predispose to ketoacidosis. Here, we present a case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) developed in an obese, poorly controlled male patient with T2D treated with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin. He was admitted with DKA 5 days after the initiation of treatment with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin...... 72 hr with insulin as the only glucose-lowering therapy. After 1 month, dapagliflozin was reintroduced as add-on to insulin with no recurrent signs of ketoacidosis. During acute illness or other conditions with increased insulin demands in diabetes, SGLT2i may predispose to the formation of ketone...

  15. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  16. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  17. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  18. Engine performance and emission characteristics of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene and its blends with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)], Email: tanz@uwaterloo.ca

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes an experiment to determine the possibility of transforming waste plastics into a potential source of diesel fuel. Experiments were done on the use of various blends of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene (WPE) with diesel fuel (D) at different volumetric ratios and the results were reviewed. WPE was thermally degraded with catalysis of sodium aluminum silicate at optimum conditions (414-480 degree celsius range and 1 h reaction time) and the collected oil was fractionated at various temperatures. The properties of the fuel blends at different volumetric ratios were measured in this study. It was shown that these blends can be used as fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. With respect to engine performance and exhaust emission, it was found that using a 5% WPE-D (WPE5) blend instead of diesel fuel reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, the results of experiment showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rose.

  19. Bi2WO6 nanoflowers: An efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for ceftriaxone sodium degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Enzhou; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    The morphology-controlled synthesis of nano-structure photocatalyst have leaded a new possibility to improve their physical and chemical properties. Herein, Bi2WO6 nanocrystals (BWO) with nano-flower, nano plates, knot shape, rod like and irregular morphologies have been successfully synthesized through a highly facile hydrothermal process by simply adjusting pH values, reactive solvents and temperature. Photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by degradation of Ceftriaxone sodium under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm), the results indicated that all the BWO samples exhibit morphology-associated photocatalytic activity, and the 3D flowerlike-structure of BWO composed of well-ordered nano plates (BWO-D-5) displayed the outstanding photocatalytic activity. Through getting insight into the mechanism, h+ and rad O2- play major roles compared with rad OH in photocatalytic degradation process. The possible pathway of Ceftriaxone sodium and the intermediates were proposed to better understand the reaction process. Moreover, this work not only provides an example of morphology-dependent photocatalytic activity of BWO but also provides an illustrative example for removing organic pollutant molecules according to practical requirements.

  20. Applicability of RELAP5-3D for Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of a Sodium-Cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Davis

    2006-07-01

    The Actinide Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is envisioned as a sodium-cooled, fast reactor that will burn the actinides generated in light water reactors to reduce nuclear waste and ease proliferation concerns. The RELAP5-3D computer code is being considered as the thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the ABTR. An evaluation was performed to determine the applicability of RELAP5-3D for the analysis of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The applicability evaluation consisted of several steps, including identifying the important transients and phenomena expected in the ABTR, identifying the models and correlations that affect the code’s calculation of the important phenomena, and evaluating the applicability of the important models and correlations for calculating the important phenomena expected in the ABTR. The applicability evaluation identified code improvements and additional models needed to simulate the ABTR. The accuracy of the calculated thermodynamic and transport properties for sodium was also evaluated.

  1. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (2). Turbine system and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. This report describes the system configuration, heat/mass balance, and main components of the S-CO 2 turbine system, based on the JSFR specifications. The layout of components and piping in the reactor and turbine buildings were examined and the dimensions of the buildings were estimated. The study has revealed that the reactor and turbine buildings could be reduced by 7% and 40%, respectively, in comparison with those in the existing JSFR design with the secondary sodium circuit employing the steam turbine. The cycle thermal was also calculated as 41.9-42.3%, which is nearly the same as that of the JSFR with the water/steam system. (author)

  2. Calculation of thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of sodium previously recommended by Padilla have been updated. As much as possible, the approach described by Padilla has been used. For sodium in the states of saturated liquid and vapor, subcooled liquid and superheated vapor, the following thermodynamic properties were determined: enthalpy, heat capacity (constant pressure and constant volume), pressure, density, thermal-expansion coefficient, and compressibility (adiabatic and isothermal). In addition to the above properties, thermodynamic properties including heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, surface tension, speed of sound and transport properties of themal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and viscosity were determined for saturated sodium

  3. 2D/2D nano-hybrids of γ-MnO{sub 2} on reduced graphene oxide for catalytic ozonation and coupling peroxymonosulfate activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxian [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Xie, Yongbing, E-mail: ybxie@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Hongqi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Xiao, Jiadong; Cao, Hongbin [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Shaobin, E-mail: shaobin.wang@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • 2D γ-MnO{sub 2}/2D rGO hybrids (MnO{sub 2}/rGO) via a facile hydrothermal route were prepared. • MnO{sub 2}/rGO exhibits high activity in catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrophenol. • ·O{sub 2}{sup ̄} and {sup 1}O{sub 2} are the major radicals for 4-nitrophenol degradation and mineralization. • A synergistic effect of ozonation and peroxymonosulfate oxidation was evaluated. - Abstract: Two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (2D rGO) was employed as both a shape-directing medium and support to fabricate 2D γ-MnO{sub 2}/2D rGO nano-hybrids (MnO{sub 2}/rGO) via a facile hydrothermal route. For the first time, the 2D/2D hybrid materials were used for catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrophenol. The catalytic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}/rGO was much higher than either MnO{sub 2} or rGO only, and rGO was suggested to play the role for promoting electron transfers. Quenching tests using tert-butanol, p-benzoquinone, and sodium azide suggested that the major radicals responsible for 4-nitrophenol degradation and mineralization are O{sub 2}{sup ̄} and {sup 1}O{sub 2}, but not ·OH. Reusability tests demonstrated a high stability of the materials in catalytic ozonation with minor Mn leaching below 0.5 ppm. Degradation mechanism, reaction kinetics, reusability and a synergistic effect between catalytic ozonation and coupling peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation were also discussed.

  4. A basic experimental study on combustion of suspended sodium droplet. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    1999-10-01

    For appropriate understanding and/or prediction of the combustion behavior of sodium, working as liquid coolant in fast breeder reactors, in case of leakage accident, phenomenological analyses of the behavior must be also important along with conventional engineering approach. Following our previous study in the last year, the major objective of this experimental research is to elucidate the effects of the initial temperature and diameter of droplet, and of the air flow velocity on ignition process of a sodium droplet, by exposing a suspended droplet to the air flow at room-temperature. In the experiments, a high-temperature droplet suspended from the end of a fine stainless steel nozzle of the liquid sodium supply system was exposed to an upward air flow, and the ignition and succeeding combustion phenomena were observed by using high-speed color video recording system. In the preliminary study, the effects of lighting and image data processing on obtaining pictures suitable to analyses were investigated with the apparatus used in the previous study. After the experimental apparatus was modified partially in order to expose the unreacted droplet to the air flow more quickly, main experiments were performed in synthetic dry air or oxygen-nitrogen mixture of 21% oxygen. Good quality pictures of the phenomena achieved under good conditions were recorded even for a few cases. The details of the ignition process of a sodium droplet, including the aspects of the surface and light emission, were examined, and the effects of the air flow velocity were discussed. Since number of performed experimental runs was small, the effects of the initial droplet temperature were not examined. (author)

  5. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  6. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan eWang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  7. F-18 Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Detection of Thyroid Cancer Bone Metastasis Compared with Bone Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjong; Lee, Won Woo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performances of F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (bone PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis. We retrospectively enrolled 6 thyroid cancer patients (age = 44.7 ± 9.8 years, M:F = 1:5, papillary:follicular = 2:4) with suspected bone metastatic lesions in the whole body iodine scintigraphy or BS, who subsequently underwent bone PET/CT. Pathologic diagnosis was conducted for 4 lesions of 4 patients. Of the 17 suspected bone lesions, 10 were metastatic and 7 benign. Compared to BS, bone PET/CT exhibited superior sensitivity (10/10 = 100% vs. 2/10 = 20%, p = 0.008), and accuracy (14/17 = 82.4% vs. 7/17 = 41.2%, p 0.05). Bone PET/CT may be more sensitive and accurate than BS for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis.

  8. Sodium sulfite pH-buffering effect for improved xylose-phenylalanine conversion to N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine during an aqueous Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Heping; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Karangwa, Eric; Jia, Chengsheng; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2018-04-25

    The yield of the Maillard reaction intermediate (MRI), prepared in aqueous medium, is usually unsatisfactory. However, the addition of sodium sulfite could improve the conversion of xylose-phenylalanine (Xyl-Phe) to the MRI (N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine) in aqueous medium. Sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ) showed a significant pH-buffering effect during the Maillard reaction, which accounted for its facilitation of the N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine yield. The results revealed that the pH could be maintained at a relatively high level (above 7.0) for an optimized pH-buffering effect when Na 2 SO 3 (4.0%) was added before the reaction of Xyl-Phe. Thus, the conversion of Xyl-Phe to N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine increased from 47.23% to 74.86%. Furthermore, the addition moment of Na 2 SO 3 and corresponding solution pH were crucial factors in regulating the pH-buffering effect of Na 2 SO 3 on N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine yield. Based on the pH-buffering effect of Na 2 SO 3 and maintaining the optimal pH 7.4 relatively stable, the conversion of Xyl-Phe to N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-phenylalanine was successfully improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eu-emission quenching by electron screening in VO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Lysenko, S.; Rua, A.; Vikhnin, V.; Vasquez, O.; Fernandez, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    As a kind of phase transition functional material, Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) thin films deposited on fused quartz substrate were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Europium was introduced for structure study. By laser excitation at 526 nm, VO 2 thin film undergoes a reversible and ultrafast phase transition from semiconductor to metallic state, which results in a change of optical properties. In fluorescence measurement, Eu emission was found severely quenched in all as-grown thin films. After annealing the sample in air, a red Eu-emission appeared. The emission spectrum is characterized by a pronounced twin peak, centered at 617 nm ( 5 D - 7 F 2 ), surrounded by a set of broad, but relatively weaker bands (emission from 5 D to 7 F j manifold). The emission lifetime increased when the sample annealed at higher temperature for longer time. Each spectral component is actually a doublet which is the spectral overlap of emissions from Eu 3+ situated in two sites with different configurations. One is a linear h-Eu 3+ -h, where h stands for holes. Another is a right-angle configuration of h-Eu 3+ -h with Eu 3+ in the corner. In as-grown VO 2 film, Eu 3+ ions can either substitute V 4+ , leaving a negative charge around (Eu 3+ -O) - , or substitute V 5+ , leaving two negative charges around (Eu 3+ -O) -- . Due to trapped electrons in a large radius state, it covers Eu 3+ V 4+ -V 5+ complexes. It suggests that the screening by degenerate electronic gas may result in switching off the Eu-related optical response for a wide spectral region, causing emission quenching in VO 2 films

  10. Femtosecond laser-induced reduction in Eu-doped sodium borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki-Soo [Department of Physics and Basic Science Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kslim@chungbuk.ac.kr; Lee, Sunkyun [Department of Physics and Basic Science Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Trinh, Minh-Tuan [Department of Physics and Basic Science Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk-Ho [Department of Physics and Basic Science Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeongkyu [Departent of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hamilton, Douglas S. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Gibson, George N. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    In this work, we report permanent reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in sodium borate glasses by irradiation of near-infrared femtosecond laser. Glass composition of sodium borate was 85B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-15Na{sub 2}O. The glasses were doped with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mol% Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Absorption and fluorescence dynamics were studied to investigate valence state change of europium ions and the energy transfer between Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions. As the femtosecond laser intensity or exposure time increases, the emission band at 400 nm becomes stronger. However, the photoreduction efficiency decreases as the dopant concentration increases. We discuss the photoreduction mechanism under multiphoton absorption.

  11. Pseudocapacitive Sodium Storage in Mesoporous Single-Crystal-like TiO2-Graphene Nanocomposite Enables High-Performance Sodium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Zaiyuan; Liu, Fang; Nie, Ping; Li, Xinru; Liu, Xiaoyan; Bian, Zhenfeng; Chen, Gen; Wu, Hao Bin; Lu, Yunfeng

    2017-03-28

    Sodium-ion capacitors can potentially combine the virtues of high power capability of conventional electrochemical capacitors and high energy density of batteries. However, the lack of high-performance electrode materials has been the major challenge of sodium-based energy storage devices. In this work, we report a microwave-assisted synthesis of single-crystal-like anatase TiO 2 mesocages anchored on graphene as a sodium storage material. The architecture of the nanocomposite results in pseudocapacitive charge storage behavior with fast kinetics, high reversibility, and negligible degradation to the micro/nanostructure. The nanocomposite delivers a high capacity of 268 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C, which remains 126 mAh g -1 at 10 C for over 18 000 cycles. Coupling with a carbon-based cathode, a full cell of sodium-ion capacitor successfully demonstrates a high energy density of 64.2 Wh kg -1 at 56.3 W kg -1 and 25.8 Wh kg -1 at 1357 W kg -1 , as well as an ultralong lifespan of 10 000 cycles with over 90% of capacity retention.

  12. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  13. Natural precursor based hydrothermal synthesis of sodium carbide for reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Sebastian, Riya; Ambadas, G.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Carbides are a class of materials with high mechanical strength and refractory nature which finds a wide range of applications in industries and nuclear reactors. The existing synthesis methods of all types of carbides have problems in terms of use of toxic chemical precursors, high-cost, etc. Sodium carbide (Na2C2) which is an alkali metal carbide is the least explored one and also that there is no report of low-cost and low-temperature synthesis of sodium carbide using the eco-friendly, easily available natural precursors. In the present work, we report a simple low-cost, non-toxic hydrothermal synthesis of refractory sodium carbide using the natural precursor—Pandanus. The formation of sodium carbide along with boron carbide is evidenced by the structural and morphological characterizations. The sample thus synthesized is subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)—visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, and photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopic techniques.

  14. 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F.D.G.-PET) can identify chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C.L.L.) stage A et stage B patients; La tomographie par emission de positons au 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose (TEP-FDG) permet d'identifier les stades A et B des leucemies lymphoides chroniques (LLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, C.; Vervueren, L.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Couturier, O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Truchan-Graczyk, M.; Genevieve, F.; Ifrah, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service d' Hematologie, 49 - Angers (France); Poirier, A.L. [BEC, centre Paul-Papin, 49 -Angers (France); Artur-Guillemette, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiologie, 49 - Angers (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: There is no data in the literature concerning the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (F.D.G.-PET) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C.L.L.), except for the diagnosis of Richter's transformations. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of F.D.G.-PET in C.L.L. stages A and B. Materials and methods Thirty-five patients (61 {+-} 9 years; 11 women, 24 men; 8 B and 27 A) have benefited of a F.D.G.-PET scan at baseline, for example, before an eventual treatment. F.D.G.-PET scans were analyzed visually and the maximum values of the Standardised Uptake Value (S.U.V.{sub max}) were measured in the main lymph nodes areas. The ability of F.D.G.-PET to differentiate stages A and B patients was evaluated by Student's tests and Receiver Operating Characteristics (R.O.C.) analysis. Results All patients with a normal F.D.G.-PET (n = 18) were stages A. The remaining 17 patients (9 A and 8 B) showed hyper metabolisms in nodal areas above (n = 17) and below (n = 9) the diaphragm, and no visceral involvement. The lymph nodes hyper metabolisms were always bilateral, and of low intensity (= mediastinum; 9 A), or of higher intensity (= liver, 8 B). The S.U.V.{sub max} of stage B (n = 8) were significantly higher than those of the 27 stages A, in all lymph nodes areas except in mediastinum. The highest intensity of F.D.G. uptake was observed in axillary area in stages B patients (S.U.V.max = 2.74 {+-} 1.03). An axillary S.U.V.{sub max} of 1.33 is the most suitable value for the discrimination between stages A and B patients (R.O.C.; AUC = 0.968; sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.91). Conclusion Lymph nodes hyper metabolisms are constant in the B stage, and more intense than in stage A. These anomalies are always bilateral, unlike what is observed in Richter's transformation. The intensity of axillary lymph nodes F.D.G. uptake can distinguish C.L.L. stages A and B. (authors)

  15. Bioequivalence of diclofenac sodium 2% and 1.5% topical solutions relative to oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Robert J; Taiwo, Tolu; Kent, Jeffrey D

    2015-08-01

    Topical formulations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are generally considered to be safer alternatives to oral NSAIDs due to lower systemic absorption. We conducted randomized, crossover studies that compared the pharmacokinetics (PK), bioequivalence and safety of topical diclofenac sodium 2% twice daily (BID), diclofenac sodium 1.5% four times daily (QID) and oral diclofenac sodium in healthy subjects. The results of three bioequivalence studies are reviewed. Healthy adult subjects (n = 76) applied topical diclofenac sodium 2% solution (40.4 mg/2 mL) BID; or 1.5% solution (19.3 mg/40 drops) QID to each knee for 7.5 consecutive days separated by a washout period. Subjects (n = 22) in one study also received oral diclofenac sodium 75 mg BID for 7.5 days. Plasma diclofenac concentrations were determined from serial blood samples collected on Days 1 and 8 (steady state), and diclofenac PK parameters were estimated by noncompartmental methods. The studies demonstrated comparable bioequivalence between the 2% and 1.5% topical solutions as well as lower systemic exposure compared to oral dosing (approximately 93% less). Daily systemic exposure was comparable between the two formulations with only a 12% difference in the AUCss(0-24) (p = 0.140). Furthermore, both topical solutions demonstrated delayed elimination with a t(1/2) of 4- to 6-fold longer, as compared to oral diclofenac. The 2% solution provided more consistent dosing relative to the 1.5% solution when comparing AUCss(0-24) and Cmaxss across studies. Mild application site reactions were the most common treatment-emergent adverse event reported with topical diclofenac. The steady-state PK profile of topical diclofenac 2% solution administered BID is similar to that of the 1.5% solution administered QID. Systemic exposure to diclofenac is substantially lower after topical application as compared to oral administration. (Study 2 was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01202799; https

  16. Paleodosimetrical properties of sodium alkali feldspars and problems of luminescence dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, Galina; Jaek, Ivar

    1996-01-01

    Emission spectra of natural alkali feldspars extracted from sediments are studied using a CCD-camera based high sensitivity spectrometer. Applying a semiconductor laser (860± 1 nm), two dominant emission bands, blue (410 nm) and orange (570 nm), are revealed in infrared optically stimulated luminescence (IROSL) spectra for the most of the sediments from Scandinavian sections. Luminescence and dosimetric al properties of the hole traps, the induced orange emission band typical of sodium alkali feldspars are studied. As a result, high light bleach ability but low stability of the dosimetric al information lit sodium alkali feldspars are established. Problems of luminescence dating of sediments based on the mixture of potassium-sodium alkali feldspars are discussed. (author)

  17. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  18. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancsak, Stacia E.; Silva, Sidnei G.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Donati, George L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Direct analysis of biodiesel on a tungsten coil atomizer. •Determination of Na, K, Cr and V by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry. •Sample dilution with methanol or ethanol. •Ten-microliter sample aliquots and limits of detection between 20 and 90 μg kg −1 . •Low consumption of reagents, samples and gases in a 140 s per run procedure. -- Abstract: High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg −1 for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg −1 for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg −1 for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated. Powers of detection are

  19. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancsak, Stacia E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Silva, Sidnei G.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Donati, George L., E-mail: georgedonati@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)

    2014-01-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Direct analysis of biodiesel on a tungsten coil atomizer. •Determination of Na, K, Cr and V by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry. •Sample dilution with methanol or ethanol. •Ten-microliter sample aliquots and limits of detection between 20 and 90 μg kg{sup −1}. •Low consumption of reagents, samples and gases in a 140 s per run procedure. -- Abstract: High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg{sup −1} for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg{sup −1} for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg{sup −1} for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated

  20. Estimation of CO2 emission from water treatment plant--model development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Daeseung; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Nosuk; Lee, Woojin

    2013-12-15

    A comprehensive mathematical model developed for this study was used to compare estimates of on-site and off-site CO2 emissions, from conventional and advanced water treatment plants (WTPs). When 200,000 m(3) of raw water at 10 NTU (Nepthelometric Turbidity Unit) was treated by a conventional WTP to 0.1 NTU using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant, the total CO2 emissions were estimated to be 790 ± 228 (on-site) and 69,596 ± 3950 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The emissions from an advanced WTP containing micro-filtration (MF) membrane and ozone disinfection processes; treating the same raw water to 0.005 NTU, were estimated to be 395 ± 115 (on-site) and 38,197 ± 2922 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The on-site CO2 emissions from the advanced WTP were half that from the conventional WTP due to much lower use of coagulant. On the other hand, off-site CO2 emissions due to consumption of electricity were 2.14 times higher for the advanced WTP, due to the demands for operation of the MF membrane and ozone disinfection processes. However, the lower use of chemicals in the advanced WTP decreased off-site CO2 emissions related to chemical production and transportation. Overall, total CO2 emissions from the conventional WTP were 1.82 times higher than that from the advanced WTP. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the advanced WTP to suggest tactics for simultaneously reducing CO2 emissions further and enhancing water quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. GeO2 decorated reduced graphene oxide as anode material of sodium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Taiqiang; Hu, Bingwen; Sun, Zhuo; Pan, Likun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: GeO 2 -reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared by a simple freeze-drying method. After thermal annealing in N 2 atmosphere at 450 °C for 2 hours, the composites were examined as anode materials of sodium ion batteries for the first time. Their morphology, structure and electrochemical performance were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. A maximum specific capacity of 330 mAh g −1 can be achieved after 50 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 by tuning the RGO content in the composites. Even after 650 cycles at a high current density of 1 A g −1 , the specific capacity can still maintain at 153.7 mAh g −1 , demonstrating the excellent Na ion storage properties of the GeO 2 -RGO composites

  2. Emission of SO2, CO2, and H2S from Augustine Volcano, 2002-2008: Chapter 26 in The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Wessels, Rick L.; Power, John A.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne surveillance of gas emissions from Augustine Volcano and other Cook Inlet volcanoes began in 1990 to identify baseline emission levels during noneruptive conditions. Gas measurements at Augustine for SO2, CO2, and H2S showed essentially no evidence of anomalous degassing through spring 2005. Neither did a measurement on May 10, 2005, right after the onset of low level seismicity and inflation. The following measurement, on December 20, 2005, showed Augustine to be degassing about 600 metric tons per day (t/d) of SO2, and by January 4, 2006, only 7 days before the first explosive event, SO2 emissions had climbed to ten times that amount. Maximum emission rates measured during the subsequent eruption were: 8,930 t/d SO2 (February 24, 2006), 1,800 t/d CO2 (March 9, 2006), and 4.3 t/d H2S (January 19, 2006). In total, 45 measurements for SO2 were made from December 2005 through the end of 2008, with 19 each for CO2 and H2S during the same period. Molar CO2/SO2 ratios averaged about 1.6. In general, SO2 emissions appeared to increase during inflation of the volcanic edifice, whereas CO2 emissions were at their highest during the period of deflation associated with the vigorous effusive phase of the eruption in March. High SO2 was probably associated with degassing of shallow magma, whereas high CO2 likely reflected deep (>4 km) magma recharge of the sub-volcanic plumbing system, For the 2005–6 period, the volcano released a total of about 1.5×106 tons of CO2 to the atmosphere, a level similar to the annual output of a medium-sized natural-gas-fired powerplant. Augustine also emitted about 8×105 tons of SO2, similar to that produced by the 1976 and 1986 eruptions of the volcano.

  3. 2D scrape-off layer turbulence measurement using Deuterium beam emission spectroscopy on KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, M.; Zoletnik, S.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, Y. U.; Kstar Team

    2018-04-01

    Intermittent events in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas, often called blobs and holes, contribute significantly to the particle and heat loss across the magnetic field lines. In this article, the results of the scrape-off layer and edge turbulence measurements are presented with the two-dimensional Deuterium Beam Emission Spectroscopy system (DBES) at KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research). The properties of blobs and holes are determined in an L-mode and an H-mode shot with statistical tools and conditional averaging. These results show the capabilities and limitations of the SOL turbulence measurement of a 2D BES system. The results from the BES study were compared with the analysis of probe measurements. It was found that while probes offer a better signal-to-noise ratio and can measure blobs down to 3 mm size, BES can monitor the two-dimensional dynamics of larger events continuously during full discharges, and the measurement is not limited to the SOL on KSTAR.

  4. Dietary sodium intake and prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijälä, M; Malo, E; Santaniemi, M; Bloigu, R; Silaste, M-L; Kesäniemi, Y A; Ukkola, O

    2015-09-01

    The association of dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the reduction of sodium intake in the prevention of CVD, has been under debate. To study whether sodium consumption has a role as a risk factor for fatal and non-fatal CVD. A well-defined population-based cohort of 1045 subjects collected between 1991 and 1993 (mean age 51.4 years) was used with approximately 19 years' follow-up. At the baseline, 716 subjects filled in a 1-week food follow-up diary, which was used to calculate the daily sodium intake (mg/1000 kcal). The baseline sodium intake correlated significantly with age (rs=0.117, P=0.002), BMI (rs=0.216, P=0.000), waist circumference (rs=0.268, P=0.000), smoking (rs=0.144, P=0.000), alcohol consumption (rs=0.111, P=0.003), systolic blood pressure (rs=0.106, P=0.005) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (rs=0.081, P=0.033). Those who had cardiovascular events in the follow-up consumed more sodium at the baseline (mean 2010.4 mg/1000 kcal/day, s.d. 435.2, n=101) compared with the subjects without events (mean 1849.9 mg/1000 kcal/day, s.d. 361.2, n=589; t-test; P=0.001). The incidence of cardiovascular events was greater in the highest quartile (22.1%) than in the lower quartiles (first 11.0%, second 9.9% and third 15.6%; X(2); P=0.005). Cox regression analysis showed that sodium intake as a continuous variable predicts CVD events (P=0.031) independently when age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and waist circumference were added as covariates. This predictive role is seen especially in the group of subjects on hypertensive medication (P=0.001). Dietary sodium intake is a significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the study population.

  5. Regional differences in the CO_2 emissions of China's iron and steel industry: Regional heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the key influencing factors of CO_2 emissions in China's iron and steel industry is vital for mitigating its emissions and formulating effective environmental protection measures. Most of the existing researches utilized time series data to investigate the driving factors of the industry's CO_2 emission at the national level, but regional differences have not been given appropriate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2000 to 2013 and panel data models to examine the key driving forces of CO_2 emissions at the regional levels in China. The results show that industrialization dominates the industry's CO_2 emissions, but its effect varies across regions. The impact of energy efficiency on CO_2 emissions in the eastern region is greater than in the central and western regions because of a huge difference in R&D investment. The influence of urbanization has significant regional differences due to the heterogeneity in human capital accumulation and real estate development. Energy structure has large potential to mitigate CO_2 emissions on account of increased R&D investment in energy-saving technology and expanded clean energy use. Hence, in order to effectively achieve emission reduction, local governments should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in formulating appropriate mitigation policies. - Highlights: • We explore the driving forces of CO_2 emissions in China's steel industry. • Industrialization dominates CO_2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. • Energy structure has large potential to mitigate CO_2 emissions in the steel industry. • The influence of urbanization has significant regional differences.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Tricia Santos; Pettus, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    As the first cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial of a glucose-lowering agent to demonstrate a reduction in the risk of CV events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the EMPAgliflozin Removal of Excess Glucose: Cardiovascular OUTCOME Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME®) trial, which investigated the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin, has generated great interest among health care professionals. CV outcomes data for another SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, have been published recently in the CANagliflozin CardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, as have CV data from the retrospective real-world study Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors (CVD-REAL), which compared SGLT2 inhibitors with other classes of glucose-lowering drugs. This review discusses the results of these three studies and, with a focus on EMPA-REG OUTCOME, examines the possible mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibitors may reduce CV risk in patients with T2DM. PMID:29695924

  7. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radioiodine therapy in prostate cancer cells expressing the sodium iodide symporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzweg, Christine; Hirschmann, Martin; Unterholzner, Stefanie; Cengic, Neziha; Eckel, Petra; Sharif-Samani, Bibi-Rana; Willhauck, Michael J.; Goeke, Burkhard; Morris, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We reported recently the induction of androgen-dependent iodide uptake activity in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) utilizing a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-promoter directed expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene. This offers the potential to treat prostate cancer with radioiodine. In the current study we examined the regulation of PSA-promoter directed NIS expression and therapeutic effectiveness of 131 I in LNCaP cells by 1,25-(OH)2-Vitamin D3 (Vit D3). For this purpose, NIS mRNA and protein expression levels in the NIS-transfected LNCaP cell line NP-1 were examined by Northern and Western blot analysis following incubation with Vit D3 (10 -9 M - 10 -5 M) in the presence of mibolerone (10 -9 M). In addition, NIS functional activity was measured by iodide uptake assay, and in vitro cytotoxicity of 131 I was examined by in vitro clonogenic assay. Following incubation with Vit D3, NIS mRNA levels in NP-1 cells were stimulated 1.2-fold, whereas NIS protein levels increased 1.65-fold and iodide accumulation was stimulated 1.4-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, the selective killing effect of 131 I in NP-1 cells was significantly increased from 55% in NP-1 cells incubated with mibolerone alone to 86 % in NP-1 cells treated with Vit D3 (10 -5 M) in the presence of mibolerone. In the absence of androgen, with or without Vit D3 no functional NIS expression was detected. Conclusion: Treatment with Vit D3 increases androgen-induced NIS expression levels and selective killing effect of 131 I in prostate cancer cells stably expressing NIS under the control of the PSA promoter. Vit D3 may therefore be used to enhance the therapeutic response to radioiodine in prostate cancer cells following PSA-promoter directed NIS gene delivery. (author)

  8. Preliminary Results on a Contact between 4 kg of Molten UO2 and Liquid Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, M.

    1976-01-01

    The CORECT II Experiment consists in simulating the penetration of sodium into an assembly when the fuel is molten. In other words, it is a shock-tube type of experiment with dimensions representative of a full-scale assembly. the experiment consists in dropping a 100 litre column of sodium onto partially molten UO 2 . The following measurements are carried out in transient regime: - sodium velocity in the column; - pressure in the interaction chamber; - pressures at the bottom and at the top of a 5 m tube; - pressure in the argon blanket. The experimental parameters are: - the mass of UO 2 involved (about 4 or 7 kg of 80% molten UO 2 ); - the initial temperature of the sodium (up to 700 deg. C); - the pressure of the residual gas in the interaction chamber during the fall of the sodium; - the dimensions of the interaction chamber and the sodium supply tube; - the form of contact between the UO 2 and the sodium (the sodium may fall on partially liquid and settled UO 2 or on UO 2 pre-dispersed by forced trapping of sodium). To date, 6 tests have been performed. These tests have always resulted in fine fragmentation without any violent interaction. Since no knowledge is available on the change of grain size distribution with time, on the temperature of grain formation, and on the grain movement in the sodium, it is very difficult to interpret these UO 2 -Na tests. We intend to carry out more severe interaction tests on this experimental set-up, by eliminating as much as possible the non-condensable gas which cushions the mechanical impact of the sodium on the UO 2 (tests have shown that by strongly de-pressurizing the liquid UO 2 the fuel could be dispersed by boiling, and this effect should also improve the possibilities of a liquid/liquid contact). - by injecting a little sodium into the UO 2 to facilitate its dispersion in the coolant

  9. Uranium reextraction from D2EHPA-TOPO solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study for recovering uranium from the solvent D 2 EHPA-TOPO (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid - tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) with ammonium carbonate and sodium carbonate solutions has been made. The paper discusses the precipitation of iron during stripping and the extracctant solubilization in the aqueous phases. Continuous tests showed that uranium is efficiently stripped from the solvent by using both solutions and that the choice of a specific system is dependent on the uranium precipitation mechanism to be employed. (Author) [pt

  10. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  11. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE URINARY BIOMONITORING OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHRENOCYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed to quantitatively measure 2,4-dichlorophenoyacetic acid (2,4-D) in human urine. Samples were diluted (1:5) with phosphate-buffered saline, 0.05% Tween 20, with 0.02% sodium azide, and analyzed by a 96-microwekk pl...

  12. Magnetic susceptibility of sodium disilicate glasses containing PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    A solubility limit of approx. 6 mol % PuO 2 in sodium disilicate (Na 2 O.2SiO 2 ) glass has been determined. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on these glasses yield approximate Curie-Weiss behavior, in contrast to the temperature-independent susceptibility of crystalline PuO 2 . This result is interpreted to indicate that the local site symmetry around the Pu ion in the sodium disilicate glass is much different than in crystalline PuO 2 . The effective paramagnetic moments determined from the temperature dependence of the susceptibility are found to be consistent with calculated free-ion values based on the most likely 5f electron configurations

  13. Fume emissions from a low-cost 3-D printer with various filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Evan L; Wang, Jun; Regens, James L

    2017-07-01

    3-D printing is an additive manufacturing process involving the injection of melted thermoplastic polymers, which are then laid down in layers to achieve a pre-designed shape. The heated deposition process raises concerns of potential aerosol and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission and exposure. The decreasing cost of desktop 3-D printers has made the use of 3-D printers more acceptable in non-industrial workplaces lacking sufficient ventilation. Meanwhile, little is known about the characteristics of 3-D printing fume emission. The objective of this study was to characterize aerosols and VOC emissions generated from various filaments used with a low-cost 3-D printer in an environmental testing chamber. A pre-designed object was printed in 1.25 hours using eight types of filaments. A scanning mobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer were employed to measure the particle size distribution in sub-half-micron fraction (printers due to high respirablity, especially if used in settings without proper guidance and engineering control.

  14. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  15. Detection and Estimation of 2-D Distributions of Greenhouse Gas Source Concentrations and Emissions over Complex Urban Environments and Industrial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work highlights the use of the greenhouse-gas laser imaging tomography experiment (GreenLITETM) data in conjunction with a sparse tomography approach to identify and quantify both urban and industrial sources of CO2 and CH4. The GreenLITETM system provides a user-defined set of time-sequenced intersecting chords or integrated column measurements at a fixed height through a quasi-horizontal plane of interest. This plane, with unobstructed views along the lines of sight, may range from complex industrial facilities to a small city scale or urban sector. The continuous time phased absorption measurements are converted to column concentrations and combined with a plume based model to estimate the 2-D distribution of gas concentration over extended areas ranging from 0.04-25 km2. Finally, these 2-D maps of concentration are combined with ancillary meteorological and atmospheric data to identify potential emission sources and provide first order estimates of their associated fluxes. In this presentation, we will provide a brief overview of the systems and results from both controlled release experiments and a long-term system deployment in Paris, FR. These results provide a quantitative assessment of the system's ability to detect and estimate CO2 and CH4 sources, and demonstrate its ability to perform long-term autonomous monitoring and quantification of either persistent or sporadic emissions that may have both health and safety as well as environmental impacts.

  16. Comparison of multiple quantitative MRI parameters for characterization of the goat cartilage in an ongoing osteoarthritis: dGEMRIC, T1ρ and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrauth, Joachim H.X.; Lykowsky, Gunthard; Hemberger, Kathrin; Kreutner, Jakob; Jakob, Peter M.; Weber, Daniel; Haddad, Daniel; Rackwitz, Lars; Noeth, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease leading to cartilage deterioration by loss of matrix, fibrillation, formation of fissures, and ultimately complete loss of the cartilage surface. Here, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, dGEMRIC (delayed Gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage; dG 1 = T 1,post ; dG 2 = 1/T 1,post -1/T 1,pre ), T 1ρ , and sodium MRI, are compared in a preclinical in vivo study to evaluate the differences in their potential for cartilage characterization and to establish an examination protocol for a following clinical study. OA was induced in 12 caprine knees (6 control, 6 therapy). Adipose derived stem cells were injected afterwards as a treatment. The animals were examined healthy, 3 and 16 weeks postoperatively with all three MRI methods. Using statistical analysis, the OA development and the degree of correlation between the different MRI methods were determined. A strong correlation was observed between the dGEMRIC indices dG 1 and dG 2 (r=-0.87) which differ only in considering or not considering the T 1 baseline. Moderate correlations were found between T 1ρ and dG 1 (r=0.55), T 1ρ and dG 2 (r=0.47) and at last, sodium and dG 1 (r=0.45). The correlations found in this study match to the biomarkers which the methods are sensitive to. Even though the goat cartilage is significantly thinner than the human cartilage and even more in a degenerated cartilage, all three methods were able to characterize the cartilage over the whole period of time during an ongoing OA.Due to measurement and post processing optimizations, as well as the correlations detected in this work, the overall measurement time in future goat studies can be minimized. Moreover, an examination protocol for characterizing the cartilage in a clinical study was established.

  17. Epimerisation of 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose under alkaline conditions. A convenient method for the preparation of 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Mannose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varelis, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The intended goal of our study into the epimerisation of 2-[ 18 F]- fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 18 F]-FDG) was to obtain 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro- 2-deoxy-D-mannose ([ 18 F]-FDM) for the purpose of both development and validation of our analytical methods used to determine the diastereoisomeric excess of [ 18 F]-FDG prepared in our facility. The epimerisation of [ 18 F]-FDG is smoothly effected by heating an aqueous solution of this radiochemical with 1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide at 50-60 deg C for 30 min, which provides an ∼ 1:1 mixture of [ 18 F]-FDG and [ 18 F]-FDM. In addition to the value of this mixture in analytical method development, we also found it useful for gauging the performance of the HPLC column used in the analysis of [ 18 F]-FDG. The aqueous sample matrix can be conveniently changed by azeotropic evaporation of the water with dry acetonitrile. In summary, the base catalysed epimerisation of 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose provides a convenient and reliable procedure for the preparation 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-mannose, the stable analogue of which is not commercially available

  18. Drug: D02065 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02065 Mixture ... Drug Ampicillin sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection (JP17); Ampicillin sodium... - sulbactam sodium mixt; Unasyn-S (TN) Ampicillin sodium [DR:D02119], Sulbactam sodium [D

  19. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  20. False-positive uptake on 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in oncological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culverwell, A.D.; Scarsbrook, A.F.; Chowdhury, F.U.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing utilization of integrated positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in oncological imaging, it is important for radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians to be aware that FDG uptake is not specific for malignancy, as many different physiological variants and benign pathological conditions can also exhibit increased glucose metabolism. Such false-positive FDG uptake often arises outside the area of primary interest and may mimic malignant disease, thereby confounding accurate interpretation of PET/CT studies. With the use of illustrative clinical cases, this article will provide a systematic overview of potential interpretative pitfalls and illustrate how such unexpected findings can be appropriately evaluated.

  1. High Resolution Integral Field Spectroscopy of Europa's Sodium Clouds: Evidence for a Component with Origins in Iogenic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Johnson, R. E.; Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Moore, L.; O'Donoghue, J.; Leblanc, F.

    2015-12-01

    With the object of constraining Iogenic contributions and identifying drivers for variability, we report new observations of neutral sodium in Europa's exosphere. An R~20000 integral field spectrograph at McDonald Observatory is used to generate Doppler maps of sodium cloud structures with a resolution of 2.8 km/s/pixel. In the five nights of observations since 2011, measurements on UT 6.15-6.31 May 2015 uniquely feature fast (10s of km/s) neutral sodium clouds extending nearly 100 Europa radii, more distant than in any previous findings. During these measurements, the satellite geometry was favorable for the transfer of Na from Io to Europa, located at 1:55 to 4:00 and 3:38 to 4:39 Jovian local time, respectively. Eastward emission (away from Jupiter) extends 10-20 Europa radii retaining the moon's rest velocity, while westward emission blue-shifts with distance, and a broad range of velocities are measured, reaching at least 70 km/s at 80 Europa radii. These cloud features are distinct from Io's "banana" and "stream" features, the distant Jupiter-orbiting nebula, and from terrestrial OH and Na contaminant emissions. Io's production was quiescent during this observation, following an extremely active phase in February 2015. These results are consistent with previous findings that Europa's Na exosphere has peak emission between midnight and dawn Jovian local time and support the idea that sodium escape from Io can significantly enhance the emission intensity measured at Europa.

  2. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation an industrial stakes; Reduction des emissions et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation et enjeux industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B

    2005-07-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO{sub 2} was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2} and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO{sub 2} emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO{sub 2} emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO{sub 2} emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO{sub 2} emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO{sub 2} emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable

  3. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larisch, R.; Klimke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D 2 receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D 2 receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using 11 C- or 18 F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using 123 I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson's disease show an increased D 2 receptor binding (D 2 -RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D 2 -RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D 2 receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D 2 scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D 2 receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D 2 receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D 2 binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D 2 binding. (orig.) [de

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate, a new cosmetic allergen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, H; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2001-01-01

    Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate (trade name Dragophos S 2/918501) was identified as a contact allergen in a herbal moisturizing cream causing severe acute contact dermatitis on the hands and face of a 41-year-old woman. Sodium dihydroxycetyl phosphate is a complex mixture of phosphate esters of d...

  5. An experimental study of the surface chemistry and evaporation kinetics of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    The evaporation rate and internal energy distribution of Na 2 evaporating from clean liquid Na and liquid Na exposed separately to O 2 and benzene were investigated by laser spectroscopy. The evaporating Na 2 was always found to be in thermal equilibrium with the surface. Oxygen increased the evaporation rate while benzene diminished it. A 3 keV Ar + beam was used to examine the surface by monitoring secondary ion emission. Ion emission from clean and oxygen exposed Na was extremely low; only limits could be established. Ion emission from sodium exposed to benzene could be observed only at lowered temperatures. The secondary ion emission, as well as visual observations of Na( 2 P-> 2 S) emission, are found to correspond to the evaporation rate behavior indicating that the Na surface remains very metal rich even while reacting with impinging oxygen at high (10 monolayers/s) rates. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of sodium vanadium oxide gels: the effects of water (n) and sodium (x) content on the electrochemistry of Na(x)V2O5·nH2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Marschilok, Amy C; Subramanian, Aditya; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2011-10-28

    Sodium vanadium oxide gels, Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O, of varying sodium content (0.12 n > 0.01) and interlayer spacing were found to be inversely proportional to the sodium level (x), thus control of sodium (x) content provided a direct, chimie douce approach for control of hydration level (n) and interlayer spacing, without the need for high temperature treatment to affect dehydration. Notably, the use of high temperatures to modify hydration levels can result in crystallization and collapse of the interlayer structure, highlighting the distinct advantage of our novel chimie douce synthesis strategy. Subsequent to synthesis and characterization, results from an electrochemical study of a series of Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O samples highlight the significant impact of interlayer water on delivered capacity of the layered materials. Specifically, the sodium vanadium oxide gels with higher sodium content and lower water content provided higher capacities in lithium based cells, where capacity delivered to 2.0 V under C/20 discharge ranged from 170 mAh/g for Na(0.12)V(2)O(5)·0.23H(2)O to 300 mAh/g for Na(0.32)V(2)O(5)·0.01H(2)O. The capacity differences were maintained as the cells were cycled. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  7. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  8. Syntheses, structures, photoluminescence and photocatalysis of 2D layered lanthanide-carboxylates with 2, 2′-dithiodibenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ling; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Sun, Yan-Qiong, E-mail: sunyq@fzu.edu.cn; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2017-02-15

    Two series of lanthanide-carboxylates, [Ln(2,2′-dtba)(2,2′-Hdtba)(EtOH)]{sub n} (I:Ln=Eu(1a), Dy(1b)) and [Ln(2,2′-dtba)(2,2′-Hdtba)(4,4′-bpy){sub 0.5}]{sub n} (II:Ln=Eu(2a), Dy(2b), Tb(2c) 2,2′-H{sub 2}dtba=2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid, 4,4′-bpy=4,4′-bipyridine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Interestingly, the H{sub 2}dtba organic ligand was generated by in situ S–S reaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid. Compounds I and II possess different 2D layered structures based on similar 1D [Ln(2,2′-dtba)]{sup +} chains. Photoluminescence studies reveal that compounds I and II exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands. Remarkably, Compounds 1b and 2a both exhibit good photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B (Rh-B) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Two series of lanthanide-carboxylates have been in situ synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The lanthanide-carboxylates exhibit strong lanthanide characteristic emission bands and good photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B. - Highlights: • 2D layered lanthanide-carboxylates with 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid. • In situ S–S reaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. • The Emission spectra of I and II exhibit the characteristic transition of lanthanide ions. • Compounds 1b and 2a exhibit good photocatalytic activity for degradation of Rhodamine-B.

  9. Long-term changes of striatal dopamine D-2 receptors in patients with Parkinson's disease : A study with positron emission tomography and [C-11]Raclopride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonini, A; Schwarz, J; Oertel, WH; Pogarell, O; Leenders, KL

    We used [C-11]raclopride (RACLO) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study longitudinally striatal dopamine D-2 receptor binding in nine patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at an early drug-naive stage and 3-5 years later, when motor fluctuations had appeared in seven of them. Patients were

  10. Distribution of adoptively transferred porcine T-lymphoblasts tracked by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and position emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Olof; Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Bjoern; Eich, Torsten; Lundgren, Torbjoern; Nilsson, Bo; Toetterman, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle; Sundin, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Autologous or allogeneic transfer of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes is a promising treatment for metastatic cancers, but a major concern is the difficulty in evaluating cell trafficking and distribution in adoptive cell therapy. This study presents a method of tracking transfusion of T-lymphoblasts in a porcine model by 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) and positron emission tomography. Methods: T-lymphoblasts were labeled with the positron-emitting tracer [ 18 F]FDG through incubation. The T-lymphoblasts were administered into the bloodstream, and the distribution was followed by positron emission tomography for 120 min. The cells were administered either intravenously into the internal jugular vein (n=5) or intraarterially into the ascending aorta (n=1). Two of the pigs given intravenous administration were pretreated with low-molecular-weight dextran sulphate. Results: The cellular kinetics and distribution were readily quantifiable for up to 120 min. High (78.6% of the administered cells) heterogeneous pulmonary uptake was found after completed intravenous transfusion. The pulmonary uptake was decreased either by preincubating and coadministrating the T-lymphoblasts with low-molecular-weight dextran sulphate or by administrating them intraarterially. Conclusions: The present work shows the feasibility of quantitatively monitoring and evaluating cell trafficking and distribution following administration of [ 18 F]FDG-labeled T-lymphoblasts. The protocol can potentially be transferred to the clinical setting with few modifications.

  11. The compatibility of various austenitic steels with molten sodium (1963); Compatibilite de divers aciers austenitiques avec le sodium fondu (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeix, L; Sannier, J; Darras, R; Graff, W; Juste, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Various techniques for studying corrosion by molten sodium have been developed and applied to the case of 18/10 austenitic steels. The results obtained are discussed as a function of various parameters: type of steel, temperature, oxygen content of the sodium, surface treatment, welds, mechanical strain. In general, these steels have an excellent resistance to sodium when the oxygen content is limited by a simple purification system of the 'cold trap' type, and when an attempt is made to avoid cavitation phenomena which are particularly dangerous, as is shown by the example given. (authors) [French] Des techniques d'etude de la corrosion par le sodium fondu en circulation ont ete mises au point et appliquees au cas des aciers austenitiques 18/10. Les resultats obtenus sont discutes en fonction de differents parametres: nuance de l'acier, temperature, teneur en oxygene du sodium, traitement de surface, soudure, contrainte mecanique. D'une maniere generale, ces aciers ont une excellente tenue dans le sodium lorsque, sa teneur en oxygene est limitee par un systeme simple de purification du type ''piege froid'' et lorsque l'on fait en sorte d'eviter les phenomenes de cavitation particulierement dangereux, comme il ressort d'un exemple cite. (auteurs)

  12. On the Emission of Electrons from Solid H_2 and D_2 by Bombardment with 1-3 keV Electrons up to Very Large Angles of Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1982-01-01

    at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition......Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60......, an ionization cascade treatment leads to an expression for the behavior of the yield of those secondary electrons that are generated directly by the primaries. The agreement with experimental data is good...

  13. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR) model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b), we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  14. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean–atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Towles

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b, we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  15. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Sabatini, Randy; Walters, Grant; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Li, Yiying; Fan, James Z.; Tan, Hairen; Pan, Jun; Yuan, Mingjian; Bakr, Osman; Lu, Zhenghong; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  16. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na

    2017-05-10

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  17. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  18. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO2. Innovation an industrial stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B.

    2005-01-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO 2 was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO 2 emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO 2 and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO 2 emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO 2 emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO 2 emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO 2 emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO 2 capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO 2 emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO 2 emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO 2 emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO 2 emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable transport systems by P. Wiederkehr (EST International), The prospects for reducing

  19. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  20. Reaction velocity of sodium hydration in humid air and sodium carbonation in humid carbon dioxide atmosphere. Fundamental study on sodium carbonate process in FBR bulk sodium coolant disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yutaka; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1999-11-01

    A sodium carbonate processing method, which changes sodium to sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate by humid carbon dioxide, has been examined and about to be applied to large test loops dismantling. However, that the basic data regarding the progress of the reaction is insufficient on the other hand, is a present condition. The present report therefore aims at presenting basic data regarding the reaction velocity of sodium hydration in humid air and sodium carbonation in humid carbon dioxide atmosphere, and observing the reaction progress, for the application to large test loops dismantling. The test result is summarized as follows. (1) Although the reaction velocity of sodium varied with sodium specimen sizes and velocity measurement methods, the reaction velocity of sodium hydration was in about 0.16 ∼ 0.34 mmh -1 (0.016 ∼ 0.033g cm -2 h -1 , 6.8x10 -4 ∼ 1.4x10 -3 mol cm -2 h -1 ) and that of sodium carbonation was in about 0.16 ∼ 0.27mmh -1 (0.016 ∼ 0.023g cm -2 h -1 , 6.8x10 -4 ∼ 1.1x10 -3 mol cm -2 h -1 ) (26 ∼ 31degC, RH 100%). (2) The reaction velocity of sodium in carbon dioxide atmosphere was greatly affected by vapor partial pressure (absolutely humidity). And the velocity was estimated in 0.08 ∼ 0.12mmh -1 (0.008 ∼ 0.012g cm -2 h -1 , 3.4x10 -4 ∼ 5.2x10 -4 mol cm -2 h -1 ) in the carbon dioxide atmosphere, whose temperature of 20degC and relative humidity of 80% are assumed real sodium carbonate process condition. (3) By the X-ray diffraction method, NaOH was found in humid air reaction product. Na 2 CO 3 , NaHCO 3 were found in carbon dioxide atmosphere reaction product. It was considered that Sodium changes to NaOH, and subsequently to NaHCO 3 through Na 2 CO 3 . (4) For the application to large test loops dismantling, it is considered possible to change sodium to a target amount of sodium carbonate (or sodium bicarbonate) by setting up gas supply quantity and also processing time appropriately according to the surface area

  1. Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition and ketogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a recently developed class of drug that have been approved for use in type 2 diabetes. Their unique extra-pancreatic glucuretic mode of action has encouraged their usage in type 1 diabetes as well. At the same time, reports of pseudo ketoacidosis and ketoacidosis related to their use have been published. No clear mechanism for this phenomenon has been demonstrated so far. This communication delves into the biochemical effects of SGLT2 inhibition, discusses the utility of these drugs and proposes steps to maximize safe usage of the molecules.

  2. Temperature and concentration quenching of Tb3+ emissions in Y4Al2O9 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boruc, Z.; Fetlinski, B.; Kaczkan, M.; Turczynski, S.; Pawlak, D.; Malinowski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spectroscopic properties of Tb 3+ :Y 4 Al 2 O 9 crystals are studied. ► Concentration and temperature dependencies of fluorescence are investigated. ► The cross-relaxation transfer rates are experimentally determined. ► Strong influence of cross relaxation process on 5 D 3 emission quenching is observed. ► Decays are modelled using Inokuti–Hirayama approach. - Abstract: Spectroscopic properties of trivalent terbium (Tb 3+ ) activated Y 4 Al 2 O 9 (abbreviated YAM) crystals were studied. Concentration and temperature dependent emission spectra and fluorescence dynamics profiles have been investigated in YAM:Tb 3+ in order to understand better processes responsible for quenching of the terbium 5 D 3 and 5 D 4 emissions. Decays were modelled using Inokuti–Hirayama approach to obtain information on the energy transfer mechanism. The cross-relaxation transfer rates were experimentally determined as a function of temperature and Tb 3+ concentration. The investigation revealed strong influence of cross-relaxation process on 5 D 3 emission quenching. The two different processes responsible for the increase of fluorescence quenching with growing temperature were observed, both related to thermal activation energy. For temperatures above 700 K, the temperature dependence of the emission intensity ratio ( 5 D 3 / 5 D 4 ) becomes linear and the decay times are rapidly decreasing monotonously with increasing temperature, what is confirming the potential of Y 4 Al 2 O 9 :Tb 3+ material in high temperature luminescence thermometry.

  3. A study on entrapment: splashing of liquid UO2 over small sodium volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Klein, K.; Jorzik, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were done in which each time more than 1 kg of liqid UO 2 was splashed over a plate in which different stainless steel cups full of sodium were contained. No whatsoever indication of entrapment of sodium could be found. The pressure tests indicate up to 1,8 atm and they relax in some second time. These pressure diagrams have been satisfactorily analysed as indicating a sodium vapor formation. In the third experiment e.g. the quenching of 800 g UO 2 in 720 g of sodium in a closed volume of argon of 225 l will provide the requested maximum pressure

  4. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium in older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? ... treated? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an ...

  5. Laser-induced nuclear orientation and gamma anisotropy in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, P.G.

    1980-12-01

    The use of laser optical pumping to induce nuclear orientation in several isotopes and one isomer of atomic sodium vapor is described. Essentially complete nuclear polarization, P > 90%, has been achieved in stable 23 Na when pumping with modest laser intensities (I approx. = 10 mW/cm 2 ). The volume of the sample cell was approximately 10 cc, and was filled with a sodium density of about 10'' atoms/cc. Complete coverage of the Doppler distribution was accomplished with the use of trace amounts (less than or equal to 1 torr) of argon buffer gas to induce velocity changing collisions. A theoretical model which accurately predicts the amount of polarization is developed. The orientation of nuclei which are unstable to gamma decay can manifest itself in anisotropic gamma ray emission. This anisotropy can be used to measure isotope and isomer shifts, from which nuclear properties can be derived. Gamma anisotropy was observed in two systems, 22 Na and /sup 24m/Na. From the observed anisotropy in /sup 24m/Na, a negative sign for the g factor is determined. Values are derived for the magnetic moment, μ = 2.56 +- 0.64 nm, and the isomer shift, deltaν/sub 24m/ = 288 +- 191 MHz (D1 line). A model is described which relates various laser and fubber gas parameters to the observed gamma anisotropy lineshape. This model facilitates the extraction of physical parameters from knowledge of the laser frequency at which the anisotropy is a maximum

  6. Implementing SO2 Emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreifels, J.; Yang, J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) has actively investigated the potential to use emission trading to reduce sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions from electricity generators and industrial sources. In 1999, SEPA partnered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to cooperate on a study to assess the feasibility of implementing SO2 emission trading in China. SEPA has also pursued emission trading pilot projects in several cities and provinces. The authors, using information from the feasibility study and pilot projects, introduce the circumstances necessary for SO2 emission trading in China, outline the experience to date, and analyse implementation opportunities and barriers in China. The contents of the paper are: (1) SO2 emission control policies in China; (2) institutional requirements and the basis for introducing SO2 emission trading in China; (3) case studies of emission trading in China; (4) opportunities and barriers to implementing emission trading in China; (5) recommendations to transition from pilot projects to a nationwide SO2 emission trading program; and (6) conclusions and suggestions

  7. Revealing isomerism in sodium-water clusters: Photoionization spectra of Na(H2O)n (n = 2-90)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Zeuch, Thomas; Med, Jakub; Parez, Stanislav; Slavíček, Petr

    2017-06-01

    Soft ionization of sodium tagged polar clusters is increasingly used as a powerful technique for sizing and characterization of small aerosols with possible application, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry or combustion science. Understanding the structure and photoionization of the sodium doped clusters is critical for such applications. In this work, we report on measurements of photoionization spectra for sodium doped water clusters containing 2-90 water molecules. While most of the previous studies focused on the ionization threshold of the Na(H2O)n clusters, we provide for the first time full photoionization spectra, including the high-energy region, which are used as reference for a comparison with theory. As reported in previous work, we have seen an initial drop of the appearance ionization energy with cluster size to values of about 3.2 eV for n electron cloud. The appearance ionization energy is determined by isomers with fully solvated sodium and a highly delocalized electron cloud, while both fully and incompletely solvated isomers with localized electron clouds can contribute to the high energy part of the photoionization spectrum. Simulations at elevated temperatures show an increased abundance of isomers with low ionization energies, an entropic effect enabling size selective infrared action spectroscopy, based on near threshold photoionization of Na(H2O)n clusters. In addition, simulations of the sodium pick-up process were carried out to study the gradual formation of the hydrated electron which is the basis of the sodium-tagging sizing.

  8. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR G78.2+2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bradbury, S. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C., E-mail: amandajw@iastate.edu [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0.23 Degree-Sign .23 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 03{sub stat-0 Degree-Sign .02sys}{sup +0 Degree-Sign .04} and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N{sub 0} Multiplication-Sign (E/TeV){sup -{Gamma}}) with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.37 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.20{sub sys} and a flux normalization of N{sub 0} = 1.5 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 1.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.

  9. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  10. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  11. Drug: D07633 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07633 Mixture ... Drug Chondroitin sulfate sodium - flavin adenine dinucleotide sodium... mixt; Chondroitin sulfate sodium - FAD sodium mixt; Mucofadin (TN); Mucotear (TN) Chondroitin sulfate sodium... [DR:D04078], Flavin adenine dinucleotide sodium [DR:D02011] ... Therapeutic category: 1319 ... PubChem: 96024455 ...

  12. CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1ε transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijie; Wang, Changrong; Xia, Haizui; Liu, Weiguang; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqin; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Gong, Weijuan

    2014-03-01

    The binding of NKG2D to its ligands strengthens the cross-talk between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells, particularly at early stages, before the initiation of the adaptive immune response. We found that retinoic acid early transcript-1ε (RAE-1ε), one of the ligands of NKG2D, was persistently expressed on antigen-presenting cells in a transgenic mouse model (pCD86-RAE-1ε). By contrast, NKG2D expression on NK cells, NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity and tumour rejection, and dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis were all down-regulated in this mouse model. The down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells was reversed by stimulation with poly (I:C). The ectopic expression of RAE-1ε on dendritic cells maintained NKG2D expression levels and stimulated the activity of NK cells ex vivo, but the higher frequency of CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells in transgenic mice led to the down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells in vivo. Hence, high levels of RAE-1ε expression on antigen-presenting cells would be expected to induce the down-regulation of NK cell activation by a regulatory T-cell subset. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exclusion of dietary sodium bicarbonate from a wheat-based diet: effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepel, L; Hayirli, A

    2011-01-01

    Milk production, rumen fermentation, and whole-tract apparent nutrient digestibility in response to feeding 20% steam-rolled wheat with or without sodium bicarbonate were evaluated in 12 Holstein cows averaging 165±16 DIM. Cows were fed 1 of 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either 0 or 0.75% sodium bicarbonate on a DM basis for 21 d in a crossover design. Rumen fluid samples were obtained 18 times during the last 2 d of each period, and fecal samples were collected on 12 occasions from d 18 to 21 of each period. Removal of sodium bicarbonate from the diet did not affect DMI (21.0 kg/d), yields of milk (30.8 kg/d), or milk components (1.16, 1.01, and 1.40 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ between the 2 treatments (75.3, 76.6, 67.2, and 63.6%, respectively). The mean rumen pH was 6.24 and was not affected by excluding sodium bicarbonate from the diet. Rumen NH3-N (12.31 mg/dL) and lactic acid (3.63 mM) concentrations were not different, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration tended to increase when sodium bicarbonate was present in the diet (110 vs. 116 mM). However, average concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids, as a proportion of total volatile fatty acids, were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dairy cow diets can include up to 20% steam-rolled wheat without the need for added sodium bicarbonate as long as the diets are formulated to meet the fiber requirements of the cow. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Revealing isomerism in sodium-water clusters: Photoionization spectra of Na(H2O)n (n = 2-90).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Christoph W; Zurheide, Florian; Zeuch, Thomas; Med, Jakub; Parez, Stanislav; Slavíček, Petr

    2017-06-28

    Soft ionization of sodium tagged polar clusters is increasingly used as a powerful technique for sizing and characterization of small aerosols with possible application, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry or combustion science. Understanding the structure and photoionization of the sodium doped clusters is critical for such applications. In this work, we report on measurements of photoionization spectra for sodium doped water clusters containing 2-90 water molecules. While most of the previous studies focused on the ionization threshold of the Na(H 2 O) n clusters, we provide for the first time full photoionization spectra, including the high-energy region, which are used as reference for a comparison with theory. As reported in previous work, we have seen an initial drop of the appearance ionization energy with cluster size to values of about 3.2 eV for nphotoionization spectrum. Simulations at elevated temperatures show an increased abundance of isomers with low ionization energies, an entropic effect enabling size selective infrared action spectroscopy, based on near threshold photoionization of Na(H 2 O) n clusters. In addition, simulations of the sodium pick-up process were carried out to study the gradual formation of the hydrated electron which is the basis of the sodium-tagging sizing.

  15. Laboratory Investigation of Trace Gas Emissions from Biomass Burning on DoD Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Johnson, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation representing fuels commonly managed with prescribed fires was collected from five DoD bases and burned under controlled conditions at the USFS Firelab in Missoula, MT. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation. Seventy-seven fires were conducted and the smoke composition data will improve DoD land managers’ ability to assess the impact of prescribed fires on local air quality. A key instrument used in the measurement of the gas phase species in smoke was an open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) spectrometer, built and operated by the Universities of Montana and Wollongong. The OP-FTIR has to date detected and quantified 20 gas phase species - CO2, CO, H2O, N2O, NO2, NO, HONO, NH3, HCl, SO2, CH4, CH3OH, HCHO, HCOOH, C2H2, C2H4, CH3COOH, HCN, propylene and furan. The spectra were analyzed using a non-linear least squares fitting routine that included reference spectra recently acquired at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. Preliminary results from the OP-FTIR analysis are reported here. Of particular interest, gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) was detected simultaneously by the OP-FTIR and negative-ion proton-transfer chemical ionization spectrometer (NI-PT-CIMS), with preliminary fire-integrated molar emission ratios (relative to NOx) ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, depending on the vegetation type. HONO is an important precursor in the production of OH, the primary oxidizing species in the atmosphere. There existed little previous data documenting HONO emissions from either wild or prescribed fires. The non-methane organic emissions were dominated by oxygenated species, which can be further oxidized and thus involved in secondary aerosol formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl were also detected in the smoke, with the amounts varying depending on location and vegetation type.

  16. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  17. Room temperature synthesis of Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Tiwary, C. S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science (IISc.), Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2013-03-21

    Mn{sup 2+} doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be {approx}1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn{sup 2+} doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn{sup 2+} doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  18. Decreased Urinary Sodium-to-urinary Creatinine Ratio Identifies Sodium Depletion in Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Erian, P; Akdar, Z; Haerter, B; Waldegger, S; Giner, T; Scholl-Bürgi, S; Mueller, T

    2016-01-01

    In acute gastroenteritis (AG) fecal losses may cause depletion of sodium (NaD) which may not be recognized because of normal plasma Na (pNa) concentrations. We studied the incidence of this state of normonatremic sodium depletion (NNaD) and the suitability of the urinary Na/urinary creatinine ratio (uNa/uCr) for diagnosing NNaD. 16 AG- and 16 healthy control children aged 0.8-15.0 years. Prospective cross sectional pilot study. Measurements of Na, K and creatinine in plasma (p) and urine (u). Calculation of uNa/uCr Ratio, fractional excretion of Na (FENa) and uNa/uK ratio as the hitherto best known parameters of prerenal Na depletion, respectively. pNa concentrations were normal in 15/16 AG patients (93.8%) with only one subnormal value of 133 mmol/L, and a mean value of 137.9±2.3 mmol/L not different from the normal control group (139.4±2.2 mmol/L). Also, mean uNa concentrations and uNa/uK ratios did not differ between both groups. However, uNa/uCr ratios were below normal in 13/16 AG children (81.3%) but normal in all healthy controls with a significantly lower mean value in the AG group (12.6±8.8 vs. 31.2±8.3 mmol/mmol; phigh correlation coefficient of r=0.9333. The majority of AG patients was found to have NNaD as determined by uNa/uCr and FENa. Calculation of uNa/uCr may be useful for diagnosing NNaD in AG. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin A 20α-benzoate ([ 3 H]BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited [ 3 H]BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents

  20. 2D→3D polycatenated and 3D→3D interpenetrated metal–organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erer, Hakan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Yeşilel, Okan Zafer, E-mail: yesilel@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Arıcı, Mürsel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Keskin, Seda [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, İstanbul (Turkey); Büyükgüngör, Orhan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}(µ{sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(µ-dimb){sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework. • Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. • Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of

  1. Device for sampling sodium from a circuit with a view to dosing its impurities (1963); Dispositif de prelevement de sodium sur un cuicuit en vue du dosage des impuretes (1063)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannier, J; Vingot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The device described was developed with the two following essential conditions in mind: - absence of any pollution during the sampling operation and the transfer to the analysis apparatus; - simultaneous extraction of several samples, each one remaining representative of the sodium in the circuit. The sampling is therefore carried out completely in a vacuum in a Pyrex-glass apparatus, this limiting the sodium temperature to a maximum of 240 deg. C. The samples are in the form of bulbs sealed in vacuo containing 2 to 3 grams of sodium each. The analysis of the oxygen by the amalgamation technique, carried out on samples obtained by this method show a very satisfactory reproducibility for concentrations of under 20 ppm. (authors) [French] Le dispositif decrit a ete mis au point compte tenu des deux imperatifs essentiels suivants: - absence de toute pollution pendant les operations de prelevement et de transport vers l'appareil d'analyse; - obtention simultanee de plusieurs echantillons, chacun restant representatif du sodium du circuit. A cet effet, le prelevement est effectue entierement sous vide dans un appareillage en verre Pyrex, ce qui limite la temperature du sodium a 240 deg. C. Les echantillons se presentent sous la forme d'ampoules scellees sous vide et contenant chacune 2 a 3 grammes de sodium. L'analyse de l'oxygene par la technique d'amalgamation, effectuee sur des echantillons preleves par cette methode, revele une reproductibilite tres satisfaisante, dans le domaine des teneurs inferieures a 20 ppm. (auteurs)

  2. Implementation of true continuous bed motion in 2-D and 3-D whole-body PET scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbom, M.; Reed, J.; Young, J.

    2001-08-01

    True continuous axial bed motion has been implemented on a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for use in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) acquisition modes. This has been accomplished by modifications in the bed motion controller firmware and by acquiring data in list mode. The new bed controller firmware was shown to provide an accurate and constant bed speed down to 0.25 mm/s with a moderate patient weight load. The constant bed motion eliminates previously reported dead-time due to bed positioning when using small discrete bed steps. The continuous bed motion was tested on uniform phantoms, in 2-D and 3-D. As a result of the continuous axial motion, a uniform axial sensitivity is achieved. This was also reflected in the reconstructed images, which showed an improvement in axial image uniformity (1.4% for continuous sampling, 5.0% for discrete) as well as an improvement in %SD uniformity in comparison to conventional step-and-shoot acquisitions. The use of the continuous axial motion also provide slight improvements in 2-D emission and transmission scanning, resulting in an overall improved image quality in whole-body PET.

  3. Multi-field electron emission pattern of 2D emitter: Illustrated with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of laser-assisted multi-field electron emission of two-dimensional emitters is investigated theoretically. The process is basically a cold field electron emission but having more controllable components: a uniform electric field controls the emission potential barrier, a magnetic field controls the quantum states of the emitter, while an optical field controls electron populations of specified quantum states. It provides a highly orientational vacuum electron line source whose divergence angle over the beam plane is inversely proportional to square root of the emitter height. Calculations are carried out for graphene with the armchair emission edge, as a concrete example. The rate equation incorporating the optical excitation, phonon scattering, and thermal relaxation is solved in the quasi-equilibrium approximation for electron population in the bands. The far-field emission patterns, that inherit the features of the Landau bands, are obtained. It is found that the optical field generates a characteristic structure at one wing of the emission pattern.

  4. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-04-09

    .08; P =0.06); three studies, 393 participants. Moderate-quality evidence.White people with hypertension: SBP: MD -5.51 mmHg (95% CI: -6.45 to -4.57; P sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. All effects were stable in 125 study populations with a sodium intake below 250 mmol/day and a sodium reduction intervention of at least one week. Sodium reduction from an average high usual sodium intake level (201 mmol/day) to an average level of 66 mmol/day, which is below the recommended upper level of 100 mmol/day (5.8 g salt), resulted in a decrease in SBP/DBP of 1/0 mmHg in white participants with normotension and a decrease in SBP/DBP of 5.5/2.9 mmHg in white participants with hypertension. A few studies showed that these effects in black and Asian populations were greater. The effects on hormones and lipids were similar in people with normotension and hypertension. Renin increased 1.60 ng/mL/hour (55%); aldosterone increased 97.81 pg/mL (127%); adrenalin increased 7.55 pg/mL (14%); noradrenalin increased 63.56 pg/mL: (27%); cholesterol increased 5.59 mg/dL (2.9%); triglyceride increased 7.04 mg/dL (6.3%).

  5. Drug: D08772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08772 Mixture ... Drug Cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium for injection (JP17); Sulbactam sodium... - cefoperazone sodium mixt; Sulperazon (TN) Sulbactam sodium [DR:D02223], Cefoperazone sodium

  6. Budget of N2O emissions at the watershed scale: role of land cover and topography (the Orgeval basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Billen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural basins are the major source of N2O emissions, with arable land accounting for half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Moreover, N2O emission strongly depends on the position of agricultural land in relation with topographical gradients, as footslope soils are often more prone to denitrification. The estimation of land surface area occupied by agricultural soils depends on the available spatial input information and resolution. Surface areas of grassland, forest and arable lands were estimated for the Orgeval sub-basin using two cover representations: the pan European CORINE Land Cover 2006 database (CLC 2006 and a combination of two databases produced by the IAU IDF (Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme de la Région d'Île-de-France, the MOS (Mode d'Occupation des Sols combined with the ECOMOS 2000 (a land-use classification. In this study, we have analyzed how different land-cover representations influence and introduce errors into the results of regional N2O emissions inventories. A further introduction of the topography concept was used to better identify the critical zones for N2O emissions, a crucial issue to better adapt the strategies of N2O emissions mitigation. Overall, we observed that a refinement of the land-cover database led to a 5 % decrease in the estimation of N2O emissions, while the integration of the topography decreased the estimation of N2O emissions up to 25 %.

  7. Optimization of thermochromic VO2-based structures with tunable thermal emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Voti, R.; Larciprete, M.C.; Leahu, G.L.; Bertolotti, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we design and simulate VO 2 /metal multilayers to obtain a large tunability of the thermal emissivity of IR filters in the typical MWIR window of many infrared cameras. The multilayer structure is optimized to realise a low-emissivity filter at high temperatures useful for military purposes. The values of tunability found for VO 2 /metal multilayers are larger than the value for a single thick layer of VO 2 . Innovative SiO 2 /VO 2 synthetic opals are also investigated to enhance the optical tunability by combining the properties of a 3D periodic structure and the specific optical properties of vanadium dioxide.

  8. Evaluation of an improved atomic data basis for carbon in UEDGE emission modeling for L-mode plasmas in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Burgos, J.M., E-mail: munozj@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Loch, S.D.; Ballance, C.P. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    New scaled carbon atomic electron-impact excitation data is utilized to evaluate comparisons between experimental measurements and fluid emission modeling of detached plasmas at DIII-D. The C I and C II modeled emission lines for 909.8 and 514.7 nm were overestimated by a factor of 10–20 than observed experimentally for the inner leg, while the outer leg was within a factor of 2. Due to higher modeled emissions, a previous study using the UEDGE code predicted that a higher amount of carbon was required to achieve a detached outboard divertor plasma in L-mode at DIII-D. The line emission predicted by using the new scaled carbon data yields closer results when compared against experiment. We also compare modeling and measurements of D{sub α} emission from neutral deuterium against predictions from newly calculated R-Matrix with pseudostates data available at the ADAS database.

  9. F-8 sodium fluoride position emission tomography/computed tomography for detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis compared with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Won Woo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performances of F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (bone PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis. We retrospectively enrolled 6 thyroid cancer patients (age = 44.7 ± 9.8 years, M:F = 1:5, papillary:follicular = 2:4) with suspected bone metastatic lesions in the whole body iodine scintigraphy or BS, who subsequently underwent bone PET/CT. Pathologic diagnosis was conducted for 4 lesions of 4 patients. Of the 17 suspected bone lesions, 10 were metastatic and 7 benign. Compared to BS, bone PET/CT exhibited superior sensitivity (10/10 = 100% vs. 2/10 = 20%, p = 0.008), and accuracy (14/17 = 82.4% vs. 7/17 = 41.2%, p < 0.025). The specificity (4/7 = 57.1%) of bone PET/CT was not significantly different from that of BS (5/7 = 71.4%, p > 0.05). Bone PET/CT may be more sensitive and accurate than BS for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis.

  10. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  11. Physico-chemical quality control 131I-sodium 2-iodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, J.; Olive, E.; Issac, M.; Cruz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Some physico-chemical methods for analytical control 131 I-sodium 2-iodohippurate are compared. The most convenient to applicate in hospital and in more especialized quality control laboratories are recommended

  12. Effect of dietary sodium on the Na-K ATPase inhibitor in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, T.; Kuramochi, M.; Kojima, S.

    1989-01-01

    To study the circulating humoral factor modifying transmembrane sodium transport, plasma was obtained from 12 patients with essential hypertension (EH) fed a high sodium diet (NaCl 15 to 17 g/d) for seven days and thereafter a low sodium diet (NaCl 2 to 3 g/d) for seven days. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb+ influx into the red blood cells (RBC) obtained from a healthy subject, and incubated with the plasma obtained during the high sodium diet was significantly lower than that incubated with the plasma obtained during the low sodium diet (3.74 +/- 0.26 v 3.97 +/- 0.30 nmol/10(8) cells, P less than .05). The changes in mean blood pressure from the high to low sodium diet showed a significant positive correlation with the changes in the ouabain-sensitive Rb influx into RBC in the plasma from the high to low sodium diet. These results suggest that a humoral factor modifying the sodium pump might be altered by sodium balance in EH, especially in salt-sensitive hypertension

  13. Effect of dietary sodium on the Na-K ATPase inhibitor in patients with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, T.; Kuramochi, M.; Kojima, S.; Yoshimi, H.; Kawano, Y.; Kimura, G.; Abe, H.; Imanishi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Kawamura, M. (National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    To study the circulating humoral factor modifying transmembrane sodium transport, plasma was obtained from 12 patients with essential hypertension (EH) fed a high sodium diet (NaCl 15 to 17 g/d) for seven days and thereafter a low sodium diet (NaCl 2 to 3 g/d) for seven days. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb+ influx into the red blood cells (RBC) obtained from a healthy subject, and incubated with the plasma obtained during the high sodium diet was significantly lower than that incubated with the plasma obtained during the low sodium diet (3.74 +/- 0.26 v 3.97 +/- 0.30 nmol/10(8) cells, P less than .05). The changes in mean blood pressure from the high to low sodium diet showed a significant positive correlation with the changes in the ouabain-sensitive Rb influx into RBC in the plasma from the high to low sodium diet. These results suggest that a humoral factor modifying the sodium pump might be altered by sodium balance in EH, especially in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  14. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating...... the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating...

  15. Drug: D08521 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08521 Drug Sodium aurothiosulfate (INN); Gold sodium thiosulfate, dihydrate; Cryt...ioro (TN) ... AuS4O6. 3Na. 2H2O D08521.gif ... Anti-inflammatory ... DG01912 ... Gold preparations ... DG01985 ... Disease m...odifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) ... DG01912 ... Gold preparations ATC code: M01CB02 ... Gold preparation ... CAS: 10210-36-3 PubChem: 96025206 ChEMBL: CHEMBL3833379 ...

  16. CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1ε transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijie; Wang, Changrong; Xia, Haizui; Liu, Weiguang; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqin; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Gong, Weijuan

    2014-01-01

    The binding of NKG2D to its ligands strengthens the cross-talk between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells, particularly at early stages, before the initiation of the adaptive immune response. We found that retinoic acid early transcript-1ε (RAE-1ε), one of the ligands of NKG2D, was persistently expressed on antigen-presenting cells in a transgenic mouse model (pCD86-RAE-1ε). By contrast, NKG2D expression on NK cells, NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity and tumour rejection, and dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis were all down-regulated in this mouse model. The down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells was reversed by stimulation with poly (I:C). The ectopic expression of RAE-1ε on dendritic cells maintained NKG2D expression levels and stimulated the activity of NK cells ex vivo, but the higher frequency of CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells in transgenic mice led to the down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells in vivo. Hence, high levels of RAE-1ε expression on antigen-presenting cells would be expected to induce the down-regulation of NK cell activation by a regulatory T-cell subset. PMID:24708417

  17. High energy effects on D-brane and black hole emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Sarkar, T.

    1997-01-01

    We study the emission of scalar particles from a class of near-extremal five-dimensional black holes and the corresponding D-brane configuration at high energies. We show that the distribution functions and the black hole greybody factors are modified in the high energy tail of the Hawking spectrum in such a way that the emission rates exactly match. We extend the results to charged scalar emission and to four dimensions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Absolute emission cross sections for electron-impact excitation of Zn+(4p 2P) and (5s 2S) terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.T.; Dunn, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.; Reading, M.; Stefani, G.

    1982-01-01

    Absolute emission cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the 3d 10 4p 2 P and 3d 10 5s 2 S terms of Zn + have been measured from below threshold to about 790 eV 2 P and 390 eV 2 S using the crossed-charged-beams technique. Both transitions have the abrupt onset at threshold characteristic of positive-ion excitation. The 2 P cross section shows considerable structure in the interval from threshold to near 20 eV, above which it falls off smoothly. Agreement with five-state close-coupling theory is excellent below 100 eV when cascading is included in the theory. Above 100 eV, the data lie above the theory. The peak value of the 2 P cross section is 9.4 x 10 -16 cm 2 essentially at threshold, while the peak value of the 2 S cross section is about 0.47 x 10 -16 cm 2 . The net linear polarization of the 3d 10 4p 2 P emission was measured (unresolved from the 3d 10 4d 2 D→3d 10 4p 2 P cascading transition), and these data were used to correct the cross-section data for anisotropy of the emitted light. The effective lifetime of the 3d 9 4s 2 2 D/sub 3/2/ level was measured by observing exponential decay of the 589.6-nm photons resulting from its decay

  19. Effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Choi, Ohkyung; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-06-15

    This study examines the effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bench-scale intensive aquaculture system rearing Koi fish. The water temperature varied from 15 to 24 °C at interval of 3 °C. Both volumetric and specific rate for nitrification and denitrification declined as the temperature decreased. The concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, however, were lower than the inhibitory level for Koi fish regardless of temperature. The effects of temperature on N2O emissions were significant, with the emission rate and emission factor increasing from 1.11 to 1.82 mg N2O-N/d and 0.49 to 0.94 mg N2O-N/kg fish as the temperature decreased from 24 to 15 °C. A global map of N2O emission from aquaculture was established by using the N2O emission factor depending on temperature. This study demonstrates that N2O emission from aquaculture is strongly dependent on regional water temperatures as well as on fish production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  1. Sodium-calcium ion exchange on clay minerals at moderate to high ionic strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    Sodium-calcium ion exchange on several clay minerals was studied at ionic strengths ranging from 0.01 to above 1.0. The minerals studied included attapulgite, illite, kaolin, and several montmorillonites. Distribution coefficients of calcium and sodium were obtained for the minerals over a wide range of solution conditions at pH five and equilibrium constants were calculated. The distribution coefficient of calcium, D/sub Ca/, was studied as a function of time, solution pH, loading, sodium concentration, and ionic strength fraction of sodium in constant ionic strength solutions. The distribution coefficient of sodium, D/sub Na/, was also studied as a function of time, loading, and sodium ionic strength fraction in constant total ionic strength solutions. Values of equilibrium constants calculated from distribution coefficients for solutions of constant ionic strength scattered bwteen 2 and 10 kg/kg for the montmorillonites and attapulgite while equilibrium constants for illite ranged from 5 to 10 kg/kg. No equilibrium constants for kaolin were calculated since distribution coefficients of sodium on this clay were too small to be measured. It was found that equilibrium constants at trace sodium loading were generally lower than those for higher sodium loadings by an order of magnitude or more due to the sensitivity of sodium distribution coefficients to the concentration of sodium in the clay at low loadings. Theoretical and experimental treatments of ion exclusion were included

  2. Capillary-discharge sodium plasma for pulsed-power X-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, F.C.; Commisso, R.J.; Cooperstein, G.

    1986-01-01

    A capillary discharge plasma is being studied as a source of sodium plasma for Na/Ne x-ray laser experiments. The objective is to develop an intense x-ray pump of He-α emission from Na for matched-line photopumping of Ne. A uniform Na-bearing plasma (≅2-cm dia and ≅4-cm long) is to be injected into the anode-cathode gap of the Gamble II pulsed-power generator and imploded by MA-level currents to produce the intense sodium K-line radiation. Implosions of neon gas puffs have produced up to 50 GW of 0.92-keV He-α line emission, and similar x-ray power is expected from sodium implosions. Plasma from the capillary is produced by discharging current through an evacuated small hole in a plastic dielectric (≤ 3-mm dia and 1 to 2.5-cm long). A Na-bearing plasma is generated by forming the hole in NaF. Discharges of 30-kA (60-kA) peak current and 2-μs (2.6-μs) period are provided by a 0.6-μF (1.8-μF) capacitor bank charged to 25 kV. Diagnostics to evaluate plasma characteristics include witness plates, Faraday cups, photodiodes, open-shutter photographs, framing images, and visible light and near UV spectrographs. This plasma source emits visible light for 5-10 μs over a region extending - 1.5 cm from the capillary. Emission is more intense for capillary dia ≤ 0.8 mm. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that both positive ions and neutrals are present, including neutral Na from NaF capillaries. Velocities of≅2 cm/μs are deduced from Faraday cup measurements. For a 0.3-mm dia plastic capillary and 30-kA discharge current, ≅100 μg of capillary material is removed, which corresponds to≅10 μg/cm in the plasma

  3. An empirical research on the influencing factors of regional CO2 emissions: Evidence from Beijing city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Yin, Fangchao; Zhang, Yixiang; Zhang, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We adapt STIRPAT model to regional context and conduct PLS regress analysis. ► Energy technology related patent is innovatively used to measure technical factors. ► Urbanization level has the greatest interpretative ability for CO 2 emissions. ► We do not find evidence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in Beijing. ► Beijing should focus more on tertiary industry and residential energy consumption. -- Abstract: In order to further study the realization of carbon intensity target, find the key influencing factors of CO 2 emissions, and explore the path of developing low-carbon economy, this paper empirically studied the influences of urbanization level, economic level, industry proportion, tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output on CO 2 emissions in Beijing using improved STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The model is examined using partial least square regression. Results show that urbanization level, economic level and industry proportion positively influence the CO 2 emissions, while tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output negatively do. Urbanization level is the main driving factor of CO 2 emissions, and tertiary industry proportion is the main inhibiting factor. In addition, along with the growth of per capita GDP, the increase of CO 2 emissions does not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. Based on these empirical findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, we provide some policy recommendations on how to reduce carbon intensity. Beijing should pay more attention to tertiary industry and residential energy consumption for carbon emission reduction. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation index of social development. Investing more capital on carbon emission reduction science and technology, and promoting R and D output is also an efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions.

  4. Positron emission tomography with (18F)methylspiperone demonstrates D2 dopamine receptor binding differences of clozapine and haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbe, H.; Wienhard, K.; Huber, M.; Herholz, K.; Heiss, W.D.; Hamacher, K.; Coenen, H.H.; Stoecklin, G.; Loevenich, A.

    1991-01-01

    Four schizophrenic patients were investigated with dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) using ( 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ( 18 F)methylspiperone (MSP) as tracers. Two schizophrenics were on haloperidol therapy at the time of MSP PET. The other two schizophrenics were treated with clozapine, in one of them MSP PET was carried out twice with different daily doses (100 mg and 450mg respectively). Neuroleptic serum levels were measured in all patients. Results were compared with MSP PET of two drugfree male control subjects and with a previous fluoroethylspiperone (FESP) study of normals. Three hours after tracer injection specific binding of MSP was observed in the striatum in all cases. The striatum to cerebellum ratio was used to estimate the degree of neuroleptic-caused striatal D 2 dopamine receptor occupancy. In the haloperidol treated patients MSP binding was significantly decreased, whereas in the clozapine treated patients striatum to cerebellum ratio was normal. Even the increase of clozapine dose in the same patient had no influence on this ratio. Despite the smaller number of patients the study shows for the first time in humans that striatal MSP binding reflects the different D 2 dopamine receptor affinities of clozapine and haloperidol. (authors)

  5. Physical Compatibility of Micafungin With Sodium Bicarbonate Hydration Fluids Commonly Used With High-Dose Methotrexate Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Logan C; Tynes, Clay; Arnold, John; Miller, Rachel R; Gorman, Greg

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the physical compatibility of micafungin with commonly used concentrations of sodium bicarbonate hydration fluids administered via a Y-site connected to a central venous catheter (Y-site/CVC). Methods: Micafungin sodium (evaluated concentration of 1.5 mg/mL) was combined in a 3:1 (vehicle:drug) ratio with the following commonly used hydration vehicles: 40 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate in 5% dextrose in water with ¼ normal saline (40SB-D5W-1/4NS), 75 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate in D5W (75SB-D5W), and 154 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate in D5W (154SB-D5W). A 3:1 ratio was used based on the flow rates (typically 125 mL/m 2 /h for bicarbonate-containing vehicles and 50 mL/h for micafungin) of the corresponding solutions in a clinical setting. Visual observations recorded to determine physical compatibility included visual inspection against different backgrounds (unaided, black, and white). Other physical observations were as follows: odor, evolution of gas, pH, and turbidity immediately recorded after mixing and at specified time points up to 2 hours. Evaluations at each time point were compared against baseline observation values at Time 0. Results: All combinations tested were found to be compatible up to 2 hours. Time points beyond 2 hours cannot be safely verified as compatible. Conclusion: Micafungin may be administered safely using a Y-site/CVC delivery system with all the vehicles tested in this study.

  6. 3D Printed, PVA–PAA Hydrogel Loaded-Polycaprolactone Scaffold for the Delivery of Hydrophilic In-Situ Formed Sodium Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mershen Govender

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL-blended scaffolds have been designed, prepared, and evaluated in vitro in this study prior to the incorporation of a polyvinyl alcohol–polyacrylic acid (PVA–PAA hydrogel for the delivery of in situ-formed sodium indomethacin. The prepared PCL–PVA–PAA scaffold is proposed as a potential structural support system for load-bearing tissue damage where inflammation is prevalent. Uniaxial strain testing of the PCL-blended scaffolds were undertaken to determine the scaffold’s resistance to strain in addition to its thermal, structural, and porosimetric properties. The viscoelastic properties of the incorporated PVA–PAA hydrogel has also been determined, as well as the drug release profile of the PCL–PVA–PAA scaffold. Results of these analyses noted the structural strength, thermal stability, and porosimetric properties of the scaffold, as well as the ability of the PCL–PVA–PAA scaffold to deliver sodium indomethacin in simulated physiological conditions of pH and temperature. The results of this study therefore highlight the successful design, fabrication, and in vitro evaluation of a 3D printed polymeric strain-resistant supportive platform for the delivery of sodium indomethacin.

  7. Drug: D04344 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04344 Mixture ... Drug Azulene sulfonate sodium - sodium bicarbonate mixt; Hachiazu...le (TN) Sodium guaiazulene sulfonate [DR:D02706], Sodium bicarbonate [DR:D01203] ... Therapeutic category: 2260 ... PubChem: 17398065 ...

  8. Effect of application timing and method on efficacy and phytotoxicity of 1,3-D, chloropicrin and metam-sodium combinations in squash plasticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaeger, Johan A; Seebold, Kenneth W; Csinos, Alex S

    2008-03-01

    Metam-sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin are widely used soil fumigants. Combined application of metam-sodium and 1,3-D + chloropicrin is intended to improve efficacy and broaden spectrum of control, but little is known about the effect on crop safety. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of application timing of fumigant combinations on soilborne pest and disease control (nematodes, soil fungi and weeds) and growth of squash. Two separate tests with chisel-injected and drip-applied fumigant combinations and plant-back times ranging from 1 to 4 weeks were conducted in Tifton, GA, USA, in spring and fall 2002. Fumigant combinations using 1,3-D, chloropicrin and metam-sodium were as effective as methyl bromide in controlling Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, Pythium irregulare Buis., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Cyperus esculentus L. Chisel-applied combinations were more effective in terms of root-knot nematode control than drip-applied combinations. Root-knot nematode reduced squash yields by up to 60%. Phytotoxicity problems and lower yields were observed during spring, especially following 1,3-D + chloropicrin and when plant-back periods were shorter. The main problem with fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide may not be reduced efficacy but, in particular for 1,3-D products, loss of flexibility in terms of longer plant-back periods. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Investigation of Plugging of Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle system is known to be a promising power conversion system for improving the efficiency and preventing the sodium water reaction (SWR) of the current SFR concept using a Rankine steam cycle. PCHEs are known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} exchangers as well as the heat exchanger mass relative to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Here, we report a study on a plugging test by the interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} to investigate design parameters of sodium channels in the realistic operating conditions. We investigated a plugging test by an interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} with different cross sectional areas of the sodium channels. It was found that the flow rate of sodium decreased earlier and faster with a narrower cross sectional area compared to a wider one. Our experimental results are expected to be used for determining the sodium channel areas of PCHEs.

  10. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  11. Inert Reassessment Document for Gluconic Acid and Sodium Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluconic acid and D-gluconic acid are classified as List 3 inert ingredients, sodium gluconate is classified as a List 4B inert ingredient, and D-gluconic acid, sodium salt has not been categorized as to inert ingredient list classification status.

  12. Re-Examining Embodied SO2 and CO2 Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 and SO2, while having different environmental impacts, are both linked to the burning of fossil fuels. Research on joint patterns of CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions may provide useful information for decision-makers to reduce these emissions effectively. This study analyzes both CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions embodied in interprovincial trade in 2007 and 2010 using multi-regional input–output analysis. Backward and forward linkage analysis shows that Production and Supply of Electric Power and Steam, Non-metal Mineral Products, and Metal Smelting and Pressing are key sectors for mitigating SO2 and CO2 emissions along the national supply chain. The total SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions of these sectors accounted for 81% and 76% of the total national SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions, respectively.

  13. Electron emission following collisions between multi-charged ions and D{sub 2} molecules; Etude de l'emission electronique induite par impact d'ion multicharge sur la molecule D{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, G

    2004-05-15

    Dissociative ionisation mechanisms induced in collisions involving a highly charged ion (S{sup 15+}, 13.6 MeV/u) and a molecular deuterium target, have been studied through momentum vector correlations of both the D{sup +} fragments and the electrons produced. An experimental apparatus has been developed in order to detect in coincidence all the charged particles produced during the collision. The measurement of their momentum vectors, which allows one to determine both their kinetic energy and direction of emission with respect to the projectile one, combines Time of Flight, Position Sensitive Detection, and multi-coincidence techniques. The correlation of the fragment and electron kinetic energies enables not only to determine branching ratios between the dissociative ionisation pathways, but also to separate unambiguously kinetic energy distributions of fragments associated to each process. Finally, the angular distributions of ejected electrons, as a function of the orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the projectile direction, are deduced from the spatial correlation. Measurements are compared to theoretical angular distributions obtained using the CDW-EIS (Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State) method. (author)

  14. Economics and the refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions allocation problem; Allocation des emissions de CO{sub 2} d'une raffinerie: solutions suggerees par la theorie economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierru, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), IFP School, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2007-07-01

    The establishment of a market for CO{sub 2} emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO{sub 2} emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO{sub 2} emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (author)

  15. [123I]epidepride binding to cerebellar dopamine D2/D3 receptors is displaceable: implications for the use of cerebellum as a reference region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Videbaek, Charlotte; Ziebell, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The low density of cerebellar dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors provides the basis for using the cerebellum as a representation of free- and non-specifically bound radioligand in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. With the development of ...

  16. In vivo effects of olanzapine on striatal dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding in schizophrenic patients: an iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Munich (Germany)); Mager, T.; Meisenzahl, E.; Moeller, H.J. (Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich (Germany))

    1999-08-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic agent that belongs to the same chemical class as clozapine. The pharmacological efficacy of olanzapine (in contrast to that of risperidone) has been shown to be comparable to that of clozapine, but olanzapine has the advantage of producing a less pronounced bone marrow depressing effect than clozapine. The specific aims of this study were (a) to assess dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor availability in patients treated with olanzapine by means of iodine-123 iodobenzamide [[sup 123]I]IBZM single-photon emission tomography (SPET), (b) to compare the results with findings of [[sup 123]I]IBZM SPET in patients under treatment with risperidone and (c) to correlate the results with the occurrance of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPMS). Brain SPET scans were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients (DSM III R) at 2 h after i.v. administration of 185 MBq [[sup 123]I]IBZM. Images were acquired using a triple-head gamma camera (Picker Prism 3000 XP). For semiquantitative evaluation of D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific uptake values [STR-BKG]/BKG (STR=striatum; BKG=background). The mean daily dose of olanzapine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding was reduced in all patients treated with olanzapine. Specific IBZM binding [STR-BKG]/BKG ranged from 0.13 to 0.61 (normal controls >0.95). The decreased D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor availability revealed an exponential dose-response relationship (r=-0.85, P<0.001). The slope of the curve was similar to that of risperidone and considerably higher than that of clozapine as compared with the results of a previously published study. EPMS were observed in only one patient, presenting with the lowest D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] availability. The frequency of EPMS induced by olanzapine (5%) was considerably lower than the frequency under risperidone treatment (40%). Our findings

  17. In vivo effects of olanzapine on striatal dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding in schizophrenic patients: an iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Munich (Germany); Mager, T.; Meisenzahl, E.; Moeller, H.J. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic agent that belongs to the same chemical class as clozapine. The pharmacological efficacy of olanzapine (in contrast to that of risperidone) has been shown to be comparable to that of clozapine, but olanzapine has the advantage of producing a less pronounced bone marrow depressing effect than clozapine. The specific aims of this study were (a) to assess dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability in patients treated with olanzapine by means of iodine-123 iodobenzamide [{sup 123}I]IBZM single-photon emission tomography (SPET), (b) to compare the results with findings of [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPET in patients under treatment with risperidone and (c) to correlate the results with the occurrance of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPMS). Brain SPET scans were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients (DSM III R) at 2 h after i.v. administration of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I]IBZM. Images were acquired using a triple-head gamma camera (Picker Prism 3000 XP). For semiquantitative evaluation of D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific uptake values [STR-BKG]/BKG (STR=striatum; BKG=background). The mean daily dose of olanzapine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding was reduced in all patients treated with olanzapine. Specific IBZM binding [STR-BKG]/BKG ranged from 0.13 to 0.61 (normal controls >0.95). The decreased D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability revealed an exponential dose-response relationship (r=-0.85, P<0.001). The slope of the curve was similar to that of risperidone and considerably higher than that of clozapine as compared with the results of a previously published study. EPMS were observed in only one patient, presenting with the lowest D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} availability. The frequency of EPMS induced by olanzapine (5%) was considerably lower than the frequency under risperidone treatment (40%). Our findings

  18. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  19. Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10(9) vs. 2.4 × 10(8) particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100-300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm(3) and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m(3) and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing.

  20. 1D helix, 2D brick-wall and herringbone, and 3D interpenetration d10 metal-organic framework structures assembled from pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid N-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li-Li; Dang, Dong-Bin; Duan, Chun-Ying; Li, Yi-Zhi; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2005-10-03

    Five novel interesting d(10) metal coordination polymers, [Zn(PDCO)(H2O)2]n (PDCO = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid N-oxide) (1), [Zn2(PDCO)2(4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)2.3H2O]n (bpy = bipyridine) (2), [Zn(PDCO)(bix)]n (bix = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) (3), [Zn(PDCO)(bbi).0.5H2O]n (bbi = 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)) (4), and [Cd(PDCO)(bix)(1.5).1.5H2O]n (5), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 possesses a one-dimensional (1D) helical chainlike structure with 4(1) helices running along the c-axis with a pitch of 10.090 Angstroms. Polymer 2 has an infinite chiral two-dimensional (2D) brick-wall-like layer structure in the ac plane built from achiral components, while both 3 and 4 exhibit an infinite 2D herringbone architecture, respectively extended in the ac and ab plane. Polymer 5 features a most remarkable and unique three-dimensional (3D) porous framework with 2-fold interpenetration related by symmetry, which contains channels in the b and c directions, both distributed in a rectangular grid fashion. Compounds 1-5, with systematic variation in dimensionality from 1D to 2D to 3D, are the first examples of d(10) metal coordination polymers into which pyridinedicarboxylic acid N-oxide has been introduced. In addition, polymers 1, 4, and 5 display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state. Polymer 3 exhibits a strong SHG response, estimated to be approximately 0.9 times that of urea.

  1. N2O emission from plant surfaces - light stimulated and a global phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Teis; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important long-lived greenhouse gas and precursor of stratospheric ozone depleting mono-nitrogen oxides. The atmospheric concentration of N2O is persistently increasing; however, large uncertainties are associated with the distinct source strengths. Here we investigate for the first time N2O emission from terrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation. We conducted field site measurements to investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and without UV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted with a range of species to study the controls and possible loci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c. 20-50 nmol m-2 h-1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a rather high activation energy indicative for an abiotic process. The prevailing zone for the N2O formation appears to be at the very surface of leaves. However, only c. 26% of the UV-induced N2O appears to originate from plant-N. Further, the process is dependent on atmospheric oxygen concentration. Our work demonstrates that ecosystem emission of the important greenhouse gas, N2O, may be up to c. 30% higher than hitherto assumed. Literature: Mikkelsen TN, Bruhn D & Ambus P. (2016). Solar UV Irradiation-Induced Production of Greenhouse Gases from Plant Surfaces: From Leaf to Earth. Progress in Botany, DOI 10.1007/124_2016_10. Bruhn D, Albert KR, Mikkelsen TN & Ambus P. (2014). UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Atmospheric Environment 99, 206-214.

  2. Drug: D04402 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04402 Mixture ... Drug Sodium bicarbonate - anhydrous monobasic sodium phosphate mi...xt; New Lecicarbon (TN) Sodium bicarbonate [DR:D01203], Anhydrous monobasic sodium phosphate [DR:D04400] ... Therapeutic category: 2359 ... PubChem: 17398094 ...

  3. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat.

  4. Preliminary Plugging tests in Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This report is on the investigation of the physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in PCHEs in realistic operating conditions. The first phenomenon is potential channel plugging inside the narrow PCHE channel. Unlike a conventional shell and- tube type HXs, failures in a PCHE are expected to be small cracks. If the faulted channel is blocked, it may have a positive function for plant safety because the pressure boundary would automatically recover due to this self-plugging. The other one is damage propagation on pressure boundary, which is referred to as potential wastage with combined corrosion/erosion effect. Physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) were investigated. Our preliminary experimental results of plugging show that sodium flow immediately stopped as CO{sub 2} was injected through the nozzle at 300-400 .deg. C in 3 mm sodium channels, whereas sodium flow stopped about 60 min after CO{sub 2} injection in 5 mm sodium channels.

  5. Development of the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor R and D and Technology Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a R and D performance monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to furnish project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. In this study, the work breakdown structure, the related schedule and the expected outputs were established to derive the interfaces between projects and the above parameters was loaded PCs. The R and D performance monitoring system is composed of about 750 R and D activities within 'Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR' project in 2007. The Microsoft Project Professional software was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution to activities

  6. Development of the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor R and D and Technology Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-01-15

    This study presents a R and D performance monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to furnish project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. In this study, the work breakdown structure, the related schedule and the expected outputs were established to derive the interfaces between projects and the above parameters was loaded PCs. The R and D performance monitoring system is composed of about 750 R and D activities within 'Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR' project in 2007. The Microsoft Project Professional software was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution to activities.

  7. Dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongyi; Han, Jian; Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles were synthesized and used for 2,4-D removal. ► Particle stability, ζ-potential and IEP of non- and stabilized Pd/Fe were compared. ► Dechlorination of 2,4-D by different Pd/Fe systems was investigated. ► The reaction mechanism has been discussed and presented in the article. ► Effects of CMC/Fe mass ratio and pH were also investigated. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles and their applications to the dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under controlled laboratorial conditions. For this purpose batch mode experiments were conducted to understand the effects of CMC on the surface characteristics of Pd/Fe nanoparticles, optimum removal of 2,4-D and other surface interactions mechanism. Our experimental results demonstrated considerable enhancements in particle stability and chemical reactivity with the addition of CMC to Pd/Fe nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles were well dispersed, and nanoparticles remained in suspension for days compared to non-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles precipitated within minutes. The isoelectric point (IEP) of the nanoparticles shifted from pH 6.5 to 2.5, suggesting that CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles were negatively charged over a wider pH range. Our batch experiments demonstrated that CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles (0.6 g Fe L −1 ) were able to remove much higher levels of 2,4-D with only one intermediate 2-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2-CPA) and the final organic product phenoxyacetic acid (PA), than non-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles or microsized Pd/Fe particles. The removal percentage of 2,4-D increased from 10% to nearly 100% as the reaction pH decreased from 11.5 to 2.5. The optimal CMC/Fe mass ratio for the dechlorination of 2,4-D was determined to be 5/1, and the removal of 2,4-D was

  8. Production of H,D(2s, 2p) by electron impact (0 - 2000 eV) on simple hydrogen containing molecules, ch. 2, A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.; Heer, F.J. de

    1977-01-01

    Absolute emission cross sections of Ly-α (H,D(2p → 1s)) radiation have been determined for 0 - 2000 eV electrons incident on H 2 , HD, HCl, H 2 O, NH 3 and CH 4 . By means of the application of electric quenching, the excitation cross sections of H,D(2s) could be obtained from the increase of the resulting Ly-α radiation for these molecules. Only in the case of electrons on H 2 , D 2 and HD was excitation of H,D(2s) found

  9. Thermal Decomposition of Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate and Textural Features of Its Calcines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 31 (2013), s. 10619-10626 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7C11009 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2010-00009 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thermal decomposition * sodium hydrogen carbonate * sodium bicarbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties of two new 1D d 1 coordination polymers constructed from 2,2'-bibenzimidazole and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lili; Li Yizhi; Dang Dongbin; Tian Zhengfang; Ni Zhaoping; Meng Qingjin

    2005-01-01

    Two novel interesting d 1 metal coordination polymers, [Zn(H 2 bibzim)(BDC)] n (1) and [Cd(H 2 bibzim)(BDC)] n (2) [H 2 bibzim=2,2'-bibenzimidazole, BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate] have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Both 1 and 2 are constructed from infinite neutral zigzag-like one-dimensional (1D) chains. The π-π interactions and interchain hydrogen-bonding interactions further extend the 1D arrangement to generate a 3D supramolecular architecture for 1 and 2. Both complexes have high thermal stability and display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state upon photo-excitation at 365 nm at room temperature. They are the first two examples that 2,2'-bibenzimidazole has been introduced into the d 1 coordination polymeric framework

  11. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA - II. Non-thermal diffuse emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; de Blok, W. J. G.; Massardi, Marcella

    2015-04-01

    Our closest neighbours, the Local Group dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, are extremely quiescent and dim objects, where thermal and non-thermal diffuse emissions lack, so far, of detection. In order to possibly study the dSph interstellar medium, deep observations are required. They could reveal non-thermal emissions associated with the very low level of star formation, or to particle dark matter annihilating or decaying in the dSph halo. In this work, we employ radio observations of six dSphs, conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in the frequency band 1.1-3.1 GHz, to test the presence of a diffuse component over typical scales of few arcmin and at an rms sensitivity below 0.05 mJy beam-1. We observed the dSph fields with both a compact array and long baselines. Short spacings led to a synthesized beam of about 1 arcmin and were used for the extended emission search. The high-resolution data mapped background sources, which in turn were subtracted in the short-baseline maps, to reduce their confusion limit. We found no significant detection of a diffuse radio continuum component. After a detailed discussion on the modelling of the cosmic ray (CR) electron distribution and on the dSph magnetic properties, we present bounds on several physical quantities related to the dSphs, such that the total radio flux, the angular shape of the radio emissivity, the equipartition magnetic field, and the injection and equilibrium distributions of CR electrons. Finally, we discuss the connection to far-infrared and X-ray observations.

  12. Carbon coated anatase TiO2 mesocrystals enabling ultrastable and robust sodium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Lan, Tongbin; Ding, Tianli; Wu, Nae-Lih; Wei, Mingdeng

    2017-08-01

    Nanoporous anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with tunable architectures and crystalline phases were successfully fabricated in the presence of the butyl oleate and oleylamine. Especially, the introduced surfactants served as a carbon source, bring a uniform carbon layer (about 2-8 nm) for heightening the electronic conductivity. The carbon coated TiO2 mesocrystals assembled from crystalline tiny subunits have more space sites for sodium-ion storage. When the material was applied as an electrode material in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries, it exhibited a superior capacity of about 90 mA h g-1 at 20 C (1 C = 168 mA g-1) and a highly reversible capacity for 5000 cycles, which is the longest cycle life reported for sodium storage in TiO2 electrodes.

  13. Sodium intercalation in the phosphosulfate cathode NaFe2(PO4)(SO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Essehli, Rachid; Amin, Ruhul; Boulahya, Khalid; Okumura, Toyoki; Belharouak, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    The compound NaFe2(PO4)(SO4)2 is successfully synthesized via a solid state reaction route and its crystal structure is determined using powder X-ray diffraction data. NaFe2(PO4)(SO4)2 phase is also characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. NaFe2(PO4)(SO4)2 crystallizes with the well-known NASICON-type structure. SAED and HRTEM experiments confirm the structural model, and no ordering between the PO4-3 and SO4-2 polyanions is detected. The electrochemical tests indicate that NaFe2(PO4)(SO4)2 is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The electrical conductivity is relatively low (2.2 × 10-6 Scm-1 at 200 °C) and the obtained activation energy is ∼0.60eV. The GITT experiments indicate that the diffusivity values are in the range of 10-11-10-12 cm2/s within the measured sodium concentrations.

  14. The Grand Quevilly thermal test station - the SMW sodium circuit with a generator of superheated steam at 545 deg; Station d'essais thermiques de grand quevilly - circuit de sodium de 5 MW avec generateur de vapeur surchauffee a 545 deg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A 5 MW installation is described which is a reduced model of the heat exchange system of a sodium-cooled reactor. This plant, which is situated at Grand Quevilly (near Rouen), consists of: 1 - A primary sodium loop made up of a sodium re-heater running on heavy diesel oil, a mechanical pump and an intermediate exchanger made up of clusters of tubes fitted with baffles. 2 - A NaK(56 per cent of K) secondary loop consisting mainly of a mechanical pump and a double-wall steam generator with forced circulation and complete vaporization. 3 - A tertiary water loop consisting of the inside of the steam generator pipes, a pressure-reducing valve which cools down the super-heated fluid and acts as a turbine, a condenser, a charge-pump and a supply pump for the boiler. The heat is given finally to a water-source flowing into the Seine. Two important points of the installation are: - The water treatment unit - The control and regulation system Apart from the general satisfactory operation of the installation which it is hoped to obtain, a careful study will be made of the heat transmission coefficients of the important equipment such as the intermediate exchanger and the steam generator. The construction was finished on April 28, 1964. (author) [French] On decrit une installation de 5 MW figurant a echelle reduite un systeme de transfert de chaleur d'un reacteur refroidi au sodium. Cette installation, situee a Grand Quevilly (pres de Rouen) comprend: 1 - Une boucle de sodium primaire comportant un rechauffeur de sodium alimente en fuel lourd, une pompe mecanique et un echangeur intermediaire a faisceau tubulaire muni de chicanes, 2 - Une boucle de NaK (56% de K) secondaire dont les appareils principaux sont une pompe mecanique et un generateur de vapeur a double paroi, circulation forcee et vaporisation totale. 3 - une boucle tertiaire a eau comprenant l'interieur des tubes du generateur de vapeur, un detendeur-desurchauffeur simulant une turbine, un condenseur, une pompe de

  15. 1. Detection of sodium leakages in sodium circuits. 2. Actions in case of potentially dangerous situations. 3. Actual case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.Th.

    1971-01-01

    It is of fundamental importance for sodium circuits to detect leakages as fast as possible. This is necessary both for small and large leakages. In case of large leakages the level of the free sodium surfaces will decrease quickly. Sodium vapour as well as Na 2 O and NaOH aerosols will cause an alarm of the intallated smoke detectors. With the exception of a leak in an oil-fired sodium heater we never had a large leak due to a rupture of a tube. It seems to us that small leakages, caused by pinholes or a crack are as dangerous for a sodium circuit as large leakage. Small leakages may remain undiscovered for a long time as practice has shown. During that time severe corrosion can occur even in a nitrogen atmosphere which has only a small concentration of oxygen and humidity. Simultaneously an increasing deterioriation by nitriding of the material which is in contact with the sodium vapour will happen probably. As a consequence of nitriding hardness and tensile strength will incease and elongation will be reduced. As observed, a complete rupture of the structural materil in the region of the leak is possible, due to the above-mentioned reasons. We have published some interesting observations we made after dismantling of the KNK steam generator prototype for post-operational metallurgical examinations. The detection of small leakages which may possibly remain unobserved within the thermal insulation during a longer period of time is of high importance with respect to safety of sodium circuits

  16. Optical and spectroscopic properties of neodymium doped cadmium-sodium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Thind, Kulwant Singh

    2017-10-01

    Neodymium doped cadmium sodium borate glasses having composition xCdO-(40-x) Na2CO3-59.5H3BO3-0.5Nd2O3; x = 10, 20 and 30 mol% were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. Conventional methods were used to determine the physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, and rare earth ion concentration. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. The calculated intensity parameters were further used to predict the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratio (βR) for the various fluorescent levels of Nd3+ ion in the prepared glass series. The effect of the compositional changes on the spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+ ions have been studied and reported. The value of Ω2 is found to decrease with the decrease in the sodium content and the corresponding increase in the cadmium content. This can be ascribed to the changes in the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and the change in rare earth oxygen (RE-O) covalency. Florescence spectra has been used to determine the peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σp) for the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2,4I11/2,4I13/2 transitions of the Nd3+ ion. The reasonably higher values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards the efficacy of these glasses as laser host materials. However, the glass with more sodium content is found to show better lasing properties.

  17. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Theofilos, T.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Virgil, G.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    The active shield-volcano Sierra Negra is part of the Galapagos hotspot. Sierra Negra is the largest shield volcano of Isabela Island, hosting a 10 km diameter caldera. Ten historic eruptions have occurred and some involved a frequently visited east caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. The last volcanic event occurred in October 2005 and lasted for about a week, covering approximately twenty percent of the eastern caldera floor. Sierra Negra volcano has experienced some significant changes in the chemical composition of its volcanic gas discharges after the 2005 eruption. This volcanic event produced an important SO2 degassing that depleted the magmatic content of this gas. Not significant changes in the MORB and plume-type helium contribution were observed after the 2005 eruption, with a 65.5 % of MORB and 35.5 % of plume contribution. In 2006 a visible and diffuse gas emission study was performed at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, to evaluate degassing rate from this volcanic system. Diffuse degassing at Sierra Negra was mainly confined in three different DDS: Volcan Chico, the southern inner margin of the caldera, and Mina Azufral. These areas showed also visible degassing, which indicates highly fractured areas where volcano-hydrothermal fluids migrate towards surface. A total fumarole/plume SO2 emission of 11 ± 2 td-1 was calculated by mini-DOAS ground-based measurements at Mina Azufral fumarolic area. Molar ratios of major volcanic gas components were also measured in-situ at Mina Azufral with a portable multisensor. The results showed H2S/SO2, CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 molar ratios of 0.41, 52.2 and 867.9, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratio we have estimated other volatiles emission rates. The results showed that H2O, CO2 and H2S emission rates from Sierra Negra are 562, 394, and 2.4 t d-1, respectively. The estimated total output of diffuse CO2 emission from the summit of

  18. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or operator...

  19. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  20. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  1. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  2. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Role of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadieh H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hala Ahmadieh,1 Nisrine Ghazal,2 Sami T Azar3 1Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences Department, Beirut Arab University, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The burden of diabetes mellitus (DM in general has been extensively increasing over the past few years. Selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors were extensively studied in type 2 DM and found to have sustained urinary glucose loss, improvement of glycemic control, in addition to their proven metabolic effects on weight, blood pressure, and cardiovascular benefits. Type 1 DM (T1D patients clearly depend on insulin therapy, which till today fails to achieve the optimal glycemic control and metabolic targets that are needed to prevent risk of complications. New therapies are obviously needed as an adjunct to insulin therapy in order to try to achieve optimal control in T1D. Many oral diabetic medications have been tried in T1D patients as an adjunct to insulin treatment and have shown conflicting results. Adjunctive use of SGLT2 inhibitors in addition to insulin therapies in T1D was found to have the potential to improve glycemic control along with decrease in the insulin doses, as has been shown in certain animal and short-term human studies. Furthermore, larger well-randomized studies are needed to better evaluate their efficacy and safety in patients with T1D. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis incidences were found to be increased among users of SGLT2 inhibitors, although the incidence remains very low. Recent beneficial effects of ketone body production and this shift in fuel energetics have been suggested based on the findings of protective cardiovascular benefits associated with one of the SGLT2 inhibitors. Keywords: glycemic control, glycosylated hemoglobin, euglucemic diabetic ketoacidosis

  4. The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1* Volker Behrendt,1* Jonas Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,3 Christoph Hilgert,1 Ingo Stricker,2 Thomas Herdegen,3 Monika S Janot,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik1 1Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Pathology, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 3Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *The two authors Sabine Kersting and Volker Behrendt contributed equally to this work Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%. Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS. As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not

  5. CO2 diffuse emission from maar lake: An example in Changbai volcanic field, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Guo, Zhengfu; Liu, Jiaqi; Du, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Numerous maars and monogenetic volcanic cones are distributed in northeast China, which are related to westward deep subduction of the Pacific Ocean lithosphere, comprising a significant part of the "Pacific Ring of Fire". It is well known that diffuse CO2 emissions from monogenetic volcanoes, including wet (e.g., maar lake) and dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.), may contribute to budget of globally nature-derived greenhouse gases. However, their relationship between wet (e.g., maar lake) and concomitant dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.) related to monogenetic volcanic field is poorly understood. Yuanchi maar, one of the typical monogenetic volcanic systems, is located on the eastern flank of Tianchi caldera in Changbai volcanic field of northeast China, which displays all of three forms of CO2 degassing including the maar lake, soil micro-seepage and fault degassing. Measurements of efflux of CO2 diffusion from the Yuanchi maar system (YMS) indicate that the average values of CO2 emissions from soil micro-seepage, fault degassing and water-air interface diffusion are 24.3 ± 23.3 g m- 2 d- 1, 39.2 ± 22.4 g m- 2 d- 1 and 2.4 ± 1.1 g m- 2 d- 1, respectively. The minimum output of CO2 diffuse emission from the YMS to the atmosphere is about 176.1 ± 88.3 ton/yr, of which 80.4% results from the dry degassing system. Degassing from the fault contributes to the most of CO2 emissions in all of the three forms of degassing in the YMS. Contributions of mantle, crust, air and organic CO2 to the soil gas are 0.01-0.10%, 10-20%, 32-36% and 48-54%, respectively, which are quantitatively constrained by a He-C isotope coupling calculation model. We propose that CO2 exsolves from the upper mantle melting beneath the Tianchi caldera, which migrates to the crustal magma chamber and further transports to the surface of YMS along the deep fault system. During the transportation processes, the emission

  6. Intense green emission from Tb3+- doped Teo2-Wo3-Geo2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Tallam; Gopal, Kotalo Rama; Suvarna, Reniguntla Padma; Jamalaiah, Bungala Chinna

    2018-04-01

    Tb3+ -doped oxyfluoro tellurite (TWGTb) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied to evaluate the Ωλ (λ=2,4,6) intensity parameters. The TWGTb glasses exhibit 5D3 → 7F5-3 and 5D4 → 7F6-0 transitions when excited at 316 nm wavelength. The variation of intensity of 5D4 → 7F5 (Green) and 5D3 → 7F4 (Blue) transitions and the green to blue (IG/IB) intensity ratios were studied as a function of Tb3+ ions concentration. The laser characteristic parameters such as effective bandwidth (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-section (σe), gain bandwidth (σe×Δλeff) and optical gain (σe×τR) were determined using the emission spectra and radiative parameters. The luminescence decay profiles exhibit single-exponential nature for all the samples. Based on the experimental results we suggest that the 1.0 mol% of Tb3+-doped TWGTb glass could be the suitable laser host materials to emit intense green luminescence at 545 nm.

  7. Intense Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Emission from a Hydride Target during Pulsed D Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

  8. Intense non-linear soft X-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm 2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm 2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved. (author)

  9. The leaching of trifloxysulfuron-sodium and pyrithiobac-sodium in soil columns as a function of soil liming - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16349

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Guerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarce research has been published concerning the effect of soil pH on the leaching potential of herbicides in tropical soils. Thus, we designed this study to evaluate the influence of soil liming on the leaching of trifloxysulfuron-sodium and pyrithiobac-sodium after simulated rainfall depths in soil columns. In the study, two trials were conducted simultaneously; the first experiment evaluated trifloxysulfuron-sodium (7.5 g ha-1, while the second experiment evaluated pyrithiobac-sodium (70 g ha-1. Both experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with a 2 x 4 x 5 factorial scheme and four replications. The design’s factors corresponded to 2 soil liming conditions (with or without liming, 4 simulated rainfall depths (0, 15, 30, and 45 mm and 5 depths in the soil column (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 20-25 cm. The trials were repeated, and only the source for the soil neutralization was changed, i.e., dolomitic limestone in Experiment 1 and calcium oxide in Experiment 2. Compared to trifloxysulfuron-sodium, the herbicide pyrithiobac-sodium indicated a greater potential for leaching. With more acidic soils, the leaching potential in limed soils was greater for both herbicides. Only the liming that used calcium oxide provided a significant leaching of trifloxysulfuron-sodium for depths greater than 20 cm. Simulated rainfall ≥ 15 mm provided leaching of pyrithiobac-sodium to a depth of 25 cm at near-neutral soil pH values.

  10. Apparatus for removing impurities in the sodium of sodium cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, A

    1970-11-11

    An apparatus is provided for removing oxygen from liquid sodium flowing in a sodium cooled reactor. The removal of oxygen is complete with high efficiency. The liquid sodium to be purified is disposed outside a cylindrical wall and negatively charged, whereas sodium as a reducing material is disposed inside the same wall. The cylindrical wall is made of zirconia-calcia (ZrO/sub 2/)sub(0.87)(CaO)sub(0.13) solid electrolyte, the cylinder having a thickness of 2.5mm, a diameter of 3cm and a depth of 20cm under the sodium level. Electric resistance of the solid electrolyte is 2.3 ohm at 500/sup 0/C. A current of 1A by the application of 25 volts treats 0.3g of oxygen. Consequently, 1 liter or 1kg of liquid sodium containing 1,000ppm of oxygen can be purified for about 3 hours at an electrical consumption of 7.5 watt-hour. In one embodiment, a cylindrical electrolytic solid made of zirconia-calcia or zirconia-yttria was disposed in a container. Liquid sodium containing oxygen flowed outside of the cylinder. Liquid sodium as a reducing material was present inside the cylinder and the container and the cylinder were electrically insulated. An electrode was inserted at the center of the cylinder and a baffle plate at the upper portion of the electrode to shield heat and rising sodium vapor was provided. The space above the container was filled with an inert gas. The oxygen in the liquid sodium to be purified transferred through the wall of the cylinder into the interior of the cylinder so as to oxydize the reducing sodium material. The supersaturated sodium oxide inside the cylinder was deposited.

  11. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  12. Lifetime-broadening-suppressed X-ray absorption spectrum of β-YbAlB4 deduced from Yb 3d2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Naomi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kanai, Noriko; Hayashi, Hisashi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Kuga, Kentaro; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Watanabe, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the Yb 3d2p (Yb Lα 1,2 ) resonant X-ray emission spectrum of β-YbAlB 4 was acquired using excitation energies around the Yb L 3 -edge, at 2 K. Subsequently, the lifetime-broadening-suppressed (LBS) X-ray absorption structure (XAS) spectrum was obtained using the SIM-RIXS program. This spectrum was found to exhibit clearly resolved pre-edge and shoulder structures. Resonant Lα 1 emission spectra were well reproduced from LBS-XAS profiles over wide ranges of excitation and emission energies. In contrast, noticeable discrepancies appeared between the experimental and simulated Lα 2 emission spectra, suggesting an effect resulting from M 4 M 5 O 1 Coster-Kronig transitions. LBS-XAS, in conjunction with partial fluorescence yield (PFY) XAS and transmission XAS, determined a value for the Yb valence (v) in β-YbAlB 4 of 2.76 ± 0.08 at 2 K. Despite this relatively large uncertainty in v, each method provided a consistent variation in valence (δv) as the temperature was raised from 2 to 280 K: 0.060 ± 0.004 (LBS-XAS), 0.061 ± 0.005 (PFY-XAS) and 0.058 ± 0.007 (transmission XAS). The smaller δv associated with LBS-XAS demonstrates the greater precision of this method. (author)

  13. Dietary Sodium Restriction and Association with Urinary Marinobufagenin, Blood Pressure, and Aortic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Systolic BP and large elastic artery stiffness both increase with age and are reduced by dietary sodium restriction. Production of the natriuretic hormone marinobufagenin, an endogenous α1 Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, is increased in salt-sensitive hypertension and contributes to the rise in systolic BP during sodium loading. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The hypothesis was that dietary sodium restriction performed in middle-aged/older adults (eight men and three women; 60±2 years) with moderately elevated systolic BP (139±2/83±2 mmHg) would reduce urinary marinobufagenin excretion as well as systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity (randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design). This study also explored the associations among marinobufagenin excretion with systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity across conditions of 5 weeks of a low-sodium (77±9 mmol/d) and 5 weeks of a normal-sodium (144±7 mmol/d) diet. Results Urinary marinobufagenin excretion (weekly measurements; 25.4±1.8 versus 30.7±2.1 pmol/kg per day), systolic BP (127±3 versus 138±5 mmHg), and aortic pulse-wave velocity (700±40 versus 843±36 cm/s) were lower during the low- versus normal-sodium condition (all Psodium excretion (slope=0.46, Psodium condition (both Psodium restriction reduces urinary marinobufagenin excretion and that urinary marinobufagenin excretion is positively associated with systolic BP, aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity), and endothelial cell expression of the oxidant enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, marinobufagenin excretion is positively related to systolic BP over ranges of sodium intake typical of an American diet, extending previous observations in rodents and humans fed experimentally high-sodium diets. PMID:23929930

  14. Distribution of adoptively transferred porcine T-lymphoblasts tracked by {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and position emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Olof, E-mail: olof.eriksson@radiol.uu.se [Division of Radiology, Department of Oncology, Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Uppsala 751 85 (Sweden); Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Bjoern; Eich, Torsten [Division of Immunology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Lundgren, Torbjoern [Division of Transplantation Surgery, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 77 (Sweden); Nilsson, Bo; Toetterman, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle [Division of Immunology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Sundin, Anders [Division of Radiology, Department of Oncology, Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital and Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 77 (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: Autologous or allogeneic transfer of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes is a promising treatment for metastatic cancers, but a major concern is the difficulty in evaluating cell trafficking and distribution in adoptive cell therapy. This study presents a method of tracking transfusion of T-lymphoblasts in a porcine model by {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) and positron emission tomography. Methods: T-lymphoblasts were labeled with the positron-emitting tracer [{sup 18}F]FDG through incubation. The T-lymphoblasts were administered into the bloodstream, and the distribution was followed by positron emission tomography for 120 min. The cells were administered either intravenously into the internal jugular vein (n=5) or intraarterially into the ascending aorta (n=1). Two of the pigs given intravenous administration were pretreated with low-molecular-weight dextran sulphate. Results: The cellular kinetics and distribution were readily quantifiable for up to 120 min. High (78.6% of the administered cells) heterogeneous pulmonary uptake was found after completed intravenous transfusion. The pulmonary uptake was decreased either by preincubating and coadministrating the T-lymphoblasts with low-molecular-weight dextran sulphate or by administrating them intraarterially. Conclusions: The present work shows the feasibility of quantitatively monitoring and evaluating cell trafficking and distribution following administration of [{sup 18}F]FDG-labeled T-lymphoblasts. The protocol can potentially be transferred to the clinical setting with few modifications.

  15. Sodium water reaction R and D for French LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Finck, P.; Lapicore, A.; Simeon, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the research and development which is underway for the French LMFBR steam generator safety study. The program comprises three major areas: (1) the analysis of realistic leaks, which includes the leak evolution and its consequences; (2) the response time of leak detection systems compared to leak propagation phenomena; and (3) the guillotine rupture (DBA) studies relative to source term evaluation by experimental/calculational approach and mechanical calculations. This program has provided information for the demonstrations of the steam generator safety in respect to a sodium-water reaction

  16. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  17. Comparison of multiple quantitative MRI parameters for characterization of the goat cartilage in an ongoing osteoarthritis: dGEMRIC, T{sub 1ρ} and sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauth, Joachim H.X.; Lykowsky, Gunthard; Hemberger, Kathrin; Kreutner, Jakob; Jakob, Peter M. [MRB Research Center for Magnetic Resonance Bavaria, Wuerzburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Physics 5 (Biophysics); Weber, Daniel; Haddad, Daniel [MRB Research Center for Magnetic Resonance Bavaria, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rackwitz, Lars; Noeth, Ulrich [Orthopedic Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease leading to cartilage deterioration by loss of matrix, fibrillation, formation of fissures, and ultimately complete loss of the cartilage surface. Here, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, dGEMRIC (delayed Gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage; dG{sub 1} = T{sub 1,post}; dG{sub 2} = 1/T{sub 1,post}-1/T{sub 1,pre}), T{sub 1ρ}, and sodium MRI, are compared in a preclinical in vivo study to evaluate the differences in their potential for cartilage characterization and to establish an examination protocol for a following clinical study. OA was induced in 12 caprine knees (6 control, 6 therapy). Adipose derived stem cells were injected afterwards as a treatment. The animals were examined healthy, 3 and 16 weeks postoperatively with all three MRI methods. Using statistical analysis, the OA development and the degree of correlation between the different MRI methods were determined. A strong correlation was observed between the dGEMRIC indices dG{sub 1} and dG{sub 2} (r=-0.87) which differ only in considering or not considering the T{sub 1} baseline. Moderate correlations were found between T{sub 1ρ} and dG{sub 1} (r=0.55), T{sub 1ρ} and dG{sub 2} (r=0.47) and at last, sodium and dG{sub 1} (r=0.45). The correlations found in this study match to the biomarkers which the methods are sensitive to. Even though the goat cartilage is significantly thinner than the human cartilage and even more in a degenerated cartilage, all three methods were able to characterize the cartilage over the whole period of time during an ongoing OA.Due to measurement and post processing optimizations, as well as the correlations detected in this work, the overall measurement time in future goat studies can be minimized. Moreover, an examination protocol for characterizing the cartilage in a clinical study was established.

  18. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  19. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis. A positron emission tomography study with L-[methyl-11C]methionine and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Oku, Naohiko; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is defined as a depression of blood flow and oxidative metabolism of glucose in the cerebellum contralateral to a supratentorial brain lesion, as detected with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography. We examined whether L-[methyl- 11 C]methionine (MET) uptake is affected in CCD. In 12 patients with a unilateral supratentorial brain tumor, we evaluated the uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and MET in the cerebellar hemispheres by means of PET. Asymmetry index (AI) was defined as a difference in the average count between the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebellar hemispheres divided by the average count in both cerebellar hemispheres. Patients with AI of FDG PET more than 0.1 and those with AI equal to 0.1 or less than 0.1 were classified as CCD-positive and CCD-negative, respectively. Six patients were CCD-positive and others were CCD-negative in the FDG PET study. Between CCD-positive and CCD-negative patients, mean AI of MET was not significantly different (0.017±0.023 and 0.014±0.039, respectively). Different from glucose metabolism, cerebellar MET uptake was not affected in CCD. The present study may indicate that cerebellar MET uptake is independent of suppression of cerebellar neuronal activity. (author)

  20. A photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [3H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol. The degree of D2 dopamine receptor photoinduced inactivation by azidoclebopride was not significantly affected by scavengers such as p-aminobenzoic acid and dithiothreitol. Furthermore, irradiation of striatal membranes with a concentration of azidoclebopride sufficient to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors by 60% did not significantly reduce dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), benzodiazepine, alpha 1- or beta-noradrenergic receptors. This study describes the use of a novel and selective photoaffinity ligand for brain dopamine D2 receptors. The molecule, in radiolabeled form, may aid in the

  1. Ho-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ceramics with bright green emission and good electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lei; Hao, Jigong; Li, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng (China); Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing [School of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai (China)

    2017-10-15

    Ho{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ferroelectric ceramics with bright green light emission and good electrical properties were fabricated in this work. Under blue light excitation, samples showed bright green light with two typical emission bands: a strong green emission centered at 545 nm corresponding to the intra f-f transition from the excited {sup 5}S{sub 2} to the ground state {sup 5}I{sub 8} and a relatively weak red emission located 653 nm induced by the {sup 5}F{sub 5} → {sup 5}I{sub 8} transition of Ho{sup 3+}. Due to the concentration quenching effect, the intensity of emission was strongly dependent on the doping concentration. Furthermore, the electrical properties have improved by Ho{sup 3+} doping. At x = 0.004, samples exhibit optimal electrical properties with high Curie temperature (T{sub c} = 441 C) and large 2P{sub r} and d{sub 33} values (2P{sub r} = 15.54 μC cm{sup -2}, d{sub 33} = 19 pC/N). These results demonstrate that the SBN-xHo ceramics possess excellent multifunctional properties to achieve a variety of applications. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  3. Airborne particle emission of a commercial 3D printer: the effect of filament material and printing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, L; Scungio, M; Buonanno, G; Arpino, F; Ficco, G

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of exposure to the airborne particle emitted from three-dimensional (3D) printing activities is becoming a crucial issue due to the relevant spreading of such devices in recent years. To this end, a low-cost desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) principle was used. Particle number, alveolar-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations were measured continuously during printing processes to evaluate particle emission rates (ERs) and factors. Particle number distribution measurements were also performed to characterize the size of the emitted particles. Ten different materials and different extrusion temperatures were considered in the survey. Results showed that all the investigated materials emit particles in the ultrafine range (with a mode in the 10-30-nm range), whereas no emission of super-micron particles was detected for all the materials under investigation. The emission was affected strongly by the extrusion temperature. In fact, the ERs increase as the extrusion temperature increases. Emission rates up to 1×10 12  particles min -1 were calculated. Such high ERs were estimated to cause large alveolar surface area dose in workers when 3D activities run. In fact, a 40-min-long 3D printing was found to cause doses up to 200 mm 2 . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Corrosion behaviors of ceramics against liquid sodium. Sodium corrosion characteristics of sintering additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kano, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    It has been progressed as the Frontier Materials Research to research and develop ceramics to apply for several components of fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as coolant instead of metallic materials. Grain boundary of ceramics has peculiar properties compared with matrix because most of ceramics are produced by hardening and firing their raw powders. Some previous researchers indicated that ceramics were mainly corroded at grain boundaries by liquid sodium, and ceramics could not be used under corrosive environment. Thus, it is the most important for the usage of ceramics in liquid sodium to improve corrosion resistance of grain boundaries. In order to develop the advanced ceramics having good sodium corrosion resistance among fine ceramics, which have recently been progressed in quality and characteristics remarkably, sodium corrosion behaviors of typical sintering additives such as MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN etc. have been examined and evaluated. As a result, the followings have been clarified and some useful knowledge about developing advanced ceramics having good corrosion resistance against liquid sodium has been obtained. (1) Sodium corrosion behavior of MgO depended on Si content. Samples containing large amount of Si were corroded severely by liquid sodium, whereas others with low Si contents showed good corrosion resistance. (2) Both Y 2 O 3 and AlN, which contained little Si, showed good sodium corrosion resistance. (3) MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN are thought to be corroded by liquid sodium, if they contain some SiO 2 . Therefore, in order to improve sodium corrosion resistance, it is very important for these ceramics to prevent the contamination of matrix with SiO 2 through purity control of their raw powders. (author)

  5. Study of VUV emission and γ-ray responses of Nd:BaF2 scintillaotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yokota, Yuui; Ishidu, Sumito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Akira; Pejchal, Jan; Nikl, Martin; Babin, Vladimir; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Nd 3+ 1%, 5% and 10% doped BaF 2 single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling down method. Photoluminescence properties, including excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decay were measured under synchrotron radiation excitation at the Superlumi station in HASYLAB at DESY (Hamburg, Germany). The Nd 3+ related 5d-4f emission lines peaking around 180 nm, 230 nm, and 260 nm, identified as the 5d- 4 I j , 5d- 4 F j , and 5d- 2 G j transitions, were observed under 140-168 nm excitation. In photoluminescence decay under the 160 nm excitation, the dominant component decay time is about 12, 2.5 and 1.2 ns for Nd 3+ 1%, 5% and 10% concentration, respectively. The decay time shortening is explained by the concentration quenching effect. Transmittance of Nd1% sample is about 80% for wavelengths above 185 nm. Finally, gamma-ray responses, non-proportionality and energy resolution of Nd1% sample were compared with the undoped BaF 2 scintillator. The light yield of the Nd1%:BaF 2 is about 93% of that of undoped BaF 2 .

  6. 3D printing of mineral-polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the "ink"). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  7. 3D fast reconstruction in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, M.L.; Scheurer, A. Hermann; Joseph, C.; Morel, C.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of long reconstruction times in positron emission tomography (PET) has been addressed from several points of view, resulting in an affordable dedicated system capable of handling routine 3D reconstructions in a few minutes per frame : on the hardware side using fast processors and a parallel architecture, and on the software side, using efficient implementation of computationally less intensive algorithms

  8. Temperature enhancement of Xe(L) x-ray amplifier (λ ∼ 2.9 A) emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Zhang Ping; Racz, Ervin; McCorkindale, John C; Khan, Shahab F; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Zhao Ji; Rhodes, Charles K

    2007-01-01

    Cooling of the xenon nozzle flow to T = 230 K produces three leading effects. They are (1) a ∼2.5-fold enhancement of the Xe(L) hollow atom emission on the single-vacancy 3d2p charge state arrays (2) the production of amplifying self-trapped plasma channels with significantly enhanced lengths and (3) very sharply augmented emission on (2s-bar2p-bar) Xe(L) double-vacancy transitions in the λ ≅ 2.80 A region. (fast track communication)

  9. Temperature enhancement of Xe(L) x-ray amplifier ({lambda} {approx} 2.9 A) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Alex B [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Zhang Ping [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Racz, Ervin [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); McCorkindale, John C [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Khan, Shahab F [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Poopalasingam, Sankar [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Zhao Ji [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Rhodes, Charles K [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    Cooling of the xenon nozzle flow to T = 230 K produces three leading effects. They are (1) a {approx}2.5-fold enhancement of the Xe(L) hollow atom emission on the single-vacancy 3d {yields} 2p charge state arrays (2) the production of amplifying self-trapped plasma channels with significantly enhanced lengths and (3) very sharply augmented emission on (2s-bar2p-bar) Xe(L) double-vacancy transitions in the {lambda} {approx_equal} 2.80 A region. (fast track communication)

  10. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  11. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien; Kang, Jeongseuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsinping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S.; Wu, Ming C.; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Sichen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-01-01

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  12. Conceptual Design of Liquid Sodium Charging and Draining System of STELLA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Nam, Ho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Eoh, Jeahyuk; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    STELLA program consist of two phases. In the first phase of the program, separated effects tests for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a decay heat exchanger (DHX), Natural-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) had been successfully performed using STELLA-1 in 2015. Now is the time for us to proceed to the second phase of STELLA program. In the second phase, to demonstrate thermal-hydraulic performances and safety features and to produce base data for the specific design approval for the PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) which will be constructed by 2028 in Korea, integral effects tests will be carried out using the STELLA-2 test facility which is underway with detailed design and will be constructed in 2018. To establish the maintenance easiness of test facility and to prevent a de-functionalization of elementary sodium component located under the main experimental sodium loops, arrangement area was separated the sodium charging and draining piping area from main system experimental piping area. The operation margin of test facility and the best use of electro-magnetic pumps were established according to employ connecting line between RV charging piping and main experimental system charging piping. To prevent liquid sodium inflow into the piping of gas supply system, the overflow line was employed in sodium expansion tanks of PHDRS and ADHRS, RV, and reservoirs of IHTS.

  13. Conceptual Design of Liquid Sodium Charging and Draining System of STELLA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chungho; Nam, Ho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Eoh, Jeahyuk; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    STELLA program consist of two phases. In the first phase of the program, separated effects tests for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a decay heat exchanger (DHX), Natural-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS) had been successfully performed using STELLA-1 in 2015. Now is the time for us to proceed to the second phase of STELLA program. In the second phase, to demonstrate thermal-hydraulic performances and safety features and to produce base data for the specific design approval for the PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) which will be constructed by 2028 in Korea, integral effects tests will be carried out using the STELLA-2 test facility which is underway with detailed design and will be constructed in 2018. To establish the maintenance easiness of test facility and to prevent a de-functionalization of elementary sodium component located under the main experimental sodium loops, arrangement area was separated the sodium charging and draining piping area from main system experimental piping area. The operation margin of test facility and the best use of electro-magnetic pumps were established according to employ connecting line between RV charging piping and main experimental system charging piping. To prevent liquid sodium inflow into the piping of gas supply system, the overflow line was employed in sodium expansion tanks of PHDRS and ADHRS, RV, and reservoirs of IHTS

  14. Effect of Molecular Guest Binding on the d-d Transitions of Ni2+ of CPO-27-Ni: A Combined UV-Vis, Resonant-Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy, and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erik; Gorelov, Evgeny; Guda, Alexander A; Bugaev, Aram L; Bonino, Francesca; Borfecchia, Elisa; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Gianolio, Diego; Chavan, Sachin; Lamberti, Carlo

    2017-12-04

    We used Ni K-edge resonant-valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (RVtC-XES, also referred to as direct RIXS), an element-selective bulk-sensitive synchrotron-based technique, to investigate the electronic structure of the CPO-27-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) upon molecular adsorption of significant molecular probes: H 2 O, CO, H 2 S, and NO. We compare RVtC-XES with UV-vis spectroscopy, and we show that the element selectivity of RVtC-XES is of strategic significance to observe the full set of d-d excitations in Ni 2+ , which are partially overshadowed by the low-energy π-π* transitions of the Ni ligands in standard diffuse-reflectance UV-vis experiments. Our combined RVtC-XES/UV-vis approach provides access to the whole set of d-d excitations, allowing us a complete discussion of the changes undergone by the electronic configuration of the Ni 2+ sites hosted within the MOF upon molecular adsorption. The experimental data have been interpreted by multiplet ligand-field theory calculations based on Wannier orbitals. This study represents a step further in understanding the ability of the CPO-27-Ni MOFs in molecular sorption and separation applications.

  15. [123I]epidepride binding to cerebellar dopamine D2/D3 receptors is displaceable: implications for the use of cerebellum as a reference region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Videbaek, Charlotte; Ziebell, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The low density of cerebellar dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors provides the basis for using the cerebellum as a representation of free- and non-specifically bound radioligand in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. With the development...... of ultra high-affinity dopamine D(2)/D(3) ligands like [(123)I]epidepride, [(18)F]fallypride, and [(11)C]FLB-457, quantification of extrastriatal low density receptor populations including the cerebellum is possible with important implications for calculation of binding parameters. [(123)I...... [(123)I]epidepride binding to dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in the cerebellum. Using the cerebellum as a representation of free and non-specifically bound radioligand and neglecting the specifically bound component may lead to results that erroneously imply that antipsychotic drugs bind to extrastriatal...

  16. Design Concept of Advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Related R&D in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea imports about 97% of its energy resources due to a lack of available energy resources. In this status, the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is expected to become more important in future years. In particular, a fast reactor system is one of the most promising reactor types for electricity generation, because it can utilize efficiently uranium resources and reduce radioactive waste. Acknowledging the importance of a fast reactor in a future energy policy, the long-term advanced SFR development plan was authorized by KAEC in 2008 and updated in 2011 which will be carried out toward the construction of an advanced SFR prototype plant by 2028. Based upon the experiences gained during the development of the conceptual designs for KALIMER, KAERI recently developed advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR design concepts of TRU burner that can better meet the generation IV technology goals. The current status of nuclear power and SFR design technology development program in Korea will be discussed. The developments of design concepts including core, fuel, fluid system, mechanical structure, and safety evaluation have been performed. In addition, the advanced SFR technologies necessary for its commercialization and the basic key technologies have been developed including a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility, super-critical Brayton cycle system, under-sodium viewing techniques, metal fuel development, and developments of codes, and validations are described as R&D activities.

  17. Volcanic SO2 and SiF4 visualization using 2-D thermal emission spectroscopy – Part 1: Slant-columns and their ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grutter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and emission rates of volcanic gas plumes provide insight of the geologic internal activity, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol formation and radiative processes around it. Observations are necessary for public security and the aviation industry. Ground-based thermal emission infrared spectroscopy, which uses the radiation of the volcanic gas itself, allows for continuously monitoring during day and night from a safe distance. We present measurements on Popocatépetl volcano based on thermal emission spectroscopy during different campaigns between 2006–2009 using a Scanning Infrared Gas Imaging System (SIGIS. The experimental set-up, measurement geometries and analytical algorithms are described. The equipment was operated from a safe distance of 12 km from the volcano at two different spectral resolutions: 0.5 and 4 cm−1. The 2-dimensional scanning capability of the instrument allows for an on-line visualization of the volcanic SO2 plume and its animation. SiF4 was also identified in the infrared spectra recorded at both resolutions. The SiF4/SO2 molecular ratio can be calculated from each image and used as a highly useful parameter to follow changes in volcanic activity. A small Vulcanian eruption was monitored during the night of 16 to 17 November 2008 and strong ash emission together with a pronounced SO2 cloud was registered around 01:00 a.m. LST (Local Standard Time. Enhanced SiF4/SO2 ratios were observed before and after the eruption. A validation of the results from thermal emission measurements with those from absorption spectra of the moon taken at the same time, as well as an error analysis, are presented. The inferred propagation speed from sequential images is used in a subsequent paper (Part 2 to calculate the emission rates at different distances from the crater.

  18. Sodium-Doped Mesoporous Ni2P2O7 Hexagonal Tablets for High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Jindi; Pang, Huan

    2015-08-01

    A simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare hexagonal tablet precursors, which are then transformed into porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets by a simple calcination method. The obtained samples were evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrode based on the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets exhibits a specific capacitance of 557.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1.2 A g(-1) . Furthermore, the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets were successfully used to construct flexible solid-state hybrid supercapacitors. The device is highly flexible and achieves a maximum energy density of 23.4 Wh kg(-1) and a good cycling stability after 5000 cycles, which confirms that the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2 O7 hexagonal tablets are promising active materials for flexible supercapacitors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatani, Akio; Akutsu, Tooru; Yoshida, Michihiko; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Seo, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO 2 , arterial partial pressure of CO 2 (PaCO 2 ), HCO 3 - , pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO 3 - and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO 2 , end-tidal CO 2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 , but correlated with arterial HCO 3 - and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO 3 - and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  20. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla

    2012-01-01

    The green (5577 Å) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Å) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the 1 S and 1 D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H 2 O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O( 1 S) and O( 1 D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H 2 O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO 2 and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% ( 1 S) to O( 1 D) would be around 0.03 (±0.01) if H 2 O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is ∼0.6 if the parent is CO 2 . Our calculations suggest that the yield of O( 1 S) production in the photodissociation of H 2 O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  1. Data on analysis of coronary atherosclerosis on computed tomography and 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Kitagawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the data showing illustrative examples of plaque classification on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA and measurement of 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF uptake in coronary atherosclerotic lesions on positron emission tomography (PET. We divided the lesions into one of three plaque types on CCTA (calcified plaque, non-calcified plaque, partially calcified plaque. Focal 18F-NaF uptake of each lesion was quantified using maximum tissue-to-background ratio. This article also provides a representative case with a non-calcified coronary plaque detected on CCTA and identified on 18F-NaF PET/non-contrast computed tomography based on a location of a vessel branch as a landmark. These complement the data reported by Kitagawa et al. (2017 [1].

  2. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na{sub 3}(U{sub 0.84(2)},Na{sub 0.16(2)})O{sub 4} - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illy, Marie-Claire [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), F-75005 Paris (France); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Smith, Anna L. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Radiation Science & Technology, Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications (NERA), Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands); Wallez, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.wallez@upmc.fr [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Université, Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Na{sub 3.16(2)}U{sup V,VI}{sub 0.84(2)}O{sub 4} is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na{sub 3.16(2)}U{sup V,VI}{sub 0.84(2)}O{sub 4} results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Na{sub n-2}M{sup n+}O{sub n-1} - including Na{sub 3}SbO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}TaO{sub 4}, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the M{sup n+} cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products. - Highlights: •Thermal expansion and structural mechanism of Na{sub 3}(U{sub 0.84(2)},Na{sub 0.16(2)})O{sub 4}, main product of the reaction of sodium with nuclear fuel. •Thermomechanical behavior of sodium uranate suggests possible strains on the fuel cladding and risks of de-cohesion with the fuel pin. •Effect of homo- and aliovalent cation substitutions allows to predict the thermomechanical behavior of sodium metallates involving fission products or minor actinide elements. •Crystal structure of new compounds Na{sub 3}SbO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}TaO{sub 4}.

  3. Origin of Enhanced Reactivity of a Microsolvated Nucleophile in Ion Pair SN2 Reactions: The Cases of Sodium p-Nitrophenoxide with Halomethanes in Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang-Gen; Xu, Ke; Ren, Yi

    2015-04-30

    In a kinetic experiment on the SN2 reaction of sodium p-nitrophenoxide with iodomethane in acetone-water mixed solvent, Humeres et al. (J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 1163) found that the reaction depends strongly on the medium, and the fastest rate constant was observed in pure acetone. The present work tries to explore why acetone can enhance the reactivity of the title reactions. Accordingly, we make a mechanistic study on the reactions of sodium p-nitrophenoxide with halomethanes (CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I) in acetone by using a supramolecular/continuum model at the PCM-MP2/6-311+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level, in which the ion pair nucleophile is microsolvated by one to three acetone molecules. We compared the reactivity of the microsolvated ion pair nucleophiles with solvent-free ion pair and anionic ones. Our results clearly reveal that the microsolvated ion pair nucleophile is favorable for the SN2 reactions; meanwhile, the origin of the enhanced reactivity induced by microsolvation of the nucleophile is discussed in terms of the geometries of transition state (TS) structures and activation strain model, suggesting that lower deformation energies and stronger interaction energies between the deformed reactants in the TS lead to the lower overall reaction barriers for the SN2 reaction of microsolvated sodium p-nitrophenoxide toward halomethanes in acetone.

  4. Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of MnH and MnD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Shayesteh, Alireza; Walker, Kaley A.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of MnH and MnD were observed in the ground X7Σ + electronic state. The vibration-rotation bands from v = 1 → 0 to v = 3 → 2 for MnH and from v = 1 → 0 to v = 4 → 3 for MnD were recorded at an instrumental resolution of 0.0085 cm -1. Spectroscopic constants were determined for each vibrational level and equilibrium constants were found from a Dunham-type fit. The equilibrium vibrational constant ( ωe) for MnH was found to be 1546.84518(65) cm -1, the equilibrium rotational constant ( Be) is 5.6856789(103) cm -1 and the eqilibrium bond distance ( re) was determined to be 1.7308601(47) Å.

  5. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  6. Electrochemical lithium and sodium intercalation into the tantalum-rich layered chalcogenides Ta2Se and Ta2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Two-layered tantalum chalcogenides are evaluated as alkali metal intercalation hosts in lithium and sodium electrochemical cells. The metal-rich pseudo-two-dimensional solid Ta 2 Se shows a poor intercalation behaviour. Lithium reacts with the selenide by deintercalating selenium from the blocks of Ta-related b.c.c. structure leading to a collapse of the structure and the formation of tantalum metal. Sodium is reversibly intercalated to a limited extent leading to complex structural changes in the selenide, as revealed by electron diffraction. The two-dimensional telluride Ta 2 Te 3 allows a topotactic intercalation of lithium below 1 F/mol, while a more extended reaction leads to sample amorphization. The better intercalation behaviour of this solid can be related with the one-atom thick metal layer and the van der Waals gap separating tellurium atoms of successive layers. Sodium can be reversibly intercalated into Ta 2 Te 3 in sodium cells which show a good cycling behaviour. Exposure of the intercalated solid to water vapour allows the preparation of hydrated products with a monolayer or a bilayer of water molecules solvating sodium in the interlayer space. (orig.)

  7. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  8. Isotope analysis by emission spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique par spectroscopie d'emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Blaise, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Aime Cotton, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France)

    1959-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of isotope mixtures by emission spectroscopy is resulting from the phenomenon called 'isotope shift', say from the fact that spectral lines produced by a mixture of isotopes of a same element are complex. Every spectral line is, indeed, resulting from several lines respectively corresponding to each isotope. Then isotopic components are near one to others, and their separation is effected by means of Fabry-Perot calibration standard: the apparatus allowing to measure abundances is the Fabry-Perot photo-electric spectrometer, designed in 1948 by MM. JACQUINOT and DUFOUR. This method has been used to make abundance determination in the case of helium, lithium, lead and uranium. In the case of lithium, the utilised analysis line depends on the composition of examined isotopic mixture. For mixtures containing 7 to 93 pour cent of one of isotopes of lithium, this line is the lithium blue line: {lambda} = 4603 angstrom. In other cases the red line {lambda} = 6707 angstrom is preferable, though it allows to do easily nothing but relative determinations. Helium shows no particular difficulty and the analysis line selected was {lambda} = 6678 angstrom. For lead the line {lambda} = 5201 angstrom gives the possibility to determine the isotope abundance for the four isotopes of lead notwithstanding the presence of hyperfine structure of {sup 207}Pb. For uranium, line {lambda} 5027 angstrom is used, and this method allows to determine the composition of isotope mixtures, the content of which in {sup 235}U may shorten to 0,1 per cent. Relative precision is about 2 per cent for contents in {sup 235}U over 1 per cent. For lower contents, this line {lambda} = 5027 angstrom will allow relative measures when using previously dosed mixtures. (author) [French] L'analyse quantitative des melanges isotopiques par spectroscopie d'emission doit son existence au phenomene appele 'deplacement isotopique', c'est-a-dire au fait que les raies spectrales emises par un

  9. Sodium removal from CSRDM lower part by water vapour - CO2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar Raj, S.I.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium is the primary and secondary coolant in fast reactors. Primary and secondary circuits components like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (CSRDM), pumps, heat exchangers etc. handle liquid sodium. Sodium has good affinity to oxygen and reacts vigorously with water. Hence sodium cleaning is the first and important activity in the maintenance of the components. In reactor components this cleaning process also helps in removing a major part of radioactive contaminants after which they are subjected to chemical decontamination. There are several methods available for removing sodium from components. Out of these, the water vapour-CO 2 process is selected for large components such as pumps, heat exchangers etc. while steam cleaning is used for the core sub assemblies. The cleaning processes are to be closely monitored to ensure safety because the release of hydrogen is to be kept below 4 % during the process. This paper discusses the in house facility and the experience in the successful use of the process in the cleaning of CSRDM. (author)

  10. MXene–2D layered electrode materials for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As promising candidates of power resources, electrochemical energy storage (EES devices have drawn more and more attention due to their ease of use, environmental friendliness, and high transformation efficiency. The performances of EES devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors, depend largely on the inherent properties of electrode materials. On account of the outstanding properties of graphene, a lot of studies have been carried out on two-dimensional (2D materials. Over the past few years, a new exfoliation method has been utilized to successfully prepare a new family of 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, termed MXene, from layered precursors. Moreover, some unique EES properties of MXene have been discovered. With rapid research progress on this field, a timely account about the applications of MXene in the EES fields is highly necessary. In this article, the research progress on the preparation, electrochemical performance, and mechanism analysis of MXene is summarized and discussed. We also propose some personal prospects for the further development of this field. Keywords: MXene, 2D materials, Electrochemistry, Battery, Supercapacitor

  11. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  12. Calculation of deuterium retention, re-emission and reflection from a tungsten material under D+ ions irradiation with ACAT-DIFFUSE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Muramoto, T.; Kawamura, T.

    2009-01-01

    We calculated, with a dynamic Monte Carlo code ACAT-DIFFUSE, fluxes of thermal D 2 re-emission, reflection and segregated self-sputtering of D from a D + implanted wrought tungsten material during a time sequence of l00 eV D + implantation, post-implanted isothermal out-gassing and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The obtained result was in good agreement with an existing experiment if two different trap sites with de-trapping energy of 0.85 eV and 2.2 eV and density fraction of 0.05 D/W and 0.01 D/W were assumed to exist. The re-emission, reflection and self-sputtering fluxes in the implantation period were shown to be almost comparable. The integrated deuterium flux released in the same period was estimated. The amount of deuterium retained at 300 K was nearly six times higher than that at 473 K, which reflects the result that mobile atoms and atoms trapped in 0.85 eV trap existed abundantly at 300 K but scarcely at 473 K.

  13. 18 F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography of the equine distal limb: Exploratory study in three horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, M; Espinosa, P; Kyme, A Z; Phillips, K L; Katzman, S A; Galuppo, L D; Stepanov, P; Beylin, D

    2018-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a cross-sectional, functional imaging modality that has recently become available to the horse. The use of 18 F-sodium fluoride ( 18 F-NaF), a PET bone tracer, has not previously been reported in this species. To assess the feasibility of 18 F-NaF PET in the equine distal limb and explore possible applications in the horse in comparison with other imaging modalities. Exploratory descriptive study involving three research horses. Horses were placed under general anaesthesia prior to intravenous (i.v.) administration of 1.5 MBq/kg of 18 F-NaF. Positron emission tomography imaging of both front feet and fetlocks was performed using a portable scanner. Computed tomography (CT) of the distal limb was performed under a separate anaesthetic episode. Bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were subsequently performed under standing sedation. Images obtained from PET and other imaging modalities were independently assessed and the results correlated. Positron emission tomography images were obtained without complication. The radiation exposure rate was similar to equine bone scintigraphy. Positron emission tomography detected focal 18 F-NaF uptake in areas where other imaging modalities did not identify any abnormalities. This included sites of ligamentous attachment, subchondral compact bone plate and the flexor cortex of the navicular bone. 18 F-NaF uptake was identified in some, but not all, osseous fragments and areas of osseous formation, suggesting a distinction between active and inactive lesions. A small number of horses were included and histopathology was not available. 18 F-NaF PET imaging of the equine distal limb provides useful additional information when compared with CT, MRI and scintigraphy and has the potential for both research and clinical applications in the horse. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Safety approach and R and D program for future french sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beils, Stephane; Carluec, Bernard; Devictor, Nicolas; Fiorini, Gian Luigi; Sauvage, Jean Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents briefly the safety approach as well as the R and D program that is underway to support the deployment of future French Sodium-Cooled fast Reactors (SFRs): A) Safety objectives and principles for future reactors. The content of the first section reflects the works of AREVA, CEA, and EDF concerning the safety orientations for the future reactors. The availability of such orientations and requirements for the SFRs has to allow introducing and managing the process that will lead to the detailed definition of the safety approach, to the selection of the corresponding safety options, and to the identification and motivation of the supporting R and D. B) Strategy and roadmap in support of the R and D for future SFRs. This section describes the R and D program led jointly by CEA, EDF, and AREVA, which has been developed with the objectives to be able to preliminarily define, by 2012, the safety orientations for the future SFRs, and to deduce from them the characteristics of the ASTRID prototype. (author)

  15. China CO2 emission accounts 1997-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuli; Guan, Dabo; Zheng, Heran; Ou, Jiamin; Li, Yuan; Meng, Jing; Mi, Zhifu; Liu, Zhu; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    China is the world's top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China's CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011. In this study, we constructed the time-series of CO2 emission inventories for China and its 30 provinces. We followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions accounting method with a territorial administrative scope. The inventories include energy-related emissions (17 fossil fuels in 47 sectors) and process-related emissions (cement production). The first version of our dataset presents emission inventories from 1997 to 2015. We will update the dataset annually. The uniformly formatted emission inventories provide data support for further emission-related research as well as emissions reduction policy-making in China.

  16. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  17. 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-mannose positron emission tomography imaging in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahara, Nobuhiro; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; de Haas, Hans J; Petrov, Artiom D; Tawakol, Ahmed; Haider, Nezam; Tahara, Atsuko; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Zhou, Jun; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Nakano, Masataka; Finn, Aloke; Fayad, Zahi; Virmani, Renu; Fuster, Valentin; Bosca, Lisardo; Narula, Jagat

    Progressive inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increasing risk of plaque rupture. Molecular imaging of activated macrophages with 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose ([F-18]FDG) has been proposed for identification of patients at higher risk for acute vascular events. Because

  18. Livestock induces strong spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions within a semi-arid sylvo-pastoral landscape in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed H ASSOUMA; Dominique SER(C)A; Frédéric GU(E)RIN; Vincent BLANFORT; Philippe LECOMTE; Ibra TOUR(E); Alexandre ICKOWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the surface soils and surface water receiving animal excreta may be important components of the GHG balance of terrestrial ecosystems,but the associated processes are poorly documented in tropical environments,especially in tropical arid and semi-arid areas.A typical sylvo-pastoral landscape in the semi-arid zone of Senegal,West Africa,was investigated in this study.The study area (706 km2 of managed pastoral land) was a circular zone with a radius of 15 km centered on a borehole used to water livestock.The landscape supports a stocking rate ranging from 0.11 to 0.39 tropical livestock units per hectare depending on the seasonal movements of the livestock.Six landscape units were investigated (land in the vicinity of the borehole,natural ponds,natural rangelands,forest plantations,settlements,and enclosed plots).Carbon dioxide (CO2),nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured with static chambers set up at 13 sites covering the six landscape units,and the 13 sites are assumed to be representative of the spatial heterogeneity of the emissions.A total of 216 fluxes were measured during the one-year study period (May 2014 to April 2015).At the landscape level,soits and surface water emitted an average 19.8 t C-CO2 eq/(hm2·a) (CO2:82%,N2O:15%,and CH4:3%),but detailed results revealed notable spatial heterogeneity of GHG emissions.CO2 fluxes ranged from 1148.2 (±91.6) mg/(m2·d) in rangelands to 97,980.2 (±14,861.7) mg/(m2·d) in surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.N2O fluxes ranged from 0.6 (±0.1) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 22.6 (±10.8) mg/(m2·d) in the vicinity of the borehole.CH4 fluxes ranged from-3.2 (±0.3) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 8788.5 (±2295.9) mg/(m2·d) from surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.This study identified GHG emission "hot spots" in the landscape.Emissions from the surface soilts were significantly higher in the landscape units most frequently

  19. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of dopamine D2 receptors in the course of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staedt, J.; Stoppe, G.; Riemann, H.; Hajak, G.; Ruether, E.; Koegler, A.; Emrich, D.

    1995-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) permits the in vivo measurements of regional cerebral radioactivity in the human brain following the administration of compounds labeled with photon-emitting isotopes. According to our SPET findings of a reduced binding of [ 123 I]labeled (S)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl) benzamide (IBZM) (a highly selective CNS D 2 dopamine receptor ligand) to D 2 dopamine receptors in striatal structures in untreated patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS) it seemed to be of interest to investigate whether there are changes in D 2 receptor binding under dopamine replacement therapy or not. We studied the uptake and distribution of [ 123 I]IBZM before and in the course of dopamine replacement therapy in four patients with severe insomnia caused by nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS). We found an increase of the IBZM binding to D 2 receptors in the course of treatment, which was associated with an improvement of sleep quality. Reasons for this are discussed. The [ 123 I]IBZM SPET technique in conclusion offers an interesting tool for in vivo investigations of functional changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in longitudinal studies. (author)

  20. Drug: D04391 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04391 Mixture ... Drug Swertia and sodium bicarbonate powder (JP17); Swertia sodium bicarbonate... (TN) Swertia harb [DR:D04385], Sodium bicarbonate [DR:D01203] ... Therapeutic category: 2339 ... PubChem: 17398088 ...

  1. Electron emission following collisions between multi-charged ions and D2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.

    2004-05-01

    Dissociative ionisation mechanisms induced in collisions involving a highly charged ion (S 15+ , 13.6 MeV/u) and a molecular deuterium target, have been studied through momentum vector correlations of both the D + fragments and the electrons produced. An experimental apparatus has been developed in order to detect in coincidence all the charged particles produced during the collision. The measurement of their momentum vectors, which allows one to determine both their kinetic energy and direction of emission with respect to the projectile one, combines Time of Flight, Position Sensitive Detection, and multi-coincidence techniques. The correlation of the fragment and electron kinetic energies enables not only to determine branching ratios between the dissociative ionisation pathways, but also to separate unambiguously kinetic energy distributions of fragments associated to each process. Finally, the angular distributions of ejected electrons, as a function of the orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the projectile direction, are deduced from the spatial correlation. Measurements are compared to theoretical angular distributions obtained using the CDW-EIS (Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State) method. (author)

  2. Effects of a behavioral intervention that emphasizes spices and herbs on adherence to recommended sodium intake: results of the SPICE randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cobb, Laura K; Miller, Edgar R; Woodward, Mark; Hottenstein, Annette; Chang, Alex R; Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; White, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thomas, Letitia; Appel, Lawrence J

    2015-09-01

    For decades, dietary sodium intake in the United States has remained high, and few studies have examined strategies for maintaining recommended intakes. We examined the effects of a behavioral intervention, which emphasized spices and herbs, on the maintenance of sodium intake at the recommended intake of 1500 mg/d in individuals to whom the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply. We conducted a 2-phase study that included adults ≥18 y of age for whom Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1500 mg Na/d. The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2012 to 2014. In phase 1, 55 individuals consumed a low-sodium diet for 4 wk. Participants were provided all foods, snacks, and calorie-containing drinks. In phase 2, 40 participants from phase 1 were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention to reduce sodium intake (n = 20) or a self-directed control group (n = 20) for 20 wk. The primary study outcome was the change in mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion during phase 2. Linear regression analyses were used to determine intervention effects on urinary sodium excretion. Participant characteristics were as follows: women: 65%; African American: 88%; hypertension: 63%; diabetes: 18%; mean age: 61 y; and mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30. At the end of phase 2, mean 24-h sodium excretion was lower in the behavioral intervention than in the self-directed group (mean difference: -956.8 mg/d; 95% CI: -1538.7, -374.9 mg/d) after sodium intake at screening was controlled for (P = 0.002). These findings persisted in sensitivity analyses that excluded potentially incomplete urine collections [Mage's equation mean difference: -1090 mg/d (P = 0.001); Joosens' equation mean difference: -796 mg/d (P = 0.04)]. A multifactorial behavioral intervention emphasizing spices and herbs significantly reduced sodium intake. Because of the ubiquity of sodium in the US food supply, multilevel strategies addressing individual behaviors and the food supply are needed

  3. Antihypertensive effect of etamicastat in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Ines; Asico, Laureano D; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Serrão, Maria Paula; Cuevas, Santiago; Grandy, David K; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Jose, Pedro A

    2018-04-13

    Abnormalities of the D 2 R gene (DRD2) play a role in the pathogenesis of human essential hypertension; variants of the DRD2 have been reported to be associated with hypertension. Disruption of Drd2 (D 2 -/- ) in mice increases blood pressure. The hypertension of D 2 -/- mice has been related, in part, to increased sympathetic activity, renal oxidative stress, and renal endothelin B receptor (ETBR) expression. We tested in D 2 -/- mice the effect of etamicastat, a reversible peripheral inhibitor of dopamine-β-hydroxylase that reduces the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine and decreases sympathetic nerve activity. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized D 2 -/- mice treated with etamicastat by gavage, (10 mg/kg), conscious D 2 -/- mice, and D 2 +/+ littermates, and mice with the D 2 R selectively silenced in the kidney, treated with etamicastat in the drinking water (10 mg/kg per day). Tissue and urinary catecholamines and renal expression of selected G protein-coupled receptors, enzymes related to the production of reactive oxygen species, and sodium transporters were also measured. Etamicastat decreased blood pressure both in anesthetized and conscious D 2 -/- mice and mice with renal-selective silencing of D 2 R to levels similar or close to those measured in D 2 +/+ littermates. Etamicastat decreased cardiac and renal norepinephrine and increased cardiac and urinary dopamine levels in D 2 -/- mice. It also normalized the increased renal protein expressions of ETBR, NADPH oxidase isoenzymes, and urinary 8-isoprostane, as well as renal NHE3 and NCC, and increased the renal expression of D 1 R but not D 5 R in D 2 -/- mice. In conclusion, etamicastat is effective in normalizing the increased blood pressure and some of the abnormal renal biochemical alterations of D 2 -/- mice.

  4. Spectral-luminescence properties of trivalent titanium in aluminum-sodium phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, S.B.; Batyaev, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since development of the first crystal laser, Al 2 O 3 crystals remain the most widely used in quantum electronics. In the present work, the aluminum-sodium phosphate glass, Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 , was studied with different proportions of components. A luminescence medium is obtained based on phosphate glass doped by Ti 3+ ions with intense emission in the 700-900-nm spectral range. This glass is a promising lasing medium for tunable solid-state lasers. 12 refs., 2 figs

  5. Dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hongyi, E-mail: zhouhy@zjut.edu.cn [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Han, Jian [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles were synthesized and used for 2,4-D removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle stability, {zeta}-potential and IEP of non- and stabilized Pd/Fe were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dechlorination of 2,4-D by different Pd/Fe systems was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction mechanism has been discussed and presented in the article. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of CMC/Fe mass ratio and pH were also investigated. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles and their applications to the dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under controlled laboratorial conditions. For this purpose batch mode experiments were conducted to understand the effects of CMC on the surface characteristics of Pd/Fe nanoparticles, optimum removal of 2,4-D and other surface interactions mechanism. Our experimental results demonstrated considerable enhancements in particle stability and chemical reactivity with the addition of CMC to Pd/Fe nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles were well dispersed, and nanoparticles remained in suspension for days compared to non-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles precipitated within minutes. The isoelectric point (IEP) of the nanoparticles shifted from pH 6.5 to 2.5, suggesting that CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles were negatively charged over a wider pH range. Our batch experiments demonstrated that CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles (0.6 g Fe L{sup -1}) were able to remove much higher levels of 2,4-D with only one intermediate 2-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2-CPA) and the final organic product phenoxyacetic acid (PA), than non-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles or microsized Pd/Fe particles. The removal percentage of 2,4-D increased from 10% to nearly 100% as the reaction pH decreased from 11

  6. 3D printing of mineral–polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey A. Egorov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the “ink”. The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  7. Positioning of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in national and international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Sodium Reduction in US Households' Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases, 2000 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-07-01

    Initiatives to reduce sodium in packaged foods have been launched in the United States, yet corresponding changes in the amount of sodium that US households obtain from packaged foods have not been evaluated, to our knowledge. To assess 15-year changes in the amount of sodium that US households acquire from packaged food purchases, the sodium content of purchases, and the proportion of households that have purchases with optimal sodium density. Longitudinal study of US households in the 2000 to 2014 Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel, a population-based sample of households that used barcode scanners to record all packaged foods purchased throughout the year. Time-varying brand- and product-specific nutrition information was used for 1 490 141 products. Sociodemographic-adjusted changes in mean sodium per capita (mg/d) and sodium content (mg/100 g), overall and for top food group sources of sodium, and the proportion of households that have total purchases with sodium density of 1.1 mg/kcal or less. In a nationwide sample of 172 042 US households (754 608 year-level observations), the amount of sodium that households acquired from packaged food and beverage purchases decreased significantly between 2000 and 2014 by 396 mg/d (95% CI, -407 to -385 mg/d) per capita. The sodium content of households' packaged food purchases decreased significantly during this 15-year period by 49 mg/100 g (95% CI, -50 to -48 mg/100 g), a 12.0% decline; decreases began in 2005 and continued through 2014. Moreover, the sodium content of households' purchases decreased significantly for all top food sources of sodium between 2000 and 2014, including declines of more than 100 mg/100 g for condiments, sauces, and dips (-114 mg/100 g; 95% CI, -117 to -111 mg/100 g) and salty snacks (-142 mg/100 g; 95% CI, -144 to -141 mg/100 g). However, in all years, less than 2% of US households had packaged food and beverage purchases with sodium density of 1.1 mg/kcal or less. In this nationwide

  9. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  10. Dietary sodium content, mortality, and risk for cardiovascular events in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Murphy, Rachel A; Newman, Anne B; Bauer, Douglas C; Harris, Tamara B; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2015-03-01

    Additional information is needed about the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2642 older adults (age range, 71-80 years) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception between April 1, 1997, and July 31, 1998). Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. We examined sodium intake as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable at the following levels: less than 1500 mg/d (291 participants [11.0%]), 1500 to 2300 mg/d (779 participants [29.5%]), and greater than 2300 mg/d (1572 participants [59.5%]). Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF during 10 follow-up years. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to 1981 participants without prevalent CVD at baseline. The mean (SD) age of participants was 73.6 (2.9) years, 51.2% were female, 61.7% were of white race, and 38.3% were black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 had developed CVD, and 398 had developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 g, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.09; P = .27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the group receiving 1500 to 2300 mg/d (30.7%) than in the group receiving less than 1500 mg/d (33.8%) and the group receiving greater than 2300 mg/d (35.2%) (P = .07). Sodium intake of greater than 2300 mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs 1500-2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.35; P = .07). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.20 (95% CI, 0.93-1.54; P = .16) per milligram per kilocalorie and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.96-1.28; P = .17) per

  11. Drug: D07921 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07921 Drug Estriol sodium succinate (BAN); Estriol 16alpha, 17beta-di (sodium suc...cinate); Styptanon (TN) ... C26H30O9. 2Na D07921.gif ... Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estr...ogen ATC code: G03CA04 G03CC06 Chemical group: DG00463 ... Estrogen NR3A1 (ESR1) [HSA:2099] [KO:K08550]; NR3A

  12. A 96-well automated method to study inhibitors of human sodium-dependent D-glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Francisco; Kinne, Rolf K-H

    2005-12-01

    The sodium-dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT) family is involved in glucose uptake via intestinal absorption (SGLT1) or renal reabsorption (SGLT1 and SGLT2). Current methods for the screening of inhibitors of SGLT transporters are complex, expensive and very labor intensive, and have not been applied to human SGLT transporters. The purpose of the present study was to develop an alternative 96-well automated method to study the activity of human SGLT1 and SGLT2. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Flp-In cells were stably transfected with pcDNA5-SGLT1 or pcDNA5-SGLT2 plasmid and maintained in hygromycin-selection Ham's F12 culture medium until hygromycin-resistant clones were developed. SGLT1 and SGLT2 gene expression was evaluated by relative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) quantification, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical analysis. The clones with higher expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 were used for transport studies using [14C]-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside ([14C]AMG). The advantage of using the 96-well format is the low amount of radioactive compounds and inhibitory substances required, and its ability to establish reproducibility because repetition into the assay. This method represents an initial approach in the development of transport-based high-throughput screening in the search for inhibitors of glucose transport. The proposed method can easily be performed to yield quantitative data regarding key aspects of glucose membrane transport and kinetic studies of potential inhibitors of human SGLT1 and SGLT2.

  13. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis with Elevated Acetone in a Patient Taking a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tory J; Cox, Robert D; Parker, Christina; Kolb, James

    2017-02-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days. Her work-up demonstrated a metabolic acidosis with an anion gap of 38 and a venous serum pH of 7.08. The serum glucose was 168 mg/dL. The urinalysis showed glucose > 500 mg/dL and ketones of 80 mg/dL. Further evaluation demonstrated an elevated serum osmolality of 319 mOsm/kg and an acetone concentration of 93 mg/dL. She was treated with intravenous insulin and fluids, and the metabolic abnormalities and her altered mental status resolved within 36 h. This was the first episode of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) for this patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Diabetic patients on SGLT2 inhibitor medications are at risk for ketoacidosis. Due to the renal glucose-wasting properties of these drugs, they may present with ketoacidosis with only mild elevations in serum glucose, potentially complicating the diagnosis. Acetone is one of the three main ketone bodies formed during DKA and it may be present at considerable concentrations, contributing to the serum osmolality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF INTERACTION OF SODIUM DOLUTEGRAVIR WITH HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yegorova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug-protein binding has become an important research field in life sciences, chemistry and clinical medicine. Under physiological conditions, in vitro interaction between the antiviral drug 2 Sodium (4R, 12aS-9-{[(2,4-difluorophenylmethyl]carbamoyl}-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo3,4,6,8, 12,12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1’,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1-b][1,3]oxazin-7 –olate (dolutegravir sodium, DN and human serum albumin (HSA was investigated at excitation wavelength 280 nm and at different temperatures (298 K and 313 K by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The emission of HSA was characterized by a broad emission band at 346 nm. The results of the experiment showed that DN quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein as a result of static interaction in the HSA -DN system, which is confirmed by shifts in the difference UV spectra of the HSA -DN and the reduction of the binding constant for the HSA -DN system with increasing temperature. The constant (KA =9,82· 103 L·mol-1 at 298 K and the number of binding sites of the HSA –DN system are established. The negative values of enthalpy change (ΔHº and entropy change (ΔSº can be attributed in part to van der Waals forces and in part to the formation of hydrogen bonds. A value of 2,14 nm for the average distance r between DN (acceptor and tryptophan residues of HSA (donor was derived from the fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The overlap of the absorbance spectrum of DN with the fluorescence emission spectrum of HAS has been shown. Since, the pharmaceutical firms need standardized screens for protein binding in the first step of new drug design, this kind of study of interaction between HSA with DN would be useful in pharmaceutical industry and clinical medicine.

  15. Effects of sodium environment on the mechanical properties of Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.

    Mechanical property data on isothermally annealed, thermally aged, and sodium-exposed Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel are analyzed to evaluate the influence of the sodium environment as well as the effects of the microstructural and compositional changes that occur in the steel during long-term exposure to sodium. Correlations are developed to predict the environmental effects on tensile, creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium. The results indicate that at temperatures <823 K (550 deg. C), degradation of mechanical properties is essentially due to thermal aging. Loss of carbon from the steel reduces both the tensile and creep-rupture strength, but has little or no effect on the fatigue properties. The cyclic properties of Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium are superior to those in air. The creep-fatigue behaviour in sodium is significantly different from that in an air environment. The creep-fatigue data are analyzed using the interactive damage rate equations to predict the time-dependent fatigue bahaviour of isothermally annealed Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium. (author)

  16. Effects of sodium environment on the mechanical properties of Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.

    1983-09-01

    Mechanical property data on isothermally annealed, thermally aged, and sodium-exposed Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel are analyzed to evaluate the influence of the sodium environment as well as the effects of the microstructural and compositional changes that occur in the steel during long-term exposure to sodium. Correlations are developed to predict the environmental effects on tensile, creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium. The results indicate that at temperatures 0 C), degradation of mechanical properties is essentially due to thermal aging. Loss of carbon from the steel reduces both the tensile and creep-rupture strength, but has little or no effect on the fatigue properties. The cyclic properties of Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium are superior to those in air. The creep-fatigue behavior in sodium is significantly different from that in an air environment. The creep-fatigue data are analyzed using the interactive damage rate equations to predict the time-dependent fatigue behavior of isothermally annealed Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in sodium. 15 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  17. R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)

  18. [18F]-Sodium fluoride uptake in Takayasu arteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexanderson-Rosas, E.; Monroy-Gonzalez, A. G.; Juarez-Orozco, Luis Eduardo; Martinez-Aguilar, M. M.; Estrada, E.; Soldevilla, I.; Garcia-Perez, O.; Soto-Lopez, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and (18)F-sodium fluoride with positron emission tomography relate with inflammation and calcification, their role in the assessment of patients with Takayasu arteritis has not yet been studied. METHODS: We present 5 patients with suspected active metabolic

  19. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  20. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A

    2011-07-26

    Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with

  1. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  2. Effect of sodium borohydride synthesis on NaBH4-H2 system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakoglu, F. oeznur; Kurtulus, Guelbahar

    2007-01-01

    The hazards and negative impacts of fossil fuel usage on environment and the prospect of fossil fuel depletion in near future have urged scientists to search for and use clean energy sources and alternative fuels. Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the effects of global warming. Although it is currently more expensive than other fuels, it will be cheaper following further developments in hydrogen technologies from production till end-use. Hydrogen storage is a critical issue in terms of safety and economics of hydrogen energy system. Chemical hydrides are an attractive hydrogen storage method due to their potential of achieving high volumetric and gravimetric storage densities. Among chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) is given a big attention, due to its 10.8% theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. Hydrogen, which can be released by sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction on-site, can be used in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at anode. on the other hand, sodium borohydride solution can be used directly in a borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) at anode. Like the other chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride has been an expensive material up to now, constituting a major obstacle to commercialization of sodium borohydride as a hydrogen storage method. This paper aims to give an approximate estimation process cost of the NaBH 4 -H 2 system by taking into account both the energy and raw material costs, starting with sodium borohydride production till recycling of it. Two different methods to synthesize sodium borohydride are analyzed and their effects on total cost are compared. It was found that the usage of Bayer process to synthesize sodium borohydride makes the overall sodium borohydride - hydrogen system cost higher than the total cost of the alternative process which starts with the production of sodium borohydride from borax decahydrate. (authors)

  3. Effect of cromolyn sodium eye drop on the β2-microglobulin (β2-m) content in lachrymal fluid of patients with vernal conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guohua; Huo Guoqing; Huang Hong; Rong Tianying; Zhang Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of cromolyn sodium eye drop on the β 2 -m content in lachrymal fluid of patients with acute vernal conjunctivitis. Methods: β 2 -m contents in the lachrymal fluid were measured with RIA in 72 eyes with conjunctivitis treated with cromolyn sodium eye drop for 7-10 days as well as in 50 eyes with conjunctivitis but without cromolyn sodium treatment. Results: The contents of β 2 -m in the lachrymal fluid of patients treated with cromolyn sodium eye drop for 7-10 day (10.68 ± 2. 53mg/L) were significantly lower than those in lachrymal fluid of patients without cromolyn treatment (17.70 ± 13.53mg/L, P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Cromolyn sodium eye drop treatment can lower the lachrymal fluid content of β 2 -m to normal in patients with acute vernal conjunctivitis. (authors)

  4. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla, E-mail: bhardwaj_spl@yahoo.com, E-mail: anil_bhardwaj@vssc.gov.in, E-mail: raghuramsusarla@gmail.com [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695022 (India)

    2012-03-20

    The green (5577 Angstrom-Sign ) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Angstrom-Sign ) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the {sup 1}S and {sup 1}D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H{sub 2}O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O({sup 1}S) and O({sup 1}D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H{sub 2}O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO{sub 2} and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% (<5%). The ratio of the photoproduction rate of O({sup 1} S) to O({sup 1} D) would be around 0.03 ({+-}0.01) if H{sub 2}O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is {approx}0.6 if the parent is CO{sub 2}. Our calculations suggest that the yield of O({sup 1} S) production in the photodissociation of H{sub 2}O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  5. A specific pharmacophore model of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Dandan; Zan, Xin; Yang, Baowei; Li, Ying; Du, Xiaoyong; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining glucose equilibrium in the human body, emerging as one of the most promising targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pharmacophore models of SGLT2 inhibitors have been generated with a training set of 25 SGLT2 inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. The best hypothesis (Hypo1(SGLT2)) contains one hydrogen bond donor, five excluded volumes, one ring aromatic and three hydrophobic features, and has a correlation coefficient of 0.955, cost difference of 68.76, RMSD of 0.85. This model was validated by test set, Fischer randomization test and decoy set methods. The specificity of Hypo1(SGLT2) was evaluated. The pharmacophore features of Hypo1(SGLT2) were different from the best pharmacophore model (Hypo1(SGLT1)) of SGLT1 inhibitors we developed. Moreover, Hypo1(SGLT2) could effectively distinguish selective inhibitors of SGLT2 from those of SGLT1. These results indicate that a highly predictive and specific pharmacophore model of SGLT2 inhibitors has been successfully obtained. Then Hypo1(SGLT2) was used as a 3D query to screen databases including NCI and Maybridge for identifying new inhibitors of SGLT2. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five. And several compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  7. Metabolic evidence that serosal sodium does not recycle through the active transepithelial transport pathway of toad bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, M; Labarca, P; Leaf, A

    1976-12-25

    The possibility that sodium from the serosal bathing medium "back diffuses" into the active sodium transport pool within the mucosal epithelial cell of the isolated toad bladder was examined by determining the effect on the metabolism of the tissue of removing sodium from the serosal medium. It was expected that if recycling of serosal sodium did occur through the active transepithelial transport pathway of the isolated toad bladder, removal of sodium from the serosal medium would reduce the rate of CO2 production by the tissue and enhance of stoichiometric ratio of sodium ions transported across the bladder per molecula of sodium transport dependent CO2 produced simultaneously by the bladder (JNa/JCO2). The data revealed no significant change in this ratio (17.19 with serosal sodium and 16.13 after replacing serosal sodium with choline). Further, when transepithelial sodium transport was inhibited (a) by adding amiloride to the mucosal medium, or (b) by removing sodium from the mucosal medium, subsequent removal of sodium from the serosal medium, or (c) addition of ouabain failed to depress the basal rate of CO2 production by the bladder [(a)rate of basal, nontransport related, CO2 production (JbCO2) equals 1.54 +/- 0.52 with serosal sodium and 1.54 +/- 0.37 without serosal sodium; (b) Jb CO2 equals 2.18 +/- 0.21 with serosal sodium and 2.09 +/- 0.21 without serosal sodium; (c) 1.14 +/- 0.26 without ouabain and 1.13 +/- 0.25 with ouabain; unite of JbCO2 are nmoles mg d.w.-1 min-1]. The results support the hypothesis that little, if any, recycling of serosal sodium occurs in the total bladder.

  8. New interpretation on formation of UO2 Post-Accident Heat Removal particulate in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative experimental study on quenching in sodium of four molten fuel materials, UO 2 Al 2 P 3 , Cu and stainless steel, is presented. Experimental results like temperatures, pressures, particle shapes, particle size distributions, crack patterns and crystal grain sizes are given and interpreted. These fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) can be understood as all being characterized by transition boiling of sodium. The fuel is first fragmented by the sodium vapor bubble growth and collapse process. These particulates have smooth surfaces. The two materials, UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , are fragmented further by a delayed mechanism which is thermal stress shrinkage cracking. Delayed particles are fragments of larger ones. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the theoretical results which show that pure FCI-particulate is significantly finer

  9. Numerical investigation on turbulence mixing characteristics under thermal striping flows. Investigations on fluid temperature fluctuation phenomena in air and sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Satoshi [Customer System Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1999-05-01

    A three-dimensional thermal striping analysis was carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3, for a coaxial jet configuration using air and sodium as a working fluid, within the framework of the EJCC thermo-hydraulic division. From the analysis, the following results have been obtained: (1) Calculated potential core length in air and sodium turbulence flows agreed with a theoretical value (5d - 7d ; d : diameter of jet nozzle) in the two-dimensional free jet theory. (2) Hydraulic characteristics in sodium flows as the potential core length can be estimated by the use of that of air flow characteristics. (3) Shorter thermally potential core length defined by spatial temperature distribution was evaluated in sodium flows, compared with that in air flows. This is due to the higher thermal conductivity of sodium. (4) Thermal characteristics in sodium flows as the thermally potential core length can not be evaluated, based on that air thermal characteristics. (author)

  10. Challenges in the development of dopamine D2- and D3-selective radiotracers for PET imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2018-03-01

    The dopamine D2-like receptors (ie, D2/3 receptors) have been the most extensively studied CNS receptor with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The 3 different radiotracers that have been used in these studies are [ 11 C]raclopride, [ 18 F]fallypride, and [ 11 C]PHNO. Because these radiotracers have a high affinity for both dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, the density of dopamine receptors in the CNS is reported as the D2/3 binding potential, which reflects a measure of the density of both receptor subtypes. Although the development of D2- and D3-selective PET radiotracers has been an active area of research for many years, this by and large presents an unmet need in the area of translational PET imaging studies. This article discusses some of the challenges that have inhibited progress in this area of research and the current status of the development of subtype selective radiotracers for imaging D3 and D2 dopamine receptors with PET. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. U duality, D-branes, and black hole emission rates: Agreements and disagreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, F.; Kastor, D.; Traschen, J.

    1998-01-01

    An expression for the spacetime absorption coefficient of a scalar field in a five-dimensional, near-extremal black hole background is derived, which has the same form as that presented by Maldacena and Strominger, but is valid over a larger, U-duality invariant region of parameter space and in general disagrees with the corresponding D-brane result. We develop an argument, based on D-brane thermodynamics, which specifies the range of parameters over which agreement should be expected. For neutral emission, the spacetime and D-brane results agree over this range. However, for charged emission, we find disagreement in the 'fat black hole' regime, in which charge is quantized in smaller units on the brane than in the bulk of spacetime. We indicate a possible problem with the D-brane model in this regime. We also use the Born approximation to study the high frequency limit of the absorption coefficient and find that it approaches unity, for large black hole backgrounds, at frequencies still below the string scale, again in disagreement with D-brane results. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Supersymmetric D2 anti-D2 Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    We consider the flat supersymmetric D2 and anti-D2 system, which follows from ordinary noncommutative D2 anti-D2 branes by turning on an appropriate worldvolume electric field describing dissolved fundamental strings. We study the strings stretched between D2 and anti-D2 branes and show explicitly that the would-be tachyonic states become massless. We compute the string spectrum and clarify the induced noncommutativity on the worldvolume. The results are compared with the matrix theory descri...

  13. Sodium restriction potentiates the renoprotective effects of combined vitamin D receptor activation and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in established proteinuric nephropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkovic, K.; Frenay, A.S.; Born, J. van den; Goor, H van; Navis, G.; Borst, M.H. de; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Hillebrands, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade provides renoprotective effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD); yet progressive renal function loss remains common. Dietary sodium restriction potentiates the renoprotective effects of RAAS blockade. Vitamin D receptor activator

  14. A fast rebinning algorithm for 3D positron emission tomography using John's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrise, Michel; Liu, Xuan

    1999-08-01

    Volume imaging in positron emission tomography (PET) requires the inversion of the three-dimensional (3D) x-ray transform. The usual solution to this problem is based on 3D filtered-backprojection (FBP), but is slow. Alternative methods have been proposed which factor the 3D data into independent 2D data sets corresponding to the 2D Radon transforms of a stack of parallel slices. Each slice is then reconstructed using 2D FBP. These so-called rebinning methods are numerically efficient but are approximate. In this paper a new exact rebinning method is derived by exploiting the fact that the 3D x-ray transform of a function is the solution to the second-order partial differential equation first studied by John. The method is proposed for two sampling schemes, one corresponding to a pair of infinite plane detectors and another one corresponding to a cylindrical multi-ring PET scanner. The new FORE-J algorithm has been implemented for this latter geometry and was compared with the approximate Fourier rebinning algorithm FORE and with another exact rebinning algorithm, FOREX. Results with simulated data demonstrate a significant improvement in accuracy compared to FORE, while the reconstruction time is doubled. Compared to FOREX, the FORE-J algorithm is slightly less accurate but more than three times faster.

  15. EARLY ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE TYPE Ib SN 2008D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken' ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tominaga, Nozomu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Benvenuto, Omar G., E-mail: melina.bersten@ipmu.jp [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA La Plata (Argentina)

    2013-04-20

    We propose an alternative explanation for the post-breakout emission of SN 2008D associated with the X-ray transient 080109. Observations of this object show a very small contrast of 0.35 dex between the light-curve minimum occurring soon after the breakout, and the main luminosity peak which is due to radioactive heating of the ejecta. Hydrodynamical models show that the cooling of a shocked Wolf-Rayet star leads to a much greater difference ({approx}> 0.9 dex). Our proposed scenario is that of a jet produced during the explosion which deposits {sup 56}Ni-rich material in the outer layers of the ejecta. The presence of high-velocity radioactive material allows us to reproduce the complete luminosity evolution of the object. Without outer {sup 56}Ni it could be possible to reproduce the early emission purely from cooling of the shocked envelope by assuming a larger progenitor than a Wolf-Rayet star, but that would require an initial density structure significantly different from what is predicted by stellar evolution models. Analytic models of the cooling phase have been proposed reproduce the early emission of SN 2008D with an extended progenitor. However, we found that the models are valid only until 1.5 days after the explosion where only two data of SN 2008D are available. We also discuss the possibility of the interaction of the ejecta with a binary companion, based on published analytic expressions. However, the binary separation required to fit the early emission should be {approx}< 3 R{sub Sun }, which is too small for a system containing two massive stars.

  16. Impact of D2O/H2O Solvent Exchange on the Emission of HgTe and CdTe Quantum Dots: Polaron and Energy Transfer Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiannan; Kershaw, Stephen V; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Zhovtiuk, Olga; Reckmeier, Claas; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I; Rogach, Andrey L

    2016-04-26

    We have studied light emission kinetics and analyzed carrier recombination channels in HgTe quantum dots that were initially grown in H2O. When the solvent is replaced by D2O, the nonradiative recombination rate changes highlight the role of the vibrational degrees of freedom in the medium surrounding the dots, including both solvent and ligands. The contributing energy loss mechanisms have been evaluated by developing quantitative models for the nonradiative recombination via (i) polaron states formed by strong coupling of ligand vibration modes to a surface trap state (nonresonant channel) and (ii) resonant energy transfer to vibration modes in the solvent. We conclude that channel (i) is more important than (ii) for HgTe dots in either solution. When some of these modes are removed from the relevant spectral range by the H2O to D2O replacement, the polaron effect becomes weaker and the nonradiative lifetime increases. Comparisons with CdTe quantum dots (QDs) served as a reference where the resonant energy loss (ii) a priori was not a factor, also confirmed by our experiments. The solvent exchange (H2O to D2O), however, is found to slightly increase the overall quantum yield of CdTe samples, probably by increasing the fraction of bright dots in the ensemble. The fundamental study reported here can serve as the foundation for the design and optimization principles of narrow bandgap quantum dots aimed at applications in long wavelength colloidal materials for infrared light emitting diodes and photodetectors.

  17. Straw enhanced CO2 and CH4 but decreased N2O emissions from flooded paddy soils: Changes in microbial community compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Yu, Jian-Guang; Zhao, Ya-Hui; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Lena Q.; Li, Hong-Bo

    2018-02-01

    To explore microbial mechanisms of straw-induced changes in CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from paddy field, wheat straw was amended to two paddy soils from Taizhou (TZ) and Yixing (YX), China for 60 d under flooded condition. Illumia sequencing was used to characterize shift in bacterial community compositions. Compared to control, 1-5% straw amendment significantly elevated CO2 and CH4 emissions with higher increase at higher application rates, mainly due to increased soil DOC concentrations. In contrast, straw amendment decreased N2O emission. Considering CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions as a whole, an overall increase in global warming potential was observed with straw amendment. Total CO2 and CH4 emissions from straw-amended soils were significantly higher for YX than TZ soil, suggesting that straw-induced greenhouse gas emissions depended on soil characteristics. The abundance of C-turnover bacteria Firmicutes increased from 28-41% to 54-77% with straw amendment, thereby increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. However, straw amendment reduced the abundance of denitrifying bacteria Proteobacteria from 18% to 7.2-13% or increased the abundance of N2O reducing bacteria Clostridium from 7.6-11% to 13-30%, thereby decreasing N2O emission. The results suggested straw amendment strongly influenced greenhouse gas emissions via alerting soil properties and bacterial community compositions. Future field application is needed to ascertain the effects of straw return on greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Preliminary performance and operating results from the integrated dry NOx/SO2 emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, T.; Schott, G.; Smith, R.; Muzio, L.; Jones, D.; Mali E.; Arrigoni, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapaho 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO x burners, overfire air, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO x control and dry sorbent injection with humidification for SO 2 control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through mid 1994. Preliminary results of the NO x control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO x removal has been easily met and that NO x removals of up to 80% are possible at full load with the combustion and SNCR systems. Testing of the dry sorbent injection system with low sulfur coal began in April 1993 using a calcium-based reagent. A maximum SO 2 removal of 40% has been achieved with duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide and humidification to a 25 degrees F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection is expected to achieved up to a 70% SO 2 reduction

  19. Emission analysis of Tb3+ -and Sm3+ -ion-doped (Li2 O/Na2 O/K2 O) and (Li2 O + Na2 O/Li2 O + K2 O/K2 O + Na2 O)-modified borosilicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar Reddy, B; Sailaja, S; Thyagarajan, K; Jho, Young Dahl; Sudhakar Reddy, B

    2018-05-01

    Four series of borosilicate glasses modified by alkali oxides and doped with Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ ions were prepared using the conventional melt quenching technique, with the chemical composition 74.5B 2 O 3 + 10SiO 2 + 5MgO + R + 0.5(Tb 2 O 3 /Sm 2 O 3 ) [where R = 10(Li 2 O /Na 2 O/K 2 O) for series A and C, and R = 5(Li 2 O + Na 2 O/Li 2 O + K 2 O/K 2 O + Na 2 O) for series B and D]. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the prepared glasses indicate their amorphous nature. The spectroscopic properties of the prepared glasses were studied by optical absorption analysis, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. A green emission corresponding to the 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 (543 nm) transition of the Tb 3+ ions was registered under excitation at 379 nm for series A and B glasses. The emission spectra of the Sm 3+ ions with the series C and D glasses showed strong reddish-orange emission at 600 nm ( 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 ) with an excitation wavelength λ exci = 404 nm ( 6 H 5/2 → 4 F 7/2 ). Furthermore, the change in the luminescence intensity with the addition of an alkali oxide and combinations of these alkali oxides to borosilicate glasses doped with Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ ions was studied to optimize the potential alkali-oxide-modified borosilicate glass. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. FY16 Status of Immersion Phased Array Ultrasonic Probe Development and Performance Demonstration Results for Under Sodium Viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Chamberlin, Clyde E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hagge, Tobias J.; Hughes, Michael S.; Larche, Michael R.; Mathews, Royce A.; Neill, Kevin J.; Prowant, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    This section of the Joint summary technical letter report (TLR) describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) during FY 2016 (FY16) on the under-sodium viewing (USV) PNNL project 58745, work package AT-16PN230102. This section of the TLR satisfies PNNL's M3AT-16PN2301025 milestone and is focused on summarizing the design, development, and evaluation of two different phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) probe designs - a two-dimensional (2D) matrix phased-array probe, and two one-dimensional (1D) linear array probes, referred to as serial number 4 (SN4) engineering test units (ETUs). The 2D probe is a pulse-echo (PE), 32x2, 64-element matrix phased-array ETU. The 1D probes are 32x1 element linear array ETUs. This TLR also provides the results from a performance demonstration (PD) of in-sodium target detection trials at 260°C using both probe designs. This effort continues the iterative evolution supporting the longer term goal of producing and demonstrating a pre-manufacturing prototype ultrasonic probe that possesses the fundamental performance characteristics necessary to enable the development of a high-temperature sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) inspection system for in-sodium detection and imaging.

  1. FY16 Status of Immersion Phased Array Ultrasonic Probe Development and Performance Demonstration Results for Under Sodium Viewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamberlin, Clyde E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hagge, Tobias J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, Michael S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathews, Royce A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neill, Kevin J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prowant, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This section of the Joint summary technical letter report (TLR) describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) during FY 2016 (FY16) on the under-sodium viewing (USV) PNNL project 58745, work package AT-16PN230102. This section of the TLR satisfies PNNL’s M3AT-16PN2301025 milestone and is focused on summarizing the design, development, and evaluation of two different phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) probe designs—a two-dimensional (2D) matrix phased-array probe, and two one-dimensional (1D) linear array probes, referred to as serial number 4 (SN4) engineering test units (ETUs). The 2D probe is a pulse-echo (PE), 32×2, 64-element matrix phased-array ETU. The 1D probes are 32×1 element linear array ETUs. This TLR also provides the results from a performance demonstration (PD) of in-sodium target detection trials at 260°C using both probe designs. This effort continues the iterative evolution supporting the longer term goal of producing and demonstrating a pre-manufacturing prototype ultrasonic probe that possesses the fundamental performance characteristics necessary to enable the development of a high-temperature sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) inspection system for in-sodium detection and imaging.

  2. Metallic sodium as a coolant of high speed nuclear reactors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumo, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    Tables are given on all the sodium loops in Japan and most of the sodium loops all over the world. Name and purpose of the loops, time of establishment, highest temperature, amount of sodium, flow rate, the materials used for the construction of the loops, and the diameter of the main pipings are given. Also, the problems related with these loops are discussed. For example, the high temperature sodium facility at HEDL-WADCO was made for the FFTF component test and instrument test, and uses 50,000 gallons of metallic sodium. The highest temperature is 590 0 C. The sodium flows at the rate of 60 g/m. The body is made of Type 304 stainless steel. Main data of existing sodium-cooled reactors in the world are also tabulated. The data include thermal output, electric output, the structure of the reactor cores, the dimensions of the cores, fuel used, the highest temperature in the reactors, the temperature of sodium at the inlet and outlet, the rate of multiplication, the amount of sodium used, number of control rods, number of heat exchangers, and the pressure of steam. The Monju type nuclear reactor in Japan uses 1,800 ton of sodium. (Fukutomi, T.)

  3. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  4. Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour urine collections in a white, black, and Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Bianca; Schutte, Aletta E; Cockeran, Marike; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2016-11-01

    Limited number of studies on salt intake has been conducted in the South Africa. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium, and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5 mmol/d, respectively, and the median salt intake was 7.2 g/d. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake/d, and 65.6% consumed more than 6 g of salt/d. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (P-trend ≤ .001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government's sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors for patients with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Michael Einar; Storgaard, Heidi; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i)-class is efficacious as monotherapy and as add-on therapy with an expected lowering of the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration of approximately 7 mmol/mol. Side effects relate to the mode of action, genital infections are the main...... problem. Extremely rare cases of ketoacidosis are reported, mostly in patients with Type 1 diabetes. One SGLT-2i, empagliflozin, has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and progression of kidney disease in patients with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Outcome trials for other SGLT-2i...... are pending. SGLT-2i are now in guidelines as a possible second-line therapy or in case of metformin intolerance....

  6. Process of transformation of radioactive waste of metal sodium into soda solution by reaction with an alcohol followed by hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Gerard; Mathurin, Rene.

    1981-09-01

    Reviews of the literature and of the laboratory tests are followed by a presentation of the results obtained during experiments carried out on a model with some ten grams of sodium contaminated by radioactive materials and on an industrial pre-pilot with several kilograms of non-contaminated sodium. Sodium is converted into alcoholate through the action of ethylcarbitol (CH 3 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 OH) on liquid sodium in suspension in xylene at 110 deg C. Once the reaction is complete, xylene is distillated and the alcoholate is in solution in an axcess of alcohol. Hydrolysis by water gives out the initial alcohol which is then extracted from the aqueous phase by toluene. All these operations are carried out in inert atmosphere (nitrogen). Sodium is thus converted into a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution with emission of hydrogen, the intermediate products (alcohol, xylene, toluene) being recyled. The process is reliable and recycling of organic products is favourable economically. The advantage of the method is to concentrate nearly all the radioactivity of the contaminated sodium in the aqueous phase, thus avoiding the dispersion of activity especially with the gaseous effluents. Finally, data are given allowing to consider the realization of a pilot with a weekly capacity of 100 kg of sodium, in semi-continuous operation [fr

  7. EGCG Maintains Th1/Th2 Balance and Mitigates Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium through TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced ulcerative colitis in rats and to explore the roles of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Methods. Rat models of ulcerative colitis were established by giving DSS. EGCG (50 mg/kg/d was given to assess disease activity index. HE staining was applied to observe histological changes. ELISA and qPCR detected the expression of inflammatory factors. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-4+ in the spleen and colon. TLR4 antagonist E5564 was given in each group. Flow cytometry was utilized to detect CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-4+ cells. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blot assay were applied to measure the expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB. Results. EGCG improved the intestinal mucosal injury in rats, inhibited production of inflammatory factors, maintained the balance of Th1/Th2, and reduced the expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB. After TLR4 antagonism, the protective effect of EGCG on intestinal mucosal injury was weakened in rats with ulcerative colitis, and the expressions of inflammatory factors were upregulated. Conclusion. EGCG can inhibit the intestinal inflammatory response by reducing the severity of ulcerative colitis and maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate solution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113 or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107 before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865. The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12% in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.1% in the saline group (RR: 1.68, CI 95%: 0.72 to 3.94. Conclusion: Our investigation showed that there were no differences between normal saline solution (extended infusion vs. bicarbonate solution for nephroprotection.

  9. Sodium titanate nanorods: Preparation, microstructure characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Večerníková, Eva; Szatmáry, Lórant; Klementová, Mariana; Balek, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1-2 (2006), s. 20-30 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : sodium titanate * nanorods * ethylene glycol Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2006

  10. Turbulence imaging and applications using beam emission spectroscopy on DIII-D (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, G. R.; Fenzi, C.; Fonck, R. J.; Jakubowski, M.

    2003-03-01

    Two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations are obtained in the radial and poloidal plane of the DIII-D tokamak with the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic system. The goals are to visualize the spatial structure and time evolution of turbulent eddies, as well as to obtain the 2D statistical properties of turbulence. The measurements are obtained with an array of localized BES spatial channels configured to image a midplane region of the plasma. 32 channels have been deployed, each with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm in the radial and poloidal directions, thus providing measurements of turbulence in the wave number range 0movies have broad application to a wide variety of fundamental turbulence studies: imaging of the highly complex, nonlinear turbulent eddy interactions, measurement of the 2D correlation function, and S(kr,kθ) wave number spectra, and direct measurement of the equilibrium and time-dependent turbulence flow field. The time-dependent, two-dimensional turbulence velocity flow-field is obtained with time-delay-estimation techniques.

  11. Test firing and emissions analysis of densified RDF (d-RDF) in a small power boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.; Chehaske, J.T.; Meadows, F.; Owens, H.J.; Yoest, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A test program to determine the feasibility of burning densified refuse-derived fuel in a small power boiler has been successfully completed. The first phase of the contract entailed assembly and assessment of information on d-RDF combustion from other studies, compilation of existing and proposed regulations for the seven sponsoring Great Lakes states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin, location of d-RDF and waste paper pellet manufacturers in the region, and fuel supply/test site selection. The second phase entailed conducting test burns with two types of d-RDF composed of municipal solid waste (MSW) and one type of d-RDF composed of waste cardboard. The tests were conducted at a small boiler located at Dordt College in Sioux Center, Iowa. The boiler is not equipped with any pollution control equipment and the emission measurements therefore represent those from an uncontrolled source. Results demonstrated that a particulate control system is required to meet the standard set by Iowa for less than 0.6 lbs particulate matter per million BTU heat input. With the planned addition of a baghouse system for control, the facility should meet all existing State limits for emissions levels. Air toxics concentrations including metals, dioxins, furans, and PCBs were low relative to other municipal waste combustors and will be further reduced after installation of baghouse filter equipment. The key remaining concerns relate to the acceptable level of HCl emissions which are a strong function of the plastic content of fuel raw material and SO 2 which varies widely with fuel raw material composition

  12. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  13. CO2 emissions in the World in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecoiffier, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data of CO 2 emissions in the world and their evolution. It more particularly addresses CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion which represent more than 80 per cent of these emissions or 62 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, and which increased in 2013 with respect to 2012 (+ 2.2 pc). The distribution of CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion in different continents and regions is indicated (levels in 1990, 2012 and 2013, evolutions). The decrease of the CO 2 emission intensity with respect to the GDP is briefly commented (evolution since 1970), as well as the level of CO 2 emissions per inhabitant in China with respect to that in the EU (evolutions since 1970). The evolution of CO 2 emissions is then analysed with respect to different determining parameters according to the Kaya equation (population, GDP, primary energy consumption and their evolution or relationship one to each other)

  14. Dynamics of electron emission in double photoionization processes near the krypton 3