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Sample records for sodium compatibility studies

  1. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, V.

    1981-01-01

    A review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors, is presented. The results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions are included. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (author) [es

  2. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena Moreno, V.

    1981-01-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  3. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  4. Compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate in multilayer polyolefin containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouin, Christelle; Thelcide, Chloë; Crespin-Maillard, Fabienne; Maillard, Christian; Kinowski, Jean Marie; Favier, Mireille

    2005-10-01

    The compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied. Test solutions of ondansetron hydrochloride 0.16 mg/mL and methylprednisolone sodium succinate 2.4 mg/mL were prepared in triplicate and tested in duplicate. Total volumes of 4 and 2 mL of ondansetron hydrochloride solution and methylprednisolone sodium succinate solution, respectively, were added to 50-mL multilayer polyolefin bags containing 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Bags were stored for 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and for 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Chemical compatibility was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and physical compatibility was determined visually. Ondansetron hydrochloride was stable for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate was stable for up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. When stored at 20-25 degrees C, methylprednisolone sodium succinate was stable for up to 7 hours in 5% dextrose injection and up to 24 hours in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Compatibility data for solutions containing ondansetron hydrochloride plus methylprednisolone sodium succinate revealed that each drug was stable for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Ondansetron 0.16 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride) and methylprednisolone 2.4 mg/mL (as the sodium succinate) mixed in 50-mL multilayer polyolefin bags were stable in both 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C.

  5. The compatibility of various austenitic steels with molten sodium (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, L.; Sannier, J.; Darras, R.; Graff, W.; Juste, P.

    1963-01-01

    Various techniques for studying corrosion by molten sodium have been developed and applied to the case of 18/10 austenitic steels. The results obtained are discussed as a function of various parameters: type of steel, temperature, oxygen content of the sodium, surface treatment, welds, mechanical strain. In general, these steels have an excellent resistance to sodium when the oxygen content is limited by a simple purification system of the 'cold trap' type, and when an attempt is made to avoid cavitation phenomena which are particularly dangerous, as is shown by the example given. (authors) [fr

  6. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors; Compatibilidad del sodio con oxidos ceramicos utilizados en reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena Moreno, V

    1981-07-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  7. Sodium compatibility of aluminide and chromium nitride coatings on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler-Latge, P.; Ardellier, A.; Depierre, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is a part of a more general research and development program which is presented in another session of this meeting. The main aim of this program was the selection of coatings or treatments able to improve the tribological behaviour of austenitic stainless steel intended to use as structural material for subassemblies and diagrid of a LMFBR in project. Among this environmental conditions imposed for that application, we can retain: in normal conditions of operation, a purified sodium flow at about 400 0 C with a certain number of accidental cold thermal shocks, during the 30 years period of life of the reactor, and also with some hot variations of the sodium temperature from 400 0 C to 550 0 C. Some coatings which had been preselected for that use having not yet been tested in compatibility with liquid sodium for a long period, it was necessary to proceed to corrosion resistance tests in sodium environment almost for the thinner of them, in order to see if they were able to bear the environment conditions required for the project. Consecutively of these tests, metallurgical examinations have been made on samples, firstly after a 4000 hours period of dwell in sodium flowing at 400 0 C, and secondly after an additional dwelling period in flowing sodium of 500 hours at 550 0 C. The main metallurgical observations relative to three coatings or treatments are related thereafter

  8. Compatibility and stability of aloxi (palonosetron hydrochloride) admixed with dexamethasone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissel, Lawrence A; Zhang, Yanping

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of palonosetron hydrochloride 0.25 mg admixed with dexamethasone (as sodium phophate) 10 mg or 20 mg in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinylchloride minibags, and also admixed with dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) 3.3 mg in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polypropylene syringes, at 4 deg C stored in the dark for 14 days, and at 23 deg C exposed to normal laboratory fluorescent light over 48 hours. Test samples of palonosetron hydrochloride 5 micrograms/mL with dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) 0.2 mg/mL and also 0.4 mg/mL were prepared in polyvinylchloride minibags of each infusion solution. Additionally, palonosetron hydrochloride 25 micrograms/mL with dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) 0.33 mg/mL in each infusion solution were prepared as 10 mL of test solution in 20-mL polypropylene syringes. Evaluations for physical and chemical stability were performed on samples taken initially and after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of storage at 4 deg C and after 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours at 23 deg C. Physical stability was assessed using visual observation in normal room light and using a high-intensity monodirectional light beam. In addition, turbidity and particle content were measured electronically. Chemical stability of the drug was evaluated by using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical technique. All samples were physically compatible throughout the study. The solutions remained clear and showed little or no change in particulate burden and haze level. Additionally, little or no loss of palonosetron hydrochloride and dexamethasone occurred in any of the samples at either temperature throughout the entire study period. Admixtures of palonosetron hydrochloride with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 5% dextrose injection or in 0.9% sodium chloride injection packaged in polyvinylchloride minibags or in

  9. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure.

  10. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL LC MS/MS COMPATIBLE DETERGENTS WITH SODIUM DEOXYCHOLATE FOR SHOTGUN PROTEOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb J. Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the performance of sodium deoxycholate (SDC with several commercially available LC MS/MS compatible detergents for digestion of complex proteomic mixtures. First, the parameters affecting in-solution digestion using SDC were investigated with a full factorial experimental design. Metrics explored were trypsin ratio, digestion time, and concentration of SDC. These parameters were not found to be statistically associated with total peptide identifications in the experimental space investigated. However, in terms of digestion efficiency, digestion time was highly significant (p = 0.0095 as determined by the percent of peptides identified with missed cleavages. The optimized protocol for peptide identification and throughput was used to compare the performance of SDC with various commercially available LC MS/MS compatible surfactants namely Invitrosol, RapiGest, and PPS Silent Surfactant. The detergents were found to be similar through comparisons of the total identified peptides and the hydrophobicity of recovered peptides. We found suitable recovery across a large range of SDC concentrations determined from a bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay. In a spike down experiment, no distinct differences in total number of peptide identifications were discovered when comparing PPS (Silent Surfactant and SDC for preparation of peptide samples derived from low protein amounts (< 20 µg. Combined, these results indicate that SDC is a cost effective alternative to other commonly used LC MS/MS compatible surfactants

  11. The compatibility of basalt and MgO with liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.; Runge, H.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of commercially available basalt and MgO-ceramics with liquid sodium has been investigated up to 900 0 C. The two basalt qualities even reacted with sodium at low temperatures and short exposure times. Some inserted MgO-ceramics exhibited the expected good sodium compatibility even at 900 0 C for 100 hours. The reaction mechanisms, the volume changes and the mass balance are discussed. In the thermal shock experiments, the basaltic materials were totally disintegrated while the MgO-qualities remained compact. (author)

  12. Physical Compatibility of Micafungin With Sodium Bicarbonate Hydration Fluids Commonly Used With High-Dose Methotrexate Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Logan C; Tynes, Clay; Arnold, John; Miller, Rachel R; Gorman, Greg

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the physical compatibility of micafungin with commonly used concentrations of sodium bicarbonate hydration fluids administered via a Y-site connected to a central venous catheter (Y-site/CVC). Methods: Micafungin sodium (evaluated concentration of 1.5 mg/mL) was combined in a 3:1 (vehicle:drug) ratio with the following commonly used hydration vehicles: 40 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate in 5% dextrose in water with ¼ normal saline (40SB-D5W-1/4NS), 75 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate in D5W (75SB-D5W), and 154 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate in D5W (154SB-D5W). A 3:1 ratio was used based on the flow rates (typically 125 mL/m 2 /h for bicarbonate-containing vehicles and 50 mL/h for micafungin) of the corresponding solutions in a clinical setting. Visual observations recorded to determine physical compatibility included visual inspection against different backgrounds (unaided, black, and white). Other physical observations were as follows: odor, evolution of gas, pH, and turbidity immediately recorded after mixing and at specified time points up to 2 hours. Evaluations at each time point were compared against baseline observation values at Time 0. Results: All combinations tested were found to be compatible up to 2 hours. Time points beyond 2 hours cannot be safely verified as compatible. Conclusion: Micafungin may be administered safely using a Y-site/CVC delivery system with all the vehicles tested in this study.

  13. Compatibility of butorphanol and droperidol in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2013-03-15

    The compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate and droperidol in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 15 days were studied. Admixtures were assessed initially and for 15 days after preparation in PVC bags and glass bottles using 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent and stored at 4°C and 25°C. The initial drug concentrations were 0.08 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate and 0.05 mg/mL for droperidol. Samples were withdrawn from each container immediately after preparation and at predetermined intervals (2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 240, and 360 hours after preparation). The solutions were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. After 15 days of storage, all formulations tested retained >98% of the initial concentrations of both drugs. The drug mixtures were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and droperidol 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for at least 360 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light.

  14. Compatibility of steels for fast breeder reactor in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Shunichi

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been made and experience has been obtained for material applicability in sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. In this report, materials, principal dimensions and sodium conditions for the reactor system components, which include fuel pin cladding, intermediate heat exchangers, steam generators and pipings, are reviewed with emphasis on the thin-walled, high temperature and high strength components. The corrosion, mechanical and tribological behavior in sodium of important materials used for the reactor components, such as Types 304 and 316 stainless steel and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, are discussed on the basis of characteristic testing results. Furthermore, material requirements concerned with compatibility in sodium are summarized from this review and discussion. (author)

  15. Sodium laurate, a novel protease- and mass spectrometry-compatible detergent for mass spectrometry-based membrane proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lin

    Full Text Available The hydrophobic nature of most membrane proteins severely complicates their extraction, proteolysis and identification. Although detergents can be used to enhance the solubility of the membrane proteins, it is often difficult for a detergent not only to have a strong ability to extract membrane proteins, but also to be compatible with the subsequent proteolysis and mass spectrometric analysis. In this study, we made evaluation on a novel application of sodium laurate (SL to the shotgun analysis of membrane proteomes. SL was found not only to lyse the membranes and solubilize membrane proteins as efficiently as SDS, but also to be well compatible with trypsin and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, SL could be efficiently removed by phase transfer method from samples after acidification, thus ensuring not to interfere with the subsequent CapLC-MS/MS analysis of the proteolytic peptides of proteins. When SL was applied to assist the digestion and identification of a standard protein mixture containing bacteriorhodoposin and the proteins in rat liver plasma membrane-enriched fractions, it was found that, compared with other two representative enzyme- and MS-compatible detergents RapiGest SF (RGS and sodium deoxycholate (SDC, SL exhibited obvious superiority in the identification of membrane proteins particularly those with high hydrophobicity and/or multiple transmembrane domains.

  16. Compatibility and Stability of Rolapitant Injectable Emulsion Admixed with Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, George; Yeung, Stanley; Chen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone combination therapy is the standard of care for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Herein, we describe the physical and chemical stability of an injectable emulsion of the Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant 185 mg in 92.5 mL (free base, 166.5 mg in 92.5 mL) admixed with either 2.5 mL of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10 mg) or 5 mL of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (20 mg). Admixtures were prepared and stored in two types of container closures (glass and Crystal Zenith plastic bottles) and four types of intravenous administration tubing sets (or intravenous tubing sets). The assessment of the physical and chemical stability was conducted on admixtures packaged in bottled samples stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C under fluorescent light) and evaluated at 0, 1, and 6 hours. For admixtures in intravenous tubing sets, the assessment of physicochemical stability was performed after 0 and 7 hours of storage at 20°C to 25°C, and then after 20 hours (total 27 hours) under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and protected from light. Physical stability was assessed by visually examining the bottle contents under normal room light and measuring turbidity and particulate matter. Chemical stability was assessed by measuring the pH of the admixture and determining drug concentrations through high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Results showed that all samples were physically compatible throughout the duration of the study. The admixtures stayed within narrow and acceptable ranges in pH, turbidity, and particulate matter. Admixtures of rolapitant and dexamethasone were chemically stable when stored in glass and Crystal Zenith bottles for at least 6 hours at room temperature, as well as in the four selected intravenous tubing sets for 7 hours at 20°C to 25°C and then for 20 (total 27 hours) hours at 2°C to 8°C. No loss of potency

  17. The compatibility of various austenitic steels with molten sodium (1963); Compatibilite de divers aciers austenitiques avec le sodium fondu (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeix, L; Sannier, J; Darras, R; Graff, W; Juste, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Various techniques for studying corrosion by molten sodium have been developed and applied to the case of 18/10 austenitic steels. The results obtained are discussed as a function of various parameters: type of steel, temperature, oxygen content of the sodium, surface treatment, welds, mechanical strain. In general, these steels have an excellent resistance to sodium when the oxygen content is limited by a simple purification system of the 'cold trap' type, and when an attempt is made to avoid cavitation phenomena which are particularly dangerous, as is shown by the example given. (authors) [French] Des techniques d'etude de la corrosion par le sodium fondu en circulation ont ete mises au point et appliquees au cas des aciers austenitiques 18/10. Les resultats obtenus sont discutes en fonction de differents parametres: nuance de l'acier, temperature, teneur en oxygene du sodium, traitement de surface, soudure, contrainte mecanique. D'une maniere generale, ces aciers ont une excellente tenue dans le sodium lorsque, sa teneur en oxygene est limitee par un systeme simple de purification du type ''piege froid'' et lorsque l'on fait en sorte d'eviter les phenomenes de cavitation particulierement dangereux, comme il ressort d'un exemple cite. (auteurs)

  18. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  19. Thermal compatibility of Sodium Nitrate/Expanded Perlite composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruguang; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Cheng, Xiaomin; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded Perlite/Sodium Nitrate composites hardly reported in thermal storage fields. • The thermal compatibility and adsorption of Expanded Perlite were investigated. • The thermo physic properties of composites were determined. • The thermal stability and long term enthalpy changes of composites were investigated. - Abstract: The present work focused on the preparation and characterization of a new thermal storage material applied in thermal energy management. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that Expanded Perlite (EP) has a good thermal stability varying from 300 °C to 900 °C. Morphology of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that sodium nitrate is uniformly encapsulated and embedded in the three-dimensional network structure of EP. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that the EP is physically combined with the nitrate salt. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the composites have good thermal stability. The adsorption capacity of loose EP was 213.21%. When the EP mass fraction varying from 10% to 60%, thermal conductivity decreased with the content of EP increased, and the highest thermal conductivity is 1.14 W (m K)"−"1 at 300 °C. SEM revealed the network structure of EP provided thermal conduction paths which enhanced the thermal conductivity of the composites. All results indicated that EP could be a good adsorption material to be applied in the thermal storage fields.

  20. Compatibility Behavior of the Ferritic-Martensitic Steel Cladding under the Liquid Sodium Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Fuel cladding is a component which confines uranium fuel to transport energy into the coolant as well as protect radioactive species from releasing outside. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) has been considered as one of the most probable next generation reactors in Korea because it can maximize uranium resource as well as reduce the amount of PWR spent fuel in conjunction with pyroprocessing. Sodium has been selected as the coolant of the SFR because of its superior fast neutron efficiency as well as thermal conductivity, which enables high power core design. However, it is reported that the fuel cladding materials like austenitic and ferritic stainless steel react sodium coolant so that the loss of the thickness, intergranular attack, and carburization or decarburization process may happen to induce the change of the mechanical property of the cladding. This study aimed to evaluate material property of the cladding material under the liquid sodium environment. Ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) coupon and cladding tube were exposed at the flowing sodium then the microstructural and mechanical property were evaluated. mechanical property of the cladding was evaluated using the ring tension test

  1. Compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

    2013-05-01

    Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 μg/mL and naloxone 4 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22°C for up to 72 h or at 4°C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration.

  2. Studies of waste-canister compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compatibility studies were conducted between 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister structural materials. The waste forms were Al-Si and Pb-Sn matrix alloys, FUETAP, glass, Synroc D, and waste particles coated with carbon or carbon plus silicon carbide. The canister materials included carbon steel (bare and with chromium or nickel coatings), copper, Monel, Cu-35% Ni, titanium (grades 2 and 12), several Inconels, aluminum alloy 5052, and two stainless steels. Tests of either 6888 or 8821 h were conducted at 100 and 300 0 C, which bracket the low and high limits expected during storage. Glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, which reacted preferentially with copper, nickel, and alloys of these metals. The Pb-Sn matrix alloy stuck to all samples and the carbon-coated particles to most samples at 300 0 C, but the extent of chemical reaction was not determined. Testing for 0.5 h at 800 0 C was included because it is representative of a transportation accident and is required of casks containing nuclear materials. During these tests (1) glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, (2) FUETAP evolved large amounts of gas, (3) Synroc stuck to titanium alloys, (4) glass was molten, and (5) both matrix alloys were molten with considerable chemical interactions with many of the canister samples. If this test condition were imposed on waste canisters, it would be design limiting in many waste storage concepts

  3. Studies of environmental compatability. Umweltbundesamt - Texte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The evaluation of the methodical quality of the examples by means of a verification pattern had the result that approaches using quantitative methods - as for example the value in use analysis obtained better results: The representation of the state of the environment and of possible impairments of the environment, which had bejudged, achieved a higher degree of representativeness and completeness. Furthermore the concreteness of the used criteria for the description of the repercussions of a plan and the possibility to quantify same had to be judged more favourable. It must critically be remarked that by using quantitative methods difficulties may appear if impairments of the environment overlap or if there are correlations between the media respectively if there are non-linear repercussions of measures causing environmental damages. The present level of research should be developed to a strenghtened inclusion of complex and dynamic correlations of effects. More exacting investigations concerning environmental compatability are on the long term integrated in administrative procedures only at few authorities. With the demand for an extension of environmental compatability assessment to all steps of planning and procedure for the realization of a plan an early and more intensive participation of the public should be connected.

  4. Compatibility and Stability of VARUBI (Rolapitant) Injectable Emulsion Admixed with Intravenous Palonosetron Hydrochloride Injection and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, George; Powers, Dan; Yeung, Stanley; Chen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Prophylaxis or therapy with a combination of a neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist (RA), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, and dexamethasone is recommended by international antiemesis guidelines for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy and for selected patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. VARUBI (rolapitant) is a substance P/NK-1 RA that was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an injectable emulsion in combination with other antiemetic agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Palonosetron is one of the 5-HT3 RAs indicated for the prevention of nausea and/or vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy, including high-dose cisplatin. Herein, we describe the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of VARUBI injectable emulsion (166.5 mg/92.5 mL [1.8 mg/mL, free base], equivalent to 185 mg of rolapitant hydrochloride) admixed with palonosetron injection 0.25 mg free base in 5 mL (equivalent to 0.28 mg hydrochloride salt) and with either 5 mL (20 mg) or 2.5 mL (10 mg) of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Admixtures were prepared and stored in VARUBI injectable emulsion ready-to-use glass vials as supplied by the rolapitant manufacturer and in four types of commonly used intravenous administration (tubing) sets. Assessment of the physical and chemical compatibility and stability of the admixtures in the VARUBI ready-to-use vials stored at room temperature (20°C to 25°C) under fluorescent light and under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C protected from light) was conducted at 0, 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours, and that of the admixtures in the intravenous tubing sets was evaluated at 0, 2, and 6 hours of storage at 20°C to 25°C. Physical stability

  5. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  6. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  7. Fusion-reactor blanket-material safety-compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Keough, R.F.; Cohen, S.

    1982-11-01

    Blanket material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Blanket material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize blanket-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate that : (1) ternary oxides (LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and LiTiO 3 ) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li 7 Pb 2 alloy reactions with water generate heat, aerosol and hydrogen; (2) lithium oxide and Li 17 Pb 83 alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release; (3) liquid lithium reacts substantially, while Li 17 Pb 83 alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen; and (4) liquid lithium-air reactions present some major safety concerns

  8. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  9. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  10. THE COMPATIBILITY STUDENT CHOICE OF UNIVERSITY MAJORING; A PRELIMINARY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daharnis Daharnis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.

  11. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cy...

  12. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Jae Huem; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Sik; Lee, Choong Hui; Chung, Ki Hong; Keum, Choong Ki [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Sodium is commonly used as a coolant in liquid metal reactor. A large amount of its leakage may be possible in hypothetical accidents, even though the possibility is very low. In case that the leaked hot sodium comes in direct contact with structural concrete of liquid metal reactor, the reactor`s integrity can be challenged by the rupture of structure materials, hydrogen generation and its explosion, and release of radioactive aerosols due to sodium-concrete reaction. The knowledge of sodium-concrete reaction is evaluated to be one of the important and indispensable technologies for the establishment of safety measure in liquid metal reactor. In this study, the experimental facility of sodium-concrete reaction is to be designed, constructed and operated. And the reaction phenomena of sodium-concrete reaction is also to be analyzed through the experimental results. The aim of this study is to establish the measure of safety and protection for sodium-related facilities and to secure one of the fundamental technologies of liquid metal reactor safety. 47 refs., 7 figs., 13 tab.

  13. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  14. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  15. MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L; Gabor, Fichtinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRJ images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles.

  16. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles. PMID:18982643

  17. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  18. The Initial Comparison Study of Sodium Lignosulfonate, Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate, and Sodium p-Toluene Sulfonate Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoirul Anas, Argo; Iman Prakoso, Nurcahyo; Sasvita, Dilla

    2018-04-01

    Surfactant (surface active agent) exhibit numerous interesting properties that enable their use as additional component in mobilising of residual oil from capillary pore after secondary recovery process using gas injection and water flooding. In this study, Sodium Lignosulfonate (SLS) surfactant was successfully synthesized by applying batch method using lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunches as precursor. Furthermore, its performance in reducing interfacial tension of crude oil and formation water colloidal system was compared with commercial available surfactant including Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) and Sodium p-Toluene Sulfonate (SpTS). The synthesized SLS surfactant was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Meanwhile, its performance in reducing interfacial tension of crude oil and formation water colloidal system was analyzed by using compatibility test, phase behaviour analysis, and interfacial tension (IFT) measurement. The compatibility test shows that SLS, SDBS, and SpTS surfactants were compatible with formation water. In addition, the phase behaviour analysis shows that SLS surfactant was better than SpTS surfactant, while SDBS surfactant generates the highest performance proved by the best microemulsion formation resulted by SDBS. Furthermore, the optimum concentration of SLS, SDBS, and SpTS surfactants in reducing the interfacial tension of crude oil and formation water was 1.0%. The IFT measurement indicates that the performance of SLS with the value of 1.67 mN/m was also better than SpTS surfactant with the value of 3.59 mN/m. Meanwhile, SDBS surfactant shows the best performance with the IFT value of 0.47 mN/m.

  19. Compatibility of butorphanol with granisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection packaged in glass bottles or polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Hui-Min; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng

    2015-08-15

    The stability of admixtures containing butorphanol and granisetron in polyolefin bags and glass bottles stored at 4 and 25 °C was studied. Commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and granisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL; the resulting mixtures were packaged in polyolefin bags and glass bottles. The admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 48 hours after storage at 25 °C without protection from room light and up to 14 days at 4 °C with protection from room light. The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against room light and dark backgrounds. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the percentages of the initial concentrations of butorphanol and granisetron in the various solutions remained above 97% during the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags or glass bottles remained stable for 48 hours when stored at 25 °C exposed to room light and for 14 days when stored at 4 °C protected from room light. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Esmeralda project for studying extensive sodium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophy, Y.M.; Roy, D.; Bentz, A.; Gerosa, A.; Noel, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the Esmeralda Project for studying extensive fires involving up to 70 metric tons of sodium. The motivations which prompted the decision to create this research facility are related to construction of the Super-Phenix breeder reactor and to the scale effect problems posed by the use of very large quantities of sodium. Information is included on the dimensions of the installation, the objectives of the project, the means to be employed, the timetable to be followed, and the organization which was created for this project within the context of Franco-Italian cooperation

  1. Skin compatibility and antimicrobial studies on biofunctionalized polypropylene fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Sadiya [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika [Department of Pathology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok 737102 (India); Dalal, Prashansa [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Bhuvanesh, E-mail: bgupta@textile.iitd.ernet.in [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was the development of antimicrobial fabric which can be used as skin contacting material. The nanosilver loaded bioactive nanogels of polyacrylamide were prepared by gamma irradiation process and the particle size was observed to be in the range of 10–50 nm. In this study, we used polyethylene glycol as carrier for the combination of functional nanogel and essential oils together. Plasma functionalized polypropylene fabric was used as the base material for the bio-immobilization. Bioactive emulsion was coated on the fabric which exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Skin irritation studies were carried out over a period of 3 d on Swiss albino mice. Histopathology studies of the fabric did not show adverse inflammatory response in contact with the skin. The biofunctionalized fabric offers appear to be promising material for skin contacting applications. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial processing of PP fabric for skin contacting material • Polyethylene glycol is used for the carrier of bioactive nanogels. • Synergistic effect of functional nanosilver and essential oil has been investigated. • Skin compatibility and histopathological studies of material have been observed.

  2. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  3. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Ni{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x})(Cr{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, and FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications

  4. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe 3 O 4 and NiFe 2 O 4 . On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr 2 O 3 , (Ni 1-x Ni x )(Cr 1-y Fe y ) 2 O 4 , and FeCr 2 O 4 . Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. It is revealed that Inconel-600 specimen is more

  5. Plutonium-238 dioxide/T-111 compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The tantalum-base alloy, T-111, is an ideal radioisotope encapsulant from the aspect of mechanical properties, but unfortunately undergoes severe oxygen embrittlement during long-term, high-temperature exposure to PuO 2 . A study was undertaken in an effort to improve T-111/PuO 2 compatibility by testing the hypothesis that reduction of fuel stoichiometry to the range PuO 1 . 75 to PuO 1 . 8 would suspend the embrittlement process by producing a state of thermodynamic equilibrium within the capsule. Test temperatures ranged from 773 to 1373 0 K, with aging times of 60 days, 240 days, and 2 y. The desired reaction did not proceed rapidly enough at the aging temperatures to stop T-111 embrittlement. Capsules heated above 1573 0 K for 1 hr showed no signs of embrittlement during aging, even after 2 y at temperatures as high as 1173 0 K. Results with test specimens employing pelletized fuel indicated the solid-state diffusion of oxygen from the fuel to the T-111 was the dominating transport process. In nonpretreated capsules oxygen diffusion in T-111 was the rate-controlling process. Pretreatment does result in the desired thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures up to at least 1173 0 K. (auth)

  6. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  7. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  8. Materials compatibility studies for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high power facility for producing neutrons that utilizes flowing liquid mercury inside an austenitic stainless steel container as the target for a 1.0 GeV proton beam. Type 316 SS has been selected as the container material for the mercury and consequences of exposure of 316 SS to radiation, thermal shock, thermal stress, cavitation and hot, flowing mercury are all being addressed by R and D programs. In addition, corrosion studies also include evaluation of Inconel 718 because it has been successfully used in previous spallation neutron systems as a window material. Two types of compatibility issues relative to 316 SS/mercury and Inconel 718/mercury are being examined: (1) liquid metal embrittlement (LME) and (2) temperature gradient mass transfer. Studies have shown that mercury does not easily wet type 316 SS below 275 C. In the LME experiments, attempts were made to promote wetting of the steel by mercury either by adding gallium to the mercury or coating the specimen with a tin-silver solder that the mercury easily wets. The latter proved more reliable in establishing wetting, but there was no evidence of LME in any of the constant extension rate tensile tests either at 23 or 100 C. Inconel 718 also showed no change in room temperature properties when tested in mercury or mercury-gallium. However, there was evidence that the fracture was less ductile. Preliminary evaluation of mass transfer of either type 316 SS or Inconel 718 in mercury or mercury-gallium at 350 C (maximum temperature) did not reveal significant effects. Two 5,000 h thermal convection loop tests of type 316 SS are in progress, with specimens in both hot and cold test regions, at 300 and 240 C, respectively

  9. Electrochemical studies in molten sodium fluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Wagner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of sodium fluoroborate are recalled and first results obtained during experimental study of molten NaBF 4 are exposed. The system Cu/CuF is used as an indicator of fluoride ion activity and dissociation constant of the solvent is determined by adding NaF to NaBF 4 saturated with BF 3 at a pressure of 1 atm and found equal to 2.7x10 -3 [fr

  10. Characterization of materials for waste-canister compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.; Mack, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    Sample materials of 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister materials were procured for compatibility tests. These materials were characterized before being placed in test, and the results are the main topic of this report. A test capsule was designed for the tests in which disks of a single waste form were contacted with duplicate samples of canister materials. The capsules are undergoing short-term tests at 800 0 C and long-term tests at 100 and 300 0 C

  11. Japanese studies on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, N.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-01-01

    Considerations of sodium fires are very important for the design and licensing of LMFBRs. Continuing effort has been made in the study of sodium fires and their consequences since the beginning of the Japanese fast breeder reactor development program. Recent effort is mainly focussed on studies related to Monju, especially on the design and testing of primary cell liners against large sodium spills. Experimental and analytical studies on sodium fires, water release from concrete and sodium concrete reactions are conducted as a part of this study. Some extinguishing agents are also tested against sodium fires. In addition, considerable effort is being made in the development of detection systems for the small sodium leaks before a pipe rupture. This paper briefly summarizes the Japanese status of these sodium fire related activities conducted by Fast Breeder Reactor Development Project of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

  12. Parametric study of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.

    1975-03-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of a sodium-cooled reactor. A review of the literature was first made to examine methods of aerosol generation, mathematical expressions representing aerosol behavior, and pertinent experimental investigations of sodium aerosols. In the development of the model, some terms were derived from basic principles and other terms were estimated from available correlations. The model was simulated on a computer, and important parameters were studied to determine their effects on the overall behavior of sodium aerosols. The parameters studied were sodium pool temperature, source and initial size of particles, film thickness at the sodium pool/cover gas interface, wall plating parameters, cover-gas flow rate, and type of cover gas (argon and helium). The model satisfactorily describes the behavior of sodium aerosol in argon, but not in helium. Possible reasons are given for the failure of the model with helium, and further experimental work is recommended. The mathematical model, with appropriate modifications to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in helium, would be very useful in designing traps to remove aerosols from the cover gas of sodium-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  13. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed

  14. The study on compatibility of polymer matrix resins with liquid oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ge; Li Xiaodong; Yan Rui; Xing Suli

    2006-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) polymer composite tank is very important in the development of next generation of launch vehicles. To study LOX compatible polymeric matrix resins, three kinds of epoxy resins were studied. LOX impact test was used to evaluate polymers' compatibility with LOX. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to analyze polymers' oxidation. It seemed that polymers with better anti-oxidation properties, characterized by lower oxidation weight gain, lower weight loss and lower flash point, behaved better LOX compatibility. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy confirmed the chemical reactions during the LOX impact process on the surface of polymers were similar to the oxidation reaction in gaseous oxygen (GOX) at high temperatures, which indicated the chemical mechanism of LOX compatibility of polymers was just oxidation reaction. In this way, two new epoxy resins with desirable LOX compatibility were acquired by modification

  15. Experimental study on oxidation and combustion characteristics of sodium droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Sun Shubin; Liu Chongchong; Tang Yexin

    2015-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent. In this paper, the oxidation and combustion characteristics of sodium droplets were studied by carrying out the experiments of the oxidation and combustion under different conditions of initial temperatures (140-370℃) of the sodium droplets and oxygen concentrations (4%-21%). The oxidation and combustion behaviors were visualized by a set of combustion apparatus of sodium droplet and a high speed camera. The experiment results show that the columnar oxides grow longer as the initial temperature of sodium droplet and oxygen concentration become lower. Under the same oxygen concentration condition, the sodium droplet with the higher initial temperature is easier to ignite and burn. When the initial temperature of sodium droplet is below 200℃, it is very difficult to ignite. If there is a turbulence damaging the oxide layer on the surface, the sodium droplet will also burn gradually. When the initial temperature ranges from 140℃ to 370℃ and the oxygen fraction is equal to or higher than 12%, the sodium droplet could burn completely and the maximum combustion temperature could roughly reach 600-800℃. When the oxygen concentration is below 12%, the sodium droplet could not burn completely and the highest combustion temperature is below 600℃. The results are helpful to the research on the columnar flow and spray sodium fire. (authors)

  16. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  17. First principle study of sodium decorated graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com [Assam University, Silchar (India); Bhattacharya, Barnali [Assam University, Silchar (India); Seriani, Nicola [The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-05

    Highlights: • Presence of Na decreases the stability of the system. • Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic and might be used in electronics. • The sodium-adsorbed graphyne can be used as electrodes in Na-ion battery. - Abstract: We present first-principles calculations of the electronic properties of Na-decorated graphyne. This structure of the graphyne family is a direct band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.44 eV in absence of sodium, but Na-decorated graphyne compounds are metallic, and can then be employed as carbon-based conductors. Metallization is due to charge donation from sodium to carbon. Pristine graphyne is more stable than Na-decorated graphyne, therefore is seems probable that, if this material should be employed as electrode in Na-ion batteries, it would lead to the formation of metallic sodium rather than well dispersed sodium ions. On the other side, this property might be useful if graphyne is employed in water desalination. Finally, the abrupt change from a semiconducting to a metallic state in presence of a small amount of sodium might be exploited in electronics, e.g. for the production of smooth metal–semiconductor interfaces through spatially selective deposition of sodium.

  18. Study of mixed convection in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Chen Yan

    1995-01-01

    The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor

  19. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY STUDY FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTER MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    shown that the nanoparticle vapor emitted by a 3D printer can present both environmental and health concerns. A study by the Built Environment...because of the different retention times and spectral features (Figures 10–13). In addition , azacyclotrodecan-2-one (62% confidence level for...to separate the PEG from the rest of the compounds to enhance the ionization. It is possible that in addition to applying a column, other types of

  20. Improving Satellite Compatible Microdevices to Study Biology in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkus, Trevor; Snyder, Jessica; Paulino-Lima, Ivan; Rothschild, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    sense for biochemicals. (3) Developing a modular, semi-autonomous microfluidic device that can be easily adapted for a variety of common biological experiments. This versatility will allow for quicker and cheaper experimentation. These improvements to satellite experiment platforms have the potential to radically increase the return from NASA's biological and field studies with reduced development time, mass, and cost with increased robustness data and interpretation.

  1. Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

  2. Theoretical study of sodium-water surface reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2012-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  3. Note: Commercial SQUID magnetometer-compatible NMR probe and its application for studying a quantum magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, T; Jeong, M; Yoon, D; Magrez, A; Berger, H; Yang, L; Živković, I; Babkevich, P; Rønnow, H M

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO 4 with S = 1/2 (Mo 5+ ) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31 P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.

  4. Note: Commercial SQUID magnetometer-compatible NMR probe and its application for studying a quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, T.; Jeong, M.; Yoon, D.; Magrez, A.; Berger, H.; Yang, L.; Živković, I.; Babkevich, P.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO4 with S = 1/2 (Mo5+) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.

  5. A social work study for the effects of different factors on compatible and discordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Esalat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to examine the impact different factors on compatible and discordant couples. The survey is performed in one of western regions of Iran near the city of Esfahan. In our study, we choose two groups of people from the population with no family dispute and from the people who have requested divorce. They are asked to fill in a questionnaire and the results are analyzed. We used Chi-square tests to verify any meaningful difference between compatible and discordant couples on different issues. The survey concludes that compatible and discordant couples were different in their motivation, marital satisfaction, continued incentive generation, finding better position among relatives and accomplishing their religious duties to get married.

  6. Study on chemical reactivity control of liquid sodium. Research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Nobuki; Yoshioka, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Liquid sodium has the excellent properties as coolant of the fast breeder reactor (FBR). On the other hand, it reacts high with water and oxygen. So an innovative technology to suppress the reactivity is desired. The purpose of this study is to control the chemical reactivity of liquid sodium by dispersing the nanometer-size metallic particles (we call them Nano-particles) into liquid sodium. We focus on the atomic interaction between Nano-particles and sodium atoms. And we try to apply it to suppress the chemical reactivity of liquid sodium. Liquid sodium dispersing Nano-particles is named 'Nano-fluid'. Research programs of this study are the Nano-particles production, the evaluation of reactivity suppression of liquid sodium and the feasibility study to FBR plant. In this paper, the research programs and status are described. The important factors for particle production were understood. In order to evaluate the chemical reactivity of Nano-fluid the research programs were planned. The feasibility of the application of Nano-fluid to the coolant of FBR plant was evaluated preliminarily from the viewpoint of design and operation. (author)

  7. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Han; Lim, Sa-Hoe

    2008-01-15

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A{sub 0} Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm.

  8. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Han; Lim, Sa-Hoe

    2008-01-01

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A 0 Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm

  9. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na{sub 2}O and NaH. The most important contaminant is {sup 137}Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide.

  10. The treatment of contaminated sodium: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alsenoy, V; Rahier, A.

    1996-07-01

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, several experiments concerning safety aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder reactors were carried out. During these experiments, an important amount of sodium containing waste was produced. In view of the treatment of this waste, a literature study was performed and third parties were contacted to find a solution. This document summarizes the results of this study. The sodium waste has been characterized by a theoretical study and by radiological measurements. The waste consists mainly of metallic sodium contaminated with corrosion activation products, fission products and even fuel particles. The sodium might also be contaminated with oxidation and reduction products like Na 2 O and NaH. The most important contaminant is 137 Cs. Several third parties, with experience in treating sodium, were contacted and they proposed a treatment of the sodium based on its reaction with water or alcohol. From a safety point of view, these reactions are not satisfactory because they are all exothermic and lead to flammable products or even make use of flammable reactants. Therefore, all the parties foresee extensive and expensive studies prior to the treatment. The urgent nature of the issues together with the important safety aspects were the incentives for the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup to look for alternatives. For this purpose, a research programme has been started with the aim to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of contaminated sodium by oxidation on a fluidized bed followed by vitrification. The collected information confirms that the oxidation of sodium vapour can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of sodium peroxide and oxide

  11. Study on the compatibility of unbleached and bleached bamboo-fiber with LLDPE matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available analysis. The results suggested that BBF are more compatible with matrix than the unbleached ones. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows no change in the intensity peak position of matrix in the presence of bamboo fibers. Morphological studies were done...

  12. Molecular studies on di-sodium tartrate molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S.; George, Preethamary; Shubashree, N. S.; Ahmed. M, Anees

    2015-06-01

    Structural characterization is important for the development of new material. The acoustical parameters such as Free Length, Internal Pressure have been measured from ultrasonic velocity, density for di sodium tartrate an optically active molecule at different temperatures using ultrasonic interferometer of frequency (2MHZ). The ultrasonic velocity increases with increase in concentration there is an increase in solute-solvent interaction. The stability constant had been calculated. SEM with EDAX studies has been done for Di-sodium tartrate an optically active molecule.

  13. Study of Polymorphism of Borovanadate Glass of Sodium by Raman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Polymorphism of Borovanadate Glass of Sodium by Raman Spectroscopy Low Frequencies. MK Rabia, M Mayoufi, L Grosvalet, B Champagnon. Abstract. Sodium tetraborate (100 – x)(Na2B4O7.10H2O)– xV2O5, (x = 0 to 20 mole %) has been elaborated by splat cooling technique. Raman Measurements on the ...

  14. Incentive Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ledyard, John O.

    1987-01-01

    Incentive compatibility is described and discussed. A summary of the current state of understanding is provided. Key words are: incentive compatibility, game theory, implementation, mechanism, Bayes, Nash, and revelation.

  15. Efficacy and compatibility with mass spectrometry of methods for elution of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and polyvinyldifluoride membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Jagd, M.; Sørensen, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    projects. As a result of this, methods for postelectrophoretic protein characterization are of Great interest as exemplified by in situ protease digestion combined with mass spectrometry (MS), which is the method of choice for identification of proteins. In this study we have developed and compared methods...... for recovering intact proteins from polyacrylamide gels and electroblotting membranes to define efficient methods compatible with MS. These methods complement in situ digestion protocols and allow determination of the molecular mass of whole proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. Passive elution of proteins from SDS......-PAGE gels was efficient only in the presence of SDS, whereas electroelution was achieved using butTers without SDS. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization MS (SELDI-MS) analysis of proteins eluted in the presence of SIDS was possible using ion exchange ProteinChip arrays for concentration of sample...

  16. Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Andriy; Sampson, Joshua; Joseph, Justin; Playdon, Mary C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2017-10-01

    Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( P Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608. © 2017

  17. Development of Membrane Contactors Using Phase Change Solvents for CO2 Capture: Material Compatibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ansaloni, Luca; Asad, Arif; Çiftja, Arlinda; Knuutila, Hanna K; Deng, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Phase change solvents represent a new class of CO2 absorbents with a promising potential to reduce the energy penalty associated with CO2 capture. However, their high volatility is a major concern for their use at the industrial scale. It is believed that membrane absorption offers a solution to overcome this issue, particularly if the membrane can prevent amine evaporation. In the present work a compatibility study is carried out in order to identify suitable membranes in a membrane contacto...

  18. Phase boundary in compatible and incompatible polymer blends studied by micro indentation test and microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, M. F.; Akhtar, F.; Haque, M.E.

    2003-10-01

    The phase boundary of incompatible polymer blends such as poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/natural rubber (NR) and polyestyrene (PS)/NR as well as compatible blends such as PMMA/NR/epoxidizer NR (compatibilizer) and PS/NR/styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymer (compatibilizer) was studied by means of microhardness (H) technique and microscopy. Solution grown films of neat PMMA, PS and blended films of PMMA/NR, PS/NR, PMMA/NR/ENR and PS/NR/SBS were cast using a common solvent (toluene). While the neat PMMA and PS provide constant hardness values of 178 and 173 MPa, respectively, the binary (incompatible) and the ternary (compatible) blends show a conspicuous H-decrease (PMMA/NR=140 MPa, PS/NR=167 MPa, PMMA/NR/ENR=109 MPa and PS/NR/SBS=127 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy reveal clear difference of the phase boundary of compatible (smooth boundary) and incompatible (sharp boundary) blends. Besides, the compatibilizer blends are characterised by the thinnest phase boundary (30 μm), which is found about 60 μm in the incompatible blends, showing a final hardness value that demonstrates the compatibilizer to be smoothly distributed in the interface between the two blend components. Results highlight that microindentation technique, in combination with microscopic observations, is a sensitive tool for studying the breadth and quality of the interphase boundary in non- or compatibilized polymer blends and other inhomogeneous materials. (author)

  19. Study concerning the compatibility of the mixture of nylon-6 and poly(propylene oxide) through solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Costa, D.A.; Menezes, Sonia M.C.

    1993-01-01

    NMR has been frequently used for the determination of polymers compatibility. The utilization of the simple pulse technique together with the contact time variation technique has been enabling the evaluation of the compatibility of polymeric systems. This work presents the study of the behaviour of the mixture composed by nylon-6 with poly(propylene oxide) using these techniques. Results are presented

  20. The ESMERALDA project for studying extensive sodium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophy, Y.M.; Roy, D.; Noel, H.; Gerosa, A.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the Esmeralda Project for studying extensive fires involving up to 70 metric tons of sodium. The motivations which prompted the decision to create this research facility are related to construction of the Super-Phenix breeder reactor and to the scale effect problems posed by the use of very large quantities of sodium. Information is included on the dimensions of the installation, the objectives of the project, the means to be employed, the timetable to be followed, and the organization which was created for this project within the context of Franco-Italian cooperation

  1. Chemical compatibility study of Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat with Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    An independent chemical compatibility review of various wrapping and absorbent/padding materials was conducted to evaluate resistance to chemicals and constituents present in liquid waste from the Hanford underground tanks. These materials will be used to wrap long-length contaminated equipment when such equipment is removed from the tanks and prepared for transportation and subsequent disposal or storage. The materials studied were Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat. The study concludes that these materials are appropriate for use in this application

  2. Experimental study on the inhibitory effect of sodium cantharidinate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgroud: Cantharidin, and its derivatives can not only inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but can also induce tumor cell apoptosis. It shows cantharidin exhibits a wide range of reactivity in anticancer. The objective of this paper was to study the inhibitory effect of sodium cantharidinate on human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

  3. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  4. Studies on the comparative effect of sodium fluoride on collagen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride is an essential element for the normal development and growth of human beings. The main source of fluoride for humans is the intake of groundwater. At high levels, fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, control and sodium fluoride (NaF) treated groups of rats had significant (p < 0.05) higher ...

  5. Study on boiling heat transfer of high temperature liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira

    1978-01-01

    In the Intitute of Atomic Energy, Kyoto University, fundamental studies on steady state and non-steady state heat flow are underway in connection with reactor design and the safety in a critical accident in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. First, the experimental apparatus for sodium heat transfer and the testing system are described in detail. The apparatus is composed of sodium-purifying section including the plugging meter for measuring purity and cold trap, the pool boiling test section for experimenting natural convection boiling heat transfer, the forced convection boiling test section for experimenting forced convection boiling heat transfer, and gas system. Next, the experimental results by the author and the data obtained so far are compared regarding heat transfer in sodium natural convection and stable nucleating boiling and critical heat flux. The effect of liquid head on a heater on boiling heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux under the condition of low system pressure in most fundamental pool boiling was elucidated quantitatively, which has been overlooked in previous studies. It was clarified that this is the essentially important problem that can not be overlooked. From this point of view, expressions on heat transfer were also re-investigated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Study of observed broad dielectric relaxation and compatibility of polysulfone - Polyvinylidenefluoride blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swarnim; Shrivas, Sandhya; Dubey, R. K.; Keller, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    Short circuit thermally stimulated depolarization current measurement techniques has been employed to investigate the dielectric relaxation behavior of PSF: PVDF blends. The samples taken were blends of composition PSF: PVDF:: 80:20; 85:15; 90:10 and 95:05 percent by weight. The thermograms were characterized by a high value of initial current, a low temperature peak around 75-80°C and a prominent broad peak in the temperature interval 130 to 160°C. The two polymers are found to form compatible blend in the studied composition range.

  7. Compatibility studies of potential molten-salt breeder reactor materials in molten fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    1977-05-01

    The molten fluoride salt compatibility studies carried out during the period 1974--76 in support of the Molten-Salt Reactor Program are summarized. Thermal-convection and forced-circulation loops were used to measure the corrosion rate of selected alloys. Results confirmed the relationship of time, initial chromium concentration, and mass loss developed by previous workers. The corrosion rates of Hastelloy N and Hastelloy N modified by the addition of 1--3 wt percent Nb were well within the acceptable range for use in an MSBR. 13 figures, 3 tables

  8. Chemical compatibility study of lithium titanate with Indian reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonak, Sagar; Jain, Uttam; Haldar, Rumu; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical compatibility between Li_2TiO_3 and Indian RAFM steel has been studied at ITER operating temperature. • The lithium titanate chemically reacted with ferritic martensitic steel to form a brittle and non-adherent oxide layer. • The layer grew in a parabolic manner as a function of heating time. • Diffusion of oxygen (from Li_2TiO_3) appears to be controlling the oxide layer. - Abstract: Chemical compatibility between lithium titanate and Indian reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel (In-RAFMS) was studied for the first time under ITER operating temperature. Lithium titanate required for the study was synthesized in-house. Coupons of In-RAFMS were packed inside lithium titanate powder and heated at 550 °C up to 900 h under inert argon atmosphere. The lithium titanate chemically reacted with ferritic martensitic steel to form a brittle and non-adherent oxide layer. The layer grew in a parabolic manner as a function of heating time. Microstructural and phase evolution of this oxide layer was studied using XRD, SEM and EPMA. Iron and chromium enriched zones were found within the oxide layer. Diffusion of oxygen (from Li_2TiO_3) appears to be controlling the oxide layer.

  9. Investigation of sodium - carbon dioxide interactions with calorimetric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Latge, C.; Gicquel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle could be a promising option to enhance the competitiveness of future Sodium fast reactors but it is highly necessary to get thermodynamic and kinetics information on potential sodium-CO 2 chemical reactions and their consequences. We have studied the interaction between Na and CO 2 via calorimetric methods. These methods are able to point out exothermic/endothermic phenomena and to measure heat of chemical reactions. The main feature of the Na/CO 2 interaction seems to be its sharp dependence on temperature. At low temperature, below 500 C degrees, CO 2 and sodium react and exhibit an induction time which decreases when temperature increases. Above 500 C degrees, we observe a global phenomenon with a fast and instantaneous chemical reaction which may be understood as an auto-combustion of CO 2 in sodium. We clearly demonstrated that Na/CO 2 interaction does not proceed as an auto-catalytic process and is more satisfactorily explained by the occurring of an auto-combustion phenomenon

  10. Drug-Drug/Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies on Curcumin using Non-Thermal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthi Chidambaram

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol isolated from dried rhizome of turmeric. Clinical usefulness of curcumin in the treatment of cancer is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, hydrolytic degradation, metabolism, and poor oral bioavailability. To overcome these limitations, we proposed to fabricate curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin and curcumin-silibinin loaded polymeric nanoformulation. However, unfavourable combinations of drug-drug and drug-excipient may result in interaction and rises the safety concern. Hence, the present study was aimed to assess the interaction of curcumin with excipients used in nanoformulations. Methods: Isothermal stress testing method was used to assess the compatibility of drug-drug/drug-excipient. Results: The combination of curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin, curcumin-silibinin and the combination of other excipients with curcumin, piperine, quercetin and silibinin have not shown any significant physical and chemical instability. Conclusion: The study concludes that the curcumin, piperine, quercetin and silibinin is compatible with each other and with other excipients.

  11. Study on Compatibility of Polymer Hydrodynamic Size and Pore Throat Size for Honggang Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long core flow experiment was conducted to study problems like excessive injection pressure and effective lag of oil wells during the polymer flooding in Honggang reservoir in Jilin oilfield. According to the changes in viscosity and hydrodynamic dimensions before and after polymer solution was injected into porous media, the compatibility of polymer hydrodynamic dimension and the pore throat size was studied in this experiment. On the basis of the median of radius R of pore throats in rocks with different permeability, dynamic light scattering method (DLS was adopted to measure the hydrodynamic size Rh of polymer solution with different molecular weights. The results state that three kinds of 1500 mg/L concentration polymer solution with 2000 × 104, 1500 × 104, and 1000 × 104 molecular weight matched well with the pore throat in rocks with permeability of 300 mD, 180 mD, and 75 mD in sequence. In this case, the ratios of core pore throat radius median to the size of polymer molecular clew R/Rh are 6.16, 5.74, and 6.04. For Honggang oil reservoir in Jilin, when that ratio ranges from 5.5 to 6.0, the compatibility of polymer and the pore structure will be relatively better.

  12. Obtention of graft copolymers by ionizing radiation, characterization and study of hemo-compatible properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, A.A.A. de.

    1993-01-01

    The present work had as objectives the obtention and characterization of grafting copolymers by radiation induced polymerization and the study of its hemo compatible properties. The relationship between grafting conditions and anti-trombogenicity was examined for the purpose of clearing the necessity of controlling grafting conditions to enhance the copolymers blood compatibility. Two methods were chosen to accomplish the irradiation: mutual and pre-irradiation (peroxidation) of the films in 6O Co source and electron beam accelerator. Primarily grafting parameters were studied in the systems of the monomers N, N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acrylic acid (AA) with the polymeric films: poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), poly (ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PETFE), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). The simultaneous irradiation was effective in the polymerization of all the substrates above mentioned, although the peroxidation method has given better results for PETFE-DMAA, LDPE-g-DMAA, LDPE-g-AA and PVC-g-AA. In the system AA/LDPE and AA/PVC the homo polymerization was controlled by the addition of the comonomer N, N-dimethyl acrylic acid (DMA). As for the grafting parameters, low dose rate and low irradiation dose, showed to be very effective for the graftability of DMAA and AA on the substrates. (author). 129 refs, 51 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Electromagnetic Compatibility Studies: LTE BS vs. Aeronautical Radionavigation Services in 694-790 MHz Frequency Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičius Evaldas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the sharing analysis of the 694–790 MHz frequency band for Mobile services IMT and Aeronautical radio-navigation services (ARNS using SEAMCAT (established by CEPT software based on the statistical simulation (Monte-Carlo method. In 2012 the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 decided to allocate the 694–790 MHz frequency band (the so-called 700 MHz band to mobile services IMT (excluding aeronautical mobile after WRC-15 conference. But this agreement raises electromagnetic compatibility problems, which should be solved until WRC-15 [1]. This study was carried out in two phases: first applying theoretical analysis, then statistical Monte-Carlo simulations with SEAMCAT software tool in order to verify results obtained in theoretical approach. Analytical calculations shows that the required protection distances between ARNS stations and the MS base stations are 132 km. The obtained results from SEAMCAT simulations indicate that separation distance should be above 100 km. These results illustrate that the systems are not electromagnetically compatible. The possible mitigation technic could be antenna pattern correction.

  14. Development and study of airborne spectrometer system being compatible with nuclear emergency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangqi, Fang; Huaiwu, Wang; Mingkao, Hu; Renkang, Gu

    2002-01-01

    The exploitation and use of nuclear energy are of great importance to developing of national economy and maintaining state security. But it also has a possibility of serious accident. Based on the principles of airborne gamma ray spectrometry in the uranium exploration, nuclear emergency monitoring has been developed. This method has high sensitivity to the radioactive nuclides in the air and on the ground, and with the advantage of fast measuring in large area. Hence, in the middle of 1980s, some developed countries began to survey the scope and degree of nuclear accident contamination and environmental radiation level monitoring in the surrounding nuclear facilities, it can also be used to search for the lost radioactive sources. According to the actual situation and compatible guideline, National Nuclear Emergency Office consigned this project to our Center. After development and study on the Airborne gamma ray spectrometer system associated NaI(Tl) used for the uranium exploration, a compatible spectrometer system associated NaI(Tl) was established in a short period by us, which can fulfill airborne nuclear emergency survey basically. In normal situation, it was proved that the start-up time is less than two hours including transport to the airport. The system has high sensitivity to radioactive plume of 41 Ar and can respond rapidly to artificial sources, such as 192 Ir, 60 Co, 137 Cs and 131 I etc

  15. Design study on sodium-cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled large-scale reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. In the JFY2001 design study, a plant concept has been constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor, and fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set. Furthermore, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  16. Electrochemical study in molten sodium fluoroborate at 4200C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    By analysing the behavior of the electrochemical system Cu (I)/Cu it was possible to study the acid-base properties of molten sodium fluoroborate. The anion of the solvent BF 4 - is shown to undergo a strong dissociation according to the equilibrium BF 4 - BF 3 (g) + F - , the Ki constant at 420 0 C being evaluated at 1.58 x 10 -2 mol kg -1 atm. The acidity variations of sodium fluoroborate at this temperature are limited to about two pF units (pKi=1.8). A potentiometric study of the copper, silver and nickel systems showed that the corresponding metallic cations are little complexed by fluoride ions in spite of the strong dissociation of the solvent [fr

  17. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  18. Dynamic behavior of hybrid sodium bearings. Theoretical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Juignet, N.; Queval, M.

    1981-08-01

    The primary sodium pump shaft lower section of a fast breeder reactor is guided by a hydrostatic sodium bearing. This recess type bearing is supplied via orifices restrictors. Sodium is sampled at hight pressure at the diffuser outlet and is then centrifuged towards the orifices restrictors. Bearing stiffness and damping data is essential for the study of rotor dynamic behavior. Two points in particular may then be studied: - calculation of rotor instability ranges and critical speeds, - dynamic behavior of the rotor in the event of an earthquake. As regards the bearing design, the problem is to obtain the pressure fields in the liquid film. The integration of these pressure fields will then give the stiffness coefficients. The damping coefficients can then be obtained by the same calculation after slight displacement. The Reynolds equation can be used to study the liquid film (under any conditions for the turbulent and inertia effects). Then the computer code DELPAL is explained that solves the modified Reynolds equation using a finite element method. The presentation of tests conducted in 1981 on the Super-Phenix 1 full scall bearing (diameter 850 mm) in water is made. In conclusion this paper describes a method for calculating the stiffness and damping matrices of a hydrostatic bearing using the DELPAL calculation code and shows the loop of behavior tests on a bearing with sinusoidal excitation. The results, obtained by calculation and by testing, are indispensable when calculating the dynamic behavior of the shaft line

  19. Differential scanning calorimetry as a screening technique in compatibility studies of acyclovir extended release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Fernanda M.; Vecchia, Debora D.; Tagliari, Monika P.; Ferreira, Andrea Granada; Silva, Marcos A.S.; Stulzer, Hellen K.

    2009-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) has been investigated during the past years, mainly due to its antiviral activity. Assessment of possible incompatibility between an active component and different excipients along with the evaluation of thermal stability are crucial parts of a normal study prior to the final formulation setting of a medicine. Thermal analysis studies were used as important and complementary tools during pre-formulation to determine the compatibility of drug excipients with the purpose of developing an acyclovir extended release formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were also realized. The results showed that ACV only exhibited interaction which could influence the stability of the product in the binary mixtures of ACV/magnesium stearate. (author)

  20. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  1. Study of the influence of liquid sodium on the mechanical behavior of T91 steel in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemery, S.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the sensitivity of T91 steel to embrittlement by liquid sodium. An experimental procedure was set up to proceed to mechanical testing in sodium under an inert atmosphere. The introduction of a liquid sodium pre-exposure step prior to mechanical testing enabled the study of both the wettability of T91 by sodium and the structure of the sodium steel/interface as a function of the exposure parameters. The mechanical properties of T91 steel are significantly reduced in liquid sodium provided the wetting conditions are good. The use of varying oxygen and hydrogen concentrations suggests that oxygen plays a major role in enhancing the wettability of T91. The sensitivity of the embrittlement to strain rate and temperature was characterized. These results showed the existence of a ductile to brittle transition depending on both parameters. Its characterization suggests that a diffusion step is the limiting rate phenomenon of this embrittlement case. TEM and EBSD analysis of arrested cracks enabled us to establish that the fracture mode is inter-lath or intergranular. This characteristic is coherent with the crack path commonly reported in liquid metal embrittlement. A similar procedure was applied to the unalloyed XC10 steel. The results show a behavior which is similar to the one of T91 steel and suggest a common mechanism for liquid sodium embrittlement of body centered cubic steels. Moreover, they confirm that the ductile to brittle transition seems associated with a limited crack propagation rate. The propagation is thermally activated with activation energy of about 50 kJ/mol. Finally, it was shown that 304L austenitic steel is sensitive to liquid sodium embrittlement as well. Some fracture surfaces testify of an intergranular fracture mode, but some questions still remain about the crack path. (author) [fr

  2. Studies on generation and transport of sodium aerosols in some test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, T.; Shimomura, T.; Hattori, N.

    1986-01-01

    Technical experiences that have been obtained during the course of the experiments to determine the sodium aerosol concentration, to study the deposition of sodium aerosol, and to predict mechanical properties of sodium vapor deposits are presented. In the first study, the sodium aerosol concentrations in an inert cover gas space over a sodium pool and those following a sodium spray injection into an inert atmosphere were determined. The results from the two different experiments were compared with each other and were discussed in comparison with those from the literature. In the second study, deposition of sodium aerosol following a sodium spray injection into an inert atmosphere was examined. The deposition rates on the walls and the floor of a closed concrete cell were measured, and the results obtained were discussed. The third study relates to the sodium vapor deposition within a narrow annulus. In the experiments, a downward argon gas flow that passes the annulus was fed to prevent sodium vapor deposition. Average sodium vapor deposition rates on the walls of the annulus were determined, then the effect of the downward feed gas was discussed. The last study relates to one of the mechanical properties and the deformation rate of solid sodium being compressed. The purpose of the experiments were to obtain data to predict deformation rate of the sodium deposits. (author)

  3. Study on Compatibility between Converters and Casting Machines for Daily Steelmaking and Continuous Casting Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Feng-cai; ZHANG Qun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, daily production scheduling is studied based on the Third Steelmaking Plant of Wuhan Iron and steel corporation (WISCO). To make sure the daily production plan is feasible, method of casting gToup is established, and the compatibility between two converters and three continuous casting devices in the Third Steelmaking Plant of WISCO is analyzed. The process flow chart of daily production scheduling is given in this paper. Then, algorithms and procedures for the simulation of daily production plan is developed. Using the actual data from the Third Steelmaking Plant, the feasible daily steelmaking plan and cast plan are given. The plan contains 7 groups of cast plan, figured out 54 converters, and a- bout 13,500 tons steel.

  4. The SYNERGY biodegradable polymer everolimus eluting coronary stent: Porcine vascular compatibility and polymer safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory J; Marks, Angela; Berg, Kimberly J; Eppihimer, Michael; Sushkova, Natalia; Hawley, Steve P; Robertson, Kimberly A; Knapp, David; Pennington, Douglas E; Chen, Yen-Lane; Foss, Aaron; Huibregtse, Barbara; Dawkins, Keith D

    2015-11-15

    SYNERGY is a novel platinum chromium alloy stent that delivers abluminal everolimus from an ultrathin poly-lactide-co-glycide (PLGA) biodegradable polymer. This study evaluated the in vivo degradation of the polymer coating, everolimus release time course, and vascular compatibility of the SYNERGY stent. SYNERGY stents were implanted in arteries of domestic swine. Devices were explanted at predetermined time points (up to 120 days) and the extent of PLGA coating or everolimus remaining on the stents was quantified. Everolimus levels in the arterial tissue were also evaluated. A pathological analysis on coronary arteries of single and overlapping stents was performed at time points between 5 and 270 days. PLGA bioabsorption began immediately after implantation, and drug release was essentially complete by 90 days; PLGA absorption was substantially complete by 120 days (>90% of polymer was absorbed) leaving a bare metal SYNERGY stent. Vascular response was similar among SYNERGY and control stents (bare metal, polymer-only, and 3× polymer-only). Mild increases in para-strut fibrin were seen for SYNERGY at an early time point with no significant differences in all other morphological and morphometric parameters through 270 days or endothelial function (eNOS immunostaining) at 90 or 180 days. Inflammation was predominantly minimal to mild for all device types. In a swine model, everolimus was released by 90 days and PLGA bioabsorption was complete shortly thereafter. The SYNERGY stent and its biodegradable polymer, even at a 3× safety margin, demonstrated vascular compatibility similar to bare metal stent controls. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Severino, P. [Department of Biotechnological Processes, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Souto, E.B., E-mail: eliana@ufp.edu.pt [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (IBB-CGB/UTAD), 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2013-03-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. Black

  6. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G.; Severino, P.; Souto, E.B.

    2013-01-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: ► Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. ► DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. ► Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. ► The acid form of nevirapine is the most appropriate for assessing release profile from

  7. Study of an electromagnetic pump in a sodium cooled reactor. Design study of secondary sodium main pumps (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kisohara, Naoyuki; Hishida, Masahiko; Fujii, Tadashi; Konomura, Mamoru; Ara, Kuniaki; Hori, Toru; Uchida, Akihito; Nishiguchi, Youhei; Nibe, Nobuaki

    2006-07-01

    In the feasibility study on commercialized fast breeder cycle system, a medium scale sodium cooled reactor with 750 MW electricity has been designed. In this study, EMPs are applied to the secondary sodium main pump. The EMPs type is selected to be an annular linear induction pump (ALIP) type with double stators which is used in the 160 m 3 /min EMP demonstration test. The inner structure and electromagnetic features are decided reviewing the 160 m 3 /min EMP. Two dimensional electromagnetic fluid analyses by EAGLE code show that Rms (magnetic Reynolds number times slip) is evaluated to be 1.08 which is less than the stability limit 1.4 confirmed by the 160 m 3 /min EMP test, and the instability of the pump head is evaluated to be 3% of the normal operating pump head. Since the EMP stators are cooled by contacting coolant sodium duct, reliability of the inner structures are confirmed by temperature distribution and stator-duct contact pressure analyses. Besides, a power supply system, maintenance and repair feature and R and D plan of EMP are reported. (author)

  8. Design study on sodium cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Hishida, Masahiko; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    2004-07-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2, design improvement for further cost reduction of establishment of the plant concept has been performed. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2003, which is the third year of Phase 2. In the JFY2003 design study, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity and thermal hydraulics which found in the last fiscal year has been examined and the plant concept has been modified. Furthermore, fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set and economy has been evaluated. In addition, as the interim evaluation of the candidate concept of the FBR fuel cycle is to be conducted, cost effectiveness and achievability for the development goal were evaluated and the data of the three large-scale reactor candidate concepts were prepared. As a results of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  9. Experimental study of sodium fires on concrete based on the sodium-concrete reaction and its consequences: study of the behavior of various concretes under metallic sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.

    The problem created by the violent reaction between hot sodium and concrete has only recently been recognized. Its importance was evidenced during experiments in which the sodium-barium oxide concrete reactions led to violent explosions. SESR approached this question during its experimental programs Cassandre and Lucifer. The Cassandre 01 experiment demonstrated the sodium-ordinary concrete reaction, where sodium was burned directly in a concrete vat. The consequences of this fire, pulverization of sodium particles, explosions and deterioration of the concrete led to consideration of protecting the concrete. Among possible shieldings sheath metal appeared to be the safest solution. The Cassandre 08, Lucifer 01 and Lucifer 04 experiments were used to study the behavior of various qualities of concrete protected from fire by a metal wall. The results show that a metal cladding efficiently protects concrete from sodium leaks

  10. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In this study, combustion experiments of suspended sodium droplet were performed in upward dry air flow by expanding the range of free-stream velocity U of air flow into 400 cm/s with initial droplet temperature Ti=300, 350, and 400degC and initial droplet diameter 4 mm at first. Then, the combustion experiments were also performed by changing the initial droplet diameter from 2.3 to 4.4 mm with Ti=350 and 400degC and U=100 cm/s. From the experimental results, the effects of free-stream velocity, initial droplet temperature, and initial droplet diameter on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined. The obtained results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended droplet were observed for all examined experimental conditions up to 400 cm/s. The orange emission observed at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole droplet surface except the top region of it. (2) The feature of the dependence of ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity is independent of the initial droplet temperature. With the increase of the free-stream velocity, up to 300 cm/s the ignition delay time decreases with decreasing dependency, and then the dependency increases more. (3) The ignition delay time increases with the increase of initial droplet diameter. The dependency increases as the initial droplet diameter increases. The ignition delay time extrapolated toward zero diameters from the obtained results becomes to be essentially zero. (author)

  11. Compatibility Study of Protective Relaying in a Grid-Connected Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-04-15

    A 200-kW fuel cell produced by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a United Technologies Company, began operation at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) in early June 2003. The NTRC is a joint Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) and University of Tennessee research facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This research activity investigated the protective relaying functions of this fully commercialized fuel cell power plant, which uses ''synthesized'' protective relays. The project's goal is to characterize the compatibility between the fuel cell's interconnection protection system and the local distribution system or electric power system (EPS). ORNL, with assistance from the Electric Power Research Institute-Power Electronics Applications Center (EPRI-PEAC) in Knoxville, Tennessee, monitored and characterized the system compatibility over a period of 6 months. Distribution utility engineers are distrustful of or simply uncomfortable with the protective relaying and hardware provided as part of distributed generation (DG) plants. Part of this mistrust is due to the fact that utilities generally rely on hardware from certain manufacturers whose reliability is well established based on performance over many years or even decades. Another source of concern is the fact that fuel cells and other types of DG do not use conventional relays but, instead, the protective functions of conventional relays are simulated by digital circuits in the distributed generator's grid interface control unit. Furthermore, the testing and validation of internal protection circuits of DG are difficult to accomplish and can be changed by the vendor at any time. This study investigated and documented the safety and protective relaying present in the IFC fuel cell, collected data on the operation of the fuel cell, recorded event data during EPS disturbances, and assessed the compatibility of the synthesized protective circuits and the local

  12. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies, ignition process and succeeding combustion of suspended single sodium droplet had been investigated by using high speed movie camera, and a temperature measurement system feasible for the experiment had been developed. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for the free-stream velocity of dry air flow of 20 to 60 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature of 280 to 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition behavior and droplet temperature variation with time were examined by using high speed movie camera and sheath-type fine thermocouple. The experimental results are as follows: (1) When the initial droplet temperature is less than 290degC, before ignition the oxide film accompanied with vertical streak appeared and the droplet turned to teardrop shape. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange color light emission zone or flame zone decreases with the increase o the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition time are 1.4 s at the free-stream velocity 20 cm/s and initial droplet temperature 300degC, and 0.65 s at 60 cm/s and 400degC. (3) the dependence of the ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity decreases as the free stream velocity increases. (4) The droplet temperatures at the moment of melting extending all over the surface and at the moment of ignition are around 460degC and 500 to 600degC (mostly around 575degC), respectively. These values are essentially independent of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature. (5) The rate of temperature rise does not change through the moment of ignition. (6) The asymptotic droplet temperature at approaching to quasi-steady combustion state following ignition is independent of

  13. Phase 2 study of sodium phenylbutyrate in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudkowicz, Merit E; Andres, Patricia L; Macdonald, Sally A; Bedlack, Richard S; Choudry, Rabia; Brown, Robert H; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David A; Shefner, Jeremy; Matson, Samantha; Matson, Wayne R; Ferrante, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to establish the safety and pharmacodynamics of escalating dosages of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in participants with ALS. Transcription dysregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. Sodium phenylbutyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, improves transcription and post-transcriptional pathways, promoting cell survival in a mouse model of motor neuron disease. Forty research participants at eight sites enrolled in an open-label study. Study medication was increased from 9 to 21 g/day. The primary outcome measure was tolerability. Secondary outcome measures included adverse events, blood histone acetylation levels, and NaPB blood levels at each dosage. Twenty-six participants completed the 20-week treatment phase. NaPB was safe and tolerable. No study deaths or clinically relevant laboratory changes occurred with NaPB treatment. Histone acetylation was decreased by approximately 50% in blood buffy-coat specimens at screening and was significantly increased after NaPB administration. Blood levels of NaPB and the primary metabolite, phenylacetate, increased with dosage. While the majority of subjects tolerated higher dosages of NaPB, the lowest dose (9 g/day), was therapeutically efficient in improving histone acetylation levels.

  14. A Study on the Compatibility of 3-D Seismic Velocity Structures with Gravity Data of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen Hsien-Hsiang Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bouguer anomaly of Taiwan has been revised in this study based on more accurate terrain data provided by the Taiwanese Digital Terrain Model compiled by the Taiwan Forestry Bureau. Three seismic velocity models, those determined by Rau and Wu (1995, Kim et al. (2005, and Wu et al. (2007 respectively, were selected for our study. We converted their velocity models to density models using the relationship between P-wave velocity and rock density proposed by Ludwig et al. (1970 and Barton (1986, and then calculated their corresponding gravity anomalies. According to the correlation coefficient between the Bouguer anomalies calculated from the velocity models and the revised Bouguer anomalies, the Kim et al. model was more compatible with gravity data than the other two velocity models. The differences between the revised gravity anomaly and the calculated gravity anomalies trend toward positive values at elevations higher than 2000 m. This indicates that the velocities at the shallower depths beneath the mountainous area of the three models are overdetermined, i.e., higher than the real velocities. This ratiocination implies that the crustal thickness beneath the Central Range is less than 55 km which was obtained from the velocity models.

  15. Microbiological studies to select compatible rhizobia for application in wastelands using molecular and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Raouf, A.M.N

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at utilization of wastelands and improving their fertility status through the following topics:1- Isolation and identification of rhizobia from wastelands, then selecting the most resistant isolate to saline conditions.2- Studying the effect of radiation on the most salt tolerant rhizobia and marketing rhizobia using molecular and microbiological techniques.3- Identification and culturing of selected compatible rhizobia to be used in application experiments as a bio fertilizer to inoculate the leguminous crops in order to improve the efficiency of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and reclamation of wastelands.4- Application of molecular and nuclear techniques such 16S ribosomal RNA and studying the sequence for these strains for comparison between the most potent rhizobia.5- Determination of protein profile for the most potent rhizobia to throw light about similarities between these strains.6- Attempts to apply polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and use primers for differentiation between the most potent rhizobia.7- Experimental fields for growing some leguminous plants inoculated with irradiated and non-irradiated rhizobia and irrigated with different concentrations of sea water and their effects on growth and total N content of plants.

  16. In vivo study of rat cortical hemodynamics using a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Chen, Qian; Qi, Weizhi; Chen, Xingxing; Xi, Lei

    2018-04-19

    Brain imaging is an important technique in cognitive neuroscience. In this article, we designed a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope for the studies of rat cortical hemodynamics. Compared with existing optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) systems, the probe owns feature of fast, light and miniature. In this microscope, we integrated a miniaturized ultrasound transducer with a center frequency of 10 MHz to detect photoacoustic signals and a 2-dimensional (2D) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanner to achieve raster scanning of the optical focus. Based on phantom evaluation, this imaging probe has a high lateral resolution of 3.8 μm and an effective imaging domain of 2 × 2 mm 2 . Different from conventional ORPAMs, combining with standard stereotaxic apparatus enables broad studies of rodent brains without any motion artifact. To show its capability, we successfully captured red blood cell flow in the capillary, monitored the vascular changes during bleeding and blood infusion and visualized cortical hemodynamics induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-05-15

    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction between chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkvoll, P.; Roella, G.; Bellagamba, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the compatibility of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate since these agents are potential ingredients in future products in preventive dentistry. Varying combinations of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in water, covering the possible ranges of clinically relevant concentrations of both compounds, were made, incubated for 24 h and observed for precipitation of insoluble salts. The mixtures were analyzed for presence of free chlorhexidine and monofluorophosphate after incubation. The results showed that chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate are not compatible in clinically relevant concentrations. A chlorhexidinemonofluorophosphate salt of low solubility in water is presumably formed. (author)

  19. Stimulus-Response Compatibility effect in the near-far dimension: A developmental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Richez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the developmental aspect of stimulus-response compatibility effect in 8 to 11-years-old children. The task consisted in manually responding to the colour of a pawn presented on a chessboard at different distances. Manual responses were provided by reaching a proximal or distal location depending on the colour of the stimulus. We found that reaction time was affected by the conflict generated by the response suggested by the location of the stimulus and the response required according to its colour. This was not the case for movement time despite we found a higher rate of long duration movements in the incongruent than in the congruent spatial condition. The SRC effect was however observed in children older than 10 years old. These findings provide additional evidence for a reorganization of the perceptual system during the period of 8 to 10 years, integrating progressively multimodal information and preparing more efficiently the body to act in the environment.

  20. Biodiesel feasibility study: An evaluation of material compatibility; performance; emission and engine durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Biodiesel, derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, is composed of saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters. In spite of having some application problems, recently it is being considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels in internal combustion engine. From scientific literatures, this paper has collected and analyzed the data on both advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel over conventional diesel. Since the aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiesel feasibility in automobiles, the first section is dedicated to materials compatibility in biodiesel as compared to that in diesel. The highest consensus is related to enhanced corrosion of automotive parts due to its compositional differences. In the subsequent sections, data on performance, emission and engine durability have been analyzed and compared. In this case, the highest consensus is found in reducing emissions as well as in increasing moving parts sticking, injector coking and filter plugging. This paper has also summarized the factors of biodiesel in contributing these technical performances. (author)

  1. Chemical compatibility study between ceramic breeder and EUROFER97 steel for HCPB-DEMO blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Keisuke, E-mail: keisuke.mukai@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sanchez, Fernando [National Fusion Laboratory, Division of Fusion Technology, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Knitter, Regina [Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Chemical compatibility between ceramic breeder (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} + 20 mol% addition of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) and EUROFER97 steel was examined in this study. These materials were contacted and heated at 623, 823 and 1073 K under He + 0.1 vol.% H{sub 2} atmosphere for up to 12 weeks. Limited influence was found in the breeder specimens, although losses of the constituent elements appeared near the surface of the breeder pellets heated at 1073 K. For the EUROFER specimens with formation of a corrosion layer, element diffusivity was estimated based on diffusion kinetics. In the temperature range, effective diffusion coefficients of oxygen into EUROFER steel were in the range from 3.5 × 10{sup −134} to 2.5 × 10{sup −112} cm/s{sup 2} and found to be faster than that of Li. The coefficients yielded an activation energy of 0.93 eV for oxygen diffusion into EUROFER steel and predicted the possible thickness of the corrosion layer after operational periods.

  2. Studies on in vitro biostability and blood compatibility of polyurethane potting compound based on aromatic polymeric MDI for extracorporeal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hridya, V K; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    Polyurethane potting compound based on aromatic isocyanurate of polymeric MDI, poly propylene glycol (PPG400) and trimethylol propane (TMP) has significant favourable properties, good pot life and setting characteristics. The cured potting compound of this formulation has appreciable thermal stability and mechanical properties. In vitro biostability of cured potting compound has been found to be excellent without any significant degradation in simulated physiological media and chemical environment. Studies on blood-material interaction and cytotoxicity reveal in vitro blood compatibility and compatibility with cells of this potting compound.

  3. Experimental study o the sodium-concrete reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Torres, A.R.; Brito Aghina, L.O. de; Messere e Castro, P.

    1986-01-01

    Effects and aspects of security are verified during a sodium leakage in high temperatures on liners of contention cells and directly on the concrete. As this kinetic process involves reactions between materials in solid state (such as oxides and carbonates) vapors and gases (such as water and CO 2 )) with liquid sodium, effects of each phase of the heterogeneous mixture are separately analysed. Are still analysed produced products and briefly discussed the kinetic of the sodium-concrete reaction. (Author) [pt

  4. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  5. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, J.J.; Raivo, B.D.; Bates, S.O.; Berry, S.M.; Nishioka, D.N.; Bunnell, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts

  6. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  7. Study of thermophysical and thermohydraulic properties of sodium for fast sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega R, A. K.; Espinosa P, G.; Gomez T, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The importance of liquid sodium lies in its use as a coolant for fast reactors, but why should liquid metal be used as a coolant instead of water? Water is difficult to use as a coolant for a fast nuclear reactor because its acts as a neutron moderator, that is, stop the fast neutrons and converts them to thermal neutrons. Nuclear reactors such as the Pressurized Water Reactor or the Boiling Water Reactor are thermal reactors, which mean they need thermal neutrons for their operation. However, is necessary for fast reactors to conserve as much fast neutrons, so that the liquid metal coolants that do have this capability are implemented. Sodium does not need to be pressurized, its low melting point and its high boiling point, higher than the operating temperature of the reactor, make it an adequate coolant, also has a high thermal conductivity, which is necessary to transfer thermal energy and its viscosity is close to that of the water, which indicates that is an easily transportable liquid and does not corrode the steel parts of the reactor. This paper presents a brief state of the art of the rapid nuclear reactors that operated and currently operate, as well as projects in the door in some countries; types of nuclear reactors which are cooled by liquid sodium and their operation; the mathematical models for obtaining the properties of liquid sodium in a range of 393 to 1673 Kelvin degrees and a pressure atmosphere. Finally a program is presented in FORTRAN named Thermo-Sodium for the calculation of the properties, which requires as input data the Kelvin temperature in which the liquid sodium is found and provides at the user the thermo-physical and thermo-hydraulic properties for that data temperature. Additional to this the user is asked the Reynolds number and the hydraulic diameter in case of knowing them, and in this way the program will provide the value of the convective coefficient and that of the dimensionless numbers: Nusselt, Prandtl and Peclet. (Author)

  8. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Calcium Chloride and Calcium Gluconate in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions without Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Light Obscuration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Huston

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP. The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium chloride and calcium gluconate without cysteine. Solutions of TrophAmine and Premasol (2.5% amino acids, containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate were compounded without cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using light obscuration. Maximum concentrations tested were 15 mmol/L of calcium and 12.5 mmol/L of phosphate. If the average particle count of three replicates exceeded USP guidelines, the solution was determined to be incompatible. This study found that 12.5 and 10 mmol/L of calcium and phosphate, respectively, are compatible in neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions compounded with 2.5% amino acids of either TrophAmine or Premasol. There did not appear to be significant differences in compatibility for solutions containing TrophAmine or Premasol when solutions were compounded with either CaCl2 or CaGlu-Pl. This study presents data in order to evaluate options for adding calcium and phosphate to neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions during shortages of calcium and cysteine.

  10. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2004-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for extended free-stream velocity range of dry air up to 200 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature T i =300degC and 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined by using high speed video camera. The obtained experimental results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended spherical shape droplet were observed for all examined experimental conductions except the case of free-stream velocity U=200 cm/s at 300degC, where detachment of droplet from the support due to strained oxide film occurred. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange-light emitting zone or flame zone decreases with the increase of the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition delay time are 0.68 s at U=20 cm/s, 0.52 s at U=100 cm/s, and 0.37 s at 200 cm/s for T i =400degC. (3) The orange-light emission at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole surface except the top region of the droplet. The intensity of the emission at the moment of ignition takes its maximum at the bottom region or upstream region of the droplet, and the emission intensity during the stable burning period increases with the increase of U. (4) When T i is 300degC, formation of temporal multiple short projections are observed before ignition for all examined free-stream velocities. The projections often do not disappear before ignition when the velocity is relatively high. (5) The layer or cloud composed of aerosol is formed

  11. The Compatibility of Feminist Theology and Gestalt Therapy: A Study of "Practical-Values."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinksman, Barrie

    2001-01-01

    An on-going theoretical issue for pastoral counseling concerns the integration of psychological and theological concepts. The possibility of exploring the compatibility of Gestalt psychotherapy and feminist theology is considered with reference to the 'practical-values' of each, and it is proposed that there is significant common ground between…

  12. Changes in sodium levels in chain restaurant foods in Canada (2010−2013): a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several restaurant chains have committed to reducing sodium levels in their foods; however, how much sodium levels have changed over the past few years is unknown. The objective was to measure changes in sodium in restaurant foods from 2010 to 2013. Methods Data for the serving size, calorie and sodium level of 3878 foods were collected from the websites of 61 Canadian restaurant chains in 2010 and 2013. A longitudinal study of changes in sodium levels in foods available from the restaurants in 2010 and 2013 (n = 2198) was conducted. Levels in newly reported and discontinued foods were also investigated. Results Sodium levels (mg/serving) decreased in 30.1% of foods, increased in 16.3% and were unchanged in 53.6%. The average change in foods with a decrease in sodium was –220 (standard deviation [SD] ± 303) mg/serving (a decline of 19% [SD ± 17%]), whereas the average change in foods with an increase in sodium was 251 (SD ± 349) mg/serving (a 44% [SD ± 104%] increase). The prevalence and magnitude of change varied depending on the restaurant and food category. Overall, there was a small, yet significant, decrease in sodium per serving (–25 [SD ± 268] mg, p restaurant foods have produced inconsistent results. Although the lower levels in some foods show that sodium reduction is possible, the simultaneous increase in other foods demonstrates the need for targets and timelines for sodium reduction in restaurants. PMID:25553327

  13. Experimental study on combustion characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Peng Kangwei; Guo Ming; Huo Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent in sodium-related facilities. This paper is based on an experimental study of sodium fire in a columnar flow, which was carried out to focus on the burning characteristics by analyzing the temperature fields in the burner. The injection of 200°C liquid sodium with the flux of 0.5 m 3 /h was poured into a 7.9 m 3 volume stainless steel cylindrical burner to shape a sodium fire, and the data of temperature fields in the burner have been collected by dozens of thermocouples which are laid in the combustion space and sodium collection plate. These results show that the sodium fire in a columnar flow is composed of the foregoing centered columnar fire, the subsequent spray fire caused by atomization and the pool fire on the collection plate. The temperature close to the burning sodium flow maximally reaches up to 950°C. The radial temperatures apart from the sodium flow are relatively low and generally about 200°C, and maximally just 300°C even when close to the sodium collection plate. The maximum temperature of the burning sodium dropping on the collection plate rises in the center of plate, about 528°C. This study is helpful to evaluate the combustion characteristics, formation process and composing forms of the sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  14. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with ...

  15. Experimental and analytical studies of sodium interactions with various concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Anttila, A.; Smaardyk, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanistic models of sodium/concrete interactions are described. The SCAM model of interactions with basaltic concrete is being verified by experiments. Modelling of sodium interactions with limestone concrete is still at a preliminary stage but shows promise of being able to predict quantitatively the experimental data. Comparisons with experimental data are presented

  16. Sodium phenylbutyrate in Huntington's disease: a dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Penelope; Lovrecic, Luca; Krainc, Dimitri

    2007-10-15

    Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease (HD) is mediated in part by aberrant patterns of histone acetylation. We performed a dose-finding study in human HD of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that ameliorates the HD phenotype in animal models. We used a dose-escalation/de-escalation design, using prespecified toxicity criteria and standard clinical and laboratory safety measures. The maximum tolerated dose was 15 g/day. At higher doses, toxicity included vomiting, lightheadedness, confusion, and gait instability. We saw no significant laboratory or electrocardiographic abnormalities. Gene expression changes in blood suggested an inverse dose-response. In conclusion, SPB at 12 to 15 g/day appears to be safe and well-tolerated in human HD. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  17. Comparative study of lithium and sodium hexahydrido- and hexadeuteridoaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, J.C.; Amri, Z.; Claudy, P.; Letoffe, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Raman and infrared spectra of Lithium and Sodium hexahydrido- and hexadeuteridoaluminates Li 3 AlH 6 , Na 3 AlH 6 and Li 3 AlD 6 have been investigated in order to study metal-hydrogen interactions. A vibrational analysis has been performed. Several force field models (Urey-Bradley, Orbital Valence force field, Shimanouchi, Murrell) have been used in order to compute the force constants of Al-H bonds. No significative difference is observed between the results obtained from the various models, and the environment of aluminum is thus well determined. AlH 6 3- ions form an almost perfect octahedron in Li 3 AlH 6 and a distorted one in Na 3 AlH 6

  18. Study on blood compatibility of the radiation sterilized disposable burette transfusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guochong; Liu Wen; Liu Qingfang

    2011-01-01

    The blood compatibility of the radiation sterilized disposable burette transfusion apparatus was investigated to provide evidence for the safety of radiation sterilized medical devices. The initial bacteria burden of the disposable burette transfusion apparatus was examined according to the ISO11737 standard, and the whole blood clotting time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and hemolysis rate of the samples were determined. There was no significant difference between the radiation sterilized samples and negative controls on WBCT, PT and PTT (p>0.05). Haemolysis test showed that the haemolysis rate of the sample sterilized by irradiation was 1.38%, which was coincidence with the criteria of the medical devices. After sterilization by irradiation, disposable burette transfusion apparatus show good blood compatibility, which could be considered that radiation sterilization is a biologically safe method for the medical apparatus. (authors)

  19. Advanced Valve Technology. Volume 2. Materials Compatibility and Liquid Propellant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-11-01

    the other 300 series stainless steels. Table 1-2 lists those materials considered to be compatible with hydrazine for long-term application. PHYSICAL...Lubricity (1) - Unsatisfactory lubricating performance was found for hydrazine in a series of low-load short duration ball bearing and gear tests at...Continued) MATERIALS TEST TEMP OF CERPAM ICS Rockflux 75 Sauereisen P-i 60 Sauereisen 31 60 Temporall 1500 60 ADHE SI VES Epon 422 80 1-33 PENTABORANE

  20. Study on the exchangeable body sodium in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Chatel, Rudolf; Barna, Istvan; Krasznai, Istvan

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with diabetes mellitus, apperently free of any complications of diabetes and of hypertension, had a significantly (p<0.01) increased exchangeable body sodium compared to 10 sex-matched control subjects of comparable age, body weight and height, and blood pressure. Exchangeable sodium correlated significantly (p<0.01) with supine mean blood pressure in the diabetic patients (r=0.822) but not in the control subjects (r=0.276). It is suggested that the early increase of exchangeable body sodium in diabetes mellitus might play a part in the high incidence of hypertension in such patients. (author)

  1. Studies of the effect of ethanol and sodium chloride on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate by gel filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.

    1976-06-01

    The effects of the addition of ethanol and sodium chloride to aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by the gel-filtration method. With an increase in the concentration of ethanol, the CMC decreased and then increased after passing a minimum, while the micellar weight increased and then decreased, showing a corresponding maximum. Above about 40 vol percent ethanol, no micelle formation was observed. The micellar weight and aggregation number in the presence of ethanol were measured in the SDS concentration range of a constant elution rate of micelles. A decrease in the CMC and an increase in the micellar weight of SDS were observed with an increase in the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The gel-filtration study enabled us to make a direct experimental confirmation of the effects of ethanol and NaCl on the micelle formation of SDS.

  2. Sodium boiling studies at the CEA state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.; Grand, D.; Papin, J.; Seiler, J.M.

    1979-08-01

    A description of the general approach used by the CEA to solve sodium boiling problems provides an understanding of our philosophy for code development. From the review of the main results obtained in the out-of-pile experiments, CFNa and CESAR, we deduce the main hypothesis of our basic model of sodium boiling. Our best estimate and simplified codes are briefly described and their results are compared with the experiments

  3. Phenomenological Studies on Sodium for CSP Applications: A Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Sodium as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) can achieve temperatures above 700°C to improve power cycle performance for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF’s (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable latent operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal input power cycles. This advantage could increase the receiver and system efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium systems, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Operation and maintenance experience from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  4. Conceptual core design study for Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor: Review of sodium void reactivity worth evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual core design study for a large-scale Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) have been carried out in the framework of the FaCT project. The reference “High-internal conversion” core can satisfy the requirements for enhanced safety, as well as achieving economic competitiveness. In order to increase the design reliability, more rigorous uncertainty evaluation is important. Development of the verification and validation methodology of the core neutronic design method is currently underway. (author)

  5. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  6. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. COMPATIBILITY STUDIES OF INTERSPECIFIC IN VITRO MICROGRAFTING OF AGARWOOD ( Aquilaria malaccensis LAMK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURITA TORUAN-MATHIUS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquilaria spp produced agarwood as nonwood forest production, and has high economic value. A. malaccensis is susceptible to white rot diseases and termites. On the other hand most of the community plantations are a mixed culture with rubber trees, oil palms and with high risk of con-tamination causing white root diseases. Besides that, vegetative propagation by cuttings, stumping or air layering are still very diffi cult with low percentage of growth. h e objectives of this research were to analyze the best suitable micrograft type, changes of SDS-PAGE protein band patterns of compatible and incompatible micrografts with several combinations of gaharu planlets in in vitro condition, and histology of union area between rootstocks and scion. h e results showed that wedge or V type was the best of the micrografs. MS medium with the addition of 3 mg/L IBA was the best medium for gaharu planlet growth after micrografting. Acclimatization was conducted in husk chacoal and top soil (1:1 medium and grown under plastic house of 70% shading with paranet. Compatible combination (Ac/Am of micrografting showed that anatomy structure of union area is the same as anatomy structure of non micrograftd planlet. While incompatible (Gv/Am mi-crografting produced necrotic layer growth from pith and parenchymateous tissues of the wood in union area along the middle of radial shoot. Recovery period of union area between stocks and scion is initiated by callus formation from the pith and parenchymatous tissues of the wood. Callus will diff erentiate into mature cells or tissue and become combined phloem and xylem vessels be-tween rootstocks and scion. SDS-PAGE protein band pattern on compatible combination was the same as plants originated from seedlings. While, incompatible combination produced new protein bands with molecular weight around 21 and 30 kD.

  8. Experimental study on combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow using extinguishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yan; Zhang Zhigang; Li Jinke; Liu Zhongkun; Ma Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the leakage and fire accident of liquid sodium is common and it is frequent in sodium-related facilities. This study focuses on the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow. Liquid sodium (250°C) is injected into a 7.9 m"3 cylindrical chamber at a flow rate of about 1.0 m"3/h to create a columnar sodium fire, and 18.4 kg class D extinguishing powder is sprayed after the liquid sodium injection. The temperature in the chamber space and sodium collection plate and the heat release rate from sodium fire are measured and analyzed. Based on the temperature data the sodium fire under suppression could be divided into four phases of dropping sharply, continuously remaining lower, rising and declining mildly, and depressing. The sodium fire in the space could be suppressed and cooled down if the extinguishing agent could spray in the early period of the liquid sodium injection. The extinguishing agent could suppress the combustion and spreading of liquid sodium dropping on the collection plate, limit the pool combustion area and postpone the commencement of sodium pool burning in spite of its later re-ignition happening. This study promises to evaluate the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  9. Comparative study of electromagnetic compatibility methods in printed circuit board design tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, Galia

    2002-01-01

    The paper considers the state-of-the art in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) oriented printed circuit board (PCB) design. A general methodology of EMC oriented PCB design is synthesized. The main CAD tools available today are estimated and compared for their abilities to treat EMC oriented design. To help non experts a knowledge-base containing more than 50 basic rules for EMC-oriented PCB design is proposed. It can be applied in the PCB design CAD tools that possess rule-builders or it can help interactive design. Trends in this area of EMC-oriented PCB design are deduced. (Author)

  10. The relation between task characteristics, BI quality and task compatibility: An explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardboe, Rikke; Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Nyvang, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between task characteristics, business intelligence (BI) quality, and task compatibility. It is essential to investigate this relationship, as BI often builds up data from the organization's existing information systems, and thus......, is a supplement. In addition, there is a gap within existing research about task characteristics and BI. We conducted a survey of three companies, where 104 BI end users answered the questionnaire. Our findings reveal that BI users who experience high information quality solve difficult tasks, have a specified...

  11. Study on mechanical properties of the laminated composite materials with compatible heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkov, P.O.; Pektemirov, B.G.; Yaroshenko, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the behaviour during axial extension of trilament composite materials, the mechanical properties of which are formed mainly by heat treatment. Application in the composite of the materials with compatible heat treatment is most rational. It is shown that for (ATsMg+N18K8M5T+ATsMg), (KhN78+VKS+KhH78) composites, the constituents of which are relatively plastic and tightly bound with each other, the tensile strength and uniform strain are changed additively

  12. Performance of ventilators compatible with magnetic resonance imaging: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikata, Yusuke; Okuda, Nao; Izawa, Masayo; Onodera, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Masaji

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indispensable for diagnosing brain and spinal cord abnormalities. Magnetic components cannot be used during MRI procedures; therefore, patient support equipment must use MRI-compatible materials. However, little is known of the performance of MRI-compatible ventilators. At commonly used settings, we tested the delivered tidal volume (V(T)), F(IO2), PEEP, and operation of the high-inspiratory-pressure-relief valves of 4 portable MRI-compatible ventilators (Pneupac VR1, ParaPAC 200DMRI, CAREvent MRI, iVent201) and one ICU ventilator (Servo-i). Each ventilator was set in volume control/continuous mandatory ventilation mode. Breathing frequency and V(T) were tested at 10 breaths/min and 300, 500, and 700 mL, respectively. The Pneupac VR1 has fixed V(T) and frequency combinations, so it was tested at V(T) = 300 mL and 20 breaths/min, V(T) = 500 mL and 12 breaths/min, and V(T) = 800 mL and 10 breaths/min. F(IO2) was 0.6 and 1.0. At the air-mix setting, F(IO2) was fixed at 0.5 with the Pneupac VR1, 0.45 with the ParaPAC 200DMRI, and 0.6 with the CAREvent MRI. PEEP was set at 5 and 10 cm H2O, and pressure relief was set at 30 and 40 cm H2O. V(T) error varied widely among ventilators (-28.1 to 25.5%). As V(T) increased, error decreased with the Pneupac VR1, ParaPAC 200DMRI, and CAREvent MRI (P ventilators (-29.2 to 42.5%). Only the Servo-i maintained V(T), F(IO2), and PEEP at set levels. The pressure-relief valves worked in all ventilators. None of the MRI-compatible ventilators maintained V(T), F(IO2), and PEEP at set levels. Vital signs of patients with unstable respiratory mechanics should be monitored during transport and MRI. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Structure and ionic transport studies of sodium borophosphate glassy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantha, P.S.; Hariharan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium borophosphate glasses of composition (mol%) 50Na 2 O-50[xB 2 O 3 -(1-x)P 2 O 5 ], 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 have been prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through XRD, DSC, FTIR and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The glass transition temperature increases with the substitution of B 2 O 3 due to the cross-linking of the network and the FTIR study shows the presence of different structural units in the network. The ionic conductivity study as a function of composition of B 2 O 3 shows increment in conductivity with two conductivity maxima at 10 and 30 mol% of B 2 O 3 and conductivity variations with temperature follow an Arrhenius type behaviour. Transport numbers evaluated for ions and electrons show that Na + ions are the mobile species in the investigated systems. The frequency dependence of the electric conductivity follows a simple power law feature. The analysis of various electrical parameters as a function of temperature in different complex planes shows that the charge transport occurs by the hopping mechanism

  14. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naud, G.

    1964-07-01

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H 2 -O 2 system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H 2 -O 2 System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [fr

  15. A materials compatibility study in FM-1, a liquid component of a paste extrudable explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goods, S.H.; Shepodd, T.J.; Mills, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States). Pantex Plant

    1993-09-01

    The chemical compatibility of various metallic and organic containment materials with a constituent of a paste extrudable explosive (PEX) has been examined through a series of long-term exposures. Corrosion coupons and mechanical test specimens (polymers only) were exposed to FM-1, a principal liquid component of PEX, at 74{degree}C. RX-08-FK is the LLNL designator for this formulation. Compatibility was determined by measuring changes in weight, physical dimensions, and mechanical properties, by examining the coupons for discoloration, surface attack, and corrosion products, and by analyzing for dissolved metals in the FM-1. Of the metals and alloys examined, none of the 300 series stainless steels exhibited adequate corrosion resistance after 74 days of exposure. Copper showed evidence of severe uniform surface attack. Monel 400 also exhibited signs of chemical attack. Nickel and tantalum showed less evidence of attack, although neither, was immune to the liquid. Gold coupons developed a ``tarnish`` film. The gold along with an aluminum alloy, 6061 (in the T6 condition) performed the most satisfactorily. A wide range of polymers were tested for 61 days at 74{degree}C. The materials that exhibited the most favorable response in terms of weight change, dimensional stability, and mechanical properties were Kalrez, PTFE Teflon, and polyethylene.

  16. Studies on supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from sodium diuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhat, Parimal; Vithal, G.K.; Rao, Ankita; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Crude sodium diuranate (SDU) produced from phosphoric acid by solvent extraction process with di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) contains iron and other rare earth impurities along with uranium. For further use of this uranium for fuel fabrication and its subsequent use in nuclear reactors, it has to be purified up to nuclear grade ammonium diuranate (ADU) specifications. Conventionally crude SDU is being purified by dissolving it in nitric acid followed by solvent extraction process using TBP in diluent. Use of large amount of acid and organic solvents for industrial processes is an environmental concern. Nowadays there are efforts to minimize use of acid and organic solvents in industrial processes. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of uranium from different matrices (solid as well as liquid) has been reported by several authors in recent years. Near complete extraction of uranium from UO 2 (powder, green pellet and sintered pellet) using TBP-HNO 3 adduct by SFE has been reported. We attempted to explore possibility to purify crude SDU to nuclear grade by SFE of uranium from crude SDU matrix and study the effect of different operational parameters, mode of extraction and complexation

  17. Kinetics study of thermal decomposition of sodium carboxylate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoll, Michael P.; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    The MixAlco™ process ferments lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts that are thermally decomposed into ketones, which are then chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. To perform these decompositions, suitable reaction models are necessary to properly design, scale, and optimize commercial reactors. For three salt types (sodium acetate, and two types of mixed sodium carboxylate salts), activation energy was determined using three isoconversional methods that employed TGA curves at different heating rates. For all three salt types, activation energy varied significantly with conversion. The average activation energy for sodium acetate was 226.65 kJ/mol, and the activation energies for the two mixed sodium carboxylate salts were 195.61, and 218.18 kJ/mol. In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak-Berggren model fits all three salt types best. -- Highlights: ► Sodium carboxylate salts from fermentation broth thermally decompose to ketones. ► Activation energy varies with conversion for all three salt types. ► Sestak-Berggren model provides best fit for all three salt types.

  18. Study and Evaluation of Innovative Fuel Handling Systems for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors: Fuel Handling Route Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Dechelette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research for technological improvement and innovation in sodium-cooled fast reactor is a matter of concern in fuel handling systems in a view to perform a better load factor of the reactor thanks to a quicker fuelling/defueling process. An optimized fuel handling route will also limit its investment cost. In that field, CEA has engaged some innovation study either of complete FHR or on the optimization of some specific components. This paper presents the study of three SFR fuel handling route fully described and compared to a reference FHR option. In those three FHR, two use a gas corridor to transfer spent and fresh fuel assembly and the third uses two casks with a sodium pot to evacuate and load an assembly in parallel. All of them are designed for the ASTRID reactor (1500 MWth but can be extrapolated to power reactors and are compatible with the mutualisation of one FHS coupled with two reactors. These three concepts are then intercompared and evaluated with the reference FHR according to four criteria: performances, risk assessment, investment cost, and qualification time. This analysis reveals that the “mixed way” FHR presents interesting solutions mainly in terms of design simplicity and time reduction. Therefore its study will be pursued for ASTRID as an alternative option.

  19. Study of new complexes of uranium and comba radical. I.- Complexes defective in sodium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Galiano Sedano, J. A.; Parellada Bellod, R.; Bellido Gonzalez, A.

    1975-01-01

    Some complexes formed in presence of defect of sodium carbonate with respect to the stoichiometric ratio (U): (C0 3 ) = 1:3 are studied. This ratio corresponds to the main complex which is responsible for the uranium extraction with CDMBAC organic solutions and from U(VI) aqueous solutions with an excess of sodium carbonate. (Author) 10 refs

  20. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping, although this is an event of extremely low probability. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21 mole percent oxygen with humidity. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabatic pressure rise which peaks in several seconds. This analytical tool has indicated reasonable agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen and water vapor concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  1. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-10-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21% oxygen. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabtic pressure pulse peaking in a matter of seconds. This analytical tool has indicated good agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  2. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  3. Fabrication of aluminum nitride crucibles for molten salt and plutonium compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to fabricate a calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride crucible and determine the compatibility of this crucible with molten chloride salts and plutonium metal in the DOR process. Calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride was preferred over yttrium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride because of (1) the presence of calcium chloride, calcium oxide, and calcium metal in the molten salts utilized in the DOR process, and (2) the higher volatility of the secondary phases formed compared with phases resulting from the addition of yttrium oxide during the aluminum nitride sintering process. The calcium oxide system may yield a higher purity crystal structure with fewer secondary phases present than in the yttrium oxide system. The secondary phases that are present in the grain boundaries may be unreactive with the calcium chloride salt due to the presence of calcium in the secondary phases

  4. Compatibility study between U-UO{sub 2} cermet fuel and T91 cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhir@barc.gov.in [Radiometallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kaity, Santu; Khan, K.B. [Radiometallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Cermet is a new fuel concept for the fast reactor system and is ideally designed to combine beneficial properties of both ceramic and metal. In order to understand fuel clad chemical compatibility, diffusion couples were prepared with U-UO{sub 2} cermet fuel and T91 cladding material. These diffusion couples were annealed at 923–1073 K for 1000 h and 1223 K for 50 h, subsequently their microstructures were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). It was observed that the interaction between the fuel and constituents of T91 clad was limited to a very small region up to the temperature 993 K and discrete U{sub 6}(Fe,Cr) and U(Fe,Cr){sub 2} intermetallic phases developed. Eutectic microstructure was observed in the reaction zone at 1223 K. The activation energy for reaction at the fuel clad interface was determined.

  5. Complementation studies with the novel "Bungowannah" virus provide new insights in the compatibility of pestivirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Wegelt, Anne; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2011-09-30

    In recent years several atypical pestiviruses have been described. Bungowannah virus is the most divergent virus in this group. Therefore, heterologous complementation was used to clarify the phylogenetic relationship and to analyze the exchangeability of genome regions encoding structural proteins. Using a BVDV type 1 backbone, chimeric constructs with substituted envelope proteins E(rns), E1 and E2, were investigated. While all constructs replicated autonomously, infectious high titer chimeric virus could only be observed after exchanging the complete E1-E2 encoding region. The complementation of E1 and E2 alone resulted only in replicons. Complementation of BVDV-E(rns) was only efficient if Bungowannah virus-E(rns) was expressed from a bicistronic construct. Our data provide new insights in the compatibility of pestivirus proteins and demonstrate that heterologous complementation could be useful to characterize new pestiviruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FLiNaK compatibility studies with Inconel 600 and silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, Graydon L., E-mail: yodergljr@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bldg. 5700, MS 6167 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heatherly, Dennis; Wilson, Dane [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bldg. 5700, MS 6167 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Caja, Mario [Electrochemical Systems, Inc. (ESI), 9320 Collingwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A versatile experimental design has been developed to examine liquid fluoride salt materials compatibility behavior. • Samples of silicon carbide and a grafoil/nickel spiral wound gasket were exposed to FLiNaK salt at 700 °C for 90 days and showed no degradation. • Alloy 600 showed material effects penetrating up to 300 μm below the salt interface after exposure to the salt for 90 days at 700 °C. • Comparison of the Alloy 600 corrosion results with existing data indicated that results were comparable to the few corrosion results available for Alloy 600. • Sapphire viewing windows incorporated in the experiment showed fogging by condensed salt components at the highest test temperatures. - Abstract: A small liquid fluoride salt test apparatus has been constructed and testing has been conducted to examine the compatibility of silicon carbide (SiC), Inconel 600 and a spiral wound gasket material in FLiNaK, the ternary eutectic alkaline metal fluoride salt mixture. These tests were conducted to evaluate materials and sealing systems that could be used in fluoride salt systems. Three months of testing at 700 °C was conducted to assure that these materials and seals would be acceptable when operating under prototypic operating conditions. The SiC specimens showed little or no change over the test period, while the spiral wound gasket material did not show any degradation except that salt might have been seeping into the outermost spirals of the gasket. The Inconel 600 specimens showed regions of voiding which penetrated the specimen surface to about 250 μm in depth. Analysis indicated that the salt had leached chrome from the Inconel surface, as was expected for this material.

  7. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassery, A. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  8. Estimating 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio from casual ('spot') urinary sodium/potassium ratio: the INTERSALT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2017-10-01

    Association between casual and 24-h urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio is well recognized, although it has not been validated in diverse demographic groups. Our aim was to assess utility across and within populations of casual urine to estimate 24-h urinary Na/K ratio using data from the INTERSALT Study. The INTERSALT Study collected cross-sectional standardized data on casual urinary sodium and potassium and also on timed 24-h urinary sodium and potassium for 10 065 individuals from 52 population samples in 32 countries (1985-87). Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement were computed for Na/K ratio of casual urine against 24-h urinary Na/K ratio both at population and individual levels. Pearson correlation coefficients relating means of 24-h urine and casual urine Na/K ratio were r = 0.96 and r = 0.69 in analyses across populations and individuals, respectively. Correlations of casual urine Na/creatinine and K/creatinine ratios with 24-h urinary Na and K excretion, respectively, were lower than correlation of casual and 24-h urinary Na/K ratio in analyses across populations and individuals. The bias estimate with the Bland-Altman method, defined as the difference between Na/K ratio of 24-h urine and casual urine, was approximately 0.4 across both populations and individuals. Spread around, the mean bias was higher for individuals than populations. With appropriate bias correction, casual urine Na/K ratio may be a useful, low-burden alternative method to 24-h urine for estimation of population urinary Na/K ratio. It may also be applicable for assessment of the urinary Na/K ratio of individuals, with use of repeated measurements to reduce measurement error and increase precision. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  9. The study on electromagnetic compatibility of DC electric motor in HAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junping, Geng; Ronghong, Jin; Yu, Fan; Bo, Liu; Jiaqiang, Li; Yuebo, Cheng; Zhongyuan, Wang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Dpt. Electronic Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2005-10-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem of high altitude platform systems (HAPS) is investigated in this paper. A physical model for electromagnetic interferences (EMI) of electromagnetic radiation of spark discharge in DC electric motor is proposed. Based on this model, EMI frequency points has been estimated by approximative equation for the given structure and size of a motor, and EMI frequency points, peak values that received by the ports of antennas and far-field pattern have been calculated. The estimated results are consistent with the calculated ones. These frequency bands and spatial directions with max EMI should be avoided in the valid information when the HAPS system is being designed. Two methods are taken to shield electromagnetic radiation, either to mount a metal plate near the DC electric motor (EMI source), or to mount a perfect conductor board near the antenna array (sensitive element), are valid to shield electromagnetic radiation, but to mount a metal plate near the EMI source is more effective. (authors)

  10. Study of Material Compatibility for a Thermal Energy Storage System with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songgang Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of stainless steel 316L and Inconel 625 for use in a latent heat thermal energy storage (TES system was investigated. A NaCl–NaF eutectic mixture with a melting temperature of 680 °C was used as the phase change material (PCM. Containers were filled with the PCM prior to heating to 750 °C, then examined after 100 and 2500 h of high-temperature exposure by analyzing the material surface and cross-section areas. A small amount of corrosion was present in both samples after 100 h. Neither sample suffered significant damage after 2500 h. The undesirable inter-granular grain boundary attack found in SS316L samples was in the order of 1–2 µm in depth. On Inconel 625 sample surface, an oxide complex formed, resisting material dissolution into the PCM. The surface morphology of tested samples remained largely unchanged after 2500 h, but the corrosion pattern changed from an initially localized corrosion penetration to a more uniform type. After 2500 h, the corrosion depth of Inconel 625 remained at roughly 1–2 µm, indicating that the corrosion rate decelerated. Both materials demonstrated good compatibility with the chosen NaF–NaCl eutectic salt, but the low corrosion activity in Inconel 625 samples shows a performance advantage for long term operation.

  11. Compatibility study of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and rice fungicides, and effects on three fungal plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Rodríguez Saldaña

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research took place at the Provincial Plant Sanitation Laboratory, in Camaguey, Cuba, between September 2013 and September 2015. The in vitro compatibility and antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (strain A-34 on rice pathogens (Bipolaris oryzae Breda de Haan, Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada w., Gams and D. Hawksworth and Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert Barr, was determined against pesticides used on rice. Assessment using traditional methods of microbiological isolation of mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of the antagonist, to determine if the action mechanisms (antibiosis, competence, parasitism against fungal pathogens, was made between 24 and 216 hours of application. A bifactorial design in dual culture was used for statistical analysis, along with scales for determination of microbial antagonistic capacity. Active ingredients tebuconazol + procloraz, trifloxistrobin+ ciproconazole, and epoxiconazole + kresoxim-methyl, affected mycelial growth of the antagonist. Moreover, the antagonist against active ingredients carbendazim, copper oxychloride, azoxystrobin and tebuconazo + triadimenol showed mycelial growth, sporulation and pathogen interaction, affecting their growth by means of coiling, penetration, granulation, and cell lysis, between 96 and 216 hours.

  12. Study on the Chemical Compatibility of Silicon Carbide regarding Uranium Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.; Sauder, C.; Guéneau, C.; Alpettaz, T.; Balbaud, F.; Allegri, P.; Brackx, E.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions/perspectives: • SiC/SiC composites are considered in SFR reactors as structure materials. • Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry combined with thermodynamic calculations to investigate the compatibility of UO 2+x regarding SiC: - Open system; - Signals overlapping issues →New spectrometer to work at different energies; - Temperature limited by the molecular beam regime →Improvement of pumping capacity. • UO 2.15 /SiC at 1500°C: - Strong interaction; - Reduction of UO 2+x by SiC; - CO formation. To a lesser extend SiO, CO 2 ; - Formation of USi 1.88 ; U 3 Si 5 ; U 3 Si 2 C 2 ; UC; UC 2 . • UO 2.02 /SiC: - 1200°C – Limited reaction; • 1350/1500°C – Three areas (UC/USi x on the periphery - UO 2 at the center - USi x in-between)/ Characteristic of a gaseous diffusion; • 1650°C – Crucible strongly-attacked – liquid-phase detected. Perspectives: - Diffusion couples: closed system; - Alternative crucible (Ta -W)

  13. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  14. Study of sodium combustion and fire extinction by pulverized substances. Role of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuillon, Marcelline.

    1976-01-01

    A study is presented on inflammation and combustion of liquid sodium, extinction of the metal fires by comburant concentration reducing and cooling, liquid covering, powder smothering. The role of the additives is discussed. The setting up and the experimental process are given. The sodium combustion residues are analyzed. Various powder mixtures based on alkaline carbonates, NaCl-Na 2 CO 3 , NaCl-Na 2 CO 3 ,H 2 O etc... are studied. An attempt of interpretation on sodium fire extinction is presented [fr

  15. A pharmacokinetic study of diclofenac sodium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Ma, He; Cen, Nannan; Zhou, Ai; Tao, Hengxun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection (i.v.) and oral administration (p.o.) of diclofenac sodium (DIC) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Twelve male SD rats were divided into 2 groups (n=6 per group); one group was injected intravenously with 2 mg/kg DIC, whereas the other group was lavaged with 2 mg/kg DIC. Blood samples were collected prior to DIC delivery (0 h) and 0.033, 0.083, 0.167, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-administration. Blood plasma samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following pretreatment to induce protein precipitation. Pharmacokinetics software was applied to calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters using a non-compartmental model. Following i.v. administration of DIC, the terminal elimination rate constant (λ z ), apparent terminal elimination half-life (t ½ ), area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC0 -∞ ), clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution (V z ), mean residence time (MRT), and apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss ) were 0.57±0.05 l/h, 1.22±0.11 h, 3356±238 h × ng/ml, 0.60±0.04 l/h, 1.05±0.10 l, 1.05±0.07 h and 0.63±0.07 l, respectively. Following p.o. administration of DIC, the λ z , t ½ , C max , t max , AUC 0-∞ , CL, V z , MRT were: 0.63±0.12 l/h, 1.12±0.18 h, 1272±112 ng/ml, 0.19±0.04 h, 2501±303 h × ng/ml, 0.81±0.10 l/h, 1.29±0.12 l, and 2.70±0.18 h, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of i.v. and p.o. DIC in rats show that the drug is rapidly absorbed, distributed, and eliminated.

  16. A study of artefacts in simultaneous PET and MR imaging using a prototype MR compatible PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.B.; Farahani, K.; Marsden, P.K.; Taylor, J.; Summers, P.E.; Williams, S.; Beech, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have assessed the possibility of artefacts that can arise in attempting to perform simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a small prototype MR compatible PET scanner (McPET). In these experiments, we examine MR images for any major artefacts or loss in image quality due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field, radiofrequency interference or susceptibility effects caused by operation of the PET system inside the MR scanner. In addition, possible artefacts in the PET images caused by the static and time-varying magnetic fields or radiofrequency interference from the MR system were investigated. Biological tissue and a T 2 -weighted spin echo sequence were used to examine susceptibility artefacts due to components of the McPET scanner (scintillator, optical fibres) situated in the MR field of view. A range of commonly used MR pulse sequences was studied while acquiring PET data to look for possible artefacts in either the PET or MR images. Other than a small loss in signal-to-noise using gradient echo sequences, there was no significant interaction between the two imaging systems. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging of simple phantoms was also carried out in different MR systems with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 T. The results of these studies demonstrate that it is possible to acquire PET and MR images simultaneously, without any significant artefacts or loss in image quality, using our prototype MR compatible PET scanner. (author)

  17. Molecular modeling studies of interactions between sodium polyacrylate polymer and calcite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylikantola, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland); Linnanto, J., E-mail: juha.m.linnanto@gmail.com [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, EE-51014 Tartu (Estonia); Knuutinen, J.; Oravilahti, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland); Toivakka, M. [Åbo Akademi University, Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting and Center for Functional Materials, FI-20500 Turku/Åbo (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The interactions between calcite pigment and sodium polyacrylate dispersing agent, widely used in papermaking as paper coating components, were investigated using classical force field and quantum chemical approaches. The objective was to understand interactions between the calcite surface and sodium polyacrylate polymer at 300 K using molecular dynamics simulations. A quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree–Fock method was also used to obtain detailed information about the sodium polyacrylate polymer structure. The effect of water molecules (moisture) on the interactions was also examined. Calculations showed that molecular weight, branching and the orientation of sodium polyacrylate polymers influence the interactions between the calcite surface and the polymer. The force field applied, and also water molecules, were found to have an impact on all systems studied. Ab initio Hartree–Fock calculations indicated that there are two types of coordination between sodium atoms and carboxylate groups of the sodium polyacrylate polymer, inter- and intra-carboxylate group coordination. In addition, ab initio Hartree–Fock calculations of the structure of the sodium polyacrylate polymer produced important information regarding interactions between the polymers and carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex particles.

  18. NMR studies of sodium cholate-lecithin mixed micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, P.-O.; Lindblom, G.; Arvidson, G.

    1983-01-01

    T 1 and T 2 2 H-NMR relaxation times have been measured for 2 H-labelled phosphatidylcholine in the aqueous solution phase of the ternary system lecithin-sodium cholate-water. In this phase aggregates are formed by a mixture of cholate and lecithin. Information about the dimension of these miscellar aggregates has been obtained from a simple model of the relaxation times in which two modes of molecular motion are considered. The results obtained accord well with recent investigations using laser-light scattering techniques

  19. A Web-based searchable system to confirm magnetic resonance compatibility of implantable medical devices in Japan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Fujioka, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Tomoko; Sekiguchi, Maiko; Murakami, Ryuji

    2017-09-01

    Confirmation of the magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of implanted medical devices (IMDs) is mandatory before conducting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. In Japan, few such confirmation methods are in use, and they are time-consuming. This study aimed to develop a Web-based searchable MR safety information system to confirm IMD compatibility and to evaluate the usefulness of the system. First, MR safety information for intravascular stents and stent grafts sold in Japan was gathered by interviewing 20 manufacturers. These IMDs were categorized based on the descriptions available on medical package inserts as: "MR Safe," "MR Conditional," "MR Unsafe," "Unknown," and "No Medical Package Insert Available". An MR safety information database for implants was created based on previously proposed item lists. Finally, a Web-based searchable system was developed using this database. A questionnaire was given to health-care personnel in Japan to evaluate the usefulness of this system. Seventy-nine datasets were collected using information provided by 12 manufacturers and by investigating the medical packaging of the IMDs. Although the datasets must be updated by collecting data from other manufacturers, this system facilitates the easy and rapid acquisition of MR safety information for IMDs, thereby improving the safety of MRI examinations.

  20. Sodium and steam leak simulation studies for fluidized bed steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeton, A.R.; Vaux, W.G.; Lee, P.K.; Witkowski, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program is described which was conducted to study the effects of sodium or steam leaking into an operating fluidized bed of metal or ceramic particles at 680 to 800 0 K. This effort was part of the early development studies for a fluidized-bed steam generator concept using helium as the fluidizing gas. Test results indicated that steam and small sodium leaks had no effect on the quality of fluidization, heat transfer coefficient, temperature distribution, or fluidizing gas pressure drop across the bed. Large sodium leaks, however, immediately upset the operation of the fluidized bed. Both steam and sodium leaks were detected positively and rapidly at an early stage of a leak by instruments specifically selected to accomplish this

  1. Effects of sodium nitrite on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive vs. healthy study participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbæk, Jeppe B; Hornstrup, Bodil G; Jørgensen, Andreas N

    2018-01-01

    to determine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON. During...... infusion, we measured changes in brachial and central BP, free water clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary excretion rate of γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (U-ENaCγ), and aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2). RESULTS: Placebo-adjusted brachial SBP decreased 18 mmHg (P ... infusion in EHT and 12 mmHg (P fractional sodium excretion, free water clearance, and U...

  2. Study of sodium clay modification through polyaniline polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saade, Wesley; Pinto, Camila P.; Becker, Daniela; Dalmolin, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrids nanocomposites, such as polyaniline/montmorillonite (Pani/MMT), combines the processability and electrical conductivity of this polymer with the mechanical properties of a ceramic material bringing a multitude of new possibilities for use in high-tech, consumer and industry. With this in mind, we sought to characterize and modify sodium clay through polymerization of polyaniline. The characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transformed (FTIR) and spectroscopy by impedance. Through the XRD analysis, it could be inferred that there was a interplanar displacement from 12,4Å (pure sodium montmorillonite) to 15,6Å due to the cation exchange of Na + ions by the anilinium ions, allowing the polymerization interspersed with Pani MMT platelets. By FTIR analysis, presences of the characteristic functional groups of both compounds are detected in the synthesized nanocomposite. Through conductivity and impedance tests it is concluded that the addition of polyaniline decreases the resistive behavior of clay and the electrical conduction becomes possible. (author)

  3. Sodium-water reaction studies for MONJU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, M.; Sato, M.; Nei, H.; Harasaki, T.; Hishida, M.; Saito, T.

    1975-01-01

    The R and D results of the PNC's sodium-water reaction project are reviewed. The purposes of the project with the specific object for each test rig and computer code are given. The test items which should be investigated for the safety evaluation of the MONJU steam generators are discussed, and the status of the PNC's work on each item is described. The results on the small-leak wastage measurement are shown and the improved experimental equations to predict the wastage rate from the leak rate and the sodium temperature are given. The preliminary results on the wastage of tube bundle in the intermediate leak range are shown. The depth and the area of the wastage and also the wastage rate for each tube are shown graphically. The measured peak value of the initial pressure spike for the large leak is shown. The scatter of the data and its causes are discussed. The bubble growth rate estimated from the void probe measurement is presented. The results of the simulation experiment on the pressure wave propagation to the secondary circuit are given, comparing them with the prediction by the one-dimensional computer codes SWAC-5K and SWAC-5H. (author)

  4. Sodium-water reaction studies for MONJU steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M; Sato, M; Nei, H; Harasaki, T; Hishida, M; Saito, T

    1975-07-01

    The R and D results of the PNC's sodium-water reaction project are reviewed. The purposes of the project with the specific object for each test rig and computer code are given. The test items which should be investigated for the safety evaluation of the MONJU steam generators are discussed, and the status of the PNC's work on each item is described. The results on the small-leak wastage measurement are shown and the improved experimental equations to predict the wastage rate from the leak rate and the sodium temperature are given. The preliminary results on the wastage of tube bundle in the intermediate leak range are shown. The depth and the area of the wastage and also the wastage rate for each tube are shown graphically. The measured peak value of the initial pressure spike for the large leak is shown. The scatter of the data and its causes are discussed. The bubble growth rate estimated from the void probe measurement is presented. The results of the simulation experiment on the pressure wave propagation to the secondary circuit are given, comparing them with the prediction by the one-dimensional computer codes SWAC-5K and SWAC-5H. (author)

  5. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux

  6. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and

  7. Study on the utilization of a sodium-sulfuric acid solution for the uranium minerals' leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, Patricia; Fruchtenicht, Fernando; Gil, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel; Bouza, Angel; Vert, Gabriela; Becquart, Elena

    1988-01-01

    Argentine uranium minerals have been leached at bench scale with a different agent trying to reduce sulfuric acid consumption. The leaching agent was a sodium sulfate-sulfuric acid solution and the ore was from Sierra Pintada (San Rafael - Mendoza). The work was performed in stirred vessel at atmospheric pressure. The influence of different variables, pH, temperature, oxidant agent, sodium sulfate concentration and time, in the sulfuric acid consumption and the uranium yield was studied. (Author) [es

  8. Characterization of reaction products in sodium-oxygen batteries : An electrolyte concentration study

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the discharge products formed at the cathode and the performance and cell chemistry of sodium-oxygen batteries have been studied. This was carried out using different NaOTf salt concentrations. The influence of different salt concentrations on sodium-oxygen batteries was investigated since it has been shown that increasing the salt concentration beyond conventional concentrations could result in advantages such as increased stability of the electrolytes towards decomposition, ...

  9. The Anion Paradox in Sodium Taste Reception: Resolution by Voltage-Clamp Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Heck, Gerard L.; Desimone, John A.

    1991-11-01

    Sodium salts are potent taste stimuli, but their effectiveness is markedly dependent on the anion, with chloride yielding the greatest response. The cellular mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are not known. This "anion paradox" has been resolved by considering the field potential that is generated by restricted electrodiffusion of the anion through paracellular shunts between taste-bud cells. Neural responses to sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium gluconate were studied while the field potential was voltage-clamped. Clamping at electronegative values eliminated the anion effect, whereas clamping at electropositive potentials exaggerated it. Thus, field potentials across the lingual epithelium modulate taste reception, indicating that the functional unit of taste reception includes the taste cell and its paracellular microenvironment.

  10. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium; Contribution a l'etude des impuretees hydrogenees et oxygenees dans le sodium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte essentiellement deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la mise au point de methodes de dosages permettant de determiner selectivement les impuretes oxygenees et hydrogenees presentes dans le sodium, a savoir l'oxyde, l'hydrure et l'hydroxyde. La seconde met a profit ces methodes en vue de l'etude du systeme Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}. ainsi que du phenomene connexe d'attaque du verre pyrex par le sodium fondu. La methode classique de dosage de l'oxygene par amalgamation a d'abord ete adaptee au dosage simultane de l'hydrure. Nous avons ensuite mis au point le dosage de l

  11. Ototoxicity associated with topical administration of diclofenac sodium as an otic drop: An experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioglu, Engin; Yigit, Ozgur; Onur, Firat; Atas, Ahmet; Server, Ela Araz; Kara, Eyup

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ototoxicity of topical diclofenac sodium in comparison to positive and negative controls prior to the investigation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of the agent in otic administration. Twenty four ears of 12 guinea pigs were included in the study. Wide myringotomy was performed on all tympanic membranes under general anesthesia and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated. The subjects were separated into four groups, two groups received diclofenac sodium at low and high doses, positive controls received gentamicin and negative controls received isotonic sodium chloride topically for 14 days and ABRs were reevaluated. No significant difference were observed between the pre and post-treatment click response, 1 kHz and 8 kHz response threshold levels after isotonic sodium chloride administration. All threshold levels were elevated in the positive control group. In the low and high dose diclofenac sodium groups, click response, 1 kHz and 8 kHz response threshold levels were significantly higher compared to the baseline values. Pre and post-treatment mean threshold level changes were not significantly different between the low and high dose diclofenac sodium groups. Pre and post-treatment mean threshold level changes in the gentamicin group were not significantly different from low or high dose diclofenac sodium groups. Diclofenac sodium, considered as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory otic preparation, is shown to be as ototoxic as gentamicin in chronic use which may lead to loss of hearing especially when used topically in chronic otitis cases with tympanic membrane damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design study on simplification of secondary sodium cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs. Study result from JFY2000 to JFY2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Toru; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Konomura, Mamoru

    2002-09-01

    For the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System' , various concepts with the simplified secondary sodium cooling system were designed, and the feasibility of technical issues was evaluated by focusing on improvement of economy and safety, especially elimination or mitigation of sodium-water direct interaction on heat transfer tube failure accident. In JFY 2000, 8 concepts with inert intermediate media were evaluated from standpoints of economy, safety, and structure integrity. And as promising candidates, the Pb-Bi pool type SG and the Pb-Bi tube type SG (concentric triple-walled tube) were selected, which had low cost compared with conventional IHX and SG system, and had potential of eliminating sodium-water direct interaction by separation of sodium and water tube zone. In JFY 2001, for the Pb-Bi tube type SG, important technical issues on 'Pb-Bi triple-walled tube specification suitable for safety demand', 'safety frame work corresponded to tube failure accident', and 'measures for Pb-Bi leakage into primary sodium loop' were studied, and the SG concept was constructed. In order to eliminate the design supposition of guillotine failure, available design measures for tube specification were tried to extract. But based on vibration characteristics of Pb-Bi triple-walled tube, the time required difference between outer and inner tube failure could not increase largely compared with known double-walled tube. The Pb-Bi tube type SG had potential of cost reduction (81% of cooling system, and 97% of plant), compared with conventional IHX and SG. But finally it was judged that design study on this type SG would not be executed after JFY 2002, due to impossibility of eliminating the design supposition of guillotine failure. (author)

  13. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  14. Use of radioactive sodium-22 to study the processes of soil salinization and desalinization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzubaidi, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with the salinization of four undisturbed soil columns of silt loam soil, collected with special plexiglass columns. The salinization was effected by adding a certain volume of salt solution consisting of a mixture of NaCl, CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 and containing 0.5 mCi of sodium-22. The salt solution was added to the surface of the first two columns and then the soil columns were leached with distilled water, while for the other two columns, the salt solution was added from the bottom of the columns using a syphon technique. The first two columns represent a model for the desalinization process of saline soils, while the latter two columns represent a model for the salinization process under the effect of high groundwater table. The downward and upward movements of sodium through the soil columns were recorded by measuring sodium radioactivity periodically, using a special scanner which continuously and automatically detected the radioactivity of sodium with the help of a gamma spectrometer. The final distribution curves for sodium movement throughout these soil columns versus time were obtained by computer. The data obtained indicate that radioactive sodium can be used with success to study the movement of salts in soil. The results also bring a new and better understanding of the nature of the salt movement during the processes of salinization and desalinization, the most important soil processes in the arid and semi-arid regions. (author)

  15. Electrodissolution studies of 304 stainless steel in sodium nitrate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1997-12-01

    To explore the impact of a wide range of operating parameters upon 304 stainless steel (SS) dissolution in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) electrolyte, the staff of Engineering Science Applications-Energy and Process Engineering performed a series of beaker experiments. The variables that the authors explored included NaNO 3 concentration, chromate concentration, pH, stirring rate, and current density. They adjusted the run length to obtain approximately 10 mg/cm 2 metal removal so that they could compare surface finishes under similar test conditions. Key findings may be summarized as follows. Current efficiency during dissolution depends most strongly upon current density and electrolyte concentration. At 0.05 A/cm 2 , current density is more dependent upon chromium concentration than they previously thought. They obtained the best surface finish in a classical electropolishing regime at current densities above 1.5 A/cm 2 . Mirror-like finishes were obtained at near 100% current efficiency. At 0.05 a/cm 2 they obtained reasonable surface finishes, particularly at lower electrolyte concentration. Current efficiency was low (30%). At intermediate current densities, they obtained the worst surface finishes, that is, surfaces with severe pitting. Also, they explored preferential attack of the weld zone during electrodissolution of 304 stainless steel cans. Electrodissolution removed approximately twice as much material from cans with unshielded weld zones as from cans with shielded weld zones. The following implications are apparent. While operation above 1 A/cm 2 yields the best surface finish at 100% current efficiency, equipment size and power feedthrough limitations reduce the attractiveness of this option. Because other Los Alamos researchers, obtained more favorable results with the sulfate electrolyte, the authors recommend no further work for the sodium nitrate electrolyte system

  16. Consumer underestimation of sodium in fast food restaurant meals: Results from a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Ramirez, Maricelle; Block, Jason P

    2017-06-01

    Restaurants are key venues for reducing sodium intake in the U.S. but little is known about consumer perceptions of sodium in restaurant foods. This study quantifies the difference between estimated and actual sodium content of restaurant meals and examines predictors of underestimation in adult and adolescent diners at fast food restaurants. In 2013 and 2014, meal receipts and questionnaires were collected from adults and adolescents dining at six restaurant chains in four New England cities. The sample included 993 adults surveyed during 229 dinnertime visits to 44 restaurants and 794 adolescents surveyed during 298 visits to 49 restaurants after school or at lunchtime. Diners were asked to estimate the amount of sodium (mg) in the meal they had just purchased. Sodium estimates were compared with actual sodium in the meal, calculated by matching all items that the respondent purchased for personal consumption to sodium information on chain restaurant websites. Mean (SD) actual sodium (mg) content of meals was 1292 (970) for adults and 1128 (891) for adolescents. One-quarter of diners (176 (23%) adults, 155 (25%) adolescents) were unable or unwilling to provide estimates of the sodium content of their meals. Of those who provided estimates, 90% of adults and 88% of adolescents underestimated sodium in their meals, with adults underestimating sodium by a mean (SD) of 1013 mg (1,055) and adolescents underestimating by 876 mg (1,021). Respondents underestimated sodium content more for meals with greater sodium content. Education about sodium at point-of-purchase, such as provision of sodium information on restaurant menu boards, may help correct consumer underestimation, particularly for meals of high sodium content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  18. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CLIL COMPATIBILITY WITH THE MODERN GREEK EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Georgopoulou Theodosiou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL method for (foreign language teaching. The CLIL approach is rapidly gaining momentum across Europe and all over the world. It is the result of recent European Union efforts to develop and apply innovative educational practices of interdisciplinary character in order to bridge the gap between foreign language education and optimum learning outcomes. In order to investigate the compatibility of CLIL with the contemporary Greek educational reality, a small-scale experimental research study was set up, including the development of original e-learning material, a pilot class instruction based on this material and the evaluation of the results. The class instruction was based on Project-Based Learning whereas Collaborative Learning was supported by the Edmodo e-learning platform. Information on the progress of the pilot class instruction and the learning outcomes achieved was disseminated through a wiki set up for this task.

  19. Moessbauer effect study of oxidation and coordination states of iron in some sodium borate glasse:;

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Sanad, A.M.; Youssef, S.M.; El-Henawii, S.A.; Gomaa, S.Sh.; Mostafa, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A structural study of some sodium borate glasses containing iron was carried out applying ME spectroscopy. Both oxidation and coordination states of iron were investigated under the effect of gradual replacing of sodium carbonate by sodium nitrate in the glass batches. The glasses were melted in porcelain crucibles using an electrically heated furnace at 1000+-10 deg C, then were quenched on a steel plate at room temperature (R.T.). The ME source was 20 mCi radioactive Co-57 in chromium. The obtained ME spectra indicated that at lower sodium nitrate content both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ are present in these glasses. At moderate concentrations some Fe 3+ ions were separated in a crystalline phase and the rest of the iron ions appeared as ferric ions in glassy state. At high sodium nitrate content only Fe 3+ ions in glassy state were detected. The values of the ME parameters for all iron ions indicated that all of them are in the octahedral coordination state. The density measurements confirm the separation of a crystalline phase at moderate sodium nitrate content. (author)

  20. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  1. Corrosion and material transfer in a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.M.; Espigares, M.M.; Arroyo, J.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion and material transfer behaviour of the martensitic steel X18 CrMoVNb 12 1 as a function of the temperature and the position is studied in the ML-1 sodium loop. Up to 600 C the material has the same good compatibility with liquid sodium as austenitic stainless steels, as well in the corrosion region of the loop as in the deposition zone in the cooled leg. The steel is not sensitive to carburization or decarburization under the conditions in the sodium rig. (author)

  2. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus

    2015-01-01

    , if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. The accelerated stability studies performed in the microwave oven using...... a design of experiments (DoE) approach in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric......, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating...

  3. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  4. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition

  5. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.

  6. Studies on Methods for Detection of Salmonella SP. in Meat with Regard to Equivalency and Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, P.; Smulders, F. J.M. [Institute for Meat Hygiene, Meat Technology and Food Science, University for Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Girma, Z. [Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit (Ethiopia); Farghaly, R. [South Valley University, Qena (Egypt)

    2005-01-15

    This contribution summarizes research activities on the evaluation of methods for detection of Salmonella in meat, especially poultry. The following items were under study: (1) studies on motility media for detection of Salmonella spp.: evaluation of MSRV media of different manufacturers; evaluation of novobiocine supplementation to MSRV and DIASALM media; abuse studies of incubation temperature; comparison of DIASALM medium vs. MSRV; (2) Salmonella antigen detection by a commercial EIA (Vidas System). The findings and information from other sources (references, technical papers) are to be combined in a database to give a comprehensive overview on the currently applied methodology. Basic considerations on the structure of this database are demonstrated. (author)

  7. Agile software development and its compatibility with a document-driven approach? A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2009-01-01

    however have a desire to adopt agile development processes while maintaining compliance with a quality assurance standard or even a process standard. We have studied the software development process of a Danish pharmaceutical company. For market reasons the company has to comply the US Food and Drug...

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the properties of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsuo [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mariani, R. D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    For liquid-sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor systems, it is crucial to understand the behavior of lanthanides and other potential fission products in liquid sodium or other liquid metal solutions such as liquid cesium-sodium. In this study, we focus on lanthanide behavior in liquid sodium. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we found that the solubility of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K was less than 0.78 at. %, and the diffusion coefficient of cerium in liquid sodium was calculated to be 5.57 × 10{sup −9} m{sup 2}/s. Furthermore, it was found that cerium in small amounts may significantly alter the heat capacity of the liquid sodium system. Our results are consistent with the experimental results for similar materials under similar conditions.

  9. Reaction velocity of sodium hydration in humid air and sodium carbonation in humid carbon dioxide atmosphere. Fundamental study on sodium carbonate process in FBR bulk sodium coolant disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yutaka; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1999-11-01

    A sodium carbonate processing method, which changes sodium to sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate by humid carbon dioxide, has been examined and about to be applied to large test loops dismantling. However, that the basic data regarding the progress of the reaction is insufficient on the other hand, is a present condition. The present report therefore aims at presenting basic data regarding the reaction velocity of sodium hydration in humid air and sodium carbonation in humid carbon dioxide atmosphere, and observing the reaction progress, for the application to large test loops dismantling. The test result is summarized as follows. (1) Although the reaction velocity of sodium varied with sodium specimen sizes and velocity measurement methods, the reaction velocity of sodium hydration was in about 0.16 ∼ 0.34 mmh -1 (0.016 ∼ 0.033g cm -2 h -1 , 6.8x10 -4 ∼ 1.4x10 -3 mol cm -2 h -1 ) and that of sodium carbonation was in about 0.16 ∼ 0.27mmh -1 (0.016 ∼ 0.023g cm -2 h -1 , 6.8x10 -4 ∼ 1.1x10 -3 mol cm -2 h -1 ) (26 ∼ 31degC, RH 100%). (2) The reaction velocity of sodium in carbon dioxide atmosphere was greatly affected by vapor partial pressure (absolutely humidity). And the velocity was estimated in 0.08 ∼ 0.12mmh -1 (0.008 ∼ 0.012g cm -2 h -1 , 3.4x10 -4 ∼ 5.2x10 -4 mol cm -2 h -1 ) in the carbon dioxide atmosphere, whose temperature of 20degC and relative humidity of 80% are assumed real sodium carbonate process condition. (3) By the X-ray diffraction method, NaOH was found in humid air reaction product. Na 2 CO 3 , NaHCO 3 were found in carbon dioxide atmosphere reaction product. It was considered that Sodium changes to NaOH, and subsequently to NaHCO 3 through Na 2 CO 3 . (4) For the application to large test loops dismantling, it is considered possible to change sodium to a target amount of sodium carbonate (or sodium bicarbonate) by setting up gas supply quantity and also processing time appropriately according to the surface area

  10. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability of luminal membrane vesicles from toad bladder. Studies using a fast-reaction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, H.S. Jr.; Al-Awqati, Q.

    1983-01-01

    Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal membrane is the major mechanism by which the net rate of sodium transport across tight epithelia is varied. Previous evidence has suggested that the permeability of the luminal membrane might be regulated by changes in intracellular sodium or calcium activities. To test this directly, we isolated a fraction of the plasma membrane from the toad urinary bladder, which contains a fast, amiloride-sensitive sodium flux with characteristics similar to those of the native luminal membrane. Using a flow-quench apparatus to measure the initial rate of sodium efflux from these vesicles in the millisecond time range, we have demonstrated that the isotope exchange permeability of these vesicles is very sensitive to calcium. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration is 0.5 microM, well within the range of calcium activity found in cells. Also, the permeability of the luminal membrane vesicles is little affected by the ambient sodium concentration. These results, when taken together with studies on whole tissue, suggest that cell calcium may be an important regulator of transepithelial sodium transport by its effect on luminal sodium permeability. The effect of cell sodium on permeability may be mediated by calcium rather than by sodium itself

  11. Feedback from physical activity monitors is not compatible with current recommendations: A recalibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dylan; Batterham, Alan M; Peacock, Oliver J; Western, Max J; Booso, Rahuman

    2016-10-01

    Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735 minutes per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000 minutes per week, which represents ~15% of waking time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An electromagnetic compatibility study of cardiac pacemaker to low frequency interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andretzko, J.P.; Hedjiedj, A.; Babouri, A.; Guendouz, L.; Nadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the behaviour of cardiac pacemaker submitted to low frequency electromagnetic interferences. The method used in this study is progressive. It consists in starting from the target (the cardiac pacemaker), identifying and quantifying the disturbances (the source), and then introducing secondary influencing parameters in stepwise fashion. The general problematic consists in checking this immunity in relation with led disruptions and in relation with beaming disruptions. The experimental approach suggests two kind of tests corresponding to the two studied coupling modes. The first one corresponds to a direct applying of the disruptive signal between the pacemaker terminals. The objective of this phase is to determine the characteristics of the signal (amplitude and frequency) which are detected by the pacemaker and which generate modifications of its operation. In the second phase the pacemaker is subjected to a variable low frequency magnetic field. This last interacts with the pacemaker by inductive coupling through the loop formed by the pacemaker and its leads and the surrounding medium. This interaction results in an induced electromotive force between the terminals of the pacemaker which can potentially disturb the operation of this last. The objective of this phase is to characterize the signal (magnetic field) likely to generate these disturbances. Tests are carried out on six single chamber pacemaker and five dual chamber pacemaker. The interfering signal frequencies are 50 Hz, 60 Hz, 10 khz and 25 khz. Tracking and programming of the pacemaker housing is achieved with the telemetry system. In this study, the devices have all been configured in inhibited stimulation (S.S.I. or V.V.I. mode according to the international codification), this configuration being the most widespread. The housing stimulates the basic frequency in the absence o f intrinsic activity, the stimulation can be inhibited in each chamber by a

  13. An electromagnetic compatibility study of cardiac pacemaker to low frequency interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andretzko, J.P.; Hedjiedj, A.; Babouri, A.; Guendouz, L.; Nadi, M. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, Lab. d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy, Faculte des Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the behaviour of cardiac pacemaker submitted to low frequency electromagnetic interferences. The method used in this study is progressive. It consists in starting from the target (the cardiac pacemaker), identifying and quantifying the disturbances (the source), and then introducing secondary influencing parameters in stepwise fashion. The general problematic consists in checking this immunity in relation with led disruptions and in relation with beaming disruptions. The experimental approach suggests two kind of tests corresponding to the two studied coupling modes. The first one corresponds to a direct applying of the disruptive signal between the pacemaker terminals. The objective of this phase is to determine the characteristics of the signal (amplitude and frequency) which are detected by the pacemaker and which generate modifications of its operation. In the second phase the pacemaker is subjected to a variable low frequency magnetic field. This last interacts with the pacemaker by inductive coupling through the loop formed by the pacemaker and its leads and the surrounding medium. This interaction results in an induced electromotive force between the terminals of the pacemaker which can potentially disturb the operation of this last. The objective of this phase is to characterize the signal (magnetic field) likely to generate these disturbances. Tests are carried out on six single chamber pacemaker and five dual chamber pacemaker. The interfering signal frequencies are 50 Hz, 60 Hz, 10 khz and 25 khz. Tracking and programming of the pacemaker housing is achieved with the telemetry system. In this study, the devices have all been configured in inhibited stimulation (S.S.I. or V.V.I. mode according to the international codification), this configuration being the most widespread. The housing stimulates the basic frequency in the absence o f intrinsic activity, the stimulation can be inhibited in each chamber by a

  14. Fast reactor shield sensitivity studies for steel--sodium--iron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of the adequacy of the current ENDF/B-IV sodium and iron neutron cross section data files for fast reactor shield design work. Experimental data from 21 fast reactor shield configurations containing large thicknesses of steel, sodium, and iron were analyzed with discrete ordinates calculations and sensitivity methods to assess the data files. This study represents the largest full-scale sensitivity analysis of benchmark quality experimental data to date. Included in the sensitivity studies were the results of the new cross section adjustment algorithms added to the FORSS code system. Conclusions were drawn about the need for more accurate data for sodium and iron elastic and discrete inelastic cross sections above 1 MeV and the values of the total cross section in the vicinity of important minima

  15. Compatibility studies on Mo-coating systems for nuclear fuel cladding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Huan Chin; Hosemann, Peter; Glaeser, Andreas M.; Cionea, Cristian

    2017-12-01

    To improve the safety factor of nuclear power plants in accident scenarios, molybdenum (Mo), with its high-temperature strength, is proposed as a potential fuel-cladding candidate. However, Mo undergoes rapid oxidation and sublimation at elevated temperatures in oxygen-rich environments. Thus, it is necessary to coat Mo with a protective layer. The diffusional interactions in two systems, namely, Zircaloy-2 (Zr2) on a Mo tube, and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) on a Mo rod, were studied by aging coated Mo substrates in high vacuum at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 1000° for 1000 h. The specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and nanoindentation. In both systems, pores in the coating increased in size and number with increasing temperature over time, and cracks were also observed; intermetallic phases formed between the Mo and its coatings.

  16. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs

  17. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-07-20

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. MRI compatibility study of an integrated PET/RF-coil prototype system at 3 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Md Shahadat Hossain; Obata, Takayuki; Suga, Mikio; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Saito, Kazuyuki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-10-01

    We have been working on the development of a PET insert for existing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems for simultaneous PET/MR imaging, which integrates radiofrequency (RF)-shielded PET detector modules with an RF head coil. In order to avoid interferences between the PET detector circuits and the different MRI-generated electromagnetic fields, PET detector circuits were installed inside eight Cu-shielded fiber-reinforced plastic boxes, and these eight shielded PET modules were integrated in between the eight elements of a 270-mm-diameter and 280-mm-axial-length cylindrical birdcage RF coil, which was designed to be used with a 3-T clinical MRI system. The diameter of the PET scintillators with a 12-mm axial field-of-view became 255 mm, which was very close to the imaging region. In this study, we have investigated the effects of this PET/RF-coil integrated system on the performance of MRI, which include the evaluation of static field (Bo) inhomogeneity, RF field (B1) distribution, local specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution, average SAR, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For the central 170-mm-diameter and 80-mm-axial-length of a homogenous cylindrical phantom (with the total diameter of 200 mm and axial-length of 100 mm), an increase of about a maximum of 3 μT in the Bo inhomogeneity was found, both in the central and 40-mm off-centered transverse planes, and a 5 percentage point increase of B1 field inhomogeneity was observed in the central transverse plane (from 84% without PET to 79% with PET), while B1 homogeneity along the coronal plane was almost unchanged (77%) following the integration of PET with the RF head coil. The average SAR and maximum local SAR were increased by 1.21 and 1.62 times, respectively. However, the SNR study for both spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences showed a reduction of about 70% and 60%, respectively, because of the shielded PET modules. The overall results prove the feasibility of this integrated PET/RF-coil system

  19. Preliminary study of blood compatibility of PTFE copolymerized with DMAA through gamma rays compared to PET and aflon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, A.A.A. de; Higa, O.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The new method developed by Imai and Nosa was used for the evaluation of blood compatibility of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) grafted films with N,N - dimethylacrylamide (DMAA). The amount of the formed thrombus was measured gravimetrically at an appropriate interval of time after calcium chloride being added to the ACD blood in contact to the tested material. It was concluded that the method of modifying the polymeric surface of PTFE by grafting the hydrophilic monomer DMAA improved its blood compatibility. (author)

  20. Compatibility studies of copper, brass and cupronickel with Hytherm-500 thermofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujar, M.G.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon steel used as a structural material in thermofluid/water heat exchangers in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) got perforated resulting in leakage. To suggest an alternative better corrosion resistant material for these exchangers, corrosion resistance studies of copper based alloy systems in both a s received and pickled conditions were carried out in the thermofluid medium (Hytherm-500) at room temperature (∼298 K), 373 K and 423 K upto 500 h duration. The tested materials, copper, admiralty brass and 70/30 cupronickel were found to have excellent corrosion resistance in both as-received and pickled conditions. In all the cases corrosion rates decreased with increased duration of exposure. All the above materials showed better corrosion resistance in pickled condition compared to that in as-received condition. The relative corrosion resistance of these three alloys was as follows: admiralty brass > cop per > cupronickel. This trend in the corrosion resistance was observed in both as-received and pickled conditions. In general, the corrosion resistance in pickled condition was found to be better than that in as-received condition. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Compatibility of scientific research and specialty training in general practice. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Carmienke, Solveig; Herrmann, Wolfram J

    2014-01-01

    In many departments of General Practice (GP) in Germany, young doctors who are trainees also work as researchers. Often these trainees work part time at the university and part time as a trainee in clinical practice. However, little is known about the situation of the actors involved. The aim of the study was to investigate the perspectives of GP trainees, heads of departments and GP trainers regarding the combination of research and GP training. We conducted a web-based survey with the heads of all German departments of General Practice, GP trainees who also conduct research and their GP trainers. The questionnaires consisted of open and closed questions. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. 28 heads of GP departments and 20 GP trainees responded. The trainees were mostly very satisfied with their situation as a trainee. However, the trainees considered the combination of research and GP training as difficult. The respondents name as problems the coordination of multiple jobs and the lack of credibility given to research in General Practice. They name as solutions research-enabling training programs and uniform requirements in training regarding research. The combination of GP training and scientific research activity is perceived as difficult. However, well-organized and designed programs can improve the quality of the combination.

  2. Novel chenodeoxycholic acid-sodium alginate matrix in the microencapsulation of the potential antidiabetic drug, probucol. An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooranian, Armin; Negrulj, Rebecca; Mikov, Momir; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Arfuso, Frank; Al-Salami, Hani

    2015-01-01

    We previously designed, developed and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of Probucol (PB) in an animal model of Type 2 Diabetes. The objective of this study is to optimize this platform by incorporating Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a bile acid with good permeation-enhancing properties, and examine its effect in vitro. Using sodium alginate (SA), we prepared PB-SA (control) and PB-CDCA-SA (test) microcapsules. CDCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained unchanged. PB-CDCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients' compatibilities, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies. CDCA reduced microcapsule swelling at pH 7.8 at both 37 °C and 25 °C and improved PB-release. CDCA improved the characteristics and release properties of PB-microcapsules and may have potential in the targeted oral delivery of PB.

  3. Study of compatibility of oligo-chitosan and ginkgo bilobal polyprenol influences on micronuclear rates and p53, gadd45 protein expression of radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianping; Wang Yongli; Wei Jinping; Yang Zhongtian; Liu Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Study of compatibility of oligo-chitosan and ginkgo bilobal polyprenol (GP) influences on micronuclear rate and p53, gadd45 protein expression of radiated mice. Survival rate and survival time of 30-day-time of radiated mice was studied with the mixture of compatibility of oligo-chitosan and different density of GP. High survival rate of mixture density was screening. Another study on this mixture density was about micronuclear rates of marrow and p53, gadd45 protein of spleen after mice were radiated 12 h. The mixture of 300 mg/kg oligo-chitosan and 5 mg/kg GP could increase remarkably the survival rate and survival time of 30-day-time of radiated mice and degrade micronuclear rates and p53, gadd45 protein expression. Compatibility of oligo-chitosan and GP effectively raise the survival rate of radiated mice. It could proved initially that the mixture has the function of radiation protection. (authors)

  4. Sodium fire aerosol behaviour: a review of studies carried out under the auspices of the CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to produce a synthesis of the results of four studies (Reports EUR 9172 EN, EUR 9203 EN, SESRU No. EF.21.12.R/88.527 and EUR 13274 EN) bringing out their overall contribution to our understanding of the way sodium fire aerosols behave in secondary containment buildings. In particular the following questions are addressed in the light of the information produced by the CONT group studies: (i) Are current instrumentation techniques capable of obtaining the data about aerosols needed to validate the computer models. (ii) Is the current database produced by sodium fire experiments sufficient to validate the computer models. (iii) Can the current computer codes predict the behaviour of sodium fire aerosols in hypothetical LMFBR accidents with sufficient accuracy

  5. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste Division on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice

  6. Application of thermodynamic models to study micellar properties of sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: alf@usc.es; Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero, Maria J. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-06-27

    Sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (CnFONa) with n = 6, 9, 10 have been studied by conductivity measurements at different temperatures. The Krafft point was determined for C9FONa and C10FONa at the highest concentration studied by measuring the temperature dependence of the specific conductivity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the ionization degree of the micelle ({beta}) were estimated from conductivity vs. molality plots at different temperatures. Using these data and previous results on temperature dependence of cmc and {beta} of sodium perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorooctanoate, different models were applied to obtain the thermodynamic properties of micellization. The results are discussed in terms of alkyl chain length.

  7. Application of thermodynamic models to study micellar properties of sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M.; Romero, Maria J.; Blanco, Elena; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (CnFONa) with n = 6, 9, 10 have been studied by conductivity measurements at different temperatures. The Krafft point was determined for C9FONa and C10FONa at the highest concentration studied by measuring the temperature dependence of the specific conductivity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the ionization degree of the micelle (β) were estimated from conductivity vs. molality plots at different temperatures. Using these data and previous results on temperature dependence of cmc and β of sodium perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorooctanoate, different models were applied to obtain the thermodynamic properties of micellization. The results are discussed in terms of alkyl chain length

  8. Forced convection boiling of sodium. Study carried out in the framework of fast neutrons reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Within the framework of the safety of fast neutron reactors, this research thesis reports the study of sodium boiling in order to assess safety margins, and to predict the consequences of some accidents. The author thus addresses issues related to sodium boiling by notably focussing on boiling physics. He first defines these issues and presents the adopted approach for this research, and then describes the experimental installation. He reports the experimental study which comprised different types of tests, and presents experimental results. He reports the development of a calculation model which could report phenomena which have been experimentally noticed [fr

  9. In vitro disintegration studies of weekly generic alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg) available in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Richard J; Crail, Debbie J; Perkins, Alan C

    2009-02-01

    Bisphosphonates as a class have the potential to cause upper gastrointestinal irritation. Although the generic alendronate sodium tablets are bioequivalent to the branded product, a potential concern is that the pharmaceutical attributes of the various generic formulations my affect the potential for local irritation and tolerability. The in vitro disintegration times were determined using the method described in the US Pharmacopeia 30 (USP 30). The disintegration of three generic alendronate sodium tablets 70 mg available in the United States was compared to that of the branded product. The mean disintegration times of the generic alendronate sodium tablets ranged from 9 to 10 s for the Barr lots to 108 s for the Watson lot. The disintegration time of the branded product (Fosamax) was 53 s. The three Barr lots and one Teva lot had rapid disintegration times which were similar to the disintegration standards (disintegrating tablets. Since there is no established disintegration time for alendronate sodium tablets there can be no assurance that the generic tablets are equivalent to the branded product in terms of esophageal exposure. However, the in vitro disintegration times have not been correlated with in vivo disintegration performance. Copies of generic alendronate sodium tablets are approved based on the results of single-dose bioavailability studies in healthy subjects and this is not considered adequate to establish similar disintegration characteristics.

  10. Physical disruption of oral biofilms by sodium bicarbonate: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, J; Wiecek, J; Mordan, N; Lomax, A; Patel, N; Spratt, D; Middleton, A M

    2016-08-01

    Sodium bicarbonate has been shown clinically to be efficacious at removing dental plaque; however, its effect of mechanism against biofilms has not been evaluated in vitro. Here, we used a well-established in vitro plaque biofilm model to investigate the disruption of dental plaque biofilms. Biofilms were grown in a constant depth film fermentor for up to 14 days. The fermentor was inoculated with pooled human saliva and growth maintained with artificial saliva. After various time points, replicate biofilms were removed and subjected to treatment at varying concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. Disruption of the plaque was assessed by viable counts and microscopy. The viable count results showed that younger biofilms were less susceptible to the action of sodium bicarbonate; however, biofilms of 7 days and older were increasingly susceptible to the material with the oldest biofilms being the most susceptible. Sixty-seven percentage of sodium bicarbonate slurry was able to reduce the number of organisms present by approx. 3 log10 . These quantitative data were corroborated qualitatively with both confocal and electron microscopy, which both showed substantial qualitative removal of mature biofilms. The results from this study have shown that sodium bicarbonate is able to disrupt mature dental plaque grown in vitro and that its reported efficacy in maintaining oral hygiene may be related to this key factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of sodium bicarbonate against Candida albicans in denture stomatitis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolmoulouk Najafi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate against candida albicans, the main infectious factor of denture stomatitis, and to compare it with other common anti-candida medications. Materials and Methods: Three concentrations of Candida albicans (105, 106, 107 CFU/mL were prepared. Experimental substances were 5% sodium bicarbonate, nystatin, chlorhexidine, and sterile saline (as control. Each of them was added separately to the same amounts of Candida albicans of different concentrations, and sampled at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Then, the samples were cultured and incubated. The number of formed colonies was counted for each plate. The data were analyzed, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Sodium bicarbonate showed a noticeable anti-candida effect on the concentrations of 105 and 106 CFU/mL, with almost similar anti-candida effect as nystatin and chlorehexidine(P=0.29, P=0.32. Nystatin was the most effective medication on the concentration of 107 CFU/mL of candida (P=0.03, P=0.01. Sodium bicarbonate and chlorhexidine were less effective in this concentration with no statistically significant difference (P=1.00. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate showed a significant anti-candida effect at low and medium concentrations of Candida albicans, but nystatin was more effective in the higher concentrations.

  13. Surface studies on as-grown (111) faces of sodium bromate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    facilitates to etch almost at the selective position. It consists of a small tube with pointed tip, after filling with ... the selective position by turning the socket. By pressing the tube gently the etchant is released drop by ... In the present study attention has also been focused to study the inclusions in the sodium bromate crystals. In.

  14. Compatible Lie Bialgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ming-Zhong; Bai Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang–Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. (paper)

  15. An open-label study of sodium oxybate (Xyrem®) in spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F.; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a task-specific laryngeal dystonia that affects speech production. Co-occurring voice tremor (VT) often complicates the diagnosis and clinical management of SD. Treatment of SD and VT is largely limited to botulinum toxin injections into laryngeal musculature; other pharmacological options are not sufficiently developed. Study Design and Methods We conducted an open-label study in 23 SD and 22 SD/VT patients to examine the effects of sodium oxybate (Xyrem®), an oral agent with therapeutic effects similar to those of alcohol in these patients. Blinded randomized analysis of voice and speech samples assessed symptom improvement before and after drug administration. Results Sodium oxybate significantly improved voice symptoms (p = 0.001) primarily by reducing the number of SD-characteristic voice breaks and severity of VT. Sodium oxybate further showed a trend for improving VT symptoms (p = 0.03) in a subset of patients who received successful botulinum toxin injections for the management of their SD symptoms. The drug’s effects were observed approximately 30–40 min after its intake and lasted about 3.5–4 hours. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that sodium oxybate reduced voice symptoms in 82.2% of alcohol-responsive SD patients both with and without co-occurring VT. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic mechanism of sodium oxybate in SD and SD/VT may be linked to that of alcohol and as such sodium oxybate might be beneficial for alcohol-responsive SD and SD/VT patients. PMID:27808415

  16. An open-label study of sodium oxybate in Spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-06-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a task-specific laryngeal dystonia that affects speech production. Co-occurring voice tremor (VT) often complicates the diagnosis and clinical management of SD. Treatment of SD and VT is largely limited to botulinum toxin injections into laryngeal musculature; other pharmacological options are not sufficiently developed. Open-label study. We conducted an open-label study in 23 SD and 22 SD/VT patients to examine the effects of sodium oxybate (Xyrem), an oral agent with therapeutic effects similar to those of alcohol in these patients. Blinded randomized analysis of voice and speech samples assessed symptom improvement before and after drug administration. Sodium oxybate significantly improved voice symptoms (P = .001) primarily by reducing the number of SD-characteristic voice breaks and severity of VT. Sodium oxybate further showed a trend for improving VT symptoms (P = .03) in a subset of patients who received successful botulinum toxin injections for the management of their SD symptoms. The drug's effects were observed approximately 30 to 40 minutes after its intake and lasted about 3.5 to 4 hours. Our study demonstrated that sodium oxybate reduced voice symptoms in 82.2% of alcohol-responsive SD patients both with and without co-occurring VT. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic mechanism of sodium oxybate in SD and SD/VT may be linked to that of alcohol, and as such, sodium oxybate might be beneficial for alcohol-responsive SD and SD/VT patients. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1402-1407, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Development of a new, rapid and sensitive HPTLC method for estimation of Milnacipran in bulk, formulation and compatibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Singhvi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for quantitative determination of Milnacipran Hydrochloride (MIL in bulk and formulations. The chromatographic development was carried out on HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using a mixture of acetonitrile, water and ammonia (6:0.6:1.6 (v/v/v as mobile phase. Detection was carried out densitometrically at 220 nm. The Rf value of drug was found to be 0.63 ± 0.02. The method was validated as per ICH guideline with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness etc. The calibration curve was found to be linear over a range of 100–1000 ng μL−1 with a regression coefficient of 0.999. The accuracy was found to be very high (99.12–100.87%. %RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variation were not more than 1.43. The method has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The method was applied for compatibility studies also. The method is new, simple and economic for routine estimation of MIL in bulk, preformulation studies and pharmaceutical formulation to help the industries as well as researchers for their sensitive determination of MIL rapidly at low cost in routine analysis.

  18. A Radical Sodium Reduction Policy is not Supported by Randomized Controlled Trials or Observational Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Several health institutions recommend sodium intake be reduced to below 2,300 mg, which means that 6-7 billion individuals should alter their diet to accommodate. Such a radical recommendation should be based on solid evidence. However, this review reveals that (i) there are no randomized...... controlled trials (RCTs) allocating individuals to below 2,300 mg and measuring health outcomes; (ii) RCTs allocating risk groups such as obese prehypertensive individuals and hypertensive individuals down to (but not below) 2,300 mg show no effect of sodium reduction on all-cause mortality; (iii) RCTs...... allocating individuals to below 2,300 mg show a minimal effect on blood pressure in the healthy population (less than 1mm Hg) and significant increases in renin, aldosterone, noradrenalin cholesterol, and triglyceride; and (iv) observational studies show that sodium intakes below 2,645 and above 4,945 mg...

  19. Clinical studies in the effect of sodium alginate on radiation esophagitis and proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Hideki; Ono, Koji; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Imura, Toshio; Onoyama, Yasuto; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Narabayashi, Isamu; Yoshikawa, Yuichi

    1985-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of sodium alginate, a drug which has been used for the treatment of peptic ulcer, on radiation esophagitis or proctitis. Over seventy percent of patients suffered from swallowing pain due to radiation esophagitis were relieved from the pain within a week after an oral administration of sodium alginate. The extent of the improvement of the symptom did not significantly correlate with sex and age of the patients and with radiation doses delivered before occurrence of swallowing pain. For the treatment of radiation proctitis, an anal administration of sodium alginate was also effective. Melena, a major symptom of radiation proctitis, was decreased or disappeared in seventeen out of nineteen cases. The durations required for the improvement of melena varied from seven to seventy days. Endoscopical examinations of the rectum revealed reparation of erosions on the mucosal surface in parallel with the improvement of melena. (author).

  20. Kinetic study of human hand sodium using local in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen Boulakia, Francine.

    1978-01-01

    Using local 'in vivo' activation analysis, turnover of human hand sodium is studied in 14 subjects, 7 controls and 7 decalcified osteoporotics patients. The hand of each subject is irradiated with neutrons emitted by 52 Cf sources; the equivalent dose delivered is 8 cGy. The 24 Na activity variation is plotted as function of time and the experimental curve so obtained is fitted to two exponentials. Two compartements are identified: a rapidly exchangeable one, with a half life of 1 h; an other, with a very slow turnover, the half lifes varying from 79 h to 35 h as the calcium concentration becomes sub-normal. The ratios calcium to slowly exchangeable sodium and rapidly to slowly exchangeable sodium appear to be promising for the evaluation of bone disease [fr

  1. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  2. Food Sources of Sodium Intake in an Adult Mexican Population: A Sub-Analysis of the SALMEX Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola Vanessa; Tovar-Villegas, Verónica Ivette; Arcand, JoAnne; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Excessive dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. In Western diets, the majority of dietary sodium comes from packaged and prepared foods (≈75%); however, in Mexico there is no available data on the main food sources of dietary sodium. The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize the major food sources of dietary sodium in a sample of the Mexican Salt and Mexico (SALMEX) cohort. Adult male and female participants of the SALMEX study who provided a complete and valid three-day food record during the baseline visit were included. Overall, 950 participants (mean age 38.6 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed to determine the total sodium contributed by the main food sources of sodium identified. Mean daily sodium intake estimated by three-day food records and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2647.2 ± 976.9 mg/day and 3497.2 ± 1393.0, in the overall population, respectively. Processed meat was the main contributor to daily sodium intake, representing 8% of total sodium intake per capita as measured by three-day food records. When savory bread (8%) and sweet bakery goods (8%) were considered together as bread products, these were the major contributor to daily sodium intake, accounting for the 16% of total sodium intake, followed by processed meat (8%), natural cheeses (5%), and tacos (5%). These results highlight the need for public health policies focused on reducing the sodium content of processed food in Mexico. PMID:28749449

  3. A Study of Analgesic Efficacy of Ibuprofen and Diclofenac Sodium in Acute Pulpitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Komali

    2014-01-01

    Results: Time of onset of action of drugs, Time to peak effect, Total analgesic effect and tolerability of the drugs were assessed. From the present study it was found that there were statistically significant differences in the onset of action of drug and Time to peak effect. Onset of action was early in Ibuprofen and Time to peak effect was early in Diclofenac sodium. Patients rated both drugs to be equally good on Global evaluation scales. Conclusion: It was found that Diclofenac Sodium is more potent compared to Ibuprofen.

  4. Examination of the Compatibility of the Questions Used by Social Studies Teachers in the Class with the Program Achievements According to the SOLO Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Yusuf; Keskin, Sevgi C.; Kirtel, Aysegül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the compatibility of the questions used by the social studies branch teachers in the level of 6th and 7th grade with the achievements included in the teaching program. Structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, which was presented by Biggs and Colis (1982) as an alternative to Bloom's cognitive…

  5. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate plus Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate Solution on Peritendinous Adhesion and Tendon Healing: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Bayram Tosun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhesion formation following tendon injury is a serious clinical problem. Aims: In this experimental study, the effects of the combination of sodium hyaluronate (HA and chondroitin sulfate (CS on peritendinous adhesion and tendon healing were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Twenty-one mature Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. The rats’ Achilles tendons were cut and repaired with a modified Kessler technique. About 0.25 and 0.50 mL of the HA and CS (HA+CS combination were injected subcutaneously into the repair site of the rats in groups 1 and 2, respectively, on days 0, 3, 7, and 10. The subjects in group 3 were used as the control group. At 6 weeks, all rats were euthanized. The tenotomy site was examined macroscopically in all animal subjects. Four samples were assigned to the histopathological examination group, and the others were assigned to the biomechanical assessment group. Results: Inflammation and adhesion in both treatment groups were observed at a lower rate than in the control group. The collagen filaments in both treatment groups were regular and the number was low when compared to the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between group 1 and the control group. The quantity, quality, and grade of the adhesions were statistically significantly lower in group 2 when compared with the other groups. The mean maximum stress strength in group 2 was statistically significantly higher than that in group 1 and the control group. Conclusion: Local administration of the HA+CS combination solution is a valid tool for preventing peritendinous adhesion after extrasynovial tendon repair such as Achilles tendon, and is a treatment option in such cases.

  6. A theoretical study of the growth of large sodium vapor bubbles in liquid sodium, including the effect of noncondensables and of vapor convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadei, F.; Donne, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of the expansion of large bubbles of hot sodium vapor in a pool of liquid sodium plays an important role in understanding the effects of a hypothetical core disruptive accident. A model of the growth of the bubble in the pool is described. The equations of the motion of the liquid and of the nonsteady heat diffusion problem are solved together with the continuity and energy equations for the vapor phase. The first set of calculations has been performed with constant evaporation and condensation coefficients. In the second set, however, due account has been taken of the effect on condensation of noncondensable fission gases and vapor convection. Due to the very high calculated vapor velocities, noncondensable gases have little effect on the condensation rate, and the percentage amount of condensed sodium is considerably higher than previously calculated by other authors

  7. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  8. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  9. Conceptual design study on simplified and safer cooling systems for sodium cooled FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayafune, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kasai, Shigeo

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study is to create the FBR plant concepts increasing economy and safety for the Phase-I 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System'. In this study, various concepts of simplified 2ry cooling system for sodium cooled FBRs are considered and evaluated from the view points of technological feasibility, economy, and safety. The concepts in the study are considered on the basis of the following points of view. 1. To simplify 2ry cooling system by moderating and localizing the sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of the FBRs. 2. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using integrated IHX-SG unit. 3. To simplify 2ry cooling system by eliminating the sodium-water reaction using a power generating system other than the steam generator. As the result of the study, 12 concepts and 3 innovative concepts are proposed. The evaluation study for those concepts shows the following technical prospects. 1. 2 concepts of integrated IHX-SG unit can eliminate the sodium-water reaction. Separated IHX and SG tubes unit using Lead-Bismuth as the heat transfer medium. Integrated IHX-SG unit using copper as the heat transfer medium. 2. Cost reduction effect by simplified 2ry cooling system using integrated IHX-SG unit is estimated 0 to 5%. 3. All of the integrated IHX-SG unit concepts have more weight and larger size than conventional steam generator unit. The weight of the unit during transporting and lifting would limit capacity of heat transfer system. These evaluation results will be compared with the results in JFY 2000 and used for the Phase-II study. (author)

  10. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  11. An optioneering and concept design study for the Astrid sodium-gas heat exchanger matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattrell, T.; Lopez-Ramirez, S.; Pilatis, N.

    2014-01-01

    The ASTRID generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor design being developed by the CEA requires a component to transfer heat from the core to the power cycle. One of the ASTRID configurations currently being developed by the CEA uses a sodium to gas heat exchanger (SGHE) to fulfil this function. The design of the SGHE is challenging because of the high temperature of the sodium coolant and the significant pressure differential between the sodium and gas sides of the heat exchanger. This paper presents a study of the options examined for the ASTRID SGHE. A compact, superplastic formed diffusion bonded (SPF-DB) heat exchanger matrix (e.g. SGHE core) is proposed, based on the aerospace technology used by Rolls-Royce to manufacture light and strong wide chord fan blades for gas turbines. The in-house code CHESS is used to examine a number of feasible configurations for the matrix of the heat exchanger component and an optimisation study to maximise the thermal and mechanical performance of the most promising configurations is reported. The optimal matrix geometry identified by the study has a power density for the heat transfer region 157%1 greater than the baseline geometry (authors)

  12. Studying the processes of sodium-water interaction in the BOR-60 reactor micromodule steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Antipin, G.K.; Borisov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Main results of experimental studies of emergency regimes of micromodule steam generator (MSG) at small and big leaks of water into sodium, realized using the 30 MW MSG, operating in the BOR-o0 reactor, are considered. The aims of the study are as follows: the modelling of macroleak in ''Nadja'' steam generator for the BN-350 reactor; testing the conceptions of alarm signalling and MSG protection; testing under real conditions of new perspective systems of leak detection; gaining the experimence and development of the ways to eliminate the consequences of accident caused by big water leak into sodium; accumulation of knowledge on restoration of MSG operating ability after accident; experimental test of calculational techniques for big leak accidents to use them in future for calculational studies of similar situations at other reactors equipped with sodium-water steam generators; refinement of characteristics of hydrodynamic and thermal effects interaction zone for big leak in real circuit during the plant operation. A series of experiments with the imitation of water leak into sodium by means of argon and steam supply through injection devices, located before the steam superheater module of one of the sections and between evaporator module of the same section, is conducted. The range of steam flow rate is 0.02-0.45 g/s. Duration of steam supply is 100-400 s. A conclusion is made that the results obtained can be used for steam generator of the BN-350 reactor [ru

  13. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan R; Van Horn, Linda; Garside, Daniel B; Miura, Katsuyuki; Wu, Yangfeng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. 77 FR 60441 - Pediatric Studies of Sodium Nitroprusside Conducted in Accordance With Section 409I of the Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...] Pediatric Studies of Sodium Nitroprusside Conducted in Accordance With Section 409I of the Public Health Service Act; Establishment of Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... available to the public a report of the pediatric studies of sodium nitroprusside that were conducted in...

  15. Study of sodium film-boiling heat transfer from a high-temperature sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Belguet, A.

    2013-01-01

    During a severe accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, molten fuel may come into contact with the surrounding liquid sodium, resulting in a so-called Fuel-Coolant Interaction. This work aims at providing a better understanding and knowledge of the associated heat transfer, likely to be in the film-boiling regime and required to study the risks related to a vapor explosion. Scarce literature has been found on sodium film boiling, both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view. Only one experiment has been conducted to investigate sodium pool film-boiling heat transfer. In our analysis of the experiment, two film-boiling regimes have been identified: a stable film boiling regime, without liquid-solid contact, and an unstable film-boiling regime, with contacts. Besides, the only theoretical model dedicated to sodium film boiling has shown some weaknesses. First, a scaling analysis of the problem has been proposed for free and forced convection, considering the two extreme cases of saturated and highly subcooled liquid. This simplified approach, which shows a good agreement with the experimental data, provides the dimensionless numbers which should be used to build correlations. A theoretical model has been developed to describe sodium film-boiling heat transfer from a hot sphere in free and forced convection, whatever the liquid subcooling. It is based on a two-phase laminar boundary layer integral method and includes the inertial and convective terms in the vapor momentum and energy equations, usually neglected. The radiation has been taken into account in the interfacial energy balance and contributes directly to produce vapor. This model enables to predict the heat lost from a hot body within an acceptable error compared to the tests results especially when the experimental uncertainties are considered. The heat partition between liquid heating and vaporization, essential to study the vapor explosion phenomenon, is also estimated. The influence of

  16. Ion Dynamics Study of Potato Starch + Sodium Salts Electrolyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different anions, namely, SCN−, I−, and ClO4−, on the electrical properties of starch-based polymer electrolytes has been studied. Anion size and conductivity are having an inverse trend indicating systems to be predominantly anionic conductor. Impact of anion size and multiplet forming tendency is reflected in number of charge carriers and mobility, respectively. Ion dynamics study reveals the presence of different mechanisms in different frequency ranges. Interestingly, superlinear power law (SLPL is found to be present at <5 MHz frequency, which is further confirmed by dielectric data.

  17. Effect of sodium nitrite on renal function, sodium and water excretion and brachial and central blood pressure in healthy subjects. A dose-response study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Jeppe Bakkestroem; Therwani, Safa Al; Jensen, Janni Majgaard

    2017-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, ....... The lack of increase in cGMP accompanying the increase in NO2(-), suggests a direct effect of nitrite or nitrate on the renal tubules and vascular bed with little or no systemic conversion to NO.......Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion and GFR. In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, 1.......74, or 3.48 μmol NaNO2/kg/hour for two hours in twelve healthy subjects, after four days standard diet. Subjects were supine and water-loaded. We measured brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (P-AVP), and plasma nitrite...

  18. Reactivity Studies of Inconel 625 with Sodium, and Lunar Regolith Stimulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald; Salvail, Pat; Reid, Bob; Colebaugh, James; Easterling, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In the event of the need for nuclear power in exploration, high flux heat pipes will be needed for heat transfer from space nuclear reactors to various energy conversion devices, and to safely dissipate excess heat. Successful habitation will necessitate continuous operation of alkali metal filled heat pipes for 10 or-more years in a hostile environment with little maintenance. They must be chemical and creep resistant in the high vacuum of space (lunar), and they must operate reliably in low gravity conditions with intermittent high radiation fluxes. One candidate material for the heat pipe shell, namely Inconel 625, has been tested to determine its compatibility with liquid sodium. Any reactivity could manifest itself as a problem over the long time periods anticipated. In addition, possible reactions with the lunar regolith will take place, as will evaporation of selected elements at the external surfaces of the heat pipes, and so there is a need for extensive long-term testing under simulated lunar conditions.

  19. Study of lanthanum nitrate-sodium tetrametaphosphate-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, O.V.; Bojko, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The system La(NO 3 ) 3 -Na 4 P 4 O 12 -H 2 O has been studied using the solubility method, pH- and conductometry. Found are subsequent formation of the main phases of alternate composition and neutral salt La 4 (P 4 O 12 ) 3 , which is solved in Na 4 P 4 O 12 excess which is a result of complex formation. The soluble complexes of the composition Na 5 [La(P 4 O 12 ) 2 ] are obtained. The extracted complexes are investigated using the methods of paper chromatography, thermography roentgenography and IR-spectroscopy

  20. Study of lanthanum nitrate-sodium tetrametaphosphate-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emel' yanov, O V; Boiko, K M [Kievskii Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1978-10-01

    The system La(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/-Na/sub 4/P/sub 4/O/sub 12/-H/sub 2/O has been studied using the solubility method, pH- and conductometry. Found are subsequent formation of the main phases of alternate composition and neutral salt La/sub 4/(P/sub 4/O/sub 12/)/sub 3/, which is solved in Na/sub 4/P/sub 4/O/sub 12/ excess which is a result of complex formation. The soluble complexes of the composition Na/sub 5/(La(P/sub 4/O/sub 12/)/sub 2/) are obtained. The extracted complexes are investigated using the methods of paper chromatography, thermography roentgenography and IR-spectroscopy.

  1. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to

  2. Impaired sodium-dependent adaptation of arterial stiffness in formerly preeclamptic women : the RETAP-vascular study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Paauw, Nina D.; Toering, Tsjitske J.; Feelisch, Martin; Faas, Marijke M.; Sutton, Thomas R.; Minnion, Magdalena; Lefrandt, Joop. D.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Franx, Arie; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A. Titia

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases later in life. Persistent vascular alterations in the postpartum period might contribute to this increased risk. The current study assessed arterial stiffness under low sodium (LS) and high sodium (HS) conditions

  3. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease : a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to

  4. Numerical study of the underexpanded nitrogen jets submerged into liquid sodium in the frame of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Allou, A.; Parisse, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    The study of the consequences of a gas leakage in the secondary/ tertiary heat exchangers is one of the essential points in the safety analysis of Sodium-cooled Fast nuclear Reactors (SFRs). This work is in the frame of the technology of the Compact plates Sodium-Gas heat Exchangers (ECSG) which is an alternative to conventional steam Rankine cycles. The overpressure of the tertiary nitrogen loop causes the formation of underexpanded gas jets submerged in the liquid sodium. In order to establish a safety evaluation, it would be an asset to be able to estimate the leakage. The gas leak detection by the acoustic method based on the bubbles field has been proposed. It requires then a delicate knowledge of the bubble field. This work contributes to development a numerical tool and its validation to model the transport and the production of bubbles in the downstream of underexpanded gas jets. The code CANOP modeling bi-phasic compressible flow is investigated under the actual condition of the underexpanded nitrogen jets submerged in the liquid sodium in an ECSG channel. Expensive computational cost is limited by using an Adaptive Mesh Refinement. (author)

  5. Fundamental study on temperature estimation of steam generator tubes at sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2008-11-01

    In case of the tube failure in the steam generator of the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor, its adjoined tubes are rapidly heated up by the chemical reaction between sodium and water/steam. And it is known that the tubes have the damage called 'wastage' by the disclosure steam jet. This research is a fundamental study based on the metallography about temperature estimation of the damaged tubes at the sodium-water reaction for the establishment of mechanism analysis technique of the behavior. In the examination, the material which gave the rapid thermal history which imitated sodium-water reaction was produced. And it was investigated whether the thermal history (i.e. maximum temperature and the holding time) of the samples could be presumed from the metallurgical examination of the samples. The major results are as follows: (1) The microstructure of the sample which was given the rapid thermal heating has reserved the influence of the maximum temperature and the time, and the structure can explain by referring to the equilibrium diagram and the continuous cooling transformation diagram. (2) Results of the electrolytic extraction of the samples, the ratio of the remained volume to the electrolyzed volume degreased with the increase of the maximum temperature and the time. Furthermore, it was observed the correlation between the remained volume of each element (Cr, Mo, Fe, V and Nb) and the thermal history. (3) It was obtained that the thermal history of the tubes damaged by sodium-water reaction might be able to be estimated from the metallurgical examinations. (author)

  6. Study of the characteristics of water into sodium leak acoustic noise in LMR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Joon; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Hur, Seop; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    A successful time for detecting a water/steam leak into sodium in the LMR SG (steam generator) at an early phase of a leak origin depends on the fast response and sensitivity of a leak detection system. It is considered, that the acoustic system is intended for a fast detecting of a water/steam into sodium leak of an intermediate flow rate, 1∼10 g/s. This intention of an acoustic system is stipulated by a key impossibility of a fast detecting of an intermediate leak by the present nominal systems on measuring the hydrogen in the sodium and in the cover gas concentration generated at a leak. During the self-wastage of a water/steam into sodium leak in a particular instant, it is usual in 30∼40 minutes from the moment of a leak origin, there is a modification of a leak flow out regime from bubble regime to the steam jet outflow. This evolution occurs as a jump function of the self-wastage of a leak and is escorted by an increase of a leak noise power and qualitative change of a leak noise spectrum. Subject of this study is by means of two experiments, one is an acoustic leak noise analysis of the water into sodium leak results in no damage to the LMR SG tube bundle, and another is for prediction of the frequency band under a high outflow leak condition. We experimented with the Argon gas injection considered with the phenomena of secondary leaks in real

  7. Electrochemical Impedance Response of the surface treated FMS in Liquid Sodium Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    HT9 and Gr.92 are known as compatible in sodium environment because the usual refueling time of SFRs is designed about 54 months. It is very important to investigate the corrosion-related behavior such as surface corrosion rate, carburization, decarburization and mechanical properties for its operation time. SiC and Si 3 N 4 CVD coating for decarburization barrier on the surface of FMS is considered in this study. The decarburization process where dissolved carbon near the specimen surface disused in to the liquid sodium. This process can originate from the difference between dissolved carbon in the material and liquid sodium. A compatibility test the cladding tube revealed that a decrease of the mechanical property instigated by the aging proves governed the whole mechanical property. To monitor the corrosion behavior of these candidate materials in sodium environment, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method is first introduced and investigated in this study. The compatibility of cladding and structural materials with sodium has to be carefully investigated, as sodium could promote corrosion of cladding and structural materials in two ways. One is produced by the dissolution of alloy constituents into the sodium, and the other is produced through a chemical reaction with impurities (especially oxygen and carbon) in the sodium environment. EIS test with pre-oxidized Gr. 92 specimen in 200 .deg. C liquid sodium environment was carried out in this study. A clear Nyquist and Bode plots were obtained in liquid metal environment and the resistance of sodium and the oxide, and the capacitance of the oxide were measured from this result

  8. In-pile study of the reaction between breeder fuel and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugot, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    Studies carried out until now show that the determinant parameter of fuel can failure evolution is the development of the reaction between mixed uranium and plutonium dioxide and sodium. The parameters of the reaction are presented from results of an out of pile study, as also results obtained from examination on pins failed in reactors. The best way to study in pile the development of the reaction was to irradiate at a constant power a fuel pin containing sodium. In the experiment, the pin was equipped with a central thermocouple. It shows, that the reaction is developing intergranularly, from cracks and interpellet spaces, in an internal fringe of the fuel before spreading to the periphery. An overheating of the pin is associated to the development of the reaction as also a modification of the fuel pin geometry and a reduction of the oxide [fr

  9. Blood compatibility--a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, B D

    2000-01-01

    This perspective on blood- materials interactions is intended to introduce the set of papers stemming from the symposium, "Devices and Diagnostics in Contact with Blood: Issues in Blood Compatibility at the Close of the 20th Century," organized on August 4-6, 1999 at the University of Washington by the University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB) Engineering Research Center. This article outlines some of the history of blood contacting materials, overviews the work that has originated at the University of Washington over the past 28 years, speculates on the origins of the controversies on blood compatibility and considers the issues that should be addressed in future studies.

  10. Functional quality of MR-compatible automatic biopsy guns compared with conventional ferromagnetic biopsy systems. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, H.J.; Landwehr, P.

    2001-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of specimens obtained with different MR-compatible biopsy systems and a conventional ferromagnetic system. Methods: Biopsies of a pig liver were performed post-mortem with three different MR-compatible (Somatex; E-Z-EM; Daum) and one conventional biopsy system (Somatex), five with each device. The specimens were measured and the histopathological quality was graded on a scale from 0 (no tissue) to 9 (best). The tip of the needle was examined with an electron microscope before and after biopsy to demonstrate abrasion. Results: The histopathological score between the first and fifth specimen taken with one biopsy device showed no significant difference. The conventional system yielded significantly better results in nearly all categories (p 2 ) were significantly smaller than those from the conventional system (9.98 mm 2 ). The needle tip abrasion of the different biopsy systems determined by electron microscopy showed no substantial difference. (orig.) [de

  11. Magnetic resonance-compatible robotic and mechatronics systems for image-guided interventions and rehabilitation: a review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Christoforou, Eftychios; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    The continuous technological progress of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as its widespread clinical use as a highly sensitive tool in diagnostics and advanced brain research, has brought a high demand for the development of magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible robotic/mechatronic systems. Revolutionary robots guided by real-time three-dimensional (3-D)-MRI allow reliable and precise minimally invasive interventions with relatively short recovery times. Dedicated robotic interfaces used in conjunction with fMRI allow neuroscientists to investigate the brain mechanisms of manipulation and motor learning, as well as to improve rehabilitation therapies. This paper gives an overview of the motivation, advantages, technical challenges, and existing prototypes for MR-compatible robotic/mechatronic devices.

  12. Design study on sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. As the construction cost of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has been constructed in Phase 1, was about 10% higher than that of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, a new concept of the middle-scale modular reactor, which is expected to be equal to the large-scale reactor from a viewpoint of economic competitiveness, has been re-constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. After that, fundamental specifications of main systems and components for the new concept have been set, and critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  13. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  14. Development and Validation of a Chromatography Method Using Tandem UV/Charged Aerosol Detector for Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine Besylate and Olmesartan Medoxomil: Application to Drug-Excipient Compatibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne M. Brondi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate compatibility of amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil with a variety of pharmaceutical excipients. Both drugs are antihypertensive agents that can be administered alone, in monotherapy, or in pharmaceutical association. The studies were performed using binary and ternary mixtures, and samples were stored for 3 and 6 months at 40°C under 75% relative humidity and dry conditions. For this study, a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil in samples from pharmaceutical preformulation studies using diode array detector (DAD and charged aerosol detector (CAD. The runtime per sample was 10 min with retention time of 7.926 min and 4.408 min for amlodipine and olmesartan, respectively. The validation was performed according to ICH guidelines. The calibration curve presents linear dynamic range from 12 to 250 μg mL−1 for amlodipine and from 25 to 500 μg mL−1 for olmesartan with coefficient of determination (R2 ≥ 0.9908 while repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviation were lower than 1.0%. The excipients such as corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, polyvinylpyrrolidone, lactose monohydrate, and polyethylene glycol showed potential incompatibilities after accelerated stability testing.

  15. Applying Climate Compatible Development and economic valuation to coastal management: A case study of Kenya's mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxham, Mark; Emerton, Lucy; Kairo, James; Munyi, Fridah; Abdirizak, Hassan; Muriuki, Tabitha; Nunan, Fiona; Briers, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are under global pressure. Habitat destruction and degradation persist despite longstanding recognition of the important ecological functions of mangroves. Hence new approaches are needed to help stakeholders and policy-makers achieve sound management that is informed by the best science. Here we explore how the new policy concept of Climate Compatible Development (CCD) can be applied to achieve better outcomes. We use economic valuation approaches to combine socio-economic data, projections of forest cover based on quantitative risk mapping and storyline scenario building exercises to articulate the economic consequences of plausible alternative future scenarios for the mangrove forests of the South Kenya coast, as a case study of relevance to many other areas. Using data from 645 household surveys, 10 focus groups and 74 interviews conducted across four mangrove sites, and combining these with information on fish catches taken at three landing sites, a mangrove carbon trading project and published data allowed us to make a thorough (although still partial) economic valuation of the forests. This gave a current value of the South Coast mangroves of USD 6.5 million, or USD 1166 ha(-1), with 59% of this value on average derived from regulating services. Quantitative risk mapping, projecting recent trends over the next twenty years, suggests a 43% loss of forest cover over that time with 100% loss at the most vulnerable sites. Much of the forest lost between 1992 and 2012 has not been replaced by high value alternative land uses hence restoration of these areas is feasible and may not involve large opportunity costs. We invited thirty eight stakeholders to develop plausible storyline scenarios reflecting Business as Usual (BAU) and CCD - which emphasises sustainable forest conservation and management - in twenty years time, drawing on local and regional expert knowledge of relevant policy, social trends and cultures. Combining these scenarios with

  16. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  17. Study of Antitumor Activity of Sodium Phenylbutyrate, Histon Deacetylase Inhibitor, on Ehrlich Carcinoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeev, N P; Kharisov, R I; Kovan'ko, E G; Pustovalov, Yu I

    2015-09-01

    Antitumor activity of sodium phenylbutyrate was studied on 120 outbred female mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The animals received the drug in doses of 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg with drinking water daily for 21 days. The antitumor effect was evaluated by tumor growth inhibition and lifespan prolongation. Phenylbutyrate in the dose of 800 mg/kg was most effective. The drug inhibited the tumor growth by 71%, prolonged the lifespan of animals by 28, and was low-toxic.

  18. Design study on sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Hishida, Masahiko; Nibe, Nobuaki

    2003-09-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor performed in JFY2002, which is the second year of Phase 2. The construction cost of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has been constructed in JFY2002, was almost achieved the economical goal. But its achievability was not sufficient to accept the concept. In order to reduce the construction cost, the plant concept has been re-constructed based on the 50 MWe plant studied in JFY2002. After that, fundamental specifications of main systems and components for the new concept have been set, and critical subjects have been examined and evaluated. In addition, in order to achieve the further cost reduction, the plant with simplified secondary system, the plant with electric magnetic pump in secondary system, and the fuel handling system are examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  19. Effect of Sodium Cyclamate on the Rat Fetal Exocrine Pancreas: a Karyometric and Stereological Study

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Alex Tadeu; SANTOS, Fabiano de Sant`Ana dos; SCANNAVINO, Fabio Luiz Ferreira; PIRES, Juliana Rico; ZUZA, Elizangela Partata; PADOVANI JUNIOR, Joao Armando; AZOUBEL, Reinaldo; MATEO, Miguel Angel Sala Di; LOPES, Ruberval Armando

    2010-01-01

    The cyclamate, a sweetner substance derived from N-cyclo-hexyl-sulfamic acid, is largely utilized as a non-caloric artificial edulcorant in foods and beverages as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate karyometric and stereological alterations in the rat fetal pancreas resulting from the intraperitoneal administration of sodium cyclamate. The exocrine pancreas of ten fetuses of rats were evaluated, five treated and five controls chosen at random, i...

  20. A study of sodium oxide crystallization mechanisms and kinetics in cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, C.

    1984-04-01

    After showing up the present lack of data on crystallization mechanisms and kinetics, a number of tests were conducted on a sodium test loop equipped with two experimental cold traps. The effects of several geometric and thermohydraulic parameters on purification efficiency were also studied. The test results were used to develop a simulation model. An optimization code based on the model can be used to determine the nucleation and growth kinetics

  1. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Vasseur, C.

    1986-01-01

    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage [fr

  2. A fundamental study on sodium-water reaction in the double-pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Akimoto, Tokuzo

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pressure rise by large sodium-water reaction in the Double-Pool LMFBR, basic tests on pressure wave celerity in rectangular tube are carried out. The initial spike pressure in rectangular-shelled steam generator of the Double Pool reactor, strongly depends on pressure wave celerity. In this study, celerity was measured as a function of pressure wave rising time and pulse height, and influence of water around the test section on celerity was investigated. (author)

  3. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  5. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh

    2007-01-01

    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study......-service acceptance and training issues experienced by the case organisation. These findings add insight into the problems experienced with value compatibility and the adoption of the information systems, and show the potential use of the proposed framework in the detection of such problems.Journal of Information...

  6. Study on In-Service Inspection Program and Inspection Technologies for Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masato Ando; Shigenobu Kubo; Yoshio Kamishima; Toru Iitsuka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of in-service inspection of a nuclear power plant is to confirm integrity of function of components necessary to safety, and satisfy the needs to protect plant investment and to achieve high plant ability. The sodium-cooled fast reactor, which is designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems in Japan, has two characteristics related to in-service inspection. The first is that all sodium coolant boundary structures have double-wall system. Continuous monitoring of the sodium coolant boundary structures are adopted for inspection. The second characteristic is the steam generator with double-wall-tubes. Volumetric testing is adopted to make sure that one of the tubes can maintain the boundary function in case of the other tube failure. A rational in-service inspection concept was developed taking these features into account. The inspection technologies were developed to implement in-service inspection plan. The under-sodium viewing system consisted of multi ultrasonic scanning transducers, which was used for imaging under-sodium structures. The under-sodium viewing system was mounted on the under-sodium vehicle and delivered to core internals. The prototype of under-sodium viewing system and vehicle were fabricated and performance tests were carried out under water. The laboratory experiments of volumetric testing for double-wall-tubes of steam generator, such as ultrasonic testing and remote-field eddy current testing, were performed and technical feasibility was assessed. (authors)

  7. Comparative study of sodium and potassium in different types of gallstones and in serum of subjects with gallstones and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease). It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p<0.05) between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.5). Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subject, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05) concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects. The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects. (author)

  8. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  9. A basic experimental study on combustion of suspended sodium droplet. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    1999-10-01

    For appropriate understanding and/or prediction of the combustion behavior of sodium, working as liquid coolant in fast breeder reactors, in case of leakage accident, phenomenological analyses of the behavior must be also important along with conventional engineering approach. Following our previous study in the last year, the major objective of this experimental research is to elucidate the effects of the initial temperature and diameter of droplet, and of the air flow velocity on ignition process of a sodium droplet, by exposing a suspended droplet to the air flow at room-temperature. In the experiments, a high-temperature droplet suspended from the end of a fine stainless steel nozzle of the liquid sodium supply system was exposed to an upward air flow, and the ignition and succeeding combustion phenomena were observed by using high-speed color video recording system. In the preliminary study, the effects of lighting and image data processing on obtaining pictures suitable to analyses were investigated with the apparatus used in the previous study. After the experimental apparatus was modified partially in order to expose the unreacted droplet to the air flow more quickly, main experiments were performed in synthetic dry air or oxygen-nitrogen mixture of 21% oxygen. Good quality pictures of the phenomena achieved under good conditions were recorded even for a few cases. The details of the ignition process of a sodium droplet, including the aspects of the surface and light emission, were examined, and the effects of the air flow velocity were discussed. Since number of performed experimental runs was small, the effects of the initial droplet temperature were not examined. (author)

  10. Study of the formation of soluble complexes of sodium caseinate and xanthan in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhannache, Bouchra; HadjSadok, Abdelkader; Touabet, Abdelkrim

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to determinate the optimum conditions for the formation of soluble complexes between sodium caseinate and xanthan in solution at neutral pH, in the presence of the NaCl. The study of the influence of the concentrations of these three substances showed that salt was the most influent factor. It worsens the thermodynamic incompatibility of the two biopolymers in solution, when they are present at large amounts. However, it contributes to soluble complexes formation, when sodium caseinate concentration is below 5.5%. In this case, gels with enhanced rheological properties were obtained. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the complexes formation within these gels involves hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, dynamic light scattering revealed that dilution cause their dissociation. These soluble complexes are promising ingredients to ensure new texturing properties.

  11. Impact of opal nanoconfinement on electronic properties of sodium particles: NMR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnaya, E.V., E-mail: charnaya@live.com [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Lee, M.K. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); MoST Instrument Center at NCKU, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Chang, L.J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Fokin, A.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Samoylovich, M.I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, 141700 (Russian Federation); Bugaev, A.S. [CSR Institute of Technology “Technomash”, Moscow, 121108 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-20

    The {sup 23}Na Knight shift of NMR line which is highly correlated with the electron spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level was studied for the sodium loaded opal. The measurements were carried out within a temperature range from 100 to 400 K for solid and melted confined sodium nanoparticles. The NMR line below 305 K was a singlet with the Knight shift reduced compared to that in bulk. Above this temperature the NMR line split reproducibly into two components with opposite trends in the Knight shift temperature dependences which evidenced a nanoconfinement-induced transformation and heterogeneity in the electron system. The findings were suggested to be related to changes in the topology of the Fermi surface.

  12. An overview of sodium-fire related studies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilsborough, R.; Capp, P.D.; Newman, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the six years since the last Sodium Fires Specialists Meeting (Hanford, May 1972) the UKAEA and the Construction Companies, now NPC, have concentrated on the commissioning and early operation of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Rig support for PFR has continued at Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratory with effort mainly directed to engineering and heat transfer studies; the fire protection and leak detection systems used have been based on information available in 1972. Over the same period the CEGB have shown an increasing interest in the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor system with a consequent increase in research work on the subject of sodium fires. The text and appendices of this overview reflect this spread of emphasis. The ignition characteristics, burning rates and smoke release fractions of free ambient pool fires have been studied and this is described. This paper covers the following topics as well: extinguishment of sodium fires; prevention and protection; aerosols, physical chemistry and codes

  13. An overview of sodium-fire related studies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilsborough, R [NPC, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Capp, P D [UKAEA, Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [CEGB, Berkely Nuclear Laboratories, Berkley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1979-03-01

    In the six years since the last Sodium Fires Specialists Meeting (Hanford, May 1972) the UKAEA and the Construction Companies, now NPC, have concentrated on the commissioning and early operation of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Rig support for PFR has continued at Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratory with effort mainly directed to engineering and heat transfer studies; the fire protection and leak detection systems used have been based on information available in 1972. Over the same period the CEGB have shown an increasing interest in the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor system with a consequent increase in research work on the subject of sodium fires. The text and appendices of this overview reflect this spread of emphasis. The ignition characteristics, burning rates and smoke release fractions of free ambient pool fires have been studied and this is described. This paper covers the following topics as well: extinguishment of sodium fires; prevention and protection; aerosols, physical chemistry and codes.

  14. Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki

    1998-08-01

    To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is

  15. Socio-compatible energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Yvette; Ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I; Bos, Willem Jan W; van der Boog, Paul J M; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and support strategies for reducing sodium intake among both patients with chronic kidney disease and health-care professionals. A purposive sample of 25 patients and 23 health-care professionals from 4 Dutch medical centers attended 8 focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed thematically and afterwards organized according to the phases of behavior change of self-regulation theory. Multiple themes emerged across different phases of behavior change, including the patients' lack of practical knowledge and intrinsic motivation, the maladaptive illness perceptions and refusal skills, the lack of social support and feedback regarding disease progression and sodium intake, and the availability of low-sodium foods. The results indicate the need for the implementation of support strategies that target specific needs of patients across the whole process of changing and maintaining a low-sodium diet. Special attention should be paid to supporting patients to set sodium-related goals, strengthening intrinsic motivation, providing comprehensive and practical information (e.g., about hidden salt in products), increasing social support, stimulating the self-monitoring of sodium intake and disease progression, and building a supportive patient-professional relationship that encompasses shared decision making and coaching. Moreover, global programs should be implemented to reduce sodium levels in processed foods, introduce sodium-related product labels, and increase consumer awareness.

  17. Study of proton polarization in charge exchange process on optically oriented sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, A.N.; Kokhanovskij, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Using high-power adjustable dye lasers for electron spin orientation in a charge-exchange target enables to significantly increase the proton polarization efficiency. A device is described that permits to avoid growth of the polarized proton beam emittance in a charge-exchange process in a strong magnetic field. The devise main feature is the use of an intensive source of neutral hydrogen atoms and the presence of a helium additional charge-exchange target which actualy is a proton ''source''. The helium charge-exchange cell is placed in the same magnetic field of a solenoid where a cell with oriented sodium is placed, a polarized electron being captured by a proton in the latter cell. In this case the beam at the solenoid inlet and outlet is in a neutral state; emittance growth related to the effect of end magnetic fields is not observed. The device after all prouduces polarized protons, their polarization degree is measured and the effect of various factors on polarization degree is studied. The description of the laser source and laser system is given. Measurement results have shown the beam intensity of neutral 7 keV atoms which passed through a polarizer to be 2 mA. The proton current doesn't depend. On the beeld fin the region of chrge exchange for the 8 kGs magnetic field. The degree of sodium polarization was 80% and polarized proton current approximately 70 μA at a temperature of the polarized sodium cell corresponding to the density of sodium vapar approximately 3x10 13 at/cm 2

  18. Study of guided wave transmission through complex junction in sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, Q.; Le Bourdais, F.; Jezzine, K.; Baronian, V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the inspection of welded structures within sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), as the long range propagation of guided waves without amplitude attenuation can overcome the accessibility problem due to the liquid sodium. In the context of the development of the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID), the French Atomic Commission (CEA) investigates non-destructive testing techniques based on guided wave propagation. In this work, guided wave NDT methods are applied to control the integrity of welds located in a junction-type structure welded to the main vessel. The method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of scattering matrices peculiar to each expected defect, and takes advantage of the multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of guided wave generation. In a simulation study, an algorithm developed using the CIVA software is presented. It permits selecting appropriate incident modes to optimize detection and identification of expected flawed configurations. In the second part of this paper, experimental results corresponding to a first validation step of the simulation results are presented. The goal of the experiments is to estimate the effectiveness of the incident mode selection in plates. The results show good agreement between experience and simulation. (authors)

  19. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of [ 3 H]BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations

  20. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qilong; Li Xiaojiang; Zhang Laying; Li Jizhen; Li Hongli; Liu Ziru

    2008-01-01

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size = 13.6 μm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C 2 ), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (β-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (φ-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, φ-Pb, β-Cu, AD-Cu and Al 2 O 3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C 2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility

  1. Report and analysis on 'PR and PP evaluation. Example sodium fast reactor full system case study'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Inoue, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Watahiki, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPP WG) was established in December 2002 in order to develop the PR and valuation methodology for GEN IV nuclear energy systems. In the final report of 'PR and PP Evaluation: Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) Full System Case Study,' issued in October 2009, the demonstration study of PR and PP evaluation with the qualitative approach are summarized using ESFR with four scenario threats. The present paper reviews and analyzes some results of the ESFR case study, and identifies the challenges and direction for the PR and PP evaluation methodology with quantitative approach. (author)

  2. The effectiveness of an educational intervention for sodium restriction in patients with hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcela Perdomo; Dos Santos, Luciana Kaercher John; Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2017-07-21

    The effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions in blood pressure reduction has been evidenced by several studies. Nevertheless, as adherence to a low-sodium diet is poor, interventions regarding habit changing should be of a motivational nature in order to develop the ability of overcoming obstacles regarding sodium-restriction behavior. The present study aims to describe the protocol and randomization of a clinical trial design in order to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ) scores. The effectiveness measures are the DSRQ score variation and reduction in urinary sodium values from baseline to after 2 and 6 months. This parallel, randomized clinical trial will include 120 participants, recruited and randomized as follows: 60 of them to be allocated to a sodium-restriction educational intervention group whose results are based on the DSRQ application; and the other 60 allocated to a control group with usual care. Educational orientation and usual care sessions will be conducted once a month for a period of 6 months. Both spot urine collection - estimating sodium intake - and the DSRQ will be applied at the baseline, in the eighth week and at the end of the follow-up. There will also be blood collection and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) at the beginning and end of the follow-up. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurement and 24-h food recall will be collected during follow-up. The study "The effectiveness of an educational intervention to sodium restriction in patients with hypertension" is based on the results of the DSRQ application, whose objective is to evaluate aspects related to nonadherence to the recommendation of a low-sodium diet, identifying adherence barriers and facilitators, contributing to the planning of interventions for improving the adoption of a low-sodium diet and, consequently, hypertension control. Clinical

  3. Brief description of out-of-pile test facilities for study in corrosion and fission product behaviour in flowing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizawa, K.; Sekiguchi, N.; Atsumo, H.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental methods to perform tests for study in corrosion and fission products behaviour in flowing sodium are outlined. Flow diagrams for the activated materials and fission products behaviour test loop are given

  4. Numerical study on pressure drop and heat transfer for designing sodium-to-air heat exchanger tube banks on advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hie-Chan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Cha, Jae-Eun; Kim, Seong-O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical simulation for the heat flow characteristic of the sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) and tube banks. ► Parallelogram tube banks showed almost similar thermal and hydraulic characteristics to the rectangular tube banks. ► Pressure drop and heat transfer of the staggered and rectangular tube banks compared with Zhukauskas’ correlation. ► AHX was modeled as porous media and suggested design guide to enhance the performance. - Abstract: A numerical study is performed to investigate the thermal and hydraulic characteristics and build up design model of the AHX (sodium-to-air heat exchanger) unit of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Helical-coiled tube banks in the AHX are modeled as porous media and simulated heat and momentum transfer by a commercial program. Two-dimensional flow characteristic appears differently at the inlet region of the AHX annulus, and the required length of the inlet region is shorter for an inlet having a 45 degree chamber or a round shape than for one with a perpendicular corner. Pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for rectangular, parallelogram and staggered tube banks as the main components of the AHX are evaluated and discussed. Pressure drop and heat transfer shows similar trends and underestimated values, respectively, when compared with Zhukauskas empirical correlations. The parallelogram tube bank shows similar results to the rectangular arrangement.

  5. Computational study of pristine and titanium-doped sodium alanates for hydrogen storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathar, Gopi Krishna Phani

    The emphasis of this research is to study and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of reversible hydrogen storage in pristine and Ti-doped sodium aluminum hydrides using molecular modeling techniques. An early breakthrough in using complex metal hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is from the research on sodium alanates by Bogdanovic et al., in 1997 reporting reversible hydrogen storage is possible at moderate temperatures and pressures in transition metal doped sodium alanates. Anton reported titanium salts as the best catalysts compared to all other transition metal salts from his further research on transition metal doped sodium alanates. However, a few questions remained unanswered regarding the role of Ti in reversible hydrogen storage of sodium alanates with improved thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen desorption. The first question is about the position of transition metal dopants in the sodium aluminum hydride lattice. The position is investigated by identifying the possible sites for titanium dopants in NaAlH4 lattice and studying the structure and dynamics of possible compounds resulting from titanium doping in sodium alanates. The second question is the role of titanium dopants in improved thermodynamics of hydrogen desorption in Ti-doped NaAlH4. Though it is accepted in the literature that formation of TiAl alloys (Ti-Al and TiAl3) is favorable, reaction pathways are not clearly established. Furthermore, the source of aluminum for Ti-Al alloy formation is not clearly understood. The third question in this area is the role of titanium dopants in improved kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption in Ti-doped sodium alanates. This study is directed towards addressing the three longstanding questions in this area. Thermodynamic and kinetic pathways for hydrogen desorption in pristine NaAlH4 and formation of Ti-Al alloys in Ti-doped NaAlH 4, are elucidated to understand the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen desorption. Density functional theory

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoridated Mouthwash and Sodium Bicarbonate in Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity: An In Vitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikame, Vasundhara; Doshi, Yogesh; Horowitz, Robert A; Kevadia-Shah, Vidhi; Shah, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (ie, baking soda) can be used as an adjunct to surgical periodontal therapy to reduce dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash has numerous appealing attributes, including high availability, low cost, low abrasivity, water solubility, buffering capability, and, in high concentrations, antimicrobial properties. It is also safe to use. The primary underlying cause of DH is open dentinal tubules from loss of either cementum or enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, through scanning electron microscopic examination, the effect of sodium bicarbonate on dentinal tubule occlusion and compare it with that of fluoridated mouthwash.

  7. Reaction of yttria-stabilized zirconia with zirconium, silicon and Zircaloy-4 at high temperature: a compatibility study for cermet fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, T.; Tateyama, T.; Idemitsu, K.; Inagaki, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Compatibility studies for cermet (ceramic and metal) fuels have been completed for a temperature range of 1073-1423 K. A reaction between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), as a simulated fuel, and Zr, as a candidate for a metallic matrix, has been observed at temperatures ≥1273 K, which means the formation of a metallic reaction layer at the interface between YSZ and Zr and the occurrence of metallic phases inside the YSZ. Similar results were observed for the YSZ-Zry4 (cladding) system. On the other hand, the degree of reaction was relatively large for the YSZ-Si (metallic matrix) system, and Si diffused into the YSZ. However, the maximum fuel center-line temperature can be predicted to be less than ∼1273 K for cermet fuels. Therefore, compatibility between the ceramic fuel and the metallic matrix should be good under normal reactor operational conditions. Furthermore, since the temperature of the fuel-cladding gap is lower, the cermet fuel and the cladding material are compatible

  8. Compatibility of pantoprazole sodium for injection combined with eight common injections%注射用泮托拉唑钠与8种常用注射剂的配伍稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锦英; 孙华; 梁大虎; 殷勤; 盛雪鹤; 刘孟雪; 姚瑶; 周露露; 黄越

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the compatibility of pantoprazole combined with eight commonly administered injectables under ambient room temperature.METHODS The HPLC method for pantoprazole determination was established.Simulated Y-site compatibility evaluation was accomplished by mixing pantoprazole with an alternative intravenous medication (inosine injection,vitamin B6 injection,vitamin K1 injection,coenzyme A for injection,aminomethylbenzoic acid injection,ethamsylate injection,potassium magnesium aspartate injection and adenosine disodium triphosphate injection) in NS,and then the mixture was stored in a polypropylene syringe for 2 h.The concentration of pantoprazole,appearance,the number of insoluble particles and pH value of pantoprazole in admixtures were observed immediately and at 0.5,1 and 2 h.RESULTS The content of pantoprazole declined obviously in two hours after mixing with aminomethylbenzoic acid injection,etamsylate and vitamin B6 injection,respectively.CONCLUSION The pantoprazole injection is sensitive to pH value,and should not be administered concomitantly with aminomethylbenzoic acid injection,etamsylate or vitamin 6 injection.Furthermore,the pipeline should be cleaned when pantoprazole is sequential Y-site administered with any one of these products.%目的:考察室温条件下注射用泮托唑钠与8种临床常用药物的配伍稳定性.方法:建立了泮托拉唑钠高效液相含量测定方法,模拟临床应用,以0.9%的氯化钠溶液为溶媒,按比例分别将注射用泮托拉唑钠与肌苷注射液、维生素&注射液、维生素K1注射液、注射用辅酶A、氨苯甲酸注射液、酚磺乙胺注射液、门冬氨酸钾镁注射液、注射用ATP 8种临床常见药物混合,在混合后即刻、0.5,1,2h4个时间点考察泮托拉唑含量、外观、不溶性微粒、溶液pH值的变化.结果:泮托拉唑钠与氨苯甲酸、酚磺乙胺、维生素B6配伍后2h内含量明显下降.结论:泮托拉唑对pH敏感,注

  9. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study of the thermal decomposition of sodium fulminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianos, Konstantina; Frank, Irmgard

    2010-07-19

    Depending on the metal cation, metal fulminates exhibit a characteristic sensitivity with respect to heat and mechanical stress. In the present paper we study the high-temperature reactions of bulk sodium fulminate using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the initiating reaction is the formation of the fulminate dimer, while in earlier studies an electron transfer was assumed to be the first reaction step. The initial carbon--carbon bond formation is followed by fast consecutive reactions leading to polymerisation. The resulting species remain charged on the timescale of the simulations.

  10. Suicidality and divalproex sodium: analysis of controlled studies in multiple indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Xenia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses of antiepileptic drugs have indicated an increase in the risk of suicidality. The objective of this report was to provide clinical information and an independent meta-analysis of divalproex sodium and suicidality events by analyzing data from 13 placebo-controlled studies and 1 low-dose controlled study. Methods Adverse events considered to be possibly suicide related were identified using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA methodology. Indications included epilepsy, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, impulsive aggression, and dementia. Narratives were produced for every event, and suicidality event ratings were performed by a third party blinded to treatment assignment. Statistical analyses were conducted using methodology similar to that reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Results Suicidality events were identified in 5 of the 13 placebo-controlled studies. Of the 1,327 (0.83% subjects taking divalproex sodium, 11 had suicidality events: 2 suicide attempts and 9 suicidal ideation. Of 992 (0.91% subjects taking placebo, 9 had suicidality events: 1 preparatory act toward suicide, 2 suicide attempts, and 6 suicidal ideation. Across placebo-controlled studies, the overall estimated odds ratio (OR of suicidal behavior or ideation was 0.72 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.84. The OR for suicidal behavior was 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.58, and the OR for suicidal ideation was 0.90 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.79. Conclusions In this meta-analysis, divalproex sodium does not appear to increase the risk of suicide-related adverse events relative to placebo in the populations studied. Clinicians should nonetheless remain vigilant in assessing suicidality, not only in patients treated for mental disorders with inherently high suicide risk, but also in patients taking antiepileptic medications.

  11. A performance study on three qPCR quantification kits and their compatibilities with the 6-dye DNA profiling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sze-Wah; Li, Christina; Ip, Stephen C Y

    2018-03-01

    DNA quantification plays an integral role in forensic DNA profiling. Not only does it estimate the total amount of amplifiable human autosomal and male DNA to ensure optimal amplification of target DNA for subsequent analysis, but also assesses the extraction efficiency and purity of the DNA extract. Latest DNA quantification systems even offer an estimate for the degree of DNA degradation in a sample. Here, we report the performance of three new generation qPCR kits, namely Investigator ® Quantiplex HYres Kit from QIAGEN, Quantifiler ® Trio DNA Quantification Kit from Applied Biosystems™, and PowerQuant ® System from Promega, and their compatibilities with three 6-dye DNA profiling systems. Our results have demonstrated that all three kits generate standard curves with satisfactory consistency and reproducibility, and are capable of screening out traces of male DNA in the presence of 30-fold excess of female DNA. They also exhibit a higher tolerance to PCR inhibition than Quantifiler ® Human DNA Quantification Kit from Applied Biosystems™ in autosomal DNA quantification. PowerQuant ® , as compared to Quantiplex HYres and Quantifiler ® Trio, shows a better precision for both autosomal and male DNA quantifications. Quantifiler ® Trio and PowerQuant ® in contrast to Quantiplex HYres offer better correlations with lower discrepancies between autosomal and male DNA quantification, and their additional degradation index features provide a detection platform for inhibited and/or degraded DNA template. Regarding the compatibility between these quantification and profiling systems: (1) both Quantifiler ® Trio and PowerQuant ® work well with GlobalFiler and Fusion 6C, allowing a fairly accurate prediction of their DNA typing results based on the quantification values; (2) Quantiplex HYres offers a fairly reliable IPC system for detecting any potential inhibitions on Investigator 24plex, whereas Quantifiler ® Trio and PowerQuant ® suit better for Global

  12. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  13. Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).

  14. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  15. A study of ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold traps are studied. It is known that the temperature profile along axial direction (x) of the trap must follow the condition (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 , in order to avoid crystals deposition on the wall and the consequent premature plugging. In the present work it is showed that (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 condition is necessary but not sufficient. A temperature profile which satisfies both conditions is found and its practical obtention is presented. (L.C.J.A.)

  16. Potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration study of interaction of tungstovanadophosphoric heteropolyacids with sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkoyakov, S.A.; Fisun, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration are used to study H s+n PW 12-n V n O 40 (n=1,2) (P-W-V HPA) decomposition by sodium hydroxide. It is shown that at the first stage of heteropolyanion interaction with alkali (pH) > 4 P-W-V HPA structural reconstruction takes place. It is accompanied by the formation of complexes with a higher content of vanadium atoms stable at pH 4-7/ P-W-V HPA decomposition to initial salts occurs at pH > 8

  17. Socially compatible technology management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiedel, R.

    1989-01-01

    The public has a critical eye on the impacts of technology, and there is a growing awareness of the social impacts in addition to health hazards and economic and ecologic impacts. 'Socially compatible technology management' is the magic formula frequently used which has emerged as a political demand in the course of the social controversy about the hazards of large-scale technology. It marks a position in the conflict between those who declare existing market and policy instruments to be sufficient regulatory tools, and those who understand the incidents ranging from inadequacy to desaster as a warning, and call for more precaution in decisions with an impact on the future. The concept of 'social compatibility' has to be given shape by elaborating criteria and methods for achieving this goal. The book shows that social compatibility cannot sufficiently be defined either as a quality of a technology and of a socio-technical system (acceptability), or as the willingness of the people concerned to accept a technology (acceptance). The investigation explains by means of empirical analysis and examples that participation is the only way to combine acceptability and acceptance into a socially compatibly designed technology. The leading theoretical and political formula developed for this purpose is 'acquisition'. To put it in a provocative way: Man has to learn to manage and master technical systems as if they were an integral part of themselves. Which means, man has to acquire the required knowledge and skill in the changing social structures, and the real power of disposal. Sociology of technology is a branch of research that can and should give support in the process of designing and managing technological systems in a way compatible with social needs. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na + ] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (CsTPB) precipitates also increases. Serkiz also demonstrated that the precipitation of potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na + ] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice. In the crystallographic structure of these three tetraphenylborate salts (Cs,K,NaTPB), the tetraphenylborate ion dominates the size of the crystals. Also, note that the three crystals have nearly identical structures with the exception of two additional peaks in the cesium pattern. Given these similarities, TPB precipitation in the presence of Na + , Cs + and K + likely produces an impure isomorphic crystalline mixture of CsTPB, KTPB and NaTPB. The authors speculate that the primary crystalline structure resembles that of KTPB with NaTPB and CsTPB mixed throughout the crystal structure. The precipitation of NaTPB makes some of the anticipated excess tetraphenylborate relatively unavailable for precipitation of cesium. Thus, the amount of excess tetraphenylborate required to completely precipitate all of the potassium and cesium may increase significantly

  19. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  20. Using quasi-elastic neutron diffraction to study positive electrode for lithium and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, James C.; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries has recently been proposed as the alternative for lithium-ion batteries to be the low cost energy storage system. However, challenges still remains for the development of sodium-ion batteries. Optimization of electrode materials and electrolyte capable of insertion/extraction of sodium-ion in a safe and economic way under high current density is needed in order to produce commercially viable sodium-ion batteries. While possible positive electrode material is more prevalent than negative electrode material, many of these material still need further understanding. Quasi-elastic Neutron Scatteringis a technique that utilize the inelastic Neutron Scatteringthat can be used to study solid-state diffusion in materials. This technique can be used to study the diffusion of sodium-ion under electric field through the electrolyte and positive electrode materials in order to further understand the mechanism of sodium insertion/extraction in a working battery. This technique can also be used to study available positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries to further understand the mechanism of lithium-ion diffusion in current working lithiumion batteries.

  1. An experimental study on impingement wastage of Mod 9Cr 1Mo steel due to sodium water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, S., E-mail: skishore@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Ashok Kumar, A.; Chandramouli, S.; Nashine, B.K.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Chetal, S.C. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium heated steam generators are crucial components of fast breeder reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A leak in steam generator tube will cause sodium water reaction that damages the tubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental study was conducted to quantify the extent of damage on Mod 9Cr 1Mo tube due to a water leak. - Abstract: Sodium heated steam generator (SG) is a crucial component in the heat transport system of a fast breeder reactor (FBR). In case, one of its water/steam carrying tubes becomes defective, water/steam leaks into sodium, flowing in the shell side, causing sodium-water reaction, which is highly exothermic and producing corrosive NaOH. The reaction jet originating from a leaking tube may impinge on its adjacent tube, resulting in damage of the tube. Impingement wastage refers to this kind of damage, occurring to a tube of sodium heated SG, owing to a small water/steam leak from a neighboring tube. Extensive research works have been conducted all over the world to study various aspects of this phenomenon. Experimental studies were carried out in Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to understand the effect of impingement wastage on Mod 9Cr 1Mo, which is the tube material of prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) SG. This paper brings out the data and experience gained through the experiments.

  2. Studies on release and deposition behaviour of cesium from contaminated sodium pools and cesium trap development for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Kannan, S.E.; Muralidharan, P.; Chandran, K.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the release and deposition behaviour of cesium from sodium pools in air-filled chamber in the temperature range of 673 to 873 K, using Cs-134 to simulate Cs-137. About 0.12 kg of sodium was loaded in a burn-pot together with 92.5 kBq of cesium. Experiments were carried out with 21% oxygen. Natural burning period of sodium and specific activity ratio between cesium and sodium showed a tendency to decrease and release fractions of both the species tended to increase with temperature. From the surface deposited aerosols it was observed that cesium has propensity to settle down closer to the point of release. A cesium trap has been developed for FBTR with RVC as getter material. Absorption kinetics and particle release behaviour studies pointed to its intended satisfactory performance in the plant. (author)

  3. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing

  4. Two Simon tasks with different sources of conflict: an ERP study of motion- and location-based compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Wittfoth, Matthias; Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2008-07-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of two Simon tasks were examined using comparable stimuli but different task-irrelevant and conflict-inducing stimulus features. Whereas target shape was always the task-relevant stimulus attribute, either target location (location-based task) or motion direction within the target stimuli (motion-based task) was used as a source of conflict. Data from ten healthy participants who performed both tasks are presented. In the motion-based task the incompatible condition showed smaller P300 amplitudes at Pz than the compatible condition and the location-based task yielded a trend towards a reduced P300 amplitude in the incompatible condition. For both tasks, no P300 latency differences between the conditions were found at Pz. The results suggest that the motion-based task elicits behavioral and electrophysiological effects comparable with regular Simon tasks. As all stimuli in the motion-based Simon task were presented centrally the present data strongly argue against the attention-shifting account as an explanatory approach.

  5. A study of the switching mechanism and electrode material of fully CMOS compatible tungsten oxide ReRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, W. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Lai, E. K.; Lee, F. M.; Lin, Y. Y.; Chuang, Alfred T. H.; Chang, K. P.; Yao, Y. D.; Chou, T. H.; Lin, H. M.; Lee, M. H.; Shih, Y. H.; Hsieh, K. Y.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO X ) resistive memory (ReRAM), a two-terminal CMOS compatible nonvolatile memory, has shown promise to surpass the existing flash memory in terms of scalability, switching speed, and potential for 3D stacking. The memory layer, WO X , can be easily fabricated by down-stream plasma oxidation (DSPO) or rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of W plugs universally used in CMOS circuits. Results of conductive AFM (C-AFM) experiment suggest the switching mechanism is dominated by the REDOX (Reduction-oxidation) reaction—the creation of conducting filaments leads to a low resistance state and the rupturing of the filaments results in a high resistance state. Our experimental results show that the reactions happen at the TE/WO X interface. With this understanding in mind, we proposed two approaches to boost the memory performance: (i) using DSPO to treat the RTO WO X surface and (ii) using Pt TE, which forms a Schottky barrier with WO X . Both approaches, especially the latter, significantly reduce the forming current and enlarge the memory window.

  6. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  7. A Pivotal Field Study to Support the Registration of Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets for Canine Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Victoria A; Morrow, Carla M K; Jacobsen, Johnny A; Lloyd, W Eugene

    2018-05-14

    A prospective, pivotal, multicenter field study to evaluate the dose regimen, effectiveness, and safety of levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP for the treatment of hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism-associated clinical signs in dogs was conducted. Ninety-two dogs diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism met the entrance criteria and were enrolled into the study. Levothyroxine sodium was administered to each dog on a daily basis either as the whole dose q 24 hr or as half the dose q 12 hr. Dosing started at 0.1 mg/10 lb (0.022 mg/kg) and continued for approximately 6 mo to Day 182. During this time, the thyroid status of each dog was evaluated at monthly intervals. For the determination of effectiveness, dogs classified as euthyroid at Day 182, based on their thyroid hormone values, were considered treatment successes. Results of the statistical analysis showed that there was no difference between the two dosing regimens (P = .11) and that when the data from both groups were pooled, the overall success rate was 75.64% (95% confidence interval = 66.34%). By Day 182, improvement and/or resolution of hypothyroidism-associated clinical signs was observed in all categories. No abnormal trends in the reported adverse events were observed.

  8. Lithium-sodium separation by ion-exchange. Particular study of a pulsed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvert, H.

    1966-02-01

    A study is made of the operational conditions and constraints in the case of a moving-bed ion-exchange column subjected to pulses. The example chosen to illustrate its application concerns the lithium-sodium separation in a hydroxide medium (LiOH, NaOH). In the first part, the physico-chemical characteristics of the exchange and the kinetic characteristics of the exchange-reaction are considered. In the second part, the operation of the pulsed column is studied. Using the results obtained in the first part, the conditions required for study state operation are determined. When this is obtained, it is possible to calculate the height equivalent of the theoretical plate (HETP) of the installation. A study is also made of 'sliding', a phenomenon peculiar to pulsed columns. The results obtained show that it is possible, using laboratory tests, to determine the characteristics and the operational condition of a moving-bed ion-exchange column. (author) [fr

  9. Study of Physical Properties for Sodium acetate with Water and Water - Acetone mixtures at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Abbas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study binary and ternary solutions are prepared by using the sodium acetate concentrations (0.1, 0.125, 0.2, 0.25, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, 1 M in water and acetone –water mixtures .The important parameters such as apparent molal volume, the partial molal volume transfer,  apparent  molal compressibility, free energy of activation of viscous flow and thermodynamic activation parameter (enthalpy and entropy determined of sodium acetate in water , 20%, 40% ,60% and 80% V/V acetone –water mixtures at 298.15K, 303.15K, and 308.15K from density and viscosity measurements espectively. The limiting apparent molal volumes and experimental slopes were derived from the Masson equation, have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and solute–solute interactions  respectively. The viscosity data were analyzed using theJones–Dole equation and the derived parameter B - coefficient has also been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent interactions in the solutions.

  10. Study of the rheological behavior of the calcium and sodium caseinate irradiated dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, Susy Frey

    2002-01-01

    Milk isolated proteins has gained a crescent commercial interest due to functional properties allied to excellent nutritional value. These properties could be improved when some treatments are applied, such as gamma-irradiation, combined or not with plasticizers. In the current work, protein solutions (calcium and sodium caseinates) were mixed with glycerol. The mixtures (8% protein base), at the ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein: glycerol) were submitted to gamma-irradiation ( 60 Co), in the doses 0 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy and 25 kGy, and the rheological behavior was studied. The irradiation was in a 60 Co source, model Gammacell 220 (AECL), with dose ratio 8.2 kGy/h. The viscosity measurements were made in a Brookfield, model LV-DVIII, spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31, according methodology described previously, at temperature 10.0 deg C ± 0,1 deg C, using a Neslab water bath. As irradiation dose increases, the viscosity measurements decrease significantly (p<0.05) for calcium/glycerol solution. The measurements for sodium/glycerol mixtures remained constant as dose irradiation increases, with a slight augmentation at 5 kGy. (author)

  11. A study on fission product retention capability in a sodium coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, K.; Kubo, S.; Hashiguchi, Y.; Itooka, S.; Akatsu, Y.; Miyagi, K.; Wakamatsu, M.; Endo, H.; Tachino, T.

    1992-01-01

    Three kinds of separate model tests have been performed using water and air, focusing on the transport behavior of FP gas bubbles from subassembly outlets into a cover gas region, to study the dominant processes regarding the retention for volatiles ejected with inert gas into sodium after fuel failures. In the case that whole fuel pin failures occurring coherently in a subassembly were assumed, a periodic formation of globules was observed at the subassembly outlet. The globules rapidly broke up into small bubbles of less than 10 mm in mean diameter. The small bubbles at the top region had a tendency to be coalesced during rising through the upper plenum. As the coolant flow rate increased, bubble deformation and breakup were accelerated, but the bubble transport time did not vary remarkably. It is expected that bubbles in sodium would play in a similar way as in the water test, and the importance of the bubble behavior for the retention capability of volatiles has been confirmed. (author)

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Retentive Properties of Two Compatible Ball Attachments in Mandibular Implant-Retained Overdentures: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Memarian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The retentive properties of implant-retained overdentures (IRO may be influenced by the type of attachments. The aim of this research was to compare the retention of two dental implant systems with compatible ball attachments, namely Straumann® system (SS and Rhein83 SRL system (RS after fatigue testing.Materials and Methods: Two laboratory models consisting of two parallel Straumann® fixtures at a distance of 22 mm were prepared. Five pairs of each systems' ball attachments were examined (n=5. The samples were soaked in artificial saliva. The retention strength values (RSV were recorded before the fatigue test and after 1100, 2200, 3300, 4400, and 5500 insertion and removal cycles at a speed of 51 mm/minute with a 50-N load cell in a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by independent sample t-test with Bonferroni corrections.Results: There was a decrease in the RSV in both systems after 5500 cycles of insertion and removal. There was a significant statistical difference between the RSV of the normal Sphero Block of the RS (17.52±0.68 N and that of the Spare Lamella retention inserts of the SS (19.72±0.74 N, P=0.001.Conclusions: Although the RSVs of the RS and SS were almost similar before the fatigue test, as the number of insertion and removal cycles increased, the RSV decreased more significantly in the RS compared to the SS.

  13. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  14. Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Nazeri, Pantea; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-01-30

    There is an interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio and the risk of HTN and CVD in a general population of Iranian adults. In this prospective cohort study, adults men and women with complete baseline data were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6.3 years for incidence of HTN and CVD outcomes. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary sodium, potassium and their ratio and risk of outcomes. During the study follow-up, 291 (15.1%) and 79 (5.0%) new cases of HTN and CVD were identified, respectively. No significant association was observed between usual intakes of sodium, potassium and dietary Na/K ratio with the incidence of HTN. There was no significant association between dietary intakes of sodium and potassium per se and the risk of CVD, whereas when dietary sodium to potassium ratio was considered as exposure in the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, and participants in the highest compared to lowest tertile had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-4.14). Our findings suggest that high dietary Na/K ratio could contribute to increased risk of CVD events.

  15. Interactions of Genes and Sodium Intake on the Development of Hypertension: A Cohort-Based Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ling Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few studies investigating interactions of G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3 C825T (rs5443 and dietary sodium intake on the risk of hypertension, i.e., BP salt sensitivity. The study aims to evaluate joint effects of GNB3 polymorphisms and sodium consumption on the development of hypertension. A cohort-based case-control study was conducted in 2014. There are 233 participants with newly diagnosed hypertension in the case group and 699 participants in the gender-matched control group. The primary outcome is the development of hypertension over a 10-year period. The determinants of hypertension were three genotypes of SNP in GNB3 (TT; CT; and CC and two dietary salt categories on the basis of the level of sodium consumption representing high (>4800 mg/day and low-sodium (<2400 mg/day diets. The development of hypertension increased with participants carrying TT genotype and high-sodium diets comparing with those carrying TC or CC genotype with low-sodium diets (adjusted OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.52–6.83 (Rothman synergy index = 3.79. The study suggests that GNB3 C825T polymorphism may influence the response of the renin-angiotensin system to high-sodium diet. It implies that GNB3 can be served as an easy, inexpensive, and early genetic marker of salt sensitivity to blood pressure. Salt-sensitive individuals should pay more attention to salt intake to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.

  16. Compatible quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-01-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  17. Study of the ideal vitrification conditions of sodium containing waste after oxidation on a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfour, B.; Rahier, A.

    1997-08-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has patented a new process for the treatment of metallic sodium. This process is fully integrated since it allows to vitrify easily the mixture resulting from the oxidation step. To ensure the link between the treatment and the conditioning, the vitrification conditions have been studied. It is confirmed that an adequate control of the temperature decrease during the vitrification is essential to obtain a product whose area is well known and controlled. Also, the release of Cs and Co has been examined through leaching tests. The study has led to the choice of adequate composition ranges for SiO 2 , Na 2 O, Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 and CaO. Further studies will be carried out to assess the possible use of vitro-crystalline materials for long term conditioning. vitro-crystalline materials for long term conditioning

  18. A study on entrapment: splashing of liquid UO2 over small sodium volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Klein, K.; Jorzik, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were done in which each time more than 1 kg of liqid UO 2 was splashed over a plate in which different stainless steel cups full of sodium were contained. No whatsoever indication of entrapment of sodium could be found. The pressure tests indicate up to 1,8 atm and they relax in some second time. These pressure diagrams have been satisfactorily analysed as indicating a sodium vapor formation. In the third experiment e.g. the quenching of 800 g UO 2 in 720 g of sodium in a closed volume of argon of 225 l will provide the requested maximum pressure

  19. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  20. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  1. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  2. ATR-FTIR Based Pre and Post Formulation Compatibility Studies for the Design of Niosomal Drug Delivery System Containing Nonionic Amphiphiles and Chondroprotective Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Madni, A.; Ahmad, S.; Rehmanand, M.; Mahmood, M.A.; Khan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compatibility studies are considered as the most important and first screening stage during development of pharmaceutical drug product. Attenuated total reflectance/fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) is one of the techniques currently available to pharmaceutical scientists for investigating the compatibilities between active drug and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients. The present study was designed to assess the interaction among different niosomes forming components i.e nonionic amphiphiles and chondroprotective/antiinflamatory drug Diacerein by ATR-FTIR method. Physical mixtures and niosomes were prepared by physical mixing and thin film hydration method, respectively. The individual niosomal components, physical mixtures as well as niosomal formulations were analyzed. The spectra of Diacerein showed characteristic peaks at 3300 cm/sup -1/(-COOH) and 760 cm/sup -1/(msubstituted benzene), Span 60 at 2916 cm/sup -1/(-OH), Span 80 at 1740 cm/sup -1/(5- membered ring), Span 85 at 1643 cm/sup -1/(ketone with 5-membered ring), Tween 20 at 1734 cm/sup 1/ (5-membered ring) and Tween 80 at 3488 cm/sup -1/(-OH). The characteristic peaks of Diacerein were present in niosomal formulations with slight shift at 3355-3379 cm/sup -1/(-COOH) and 760-770 cm/sup -1/(m-substituted benzene). This work suggested no significant interaction in characteristic peaks of Diacerein after combining with nonionic surfactants as physical mixtures and niosomal formulations which proposed potential for niosomes to encapsulate diacerein in their micro vicinity. (author)

  3. A statistical study of sporadic sodium layer observed by Sodium lidar at Hefei (31.8° N, 117.3° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-K. Dou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium lidar observations of sporadic sodium layers (SSLs during the past 3 years at a mid-latitude location (Hefei, China, 31.8° N, 117.3° E are reported in this paper. From 64 SSL events detected in about 900 h of observation, an SSL occurrence rate of 1 event every 14 h at our location was obtained. This result, combined with previous studies, reveals that the SSL occurrence can be relatively frequent at some mid-latitude locations. Statistical analysis of main parameters for the 64 SSL events was performed. By examining the corresponding data from an ionosonde, a considerable correlation was found with a Pearson coefficient of 0.66 between seasonal variations of SSL and those of sporadic E (Es during nighttime, which was in line with the research by Nagasawa and Abo (1995. From comparison between observations from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC lidar and from Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics (WIPM lidar (Wuhan, China, 31° N, 114° E, the minimum horizontal range for some events was estimated to be over 500 km.

  4. Rotor dynamic studies of a vertical sodium pump supported on a spherical seat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asokkumar, S.; Ramalingam, P.; Baskar, S.; Balachander, K.; Kale, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the important areas in the mechanical design of Primary Sodium Pumps (PSP) concerns with the problem of accommodating the differential thermal expansion between the pump support and the discharge pipe which function at substantially different temperatures. A spherical ball resting on a spherical split seat is designed to allow the tilting of the pump without creating significant stresses in the pump casing and the discharge pipe. To ascertain the dynamic performance of the pump and to validate the design, an experimental study was carried out with a 1/4 model spherical seat installed in an existing 50 cu.m/hr pump. The paper discusses the modeling criteria, details of theoretical/experimental studies and results obtained during testing. This paper also discusses details of full size test rig which is under construction. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A core performance study on an actinide recycling 'zero-sodium-void worth' core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Yamaoka, M.; Kasahara, F.

    1994-01-01

    A core performance study was made for an absorber-type parfait core (A-APC) as one of 'Zero-sodium-void-worth' core concepts. This evaluation study pursued different two aspects; one for transuranic (TRU) management strategy, and another for a loss-of-coolant anticipated transient behavior considering the unique core configuration. The results indicated that this core has a large flexibility for actinide recycling in terms of self-sufficiency and minor actinide burning. The result also showed that this core has kept a large mitigation potential for ULOF events as well as a simple flat core concept, reflecting detailed three dimensional core bowing behavior for the A-APC configuration. (author)

  6. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cr3+ ions in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripal, Ram; Singh, Pragya; Shukla, Santwana

    2011-01-01

    EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are recorded at 77 K. The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured from the resonance lines obtained at various rotations of the magnetic field. The values obtained are: g x =1.9257±0.0002, g y =1.9720±0.0002, g z =2.0102±0.0002, |D|=313±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 and |E|=101±2 (x10 -4 ) cm -1 . From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied. From the observed band positions, the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) and the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) are evaluated. The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. -- Research Highlights: → EPR spectra of Cr 3+ ions doped in potassium sodium dl-tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals are done at 77 K. → The spin Hamiltonian and zero field parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured. From the results of EPR study, the site symmetry of Cr 3+ ion in the crystal is discussed. → The optical absorption at room temperature is also studied and the crystal field splitting parameter (D q ) as well as the Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) is evaluated. → The bonding parameters are obtained by correlating optical and EPR data and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

  7. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (−19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (−35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, −33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, −22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP+-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  8. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  9. Quadratic Poisson brackets compatible with an algebra structure

    OpenAIRE

    Balinsky, A. A.; Burman, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Quadratic Poisson brackets on a vector space equipped with a bilinear multiplication are studied. A notion of a bracket compatible with the multiplication is introduced and an effective criterion of such compatibility is given. Among compatible brackets, a subclass of coboundary brackets is described, and such brackets are enumerated in a number of examples.

  10. In operando PXRD study P2-NaxTMO2 cycled in a sodium ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Shen, Yanbin; Christiansen, Troels Lindahl

    Sodium ion batteries (SIB) are being considered as a cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIB). Application of SIB is especially important in large scale electricity storage from renewable energy sources [1]. A mayor hindrance of the development of SIB...... for practical applications is that so far there are no known electrode materials with sufficiently good rate and cycling capability. Studying structural changes of electrode materials while the battery is being charged and discharged is important to gain a deeper understanding of processes affecting...... the electrode materials. This understanding can be used to optimize battery performance and understand decay mechanisms, which in turn will facilitate the development of electrode materials fit for practical application in SIB. Our research group has developed an in operando battery cell capable of following...

  11. Studies to single subassembly flow monitoring with a complete 7 element array under sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.; Ruppert, E.; Stehle, H.; Vinzens, K.

    1975-01-01

    As part of the SNR-300 R and D programme a complete clamped array, consisting of 4 full size fuel elements and 3 blanket elements was tested for more than 4000 hours at 600 deg C in the AKB sodium loop at Interatom, Bensberg. The test was split into two phases and the total cluster was prestrained in the second phase to simulate 15 mm subassembly displacement at the level of the upper bearing pads. Although this test was mainly considered as an endurance test to demonstrate the integrity of prestrained core elements, efforts were made to study the feasibility of single subassembly flow monitoring with this full size model of a core section. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper

  12. Structural study of concentrated micelle-solutions of sodium octanoate by light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayoun, Marc

    1982-05-01

    Structural investigation of sodium octanoate (CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 6 -COONa) by light scattering has been made to study properties of concentrated aqueous micelle-solutions. From static light scattering data, the micellar weight and shape have been determined. The monomer aggregation number and the apparent micellar charge have been confirmed. Quasi-elastic light scattering, has been used to measure the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the volume fraction. Extrapolation to the c.m.c. give the hydrodynamic radius of the micelles. At low micelle-concentration, strong exchange reaction between monomers and micelles affects the Brownian motion and resulting is an increase in the diffusion coefficient. The experimental data show a strong hydrodynamic contribution to S(q) (factor structure) and D(q) (effective diffusion coefficient) arising from hard spheres interactions with a large repulsive potential. (author) [fr

  13. Theoretical study on a multivariate feedback control of a sodium-heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Oikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies the connection of a multivariate feedback controller with a state estimator to a 1-MW sodium-heated steam generator for LMFBR theoretically, to obtain a control strategy which emphasizes, from the view point of safety and availability of the FBR plant, that a superheat of 30 0 C should be required for the evaporator steam. This involves a trial to study the feasibility for the estimation of such an inaccessible variable as the dry-out location of tubes and utilize the state estimate to design a feedback controller of steam generators. The Kalman filter tested was found to generate reasonable estimates of the transient process variables of the steam generator and can provide a major advantage of regulating steam condition of the system even in the presence of contamination by a rather high level of measurement noise in the view point of economic uses of micro- and/or minicomputers. (orig.)

  14. A core design study for 'zero-sodium-void-worth' cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Masao; Hill, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a number of low sodium-void-worth metal-fueled core design concepts have been proposed; to provide for flexibility in transuranic nuclide management strategy, core designs which exhibit a wide range of breeding characteristics have been developed. Two core concepts, a flat annular (transuranic burning) core and an absorber-type parfait (transuranic self-sufficient) core, are selected for this study. In this paper, the excess reactivity management schemes applied in the two designs are investigated in detail. In addition, the transient effect of reactivity insertions on the parfait core design is assessed. The upper and lower core regions in the parfait design are neutronically decoupled; however, the common coolant channel creates thermalhydraulic coupling. This combination of neutronic and thermalhydraulic characteristics leads to unique behavior in anticipated transient overpower events. (author)

  15. Sodium Hypochlorite-Modified Hemosorbents in the Treatment of Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Syndrome: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sergiyenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment for limb ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in an experiment, by using the modified hemosorbents that have oxidative properties.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on 94 mongrel male dogs divided into 3 groups: 1 intact animals (n=20; 2 animals treated with hemocarboperfusion on the standard sorbent CKH-1K (n=36; 3 animals received hemocarboperfusion on sodium hypochloride-modified sorbent CKH-1K (n=38. A model of acute ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was created by the method of V. D. Pasechnikov et al. Partial oxygen tension (pO2 was determined by pin polarography. The levels of vasoactive eicosanoids were measured by enzyme immunoassay.Results. In the animals with leg ischemia syndrome, there is a significant pO2 reduction in the muscles of the hip and shin, which does not completely recover after reperfusion. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion reduces pO2 as compared with the reperfusion period while the use of modified CKH-1K hemosorbent increased pO2 in the study hind limb muscles to the level observed in intact animals. The development of ischemia and reperfusion is accompanied by the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that have vasoconstrictive properties (thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 and the lower concentration of the vasodilator prostacyclin. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion results in a further increase in the concentrations of thromboxane B2 and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4, a decrease in the concentration of endothelin-1, and an elevation of the levels of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2. When sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion is employed, the concentrations of thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 decrease, and the level of prostacyclin increases.Conclusion. Hemocarboperfusion used in the treatment of leg ischemia-reperfusion syndrome leads to restoration of tissue oxygenation and

  16. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  17. A numerical design and feasibility study of self-wastage experiment using simulant material in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Hyun; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A sodium-water reaction takes place when high-pressured water vapor leaks into sodium through a tiny defect on the surface of the heat transfer tube in a steam generator of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. The sodium-water reaction brings deterioration of the mechanical strength of the heat transfer tube at the initial leakage site. As a result, it damages the crack itself, which may eventually enlarge into a larger opening. This self-enlargement is called 'self-wastage phenomenon.' In this study, a simulant experiment was proposed to reproduce the self-enlargement of a crack and to evaluate the mechanism of the self-wastage. The damage on the surface of the crack was simulated by making the neutralization reaction with hydrochloric acid solution and sodium hydroxide solution. A numerical investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the approach and to determine experimental conditions. From the computation results, it is observed that when 5M HCl is injected into 5M of NaOH with 0.05 m/s inlet velocity, the temperature at the surface near the crack increased over 319.26 K. The computational results show that the self-wastage phenomenon is capable of being reproduced by the simulant experiment

  18. Study of the Effect of Sodium Sulfide as a Selective Depressor in the Separation of Chalcopyrite and Molybdenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Peng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of collectors, sodium butyl xanthate and kerosene, and a depressor, sodium sulfide, were used in this research. The study applied flotation tests, pulp potential measurements, contact angle measurements, adsorption calculations, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to demonstrate the correlation between reagents and minerals. For xanthate collectors, the best flotation responses of chalcopyrite and molybdenite were obtained at pH = 8, and, for kerosene, these were obtained at pH = 4. The flotation of molybdenite seemed to be less influenced by xanthate than by kerosene, while that of chalcopyrite showed the opposite. The optimum concentration of sodium sulfide for separation was 0.03 mol/L, which rejected 83% chalcopyrite and recovered 82% molybdenite in the single mineral flotation. Pulp potential measurements revealed that the dixanthogen and xanthate were decomposed and desorbed, respectively, from the mineral surface in a reducing environment. The contact angle measurement and adsorption calculation conformed to the flotation response, indicating that few functions of the xanthate and sodium sulfide on the molybdenite flotation were due to their low adsorption densities. The FTIR results further clarified that the xanthate ion was adsorbed on chalcopyrite by forming cuprous xanthate and dixanthogen; however, on molybdenite the adsorption product was only dixanthogen. After conditioning with sodium sulfide, the chalcopyrite surface became clean, but the molybdenite surface still retained slight peaks of dixanthogen. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism was expounded in this research.

  19. Design study of an IHX support structure for a POOL-TYPE Sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jae Han

    2009-01-01

    The IHX (Intermediate Heat eXchanger) for a pool-type SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) system transfers heat from the primary high temperature sodium to the intermediate cold temperature sodium. The upper structure of the IHX is a coaxial structure designed to form a flow path for both the secondary high temperature and low temperature sodium. The coaxial structure of the IHX consists of a central downcomer and riser for the incoming and outgoing intermediate sodium, respectively. The IHX of a pool-type SFR is supported at the upper surface of the reactor head with an IHX support structure that connects the IHX riser cylinder to the reactor head. The reactor head is generally maintained at the low temperature regime, but the riser cylinder is exposed in the elevated temperature region. The resultant complicated temperature distribution of the co-axial structure including the IHX support structure may induce a severe thermal stress distribution. In this study, the structural feasibility of the current upper support structure concept is investigated through a preliminary stress analysis and an alternative design concept to accommodate the IHTS (Intermediate Heat Transport System) piping expansion loads and severe thermal stress is proposed. Through the structural analysis it is found that the alternative design concept is effective in reducing the thermal stress and acquiring structural integrity

  20. A numerical design and feasibility study of self-wastage experiment using simulant material in a sodium fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Hyun; Takata, Takashi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    A sodium-water reaction takes place when high-pressured water vapor leaks into sodium through a tiny defect on the surface of the heat transfer tube in a steam generator of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. The sodium-water reaction brings deterioration of the mechanical strength of the heat transfer tube at the initial leakage site. As a result, it damages the crack itself, which may eventually enlarge into a larger opening. This self-enlargement is called 'self-wastage phenomenon.' In this study, a simulant experiment was proposed to reproduce the self-enlargement of a crack and to evaluate the mechanism of the self-wastage. The damage on the surface of the crack was simulated by making the neutralization reaction with hydrochloric acid solution and sodium hydroxide solution. A numerical investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the approach and to determine experimental conditions. From the computation results, it is observed that when 5M HCl is injected into 5M of NaOH with 0.05 m/s inlet velocity, the temperature at the surface near the crack increased over 319.26 K. The computational results show that the self-wastage phenomenon is capable of being reproduced by the simulant experiment.

  1. Effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on fibroblast growth factor-23 in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Hostetter, Thomas H; Bauer, Carolyn; Raff, Amanda C; Almudevar, Anthony L; Lalonde, Amy; Messing, Susan; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2016-08-05

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) secretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incompletely understood. An in vitro study showed that metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 in mouse bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on circulating FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. This was a single-blind pilot study. Twenty adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15-45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and serum bicarbonate between 20-24 mEq/L were treated with placebo for 2 weeks, followed by increasing doses of oral sodium bicarbonate (0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mEq/kg/day) in 2 week intervals for a total of 6 weeks. C-terminal FGF23 levels were measured at the initial visit, after 2 weeks of placebo and after 6 weeks of bicarbonate therapy. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to compare FGF23 before and after sodium bicarbonate. After 6 weeks of oral sodium bicarbonate, the median FGF23 increased significantly from 150.9 RU/mL (IQR 107.7-267.43) to 191.4 RU/mL (IQR 132.6-316.9) (p = 0.048) and this persisted after excluding participants who received activated vitamin D. FGF23 increased after short-term oral sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients with CKD and mild metabolic acidosis. It is unclear whether this was due to the alkalinizing effect of sodium bicarbonate or other factors. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00888290 ) on April 23, 2009.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodh, N R; Kumar, C N Vijay; Pradeep, M R; Naik, Ravi; Mahesh, C S; Kumari, Manju R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants. Two commercially available type IV die stone (Kalrock: Kalabhai Karson Pvt., Ltd and Pearlstone: Asian Chemicals) and two commercially available disinfectant solutions (sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Beachem Laboratory Chemical Private Limited, Chennai and Leo Chem Private Limited, Bengaluru) were used in this study, and the tensile strength was measured using Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine. The results show that incorporating the disinfecting solutions decreases the tensile strength of both products. The effect of decreasing tensile strength on type IV gypsum product is seen more in calcium hypochlorite when compared with sodium hypochlorite disinfecting solution, and the tensile strength of Kalrock specimens is higher than Pearlstone specimens after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite solution. The statistical results also show significant results in all the groups when compared with the control group. The incorporation of sodium and calcium hypochlorite disinfecting solutions is not an encouraging method for both die materials as it reduces the tensile strength of type IV gypsum product. Tensile strength of Kalstone® die material is superior than Pearlstone® die material after mixing with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. According to the recommendations of Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disinfecting the whole cast without or minimal changes in physical and mechanical properties was the motto of the study. The tensile strength in type IV gypsum product plays a most important role in retrieval of cast from impression, especially in narrow tooth preparation. This study reveals that incorporating method of disinfecting solutions is not recommended as it reduces the tensile strength.

  3. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF INTERACTION OF SODIUM DOLUTEGRAVIR WITH HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yegorova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug-protein binding has become an important research field in life sciences, chemistry and clinical medicine. Under physiological conditions, in vitro interaction between the antiviral drug 2 Sodium (4R, 12aS-9-{[(2,4-difluorophenylmethyl]carbamoyl}-4-methyl-6,8-dioxo3,4,6,8, 12,12a-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[1’,2’:4,5]pyrazino[2, 1-b][1,3]oxazin-7 –olate (dolutegravir sodium, DN and human serum albumin (HSA was investigated at excitation wavelength 280 nm and at different temperatures (298 K and 313 K by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The emission of HSA was characterized by a broad emission band at 346 nm. The results of the experiment showed that DN quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein as a result of static interaction in the HSA -DN system, which is confirmed by shifts in the difference UV spectra of the HSA -DN and the reduction of the binding constant for the HSA -DN system with increasing temperature. The constant (KA =9,82· 103 L·mol-1 at 298 K and the number of binding sites of the HSA –DN system are established. The negative values of enthalpy change (ΔHº and entropy change (ΔSº can be attributed in part to van der Waals forces and in part to the formation of hydrogen bonds. A value of 2,14 nm for the average distance r between DN (acceptor and tryptophan residues of HSA (donor was derived from the fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The overlap of the absorbance spectrum of DN with the fluorescence emission spectrum of HAS has been shown. Since, the pharmaceutical firms need standardized screens for protein binding in the first step of new drug design, this kind of study of interaction between HSA with DN would be useful in pharmaceutical industry and clinical medicine.

  5. Structure of biodiesel based bicontinuous microemulsions for environmentally compatible decontamination: A small angle neutron scattering and freeze fracture electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellert, S; Karg, M; Imhof, H; Steppin, A; Altmann, H-J; Dolle, M; Richardt, A; Tiersch, B; Koetz, J; Lapp, A; Hellweg, T

    2008-09-01

    Most toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents are hydrophobic and can only be solubilized in organic solvents. However, most reagents employed for the degradation of these toxic compounds can only be dissolved in water. Hence, microemulsions are auspicious media for the decontamination of a variety of chemical warfare agents and pesticides. They allow for the solubilization of both the lipophilic toxics and the hydrophilic reagent. Alkyl oligoglucosides and plant derived solvents like rapeseed methyl ester enable the formulation of environmentally compatible bicontinuous microemulsions. In the present article the phase behavior of such a microemulsion is studied and the bicontinuous phase is identified. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and freeze fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) measurements are used to characterize the structure of the bicontinuous phase and allow for an estimation of the total internal interface. Moreover, also the influence of the co-surfactant (1-pentanol) on the structural parameters of the bicontinuous phase is studied with SANS.

  6. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J.I.; Mensink, M.R.; Siebelink, A.E.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low

  7. Contribution to perfecting eddy current testing of steam generator tubes of sodium cooled breeders: description of the Monacault loop for the study of sodium deposit influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicore, A.; Lemarquis, J.C.; Oberlin, C.; Pigeon, M.

    1981-12-01

    In the event of sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of a sodium cooled breeder reactor, it is essential to be able to monitor the local loss of thickness of the tubes located in the reaction area. A method for monitoring the tubes by an eddy current probe is being developed for Super Phenix. The sodium deposits on the outer wall of the tubes, as well as their prolonged contact with high temperature sodium are likely to bring about a change in the signals picked up. A test loop, Monacault, has been built in order to clarify the importance of these parameters (effect of sodium deposits, reproducibility of the wetting at different temperatures). It includes three test cells containing the sample tubes having a total of 61 standard defects to be tested. The first results on the wetting of tubes are given and discussed [fr

  8. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Shahabi, Somayyeh

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, ·, and Δ, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, Δ, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research highlights: → C 12 H 25 SO 3 Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C 12 H 25 SO 4 Na(SDS). → The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. → Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. → Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. → Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C 12 H 25 SO 4 Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C 12 H 25 SO 3 Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C 12 H 25 SO 4 Na and C 12 H 25 SO 3 Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C 12 H 25 SO 4 Na/C 12 H 25 SO 3 Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen to interact more weakly than their sulfate analogues.

  9. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen

  10. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  11. Compatibility study of the different pole figures in one and the same specimen. Comparison between the results obtained by neutron and by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, M.; Penelle, R.; Dervin, P.

    1981-01-01

    Development of a calculation to show directly the compatibility of the different pole figures in the same specimen is exposed. A review of the method by serial development is given. Experimental methods are described. The position of the anisotropy axes is determined. Compatibilities resulting from X-ray and from neutron diffraction is analysed [fr

  12. Urinary and dietary sodium and potassium associated with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive kidney transplant recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Remy Annie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In kidney transplant (Kt recipients , hypertension is a major risk for cardiovascular complications but also for graft failure. Blood pressure (BP control is therefore mandatory. Office BP (OBP remains frequently used for clinical decisions, however home BP (HBP have brought a significant improvement in the BP control. Sodium is a modifiable risk factor, many studies accounted for a decrease of BP with a sodium restricted diet. Increased potassium intake has been also recommended in hypertension management. Using an agreement between office and home BP, the present study investigated the relations between the BP control in Kt recipients and their urinary excretion and dietary consumption of sodium and potassium. Methods The BP control defined by OBP 30. Results Using an agreement between OBP and HBP, we identified controlled (21% and uncontrolled recipients (49%. Major confounding effects susceptible to interfere with the BP regulation did not differ between groups, the amounts of sodium excretion were similar (154 ± 93 vs 162 ± 88 mmol/24 h but uncontrolled patients excreted less potassium (68 ± 14 vs 54 ± 20 mmol/24 h; P = 0.029 and had significantly lower potassium intakes (3279 ± 753 vs 2208 ± 720 mg/24 h; P = 0.009, associated with a higher urinary Na+/K + ratio. Systolic HBP was inversely and significantly correlated to urinary potassium (r = −0.48; P = 0.002, a positive but non significant relation was observed with urinary sodium (r = 0,30;P = 0.074. Conclusions Half of the treated hypertensive Kt recipients remained uncontrolled in office and at home. Restoring a well-balanced sodium/potassium ratio intakes could be a non pharmacological opportunity to improve blood pressure control.

  13. Study of the permeability of the various parts of the tubules to sodium and potassium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Falbriard, A.

    1959-01-01

    The method of stop flow analysis has been used in rabbits together with radioactive sodium and potassium injected in the middle of a six minutes period of arrest of urine flow during an osmotic diuresis. Urine was subsequently collected in 60 ta 80 mg samples. The specific activities of sodium and potassium suggest that both ions pass directly from the renal interstitial tissue into the urine at different and distinct areas in the tubules. The whole distal segment, including the area of active reabsorption of this ion, is impermeable to sodium in the direction interstitial tissue to lumen. The adjacent, more proximal tubule is, however, extremely permeable. The distal tubular impermeability to potassium is more limited. The specific activity already having reached a maximum at the level of active sodium reabsorption. Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue Francaise d'Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques', n. 5, vol IV, p. 471-474 [fr

  14. Production of zeolite A come from rio Capim Kaolin: Study on recycle of sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, C.G.; Rodrigues, E.C.; Rocha Junior, C.A.F.; Macedo, E.N.; Neves, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    The kaolin processing industry is an important economic sector in the State of Para, but produces huge amounts of wastes composed essentially of kaolinite. The production processes of zeolites typically use sodium hydroxide in excess, are discarded. So the objective is the development process for production of zeolite A which allows the reuse of the solution of sodium hydroxide used in excess through your recycling. Presents the results of XRD, SEM of the zeolites produced in five consecutive cycles performed at a temperature of 110°C/24h as a source of sodium hydroxide solution of sodium 5 M, using a molar ratio of Si/Al = 1 and Na/Al = 1,26. (author)

  15. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  16. A comparative study of three cytotoxicity test methods for nanomaterials using sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-10-01

    The biocompatibility evaluation of nanomaterials is essential for their medical diagnostic and therapeutic usage, where a cytotoxicity test is the simplest form of biocompatibility evaluation. Three methods have been commonly used in previous studies for the cytotoxicity testing of nanomaterials: trypan blue exclusion, colorimetric assay using water soluble tetrazolium (WST), and imaging under a microscope following calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining. However, there has yet to be a study to compare each method. Therefore, in this study three methods were compared using the standard reference material of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Each method of the cytotoxicity test was carried out using mouse fibroblasts of L-929 exposed to different concentrations of SLS. Compared to the gold standard trypan blue exclusion test, both colorimetric assay using water soluble tetrazolium (WST) and imaging under microscope with calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining showed results that were not statistically different. Also, each method exhibited various advantages and disadvantages, which included the need of equipment, time taken for the experiment, and provision of additional information such as cell morphology. Therefore, this study concludes that all three methods of cytotoxicity testing may be valid, though careful consideration will be needed when selecting tests with regard to time, finances, and the amount of information required by the researcher(s).

  17. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  18. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  20. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  1. The effect of sodium bicarbonate oral rinse on salivary pH and oral microflora: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Siddhartha; Khan, Mohsin Ali; Singh, Nishi; Agrawal, Amiya; Khare, Vinita

    2017-01-01

    Present study is designed to explore the effect of sodium bicarbonate oral rinse on salivary pH and oral micro flora. Twenty five healthy subjects were recruited for the study in department of dentistry in Era Medical College. Subjects were abstained from tooth brushing overnight pre rinse (control) samples were collected after one hour of dinner and were asked to rinse with pre calibrated freshly prepared sodium bicarbonate solution. The salivary samples were then collected the following morning using sterile gauze in marked bottles. Aerobic bacterial culture was done by plating the sample directly from the swab on the surface of Blood agar and Mac Conkeys media respectively. The colony forming units and ph were calculated for the pre rinse and post rinse saliva sample. Results shows that salivary pH increased significantly after sodium Bicarbonate oral rinse. There was a marginal decrease in number of CFU/ml for bacteria especially Viridans Streptococci, Moraxella species. Sodium Bicarbonate oral rinse may be considered as a cheap and effective alternative for chlorhexidine and alcohol based mouth wash, especially where long duration usage is required.

  2. Studying Solid-Phase Processes in Metakaoline-Sodium Hydroxide Mixtures by Means of Isoconversion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordina, N. E.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Khramtsova, A. P.; Cherednikova, D. S.; Konstantinova, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Processes of the thermal treatment of 6Al2Si4O7: 12NaOH mixtures for the synthesis of zeolites are studied. The mixtures are subjected to ultrasonic treatment and mechanochemical activation, after which the suspensions are evaporated, granulated, and dried. The study is performed using X-ray diffraction, synchronous thermal analysis, and electron microscopy. It is established that calcination below 500°C leads to the dehydration of the LTA zeolite and sodium hydroaluminates formed earlier, and Al2Si4O7 reacts with LTA and NaOH in the range of 500-800°C to form Na6Al4Si4O17 and Na8Al4Si4O18. Using the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods, the apparent activation energies (E) are calculated for this range. The two methods yield close results. It is found that E grows from 30-80 to 240-300 kJ/mol as conversion increases. It is shown that preliminary ultrasonic treatment and mechanochemical activation reduce apparent energy of activation E due to changes in the morphology of particles.

  3. Status of conceptual safety design study of Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shigenobu; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Niwa, Hajime; Shimakawa, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current conceptual safety design and related evaluation of Japanese Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor which is studied in the framework of the Feasibility Study (FS) on commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems in Japan are described. The purpose of the safety design is to establish a feasible safety concept of FBR which aims at a sustainable energy source of the next generations. The safety targets and the safety design principle are set aiming at realizing worldwide acceptability of the safety level. The basic safety design concept, which can meet the safety targets, was formulated taking along with the defense-in-depth philosophy as the basic safety design principle. In order to cope with wide range of energy and resource demands, there are some various designs both of oxide and metal fuel for JSFR. Some analytical results of typical design basis events, design extension conditions and core damage frequency estimation show the feasibility of the safety design concept for them. (author)

  4. A prospective study of power cycles based on the expected sodium fast reactor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Linares, J. I.; Moratilla, B. Y.; Perez, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main issues that has not been solved yet in the frame of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) is to choose the most appropriate power conversion system. This paper explores the performance of different power cycles, from traditional to innovative layouts trying to find the optimized solution. Based on the expected reactor parameters (i.e., inlet and outlet coolant temperatures, 395 deg.C and 545 deg.C, respectively), a subcritical Rankine similar to those of fossil power plant cycles has been proposed as a reference layout. Then, alternative layouts based on innovative Rankine and Brayton cycles have been investigated. Two Rankine supercritical layouts have been modeled and analyzed: one of them, adopted from the Supercritical Water Reactor of GIV (one reheater, nine pre-heaters and one moisture separator) and the other similar to some fossil plants (two reheaters, nine pre-heaters with no moisture separator). Simple Brayton cycle configurations based on Helium has been also studied. Several layouts have been modeled to study the effects of: inter-cooling between compression stages, absence of an intermediate loop and coupling of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). (authors)

  5. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  6. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amado Alonso, Diana; Leo Marcos, Francisco Miguel; Sánchez Oliva, David; González Ponce, Inmaculada; López Chamorro, José María

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results show...

  7. An approach of SFR safety study through the most penalizing sodium void reactivity - 105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, V.; Ivanov, E.; Pignet, S.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium void reactivity effects can affect the plant safety significantly during accidental transients. Accordingly, they have to be accurately investigated for any new sodium cooled fast reactor concept, even if a fuel with a melting point lower than the sodium boiling temperature is adopted. Thus all new reactor concepts should be compared to each - others adopting the value of the maximal possible sodium void reactivity as a discrimination parameter. However, taking into account that the sodium void worth is spatially depended, it is not evident which volume could be voided in order to obtain the maximal reactivity increase. Typically the complete active core voiding (zones initially loaded with 235 U or 239 Pu) is taken into account. This paper summarizes the extensive work carried-out in the IRSN to investigate the sodium-void reactivity spatial profiles of a fast sodium-cooled reactor core in the aim of defining a methodology to search for the area where the void contribution to the reactivity is strictly positive. Perturbation theory design approach available in the ERANOS 2.1 code has been adopted to evaluate the 'area of positive void worth'. To do that, the code has been previously validated against experimental based benchmarks (IRPhEP) and reference calculations. The evaluation of the absolute values of reactivity profiles can be improved later-on adopting more sophisticated methodologies to perform more accurate calculations of the sample with the voided area determined adopting the rough procedure described here. It has been demonstrated that even the non-reference way of ERANOS calculations could be used to provide the basis for different core concepts inter-comparison. (authors)

  8. Alkali activated fly ash binders. A comparative study between sodium and potassium activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the effect of the nature of some alkaline activators in the microstructural development of thermal-alkali activated f/y ash systems. The alkaline compounds employed in this investigation were: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, sodium silicate and potassium silicate. Results confirm that the main reaction product of the activation process (throughout the studied systems is the amorphous alkaline aluminosilicate gel with a three-dimensional structure already observed in earlier research. It has been proved that the type of anion and cation involved in the activation reaction of the ashes not only affects the microstructural development of the systems but the Si/Al ratio of that prezeolitic gel too. For example, in the presence of soluble silicate ions the content of Si in the final structure is notably increased (Si/Al =2.7-3.0, however carbonate ions play a different role since the formation of Sodium or Potassium carbonate/bicarbonate acidifies the system and consequently the reaction rate is considerably slowed. Finally it is evident that; when all experimental conditions are equal, sodium has a greater capacity than potassium to accelerate the setting and hardening reactions of fly ash and also to stimulate the growth of certain zeolitic crystals (reaction by-products. In general it can be affirmed that OH- ion acts as a reaction catalyst; and the alkaline metal (M+ acts as a structure-forming element.Este trabajo muestra el efecto de la naturaleza del activador alcalino en el desarrollo microestructural de sistemas de ceniza volante, activados térmica y alcalinamente. Los componentes alcalinos empleados en esta investigación fueron: NaOH, KOH, Na2C03, K2C03, silicato sódico y silicato potásico. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el principal producto de reacción del proceso de activación (a través de los sistemas estudiados es un gel de aluminosilicato alcalino amorfo con estructura tridimensional ya observada en trabajos

  9. Wastes vitrification by plasma torch: study of a glass formulation compatible with a wide range of B wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H.

    2001-01-01

    Within the context of radioactive waste management, CEA has equipped itself with a 'PLASMARC' device. The central element of this device is a plasma torch treatment furnace. It has been implemented and validated for the vitrification of low level radioactive wastes. Meanwhile, the plasma torch presents potentially interests for immobilizing under an inert form in vitreous matrices, B wastes which are generally divided and of complex chemical composition. The application of this process to this type of wastes has been studied here. The obtained results show that with the plasma torch it is possible to make glasses with a high amount of silicon and aluminium oxide and which are adapted to the treatment / packaging of the B wastes. (O.M.)

  10. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Shin, Yooseok; Park, Jeong-Won; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p composite resin (p composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations.

  11. Numerical thermal-hydraulics study on sodium-water reaction phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Takata; Akira, Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    A new computational program SERAPHIM (Sodium-watEr Reaction Analysis: PHysics of Interdisciplinary Multi-phase flow) is developed to investigate the Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR) phenomena based on parallel computation technology. A compressible three-fluid (liquid water, liquid sodium and mixture gas) and one-pressure model is adopted for multi-phase calculation. The Highly Simplified Maker And Cell (HSMAC) method considering with compressibility is implemented as the numerical solution. The Message-Passing Interface (MPI) is used for the parallel computation. Two types of reactions are considered for the SWR modeling; one is a surface reaction and the other is a gas phase reaction. The surface reaction model assumes that liquid sodium reacts with water vapor on the surface of liquid sodium. An analogy of heat transfer and mass transfer is applied in this model. Reaction heating vaporizes liquid sodium resulting in the gas phase reaction. The ab initio molecular orbital method is applied to investigate the reaction mechanism and evaluate the reaction rate described by the Arrhenius law. A performance of parallel computation is tested on the cluster-PC (16 CPUs) system. The execution time becomes 17.1 times faster in case of 16 CPUs. It seems promising that the SERAPHIM code is practicable for large-scale analysis of the SWR phenomena. Three-dimensional SWR analyses are also carried out to investigate the characteristics of the thermal-hydraulics with the SWR and an influence of initial pressure (0.2 MPa and 0.6 MPa) on an early stage of the SWR phenomenon. As a result, distribution of a gas region, in which water vapor or product of the SWR such as hydrogen and sodium hydroxide exits, velocity and high temperature region differs by 0.2 MPa and 0.6 MPa conditions. However, the maximum gas temperature has an upper bounding and is almost constant both in the analyses. The reason of the upper bounding is attributed to the fact that a hydrogen gas covers up a liquid

  12. Study of structural, surface and hydrogen storage properties of boric acid mediated metal (sodium)-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Demet; Köse, Dursun A.; Sahin, Onur; Oztas, Nursen A.

    2018-04-01

    Three boric acid mediated metal organic frameworks were synthesized by solution method with using succinic acid, fumaric acid and acetylene dicarboxylic acid as a ligand source and sodium as a metal source. The complexes were characterized by FT-IR, powder XRD, elemental analyses and single crystal measurements. The complexes with the formula, C4H18B2Na2O14, C4H16B2Na2O14 and C4H14B2Na2O14 were successfully obtained. BET surface area of complexes were calculated and found as 13.474 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-succinato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate), 1.692 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-fumarato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate) and 5.600 m2/g for catena-(tetrakis(μ2-hydroxo)-(μ2-trihydrogen borate)-(μ2-acetylenedicarboxylato)-di-sodium boric acid solvate). Hydrogen storage capacities of the complexes were also studied at 77 K 1 bar pressure and found as 0.108%, 0.033%, 0.021% by mass. When different ligands were used, the pore volume, pore width and surface area of the obtained complexes were changed. As a consequence, hydrogen storage capacities also changed.

  13. [Studies of progestin specific binding protein in the human prostate. [III]; Sodium molybdate effect on SDG analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Kumasaka, F; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, Y; Takahashi, E; Yamanaka, H

    1985-08-20

    The effect of sodium molybdate on the specific binding protein (SBP) of synthetic progestin 17 alpha-methyl-[3H]-promegestone (R5020) in the cytosol of the human prostate was studied. In a sucrose density gradient analysis, two R5020 SBP components at 4S and 7-8S were observed. It was apparent that the 4S component was reduced and the 7-8S component increased with the addition of 10mM sodium molybdate into the cytosol. Therefore, the molybdate enhancement degree on total SBP amount (4S plus 7-8S) was decided by the relationship between the decreasing rate at 4S and the increasing one at 7-8S. It was shown that the molybdate effect was time-dependent and was not related to the SBP state, whether it was bounded with steroid or not. Moreover, it was estimated that the molybdate effect was not related to phosphatase inhibition since R5020 SBP in SDG was not enhanced by the addition of sodium fluoride which was a phosphatase inhibitor. In this report, the possibility of the existence of the 7-8S forming factor in the human prostate and the relationship between it and sodium molybdate was also discussed through an experiment on a Sephadex G-25.

  14. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with 99m Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The 99m Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author)

  16. A safe, effective, and facility compatible cleaning in place procedure for affinity resin in large-scale monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Dembecki, Jill; Jaffe, Neil E; O'Mara, Brian W; Cai, Hui; Sparks, Colleen N; Zhang, Jian; Laino, Sarah G; Russell, Reb J; Wang, Michelle

    2013-09-20

    Cleaning-in-place (CIP) for column chromatography plays an important role in therapeutic protein production. A robust and efficient CIP procedure ensures product quality, improves column life time and reduces the cost of the purification processes, particularly for those using expensive affinity resins, such as MabSelect protein A resin. Cleaning efficiency, resin compatibility, and facility compatibility are the three major aspects to consider in CIP process design. Cleaning MabSelect resin with 50mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with 1M sodium chloride is one of the most popular cleaning procedures used in biopharmaceutical industries. However, high concentration sodium chloride is a leading cause of corrosion in the stainless steel containers used in large scale manufacture. Corroded containers may potentially introduce metal contaminants into purified drug products. Therefore, it is challenging to apply this cleaning procedure into commercial manufacturing due to facility compatibility and drug safety concerns. This paper reports a safe, effective and environmental and facility-friendly cleaning procedure that is suitable for large scale affinity chromatography. An alternative salt (sodium sulfate) is used to prevent the stainless steel corrosion caused by sodium chloride. Sodium hydroxide and salt concentrations were optimized using a high throughput screening approach to achieve the best combination of facility compatibility, cleaning efficiency and resin stability. Additionally, benzyl alcohol is applied to achieve more effective microbial control. Based on the findings, the recommended optimum cleaning strategy is cleaning MabSelect resin with 25 mM NaOH, 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol solution every cycle, followed by a more stringent cleaning using 50 mM NaOH with 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol at the end of each manufacturing campaign. A resin life cycle study using the MabSelect affinity resin demonstrates that the new cleaning strategy

  17. Study on fine particles influence on sodium sulfite and oxygen gas-liquid reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Shuchang; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Shujuan; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Wet limestone scrubbing is the most common flue gas desulfurization process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and forced oxidation is a key part of the reaction. During the reaction which controlled by gas-liquid mass transfer, the fine particles' characteristic, size, solid loading and temperature has a great influence on gas-liquid mass transfer. In the present work is to explain how these factors influence the reaction between Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and O{sub 2} and find the best react conditions through experiment. The oxidation rate was experimentally studied by contacting pure oxygen with a sodium sulfite solution with active carbon particle in a stirred tank, and the system pressure drop was record by the pressure sensor. At the beginning the pressure is about 215 kPa and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} is about 0.5mol/L. The temperature is 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 C. Compare the results of no particles included, we can conclude that high temperature, proper loadings and smaller particles resulting in higher mass transfer coefficients k{sub L}.

  18. Study of the ionization of sodium vapor in the presence of resonant laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, B.

    1986-06-01

    Ionization of a diffuse sodium jet, excited by laser radiation (D2 resonance), either continuous or pulsed, is studied by electron spectroscopy. Results show: associative ionization (AI) in the collision of two Na(3p) excited atoms; occupancy of highly excited nl states in energy association collisions of two Na(3p) followed by Penning collisional ionization (CI) in the system Na(nl) + Na(3p); heating of electrons by 1, 2, or 3 superelastic collisions with Na(3p). For both the excitation cases (continuous or pulsed source) analysis of experiment results leads to a description of the whole of the ionized medium, characterized as being low density and the site of the ambipolar diffusion of charged particles. A highly simplified model describes the kinetic and electrokinetic equilibrium (continuous case) in which the different populations of distinct nonthermalized energy (low energy primary electrons, hot electrons) play specific roles. The cross sections associated with AI and CI are estimated from experiment results using the model [fr

  19. Studies to single subassembly flow monitoring with a complete 7 element array under sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.; Ruppert, E.; Stehle, H.; Vinzens, K.

    1975-01-01

    A core restraint system in a fast reactor serves to limit fuel element movement leading to reactivity changes and misalignment of control rod drives and instrumentation. To guarantee proper control rod function the upper ring of the passive restraint system for the SNR-300 should keep subassembly displacement below 20 mm, whereas a free bowing up to 25 mm does not impair subassembly handling. With respect to single subassembly instrumentation the influences of subassembly displacement on temperature and flow monitoring were not exactly known. As part of the SNR-300 R and D programme a complete clamped array, consisting of 4 full size fuel elements and 3 blanket elements was tested for more than 4000 hours at 600 0 C in the AKB sodium loop at Interatom, Bensberg. The test was split into two phases and the total cluster was prestrained in the second phase to simulate 15 mm subassembly displacement at the level of the upper pads. Although this test was mainly considered as an endurance test to demonstrate the integrity of prestrained core elements, effort were made to study the feasibility of single subassembly flow monitoring with this full size model of a core section. (Auth.)

  20. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, Vassilis

    1977-01-01

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 T melting ). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ d k with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author) [fr

  1. Experimental studies of methemoglobinemia due to percutaneous absorption of sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S; Nakajima, Y; Yukawa, N; Osawa, M

    1997-01-01

    Methemoglobin formation caused by a liniment solution containing sodium nitrite (30 g/L and 140 g/L) was studied in rats with normal or abraded skin, by measuring the methemoglobin concentration before and after application of liniment solutions with differing nitrite concentration. Each liniment solution (120 microL) was applied. Methemoglobin was measured for 180 minutes using a hemoximeter. Simultaneously, arterial blood pressure and cutaneous blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and a pressure transducer. After the application of each liniment solution to normal skin, the methemoglobin concentration was not significantly modified depending on the time after application. Application of liniment solution to abraded skin (140 g/L) resulted in a marked increase in methemoglobin concentration. A remarkable decrease in arterial blood pressure and subcutaneous blood flow were observed after application of liniment solution to abraded skin (140 g/L). Each of these findings are characteristic of nitrite and they imply the percutaneous absorption of nitrite. Regardless of the nitrite concentration, the methemoglobin concentration was consistently higher in abraded skin than in normal skin.

  2. Studies on gelation of sodium silicate hydrosol for immobilization of high level liquid waste (HLLW).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Raouf, M W [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Sharaf El-deen, A N; El-Dessouky, M M [Military Technical College, Kobry El-Kobbah, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Immobilization of the simulated high-level liquid waste (HLLW) was performed via the gelation with sodium silicate hydrosol at room temperature. The simulated waste in this study, was represented by the electrolytes of Li, Na, K, Cs, Co and Sr at different concentrations. Specific loading of the liquid waste with 0.6 M Mg (NO{sub 3})2 and tailoring with Al salts were tried during most of the gelation processes. Mineral acid (HCl or {sub 3}) were added during the gelation processes to achieve the gel point, especially when lower concentrations of the simulated waste were used. The obtained hydrogel were dried to obtain the solid gel form. The gelation processes were investigated in terms of the different factors that affected them, namely: temperature, pH, changes in the concentration of the initial hydrosol and the used electrolytes. The efficiency of the gelation processes was investigated from the ratio of the amount of simulated waste reacted (m mole) to the initial silicate used (m mole), i.e. X value. Lower X values were observed when using multi valent cations (higher polarizing power). A special effect of increasing the sorption of metal cations in the silica matrix was observed when Al{sup 3+} replaced Si{sup 4+} in the three-dimensional network structure of the matrix. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Acute oral safety study of sodium caseinate glycosylated via maillard reaction with galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, Maria A; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria R; Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-03-01

    In order to potentially use sodium caseinate (SC) glycated with galactose (Gal) in the food industry as a new functional ingredient with proved technological and biological properties, an evaluation of oral acute toxicity has been carried out. An acute safety study with SC-Gal glycoconjugates in the Wistar rat with a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight was conducted. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates were well tolerated; no adverse effects or mortality was observed during the 2-week observation period. No abnormal signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or alterations in food and water consumption occurred. After this period, no changes in hematological and serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or gross pathology or histopathology were detected. It was concluded that SC-Gal glycoconjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction were well tolerated in rats at an acute oral dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates have a low order of acute toxicity, and the oral 50 % lethal dose for male and female rats is in excess of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight.

  4. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  5. Effects of melatonin on diclofenac sodium treated rat kidney: a stereological and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshvakhti, Habib; Yurt, K Kübra; Altunkaynak, B Zuhal; Türkmen, Aysın P; Elibol, Ebru; Aydın, Işınsu; Kıvrak, Elfide G; Önger, M Emin; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of diclofenac sodium (DS) and melatonin (MEL) on kidney of the prenatally administered rats. Pregnant rats were divided into the control, physiological saline, DS, and DS + MEL groups. All injections were given beginning from the 5th day after mating to the 15th day of the pregnancy. Physical dissector and Cavalieri principle were used to estimate the numerical density and total number of glomeruli and the volumetric parameters of kidney, respectively. Our stereological results indicated that DS application during the pregnancy lead to decrease in the mean volume, numerical density, and total number of the glomeruli (p  0.05). Light microscopic investigation showed congestion in blood vessels and shrinkage of the Bowman's space in the DS group. Moreover, there was degeneration in nephrons including glomerulosclerosis and tubular defects, and an increase in the connective tissue in the kidneys of the DS-treated group. However, usage of the MEL with the DS caused preventing of these pathological alterations in the kidney. We suggested that DS might lead to adverse effects in the kidneys of the rats that are prenatally subjected to this drug. Fortunately, these adverse effects can be prevented by the melatonin supplementation.

  6. SFG and SPR Study of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Film Assembly on Positively Charged Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghun; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew; Castner, David

    2012-02-01

    This study uses sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing to investigate the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films formed on positively charged and hydrophilic surfaces. The SPR signals show a good surface coverage suggesting that full monolayer coverage is reached at 1 mM. SFG spectra of SDS adsorbed exhibits well resolved CH3 peaks and OH peaks. At both 0.2 mM and 1 mM SDS concentration the intensity of both the CH3 and OH peaks decreased close to background levels. We found that the loss of SFG signal at 0.2 mM occurs at this concentration independent of surface charge density. It is more likely that the loss of signal is related to structural inhomogeneity induced by a striped phase - stand-up phase transition. This is supported by a distinct change of the relative SFG phase between CH3/OH near 0.2 mM. The second intensity minimum might be related to charge compensation effects. We observed a substrate dependence for the high concentration transition. We also observed distinct SFG signal phase changes for water molecules associated with SDS layers at different SDS solution concentrations indicating that the orientation of bound water changed with SDS surface structure.

  7. Modified local diatomite as potential functional drug carrier--A model study for diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janićijević, Jelena; Krajišnik, Danina; Čalija, Bojan; Vasiljević, Bojana Nedić; Dobričić, Vladimir; Daković, Aleksandra; Antonijević, Milan D; Milić, Jela

    2015-12-30

    Diatomite makes a promising candidate for a drug carrier because of its high porosity, large surface area, modifiable surface chemistry and biocompatibility. Herein, refined diatomite from Kolubara coal basin, which complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements for heavy metals content and microbiological quality, was used as a starting material. Inorganic modification of the starting material was performed through a simple, one-step procedure. Significant increase in adsorbent loading with diclofenac sodium (DS) was achieved after the modification process (∼373mg/g) which enabled the preparation of comprimates containing therapeutic dose of the adsorbed drug. Adsorption of DS onto modified diatomite resulted in the alteration of the drug's XRD pattern and FTIR spectrum. In vitro drug release studies in phosphate buffer pH 7.5 demonstrated prolonged DS release over 8h from comprimates containing DS adsorbed on modified diatomite (up to 37% after 8h) and those containing physical mixture of the same composition (up to 45% after 8h). The results of in vivo toxicity testing on mice pointed on potential safety of both unmodified (starting) and modified diatomite. All these findings favor the application of diatomite as a potential functional drug carrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation study of computer code SPHINCS for sodium fire safety evaluation of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Tajima, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    A computer code SPHINCS solves coupled phenomena of thermal hydraulics and sodium fire based on a multi-zone model. It deals with an arbitrary number of rooms, each of which is connected mutually by doorways and penetrations. With regard to the combustion phenomena, a flame sheet model and a liquid droplet combustion model are used for pool and spray fires, respectively, with the chemical equilibrium model based on the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The chemical reaction and mass and heat transfer are solved interactively. A specific feature of SPHINCS is detailed representation of thermalhydraulics of a sodium pool and a steel liner, which is placed on the floor to prevent sodium-concrete contact. The authors analyzed a series of pool combustion experiments, in which gas and liner temperatures are measured in detail. It has been found that good agreement is obtained and the SPHINCS code has been validated with regard to pool combustion phenomena. Further research needs are identified for pool spreading modeling considering thermal deformation of steel liner and measurement of pool fluidity property as a mixture of liquid sodium and reaction products. The SPHINCS code is to be used mainly in the safety evaluation of the consequence of a sodium fire accident in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor as well as fire safety analysis in general

  9. Problem-based learning and larger student groups: mutually exclusive or compatible concepts – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymn Joanne S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based learning is recognised as promoting integration of knowledge and fostering a deeper approach to life-long learning, but is associated with significant resource implications. In order to encourage second year undergraduate medical students to integrate their pharmacological knowledge in a professionally relevant clinical context, with limited staff resources, we developed a novel clustered PBL approach. This paper utilises preliminary data from both the facilitator and student viewpoint to determine whether the use of this novel methodology is feasible with large groups of students. Methods Students were divided into 16 groups (20–21 students/group and were allocated a PBL facilitator. Each group was then divided into seven subgroups, or clusters, of 2 or 3 students wh each cluster being allocated a specific case. Each cluster was then provided with more detailed clinical information and studied an individual and distinct case-study. An electronic questionnaire was used to evaluate both student and facilitator perception of this clustered PBL format, with each being asked to rate the content, structure, facilitator effectiveness, and their personal view of the wider learning experience. Results Despite initial misgivings, facilitators managed this more complex clustered PBL methodology effectively within the time restraints and reported that they enjoyed the process. They felt that the cases effectively illustrated medical concepts and fitted and reinforced the students' pharmacological knowledge, but were less convinced that the scenario motivated students to use additional resources or stimulated their interest in pharmacology. Student feedback was broadly similar to that of the facilitators; although they were more positive about the scenario stimulating the use of additional resources and an interest in pharmacology. Conclusion This clustered PBL methodology can be successfully used with larger groups of

  10. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Alonso, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results showed that utility of sport was positive and significantly associated with self-determined motivation, whereas conflict between roles was related with amotivation. Moreover, male athletes showed higher scores in all types of motivation that refer Self-Determination Theory, being the group that perceived the greater incompatibility between sport and other social roles according to their growth age. As a conclusion, we emphasize the necessity to promote intrinsic motives of practice in both sex to increase commitment with the sport activity, and avoid sport dropout that might be happened because of the demands of other contexts that surround young athletes.

  11. The MOAHLFA index of irritant sodium lauryl sulfate reactions: first results of a multicentre study on routine sodium lauryl sulfate patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Becker, Detlef; Brasch, Jochen; Löffler, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In a multicentre study of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.25% and 0.5% aq. has been added to routine allergen patch tests to assess its properties as a convenient diagnostic indicator of individual susceptibility to irritation at the time of patch testing. Previous studies indicated that irritant SLS reactivity may be related to individual factors such as age and sex. As these factors are, in turn, among the important predictors of contact allergy to many allergens, e.g. summarized in the 'MOAHLFA index', the impact of the MOAHLFA factors on irritant SLS patch test reactivity, and thus a potential for confounding, was assessed in the 5971 participating patients. As a result of 2 logistic regression analyses with an irritant reaction to 0.25% and 0.5% SLS, respectively, as outcome, male sex was identified as a relatively weak but significant risk factor (OR 1.38), while age 40 years or older was an even weaker risk factor (OR 1.22 and 1.15, respectively). Upon detailed analysis, no clear age gradient could, however, be identified. 1-day exposure time almost halved the odds of an irritant SLS reaction. In conclusion, this type of SLS patch test can be regarded as robust, indicating individual irritability relatively independent from the individual factors analysed here.

  12. Tc-99m Radiolabeled Alendronate Sodium Microemulsion: Characterization and Permeability Studies Across Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, Yetkin; Ekinci, Meliha; Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Gundogdu, Evren; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2018-01-01

    Alendronate sodium (ALD) is used orally but it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For this reason, microemulsion system was chosen to evaluate ALD from the GI tract after oral delivery. This study was aimed to prepare water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion formulation of ALD and evaluate the permeability of ALD microemulsion from Caco-2 cell lines with radioactive and nonradioactive studies. The ALD microemulsion was developed by using pseudo-ternary phase diagram and composed of Soybean oil, Colliphor EL, Tween 80, Transcutol and distilled water. The prepared ALD microemulsion was characterized by physical appearance, droplet size, viscosity, pH, electrical conductivity and refractive index. The stability of the formulation was investigated for 6 months at 25±2°C/60±5% of relative humidity (RH) as well as at 40±2°C/75±5% RH. After that 1 mg of ALD was radiolabeled with 99mTc and added to microemulsion. The permeability studies were performed with both 99mTc-ALD microemulsion and ALD microemulsion. The experimental results suggested that ALD microemulsion presented adequate stability with droplet size varying from 37.8±0.9 to 39.9±1.2 nm during incubation time. In addition, ALD microemulsion was radiolabeled with high labeling efficiency (>95%). In a non-radioactive study, ALD permeability was found to be 45 µg.mL-1 and microemulsion has high permeability percentage when compared to another study. The novel w/o microemulsion formulation has been developed for oral delivery of ALD. Based on the results, permeability of ALD could be significantly improved by the microemulsion formulation. In addition, 99mTc-ALD microemulsion in capsule can be used for bone disease treatment and diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Surface acidity and solid-state compatibility of excipients with an acid-sensitive API: case study of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Ramprakash; Landis, Margaret; Hancock, Bruno; Gatlin, Larry A; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the apparent surface acidity of common excipients and to correlate the acidity with the chemical stability of an acid-sensitive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in binary API-excipient powder mixtures. The acidity of 26 solid excipients was determined by two methods, (i) by measuring the pH of their suspensions or solutions and (ii) the pH equivalent (pHeq) measured via ionization of probe molecules deposited on the surface of the excipients. The chemical stability of an API, atorvastatin calcium (AC), in mixtures with the excipients was evaluated by monitoring the appearance of an acid-induced degradant, atorvastatin lactone, under accelerated storage conditions. The extent of lactone formation in AC-excipient mixtures was presented as a function of either solution/suspension pH or pHeq. No lactone formation was observed in mixtures with excipients having pHeq > 6, while the lactone levels were pronounced (> 0.6% after 6 weeks at 50°C/20% RH) with excipients exhibiting pHeq 6, 3-6, and < 3) were consistent with the reported solution pH-stability profile of AC. In contrast to the pHeq scale, lactone formation did not show any clear trend when plotted as a function of the suspension/solution pH. Two mechanisms to explain the discrepancy between the suspension/solution pH and the chemical stability data were discussed. Acidic excipients, which are expected to be incompatible with an acid-sensitive API, were identified based on pHeq measurements. The incompatibility prediction was confirmed in the chemical stability tests using AC as an example of an acid-sensitive API.

  14. Study of an ultrasonic method of estimating local temperatures of liquid sodium at the output of the core of SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massacret, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of research on Sodium cooled Fast nuclear Reactor (SFR), CEA aims to develop an innovative instrumentation, specific to these reactors. The present work relates to the measurement of the sodium temperature at the outlet of the assemblies of the reactor's core by an ultrasonic method. This instrumentation involves the propagation of ultrasonic waves in liquid sodium, thermally inhomogeneous and turbulent. Environment causes deviations of the acoustic beam that must be understood to predict and quantify to consider ultrasound as a measure means in a core of SFR reactor. To determine the magnitude of these influences, a code named AcRaLiS (Acoustic Ray in Liquid Sodium) has been implemented. In a first step, a thermal-hydraulic study specific to the medium, was conducted to provide an adequate description of the environment and choose a suitable acoustic propagation model. Then an implementation has been performed to allow rapid simulations of the wave propagation at several megahertz in this particular environment. This code provides ultrasounds deviations and changes in beam intensity.Two experiments were designed and conducted to verify the code. The first, named UPSilon innovates by replacing sodium by silicone oil in order to have a stable thermal inhomogeneity during the experiment. It allows to determine the validity of the code AcRaLiS with thermal inhomogeneities. The second, called IKHAR allows to study the influence of water turbulence on the propagation of waves, using the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Conclusions and perspectives are presented, including perspectives for other application domains. (author) [fr

  15. Impaired sodium-dependent adaptation of arterial stiffness in formerly preeclamptic women: the RETAP-vascular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Paauw, Nina D; Toering, Tsjitske J; Feelisch, Martin; Faas, Marijke M; Sutton, Thomas R; Minnion, Magdalena; Lefrandt, Joop D; Scherjon, Sicco A; Franx, Arie; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia

    2016-06-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases later in life. Persistent vascular alterations in the postpartum period might contribute to this increased risk. The current study assessed arterial stiffness under low sodium (LS) and high sodium (HS) conditions in a well-characterized group of formerly early-onset preeclamptic (fPE) women and formerly pregnant (fHP) women. Eighteen fHP and 18 fPE women were studied at an average of 5 yr after pregnancy on 1 wk of LS (50 mmol Na(+)/day) and 1 wk of HS (200 mmol Na(+)/day) intake. Arterial stiffness was measured by pulse-wave analysis (aortic augmentation index, AIx) and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV). Circulating markers of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), extracellular volume (ECV), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured in an effort to identify potential mechanistic elements underlying adaptation of arterial stiffness. AIx was significantly lower in fHP women on LS compared with HS while no difference in AIx was apparent in fPE women. PWV remained unchanged upon different sodium loads in either group. Comparable sodium-dependent changes in RAAS, ECV, and NO/H2S were observed in fHP and fPE women. fPE women have an impaired ability to adapt their arterial stiffness in response to changes in sodium intake, independently of blood pressure, RAAS, ECV, and NO/H2S status. The pathways involved in impaired adaptation of arterial stiffness, and its possible contribution to the increased long-term risk for cardiovascular diseases in fPE women, remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Experimental and analytical studies of iodine mass transfer from xenon-iodine mixed gas bubble to liquid sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, S.; Sagawa, N.; Shimoyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the fuel pin failure accident of a liquid metal fast reactor, volatile fission products play an important role in the assessment of radiological consequences. Especially the radioisotopes of elemental iodine are important because of their high volatility and of the low permissible dose to human thyroid. The released iodines are known to be retained in the coolant sodium as sodium iodide due to the chemical affinity between alkali metals and halogens. However, the xenon and krypton released with iodines into the sodium pool as bubbles may influence the reaction rate of iodine with sodium during the bubble rising. So far, the only few experimental results have been available concerning the decontamination factor (DF: the ratio of the initial iodine mass in the mixed gas bubble to the released mass into the cover gas) of iodine in this phenomenon. Therefore, experimental and analytical studies were carried out to study the mass transfer of iodine from a xenon-iodine mixed gas bubble to the liquid sodium pool. In the experiments, the bubble was generated in the sodium pool by cracking a quartz ball which contains the xenon-iodine mixed gas and then, the mixed gas released into the argon cover gas was collected to determine the transferred iodine mass into the pool. A rising velocity of the bubble was measured by Chen-type void sensors arranged vertically in the pool. From the measured rising velocity and another observation of bubble behavior in simulated water experiments, it is found that the generated bubble breaks up into several smaller bubbles of spherical cap type during the rising period. Transferred iodine mass per unit initial bubble volume from the bubble to the sodium pool shows increases with increasing time and the initial iodine concentration. A mass transfer rate obtained by differentiating the transferred iodine mass with respect to the time indicates a rapid decrease just after the bubble generation and a slow decrease for the successive period

  17. Atomic force microscopy studies on molybdenum disulfide flakes as sodium-ion anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven D; Wan, Jiayu; von Wald Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Dai, Jiaqi; Bao, Wenzhong; Xu, Kang; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-02-11

    A microscale battery comprised of mechanically exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes with copper connections and a sodium metal reference was created and investigated as an intercalation model using in situ atomic force microscopy in a dry room environment. While an ethylene carbonate-based electrolyte with a low vapor pressure allowed topographical observations in an open cell configuration, the planar microbattery was used to conduct in situ measurements to understand the structural changes and the concomitant solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at the nanoscale. Topographical observations demonstrated permanent wrinkling behavior of MoS2 electrodes upon sodiation at 0.4 V. SEI formation occurred quickly on both flake edges and planes at voltages before sodium intercalation. Force spectroscopy measurements provided quantitative data on the SEI thickness for MoS2 electrodes in sodium-ion batteries for the first time.

  18. 23Na-NMR-studies on the detection of the interaction of phospholipids with sodium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, K.; Pausch, R.; Frenzel, J.; Winkler, E.

    1975-01-01

    The 23 Na-NMR-relaxation times have been measured in different sonicated phospholipid dispersions in dependence on the NaCl concentration. In an egg lecithin dispersion and a DPPC dispersion the relaxation rates are independent of the sodium concentration. In both systems there is no interaction between sodium ions and phospholipids. However, in a phosphatidylethanolamine dispersion a concentration dependence may be observed. Its interpretation is only possible for a stoichiometric ratio of 3:1 of the lecithin-ion-complex. The association constant is found to be k=65,0 l/Mol. For the case of an equimolar egg lecithin/phosphatidylethanolamine dispersion a stronger interaction is measured. The addition of CaCl 2 results in a complete inhibition of the binding of sodium ions at phosphatidylethanolamine

  19. Study on cavitation in centrifugal sodium pumps for FBTR and PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.S.L.K.; Prabhakar, R.; Prakash, V.; Paranjpe, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) which is expected to become critical shortly is a loop type reactor of 40 MW thermal capacity and has two primary and two secondary centrifugal pumps for heat removal. During the initial periods of reactor operation, the steam generator is bypassed and the secondary sodium pumps are required to operate at flows less than that at best efficiency point. This paper deals with the cavitation problems associated with operation at partial f lows, theoretical estimations and experimental cavitation measurements carried out on FBTR secondary sodium pumps. These investigations revealed that operation of FBTR pumps at this off design condition is free from cavitation damage. Cavitation experiments on a model pump for the development of large sodium pumps for a 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) are described in this paper

  20. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  1. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Moreira Jr, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.; Quina, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40º C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Yaq] and [Yaq] is the sodium counter...

  3. Studies on sorption of plutonium on inorganic exchangers from sodium carbonate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pius, I C; Charyulu, M M; Sivaramakrishnan, C K [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Venkataramani, B [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sorption of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate medium has been investigated by using different inorganic exchangers alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these exchangers from sodium carbonate medium were found to be sufficiently high indicating the suitability of these exchangers for the removal of Pu(IV). The presence of uranium and dibutyl phosphate do not have any effect on distribution ratio. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities for above exchangers have been determined with 5 ml bed at a flow rate of 30 ml/hour. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: a dose escalation and pharmacologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Baker, Sharyn D; Grossman, Stuart A; Carson, Kathryn A; Gilbert, Mark R; Fisher, Joy D; Carducci, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial. Four dose levels of PB were studied: 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day. Data were collected to assess toxicity, response, survival, and pharmacokinetics. All PB doses of 9, 18, and 27 g/day were well tolerated. At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence. At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence. Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months. One patient had a complete response for five years, and no partial responses were noted, which yielded an overall response rate of 5%. Plasma concentrations of 706, 818, 1225, and 1605 muM were achieved with doses of 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day, respectively. The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038). This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas. The pharmacology of PB appears to be affected by concomitant administration of P450-inducing anticonvulsants.

  5. Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: A dose escalation and pharmacologic study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Baker, Sharyn D.; Grossman, Stuart A.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Fisher, Joy D.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial. Four dose levels of PB were studied: 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day. Data were collected to assess toxicity, response, survival, and pharmacokinetics. All PB doses of 9, 18, and 27 g/day were well tolerated. At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence. At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence. Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months. One patient had a complete response for five years, and no partial responses were noted, which yielded an overall response rate of 5%. Plasma concentrations of 706, 818, 1225, and 1605 μM were achieved with doses of 9, 18, 27, and 36 g/day, respectively. The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme–inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038). This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas. The pharmacology of PB appears to be affected by concomitant administration of P450-inducing anticonvulsants. PMID:15831235

  6. Study of vaporization of sodium metaborate by transpiration thermogravimetry and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T S Lakshmi; Viswanathan, R; Nalini, S

    2011-11-17

    The vaporization of solid sodium metaborate NaBO(2)(s) was studied by transpiration thermogravimetry (TTG) and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). The transpiration measurements, performed for the first time on NaBO(2)(s), involved use of argon as the carrier gas for vapor transport and derivation of vapor pressure of NaBO(2)(g) (by assuming it as the sole vapor species) through many flow-dependence runs and temperature-dependence runs in the temperature range 1075-1218 K. The KEMS measurements performed in the temperature range 1060-1185 K confirmed NaBO(2)(g) as the principal vapor species over NaBO(2)(s), in accord with the previously reported KEMS studies. The values of p(NaBO(2)) obtained by both TTG and KEMS are consistent within the uncertainties associated with each method and so are the second- and third-law values of enthalpy of sublimation, the latter aspect consistently missing in all previous vaporization studies. The results of both TTG and KEMS were combined to recommend the following thermodynamic parameters pertinent to the sublimation reaction, NaBO(2)(s) = NaBO(2)(g): Log{p(NaBO(2))/Pa} = -(17056 ± 441)/(T/K) + (14.73 ± 0.35) for the temperature range 1060-1218 K; Δ(r)H°(m)(298.15 K) = (346.3 ± 9.4) kJ·mol(-1); and Δ(r)S°(m)(298.15 K) = (210.2 ± 6.8) J·mol(-1)·K(-1).

  7. In vitro incorporation studies of 99mTc-alendronate sodium at different bone cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evren Gundogdu; Derya Ilem-Ozdemir; Makbule Asikoglu

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates can be labeled with Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and are used for bone imaging because of their good localization in the skeleton and rapid clearance from soft tissues. Over the last decades bone scintigraphy has been used extensively in the evaluation of oncological patients to provide information about the sites of bone lesions, their prognosis and the effectiveness of therapy by showing the sequential changes in tracer uptake. Since the lesion visualization and lesion/bone ratio are important utilities for a bone scanning radiopharmaceutic; in this study incorporation of 99m Tc labeled alendronate sodium ( 99m Tc-ALD) was evaluated in U 2 OS (human bone osteosarcoma) and NCI-H209 (human bone carcinoma) cell lines. ALD was directly labeled by 99m Tc, radiochemical purity and stability of the complex were analyzed by radioactive thin layer chromatography and radioactive high performance liquid chromatography studies. For cell incorporation study, NCI-H209 and U 2 OS cell lines were used with standard cell culture methods. The six well plates were used for all experiments and the integrity of each cell monolayer was checked by measuring its transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with an epithelial voltammeter. Results confirmed that ALD was successfully radiolabeled with 99m Tc. 99m Tc-ALD incorporated with NCI-H209 and U 2 OS cells. The uptake percentages of 99m Tc-ALD in NCI-H209 and U 2 OS cell lines were found significantly different. Since 99m Tc-ALD highly uptake in cancer cell line, the results demonstrated that radiolabeled ALD may be a promising agent for bone cancer diagnosis. (author)

  8. Visual compatibility of defibrotide with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correard, Florian; Savry, Amandine; Gauthier-Villano, Laurence; Pisano, Pascale; Pourroy, Bertrand

    2014-08-01

    The visual compatibility of a solution of defibrotide (the only drug recommended for treatment and prophylaxis of hepatic venoocclusive disease) with solutions of various drugs commonly administered in bone marrow transplant procedures was studied. Solutions of 43 drug products in concentrations typically used in clinical practice were evaluated in 1:1 mixtures with defibrotide solution in glass tubes kept at room temperature. The evaluated products included antiinfectious, corticoid, sedative, analgesic, and cardiovascular agents widely used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and other marrow transplant procedures; in most cases, test solutions were prepared via dilution in or reconstitution with sterile water, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose injection. The mixtures were visually observed immediately after manual mixing and at specified time points (60, 150, and 240 minutes). Visual compatibility was defined as the absence of color change, haze, fibers, particles, gas generation, and precipitate formation. The effect of mixing order on visual compatibility was ascertained. Of the 43 tested drug solutions, 36 were found to be visually compatible with the defibrotide solution over the entire four-hour study period. Solutions of 7 drugs (amikacin, furosemide, midazolam, mycophenolate mofetil, nicardipine, tobramycin, and vancomycin) were visually incompatible with defibrotide solution. In some cases, evidence of incompatibility was observed intermittently or was dependent on mixing order. Defibrotide solution was found to be visually compatible with solutions of 36 i.v. products that are likely to be coadministered with the drug in a bone marrow transplant unit. Seven drug solutions were visually incompatible with defibrotide solution. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of lipase and protease from an indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain and their evaluation as detergent additives: compatibility study with detergent ingredients and washing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbavčić, Sanja; Bezbradica, Dejan; Izrael-Živković, Lidija; Avramović, Nataša; Milosavić, Nenad; Karadžić, Ivanka; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2011-12-01

    An indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain has been studied for lipase and protease activities for their potential application in detergents. Produced enzymes were investigated in order to assess their compatibility with several surfactants, oxidizing agents and commercial detergents. The crude lipase appeared to retain high activity and stability in the presence of several surfactants and oxidizing agents and it was insusceptible to proteolysis. Lutensol® XP80 and Triton® X-100 strongly activated the lipase for a long period (up to 40 and 30% against the control after 1h) while the protease activity was enhanced by the addition of Triton® WR1339 and Tween® 80. The washing performance of the investigated surfactants was significantly improved with the addition of the crude enzyme preparation. Studies were further undertaken to improve enzymes production. The optimization of fermentation conditions led to an 8-fold increase of lipase production, while the production of protease was enhanced by 60%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro disintegration studies of weekly generic and branded risedronate sodium formulations available in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A D; Adachi, J D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro disintegration of the five newly available Canadian generic risedronate 35 mg tablets compared to the innovator (branded) product, ACTONEL * *ACTONEL is a registered trade name of Warner Chilcott Company, LLC. (risedronate sodium) 35 mg. Tablets were inspected for colour and appearance. Disintegration times were determined using United States Pharmacopeia 33 (USP33-NF 28) methods. Disintegration onset time was also evaluated. The mean disintegration onset time values for the generic risedronate 35 mg tablets ranged from 2 to 29 seconds, and the mean disintegration completion times ranged from 81 to 260 seconds. The mean disintegration onset and completion time values for the ACTONEL 35 mg tablets were 23 and 43 seconds respectively. Four out of the five generic tablets tested had shorter disintegration onset times than the branded product; two of the generic tablet products had very fast disintegration onset times i.e. 2-3 seconds. Disintegration completion time for all five generic products tested was longer than that observed for the branded product; two generic products had disintegration completion time values five to six times longer than the branded product. Differences in the in vitro disintegration times were observed between the generic risedronate 35 mg tablets commercially available in Canada and the branded product, ACTONEL. The rapid disintegration onset times of two generic products may be important as this could increase the possibility of drug exposure in both the mouth and the esophagus during swallowing, resulting in unwanted localized irritation. However, it should be noted that an in vitro/in vivo correlation has not been established. Until such studies are completed it may be important to be aware of such in vitro disintegration differences when evaluating patients with newly presenting upper gastrointestinal complaints upon being switched from the branded product to generic formulations.

  11. Study of interactions between anionic exopolysaccharides produced by newly isolated probiotic bacteria and sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Yousra; Joulak, Ichrak; Ben Amara, Chedia; Casillo, Angela; Attia, Hamadi; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Azabou, Samia

    2018-07-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the interactions between four exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by probiotic bacteria and sodium caseinate (Cas) in order to simulate their behavior in dairy products. Complexation between the produced EPS samples and Cas was investigated as a function of polysaccharide to protein ratio. The highest turbidity and average size of complexes were formed at an EPS/Cas ratio of 3 (corresponding to 1 g/L of EPS and 0.33 g/L of Cas) as a result of the combination of individual complexes to form aggregates. Zeta potential measurements and Cas surface hydrophobicity results suggested that complex formation occurred essentially through electrostatic attractions with a possible contribution of hydrophobic interaction for EPS-GM which was produced by Bacillus tequilensis-GM. Afterwards, the effect of pH on the complexation between biopolymers was studied when EPS and Cas concentrations were maintained constant at 1 and 0.33 g/L, respectively. pH was adjusted to 3.0 and 3.5, respectively. Results showed that the highest amount and sizes of EPS/Cas complexes were formed at pH 3.5 and that EPS-GM enabled to obtain the biggest and highest amount of aggregates. Therefore, the obtained results support the fact that the simultaneous presence of EPS and Cas in dairy products results in complexes formation via electrostatic interactions depending on EPS/Cas ratio and pH of the medium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study of ...

  13. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  14. Sorption of uranium (VI) on homoionic sodium smectite experimental study and surface complexation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korichi, Smain; Bensmaili, Aicha

    2009-09-30

    This paper is an extension of a previous paper where the natural and purified clay in the homoionic Na form were physico-chemically characterized (doi:10.1016/j.clay.2008.04.014). In this study, the adsorption behavior of U (VI) on a purified Na-smectite suspension is studied using batch adsorption experiments and surface complexation modeling (double layer model). The sorption of uranium was investigated as a function of pH, uranium concentration, solid to liquid ratio, effect of natural organic matter (NOM) and NaNO(3) background electrolyte concentration. Using the MINTEQA2 program, the speciation of uranium was calculated as a function of pH and uranium concentration. Model predicted U (VI) aqueous speciation suggests that important aqueous species in the [U (VI)]=1mg/L and pH range 3-7 including UO(2)(2+), UO(2)OH(+), and (UO(2))(3)(OH)(5)(+). The concentration of UO(2)(2+) decreased and that of (UO(2))(3)(OH)(5)(+) increased with increasing pH. The potentiometric titration values and uptake of uranium in the sodium smectite suspension were simulated by FITEQL 4.0 program using a two sites model, which is composed of silicate and aluminum reaction sites. We compare the acidity constants values obtained by potentiometric titration from the purified sodium smectite with those obtained from single oxides (quartz and alpha-alumina), taking into account the surface heterogeneity and the complex nature of natural colloids. We investigate the uranium sorption onto purified Na-smectite assuming low, intermediate and high edge site surfaces which are estimated from specific surface area percentage. The sorption data is interpreted and modeled as a function of edge site surfaces. A relationship between uranium sorption and total site concentration was confirmed and explained through variation in estimated edge site surface value. The modeling study shows that, the convergence during DLM modeling is related to the best estimation of the edge site surface from the N(2

  15. Experimental study of the consequences of accidental sodium release in the form of peroxide aerosols on the tomato and the lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.; Disdier, R.

    1977-01-01

    Industrial development of sodium cooled breeder reactors have lead to the study of consequences of accidents occuring in the cooling circuit. The effects on crops when aerosols are released in the atmosphere can be determined after a certain amount of molten sodium (stable element 23 Na) is brought into contact with the open air. Experiments are performed in a 'Phytotron' equipment on lettuces and tomatoes in dry atmosphere at two different moments during the growing process. The aerosol studied has a high content of sodium peroxide and the ground deposit varied between 17 and 450 mg/m 2 sodium equivalent. (Concentration at distances of 800 m and 1500 m calculated for a theoretical fire involving 10 tons of sodium). Necrosis, visible only with a microscope, were reported when deposits in sodium equivalent were under 300 mg/m 2 . Leaves were destroyed if necrosis were numerous (deposit above 300 mg/m 2 ). Tomatoes, and fruits in particular, were found to be more resistant than lettuces. Sodium embedded in dead cells does not migrate in the plant and does not disturb the plants physiological equilibrium. New sprouts have normal sodium percentage. The consequences are essentially burns of which the extent is more or less high depending on the deposits and the kind of species involved [fr

  16. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  17. Ab-initio molecular dynamics studies of magnesium-doped sodium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethlisberger, U.; Andreoni, W.

    1993-01-01

    Structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of magnesium-doped sodium clusters have been determined using the Car-Parrinello method. It is found that in the energetically preferred structures the magnesium impurity never is located at the centre of the cluster. The validity of spherical jellium models and the effects of temperature are discussed. 9 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. Raman spectroscopic study on sodium hyaluronate: an effect of proton and gamma irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Alexa, P.; Wagner, Richard; Davídková, Marie; Volka, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2011), s. 544-550 ISSN 0377-0486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : sodium hyaluronate * proton irradiation * gamma irradiation * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.087, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jrs.2724/full

  19. Study of the inhibition of respiration/fermentation in yeast cells by sodium fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the necessary guidelines to achieve the observation of the inhibition of sugar metabolism in yeast cells by means of the compound sodium fluoride. This activity is appropriate for the subject of Biology in Secondary Education as well as High School.

  20. A one-year oral toxicity study of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, J.; Hentz, K.; Schmitt, D.; Tran, N.; Jonker, D.; Junker, K.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) was examined in Wistar rats fed diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% SSL for one year, equivalent to mean daily intakes of 558, 1115, and 2214. mg/kg/day in males and 670, 1339, and 2641. mg/kg/day in females, respectively. SSL was well tolerated at

  1. A Study on Renin-Angiotensin System and Total Exchangeable Sodium in Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon

    1976-01-01

    The etiologic role of renin-angiotensin system and sodium-volume status in the pathophysiology of various forms of hypertension was investigated. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay, while sodium-volume status was evaluated by the determination of total exchangeable sodium(NaE) using isotope dilution method. The subjects consisted of 25 controls, 24 patients with essential hypertension, 22 patients with chronic renal failure (13 with hypertension, 9 without hypertension) and 14 patients with malignant hypertension. The results were as follows: 1) An inverse correlation between NaE and PRA was noted in control subjects (r=-0.598, p 0.1) 3) Absolute value of PRA was not deviated significantly from control group (2.53±1.416 ng/ml/hr) except in malignant hypertension (6.09±2.042, p 0.1). It is suggested that renin-angiotensin system plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension and in hypertension of chronic renal failure, though sodium retention is also contributing factor. PRA variation in essential hypertension does not appear to be associated with any consistent change in Na-volume status, suggesting the existence of another mechanism in the genesis of hypertension and PRA variation.

  2. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.

  3. Chemical compatibility between cladding alloys and advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1975-05-01

    The National Advanced Fuels Program requires chemical, mechanical, and thermophysical properties data for cladding alloys. The compatibility behavior of cladding alloys with advanced fuels is critically reviewed. in carbide fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding carburization, diffusion of carbon into the cladding matrix accompanied by carbide precipitation. Carburization changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. The extent of carburization increases in sodium (versus gas) bonded fuels. The depth of carburization increases with increasing sesquicarbide (M 2 C 3 ) content of the fuel. In nitride fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding nitriding, diffusion of nitrogen into the cladding matrix accompanied by nitride precipitation. Nitriding changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. In both carbide and nitride fuel pins, fission products do not migrate appreciably to the cladding and do not appear to contribute to cladding attack. 77 references. (U.S.)

  4. Simulation study of the second-generation MR-compatible SPECT system based on the inverted compound-eye gamma camera design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaochun; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present simulation studies for the second-generation MRI compatible SPECT system, MRC-SPECT-II, based on an inverted compound eye (ICE) gamma camera concept. The MRC-SPECT-II system consists of a total of 1536 independent micro-pinhole-camera-elements (MCEs) distributed in a ring with an inner diameter of 6 cm. This system provides a FOV of 1 cm diameter and a peak geometrical efficiency of approximately 1.3% (the typical levels of 0.1%-0.01% found in modern pre-clinical SPECT instrumentations), while maintaining a sub-500 μm spatial resolution. Compared to the first-generation MRC-SPECT system (MRC-SPECT-I) (Cai 2014 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 734 147-51) developed in our lab, the MRC-SPECT-II system offers a similar resolution with dramatically improved sensitivity and greatly reduced physical dimension. The latter should allow the system to be placed inside most clinical and pre-clinical MRI scanners for high-performance simultaneous MRI and SPECT imaging.

  5. Compatibility study of a parenteral microdose polyethylene glycol formulation in medical devices and identification of degradation impurity by 2D-LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Ran, Yingqing; Yehl, Peter; Zhang, Kelly

    2017-04-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulation and polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubing are frequently used for drug delivery and administration. The compatibility of a parenteral drug microdose formulation in intravenous infusion (IV) devices was studied to support the clinical determination of absolute bioavailability by the microdosing method. The investigational microdose formulation containing PEG was found prone to significant loss of potency within hours of storage in the PVC IV tubing due to degradation. Degradation occurred only when both PEG and PVC tubing were present. The degradation product could not be detected by LC/MS due to the significant interference from the high concentration of PEG (4%) matrix and the extremely low level of drug (0.6ppm). To obtain structural information of the degradation impurity and understand the cause of the degradation, a simple heart-cutting 2D-LC/MS approach was utilized to effectively separate the impurity from the complex PEG oligomers and overcome the matrix interference, enabling mass spectrometric analysis of the impurity. An oxidation- dominated mechanism was proposed in which the combination of PEG auto-oxidation and dehydrochlorination of the PVC tubing yielded an oxidative environment that enhanced radical propagation and accelerated degradation of the investigational parent drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aqueous two-phase (polyethylene glycol + sodium sulfate) system for caffeine extraction: Equilibrium diagrams and partitioning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Sampaio, Daniela de; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Forville de Andrade, Eriel; Oberson de Souza, Michèle; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Castilhos, Fernanda de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Binodal curves of PEG (400, 4000 and 6000) + Na_2SO_4 ATPS were determined. • Tie-lines were experimentally determined for aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system. • Influence of caffeine on LLE of aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Caffeine partition showed to be dependent on temperature and TLL. - Abstract: Environmental friendly methods for liquid–liquid extraction have been taken into account due to critical conditions and ecotoxicological effects potentially produced by organic solvents applied in traditional methods. Liquid–liquid extraction using aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) presents advantages when compared to traditional liquid–liquid extraction. (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) + sodium sulfate + water) ATPS was applied to study partition of caffeine. Binodal curves for ATPSs composed of PEG of different molecular weights (400 g · mol"−"1, 4000 g · mol"−"1 and 6000 g · mol"−"1) sodium sulfate + water were determined by cloud point method at three different temperatures (293.15, 313.15 and 333.15) K. Liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) data (tie-lines, slope of the tie-line and tie-lines length) were obtained applying a gravimetric method proposed by Merchuck and co-workers at the same temperatures for aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) and aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate + caffeine) systems. Reliability of the experimental tie-line (TL) data was evaluated using the equations reported by Othmer–Tobias and satisfactory linearity was obtained. Concerning to aqueous (PEG + sodium sulfate) system, the results pointed out that the higher PEG molecular weight the largest is the heterogeneous region. Moreover, temperature showed not to be relevant on binodal curves behavior, but it influenced on tie-line slopes. Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) system was investigated at different temperatures

  7. Fluorimetric study of the mechanism of molecular association in aqueous solutions of polymethacrylic acid and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachko, A. V.; Zakordonskii, V. P.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescent spectroscopy is used to investigate the processes of intermolecular association in mixed solutions of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) and anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). We propose a model for describing the stage-by-stage mechanism of association processes and conclude that the nature of intermolecular associates depends on the PMAA-SDBS concentration ratio in the solution. Studying the kinetics of fluorescence decay reveals the simultaneous existence of two types of formations capable of pyrene solubilization.

  8. Conclusive experimental study of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition. Run-F9-1, Run-F9-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Nitrogen gas can be an extinguisher or a mitigating material in the case of sodium leak and fire accident in an air atmosphere, which may occur at a liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant. However, sodium combustion residuum sometimes reignites in the air atmosphere even at room temperature when it was produced by nitrogen gas injection to the burning sodium. Then, in this study we executed conclusive experiments of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition by a mixture of carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, humidity and nitrogen gas. The experiments were carried out with the FRAT-1 test equipment; the humidity conditions were changed in air which were used to sodium combustion atmosphere and exposure air for confirmation of prevented combustion residue reignition. First of all, the sodium of about 2.5 kg was leaked in air atmosphere, and next, the sodium combustion was stopped by nitrogen gas injection. Next, the combustion residuum was cooled in the nitrogen atmosphere, and then the combustion residuum was exposed to atmosphere of carbon-dioxide (4%); humidity (6000vppm); oxygen (3%)-nitrogen (based gas) mixture. It was confirmed that the combustion residuum was not reignition even if exposed to the air atmosphere again at the end of experiment. We had confirmed that the prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition to establish by this research were effective. (author)

  9. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  10. The work compatibility improvement framework: preliminary findings of a case study for defining and measuring the human-at-work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, A; Karwowski, W; A-Rehim, A

    2007-11-01

    Although researchers traditionally examined the 'risk' characteristics of work settings in health studies, few work models, such as the 'demand-control' and 'motivation-hygiene theory', advocated the study of the positive and the negative aspects of work for the ultimate improvement of work performance. The objectives of the current study were: (a) to examine the positive and negative characteristics of work in the machining department in a small manufacturing plant in the Midwest USA, and, (b) to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal and stress outcomes. A focus group consisting of worker experts from the different job categories in the machining department confirmed the management's concerns. Accordingly, 56 male and female workers, employed in three shifts, were surveyed on the demand/energizer profiles of work characteristics and self-reported musculoskeletal/stress symptoms. On average, one-fourth to one-third of the workers reported 'high' demand, and over 50% of the workers documented 'low' energizers for certain work domains/sub-domains, such as 'physical task content'/'organizational' work domains and 'upper body postural loading'/'time organization' work sub-domains. The prevalence of workers who reported 'high' musculoskeletal/stress disorder cases, was in the range of 25-35% and was consistent with the results of 'high' demands and 'low' energizers. The results of this case study confirm the importance of adopting a comprehensive view for work improvement and sustainable growth opportunities. It is paramount to consider the negative and positive aspects of work characteristics to ensure optimum organizational performance. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework, proposed in the reported research, is an important endeavor toward the ultimate improvement and sustainable growth of human and organizational performance.

  11. The study of the structural properties of very low viscosity sodium alginate by small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badita, C. R., E-mail: ramona@tandem.nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, ramona@tandem.nipne.ro, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, ramona@tandem.nipne.ro, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Anitas, E. M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, ramona@tandem.nipne.ro, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Sodium alginate is a linear polymer extract from brown algae and it is used in the biomedical, food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries as solution property modifiers and gelling agents. But despite the extensive studies of the alginate gelation process, still some fundamental questions remain unresolved. The fractal behavior of very low viscosity sodium alginate solutions and their influence on the critical gelation of alginate induced by Ca{sup 2+} ions were investigated using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements. SANS data are interpreted using both standard linear plots and the Beaucage model. The scattering intensity is dependent by alginate concentration and Ca{sup 2+} concentration. From a critical concentration of 1.0 % w/w our polymer swelled forming spherical structures with rough surfaces. Also the addition of the salt induces the collapse and the appearance of the aggregation and clusters formation.

  12. Study of Cadmium adsorption of Nickel and Zinc on a natural bentonite and homo ionic of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    It was studied the adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm adequately describes the adsorption of these metal ions over both bentonites, and the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm, which allow quantifying the degree of adsorption, can be calculated. Baeyens-bradbury model correlates well the adsorption of the metal ions over both bentonites but Kdm cannot be calculated from it. The adsorption data do not adjust to freundlich isotherm or B.E.T. As well as they do to the previously mentioned models. The sodium homo ionic bentonite adsorbs nickel and zinc better than the native bentonite, whereas there are not significant differences in cadmium adsorption. The order of adsorption over both bentonites, Cadmium > Zinc > Nickel, follow the HSAB principle

  13. Study of the physicochemical properties of an extinguishing powder for sodium fires: aging, fabrication, and mechanism of extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumanindyah, Nur-Andriani-Pramudita

    2016-01-01

    The French atomic and alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) developed an effective powder capable of extinguishing sodium fire. It is a powder based on a mixture of lithium carbonate (Li_2CO_3) and low-hydrated sodium carbonate (Na_2CO_3.H_2O) in a near eutectic proportion, with a melting temperature of around 500 C, associated with graphite. However, ever since the dismantling of several old sodium installations, CEA has at its disposal an important stock of unused powder batches. The idea of re-utilizing these powders initiates the question about their efficiency to extinguish a sodium fire after long term storage. This study proposed the physicochemical analyses of these powders in order to identify their compositions and characteristics for different batches. The results highlight the presence of lithium sodium carbonate (LiNaCO_3) and trona (Na_2CO_3.NaHCO_3.2H_2O), which are not mentioned in the patent. The aging experiments were developed to study the role of moisture and ambient carbon dioxide during the storage. The results showed that LiNaCO_3 is sensitive to the presence of moisture, able to transform it into lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate monohydrate, meanwhile the latter reacts with water and carbon dioxide to form trona. a study of the formation of LiNaCO_3 allowed the understanding of the fabrication method of the powder. This compound is found to be produced as the results of mechano-chemical reactions between Li_2CO_3 and Na_2CO_3.H_2O during the grinding process. The Chris(X)ti-Na experimental facility is built to understand the mechanisms of extinction especially related to the role of physicochemical properties on extinction. Two steps of extinction mechanisms are proposed that includes (1) the formation of liquid sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and (2) the melting of eutectic carbonates. The first step can happen directly (via the direct reaction of trona and/or Na_2CO_3.H_2O with Na(g) and/or Na_2O(s)) or indirectly (via the decomposition

  14. A randomised, double-masked comparison study of diquafosol versus sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Etsuko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution with those of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores as endpoints. TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores of ≥3 were randomised to the treatment groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Efficacy and safety were evaluated after drop-wise instillation of the study drug, six times daily for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the intergroup difference in the mean change from baseline in fluorescein staining score was -0.03; this verified the non-inferiority of diquafosol. The mean change from baseline in rose bengal staining score was significantly lower in the diquafosol group (p=0.010), thus verifying its superiority. The incidence of adverse events was 26.4% and 18.9% in the diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Diquafosol (3%) and sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior efficacy in improving rose bengal staining scores. Diquafosol has high clinical efficacy and is well tolerated with a good safety profile.

  15. Topical Colchicine Gel versus Diclofenac Sodium Gel for the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Elahipoor, Azam; Iraji, Fariba; Behfar, Shadi; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs), a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated in terms of their lesion size, treatment complications, and recurrence at 7, 30, 60, and 120 days after treatment. Results. The mean of changes in the size was significant in both groups both before and after treatment ( 0.05). No case of erythema was seen in the colchicine group, while erythema was seen in 22.9% (eight cases) of patients in the diclofenac sodium group (p = 0.005). Conclusions. 1% colchicine gel was a safe and effective medication with fewer side effects and lack of recurrence of the lesion.

  16. Topical Colchicine Gel versus Diclofenac Sodium Gel for the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs, a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated in terms of their lesion size, treatment complications, and recurrence at 7, 30, 60, and 120 days after treatment. Results. The mean of changes in the size was significant in both groups both before and after treatment ( 0.05. No case of erythema was seen in the colchicine group, while erythema was seen in 22.9% (eight cases of patients in the diclofenac sodium group (p = 0.005. Conclusions. 1% colchicine gel was a safe and effective medication with fewer side effects and lack of recurrence of the lesion.

  17. Study of the Na-C-O and Na-H-O ternary systems in the sodium rich corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupre, J.-P.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution to the understanding of the sodium - carbon - oxygen and sodium - hydrogen - oxygen ternary systems in the sodium rich corner. In order to do this the Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH phase diagram was completed and the Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C phase diagram was outlined. This work is made up of two parts. The first is devoted to a critical literature survey essential to establish correct phase diagrams. The second is an experimental study followed by a discussion collating our finding to the literary data. The basic experimental technique used is differential thermal analysis (DTA) but it has been completed by quenching, X-ray and chemical analysis methods. The proposed phase diagrams imply that Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH and Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C systems are reciprocal ternary systems. Temperatures of stable pairs reversal are respectively 410 and 690 0 C. The stable pairs are Na-NaOH and Na-Na 2 CO 3 at elevated temperature, Na 2 O-NaH and Na 2 O-C at low temperature [fr

  18. Study On Electromagnetic Compatibility of Powerline Communication Systems%电力线通信系统的电磁兼容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓刚; 赵建峰; 李国庆

    2017-01-01

    电磁兼容性(Electromagnetic Compatibility,EMC)是电力线通信(Power Line Communication,PLC)系统的关键技术之一.首先介绍了PLC技术的发展概况和相应EMC研究的基本情况;并介绍了有代表性的国家或地区和重要的标准化组织在PLC技术的EMC法律法规和标准方面的最新进展;然后介绍了我国在该领域的试验结果和研究成果;最后指出该领域存在的问题、同时对发展方向提出建议.上述研究总结了PLC技术的EMC法规和标准化的最新进展,可作为我国发展PLC时制定合理的EMC法规和管理制度的有益参考.%EMC is one of the key technologies of PLC.Firstly,the development profile of PLC technology and its EMC study overview were introduced in the paper.Then the PLC EMC progresses on the regulations of representative countries or regions,as well as the standards of the important standardized organizations were described.After that,the testing results and the study achievements of some Chinese organizations were presented.Finally,the problems were pointed out,and some suggestions on development directions were proposed.The study is the summary of the latest status of PLC EMC regulations and standardization,which is a favorable reference for making the rules and administration of PLC EMC for China.

  19. Use of {sup 74}As-Tagged Sodium Arsenite in a Study of Effects of a Herbicide on Pond Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R. C. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Hooper, F. H. [Michigan Department of Conservation, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1966-05-15

    Over-abundance of higher aquatic vegetation is one of the most serious problems in inland lakes of the United States. Sodium arsenite is extensively used in these areas to control or destroy aquatic vegetation, but little is known of its pathways in the aquatic system or its effects on the biota of the system. Sodium arsenite tagged with {sup 74}As was added to a series of aquaria and its uptake, movement within the ecosystem, and effect upon the metabolism of the system studied. A duplicate experiment was run in a. 1/3 acre pond (0.14 hectare) in which plants were treated at the levels(8 ppm) usually employed in commercial treatment. The sodium arsenite was taken up actively by the plants immediately and recycled to the water and soil by decay and sedimentation of the plants within 5 d. The herbicide and tracer were taken up very actively by filamentous algae (Spirogyra) and the activity disappeared within 8 h and the algae died within a day following. Chara which is generally considered not to take up the herbicide was very radioactive but showed no signs of deterioration or change in growth pattern or rate. The tagged material persisted in the water for the duration of the study in amounts of nearly one half of the applied amounts. Certain of the invertebrates (microcrustacea) are very sensitive to low levels of sodium arsenite, while others show large concentrations and appear to be unaffected by the herbicide. The arsenite moved into the soil and reached a depth of 3 in. in the undisturbed bottom deposits in a 60-d period. The general effect on the community metabolism of the pond as shown by the diurnal oxygen curve indicates a drastic response to the herbicide and, raises serious questions as to the advisability of use of this herbicide in fish-producing ponds due to its effect upon the several trophic levels in the food web of fish. (author)

  20. Quality evaluation and in vitro interaction studies between levofloxacin 250mg and diclofenac sodium 50mg tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Muhammad; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Ali, Tariq; Nasiri, Iqbal; Ashraf, Nida

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics, work against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are a clinically proven option for many resistant infections. Among fluoroquinolones Levofloxacin works best against acute sinusitis, inflammation of the lower airways, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infection including Pyelonephritis, chronic bacterial prostatitis and skin and soft tissue infection. Levofloxacin is a frequently prescribed antibacterial agent with Diclofenac Sodium for pain management in infectious conditions. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the level of interaction between Levofloxacin and Diclofenac Sodium. In this work market available brands of both drugs were also evaluated for quality.The physiochemical parameters like weight variation, thickness variation, and mechanical strength were determined. Similarly the percentage drug release and content uniformity test were also analyzed; the tested quality attributes were found within the recommended pharmacopeia ranges except brand L(6) that had high drug content 124.629±3.614 while brand L(4) and L(5) were not found similar in pH 1.2. When subjected to model dependent analysis Levofloxacin showed compliance with (first order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Weibull) at pH (1.2, 4.5 and 6.8). However Diclofenac Sodium showed adherence with (first order, Hixson Crowell and Weibull) at pH (1.2, 4.5 and 6.8) but following Higuchi at pH 1.2 and 4.5 only. The interaction studies were also performed spectrophotometrically and simultaneous equation was used to estimate the percentage availability of both the drugs at pH 4.5, 6.8, FaSSGF and FaSSIF. The studies showed that the percent availability of Levofloxacin was increased significantly in FaSSIF i.e. 129.173±0.323 at 45 minutes in the presence of Diclofenac Sodium.

  1. Urinary potassium to urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately identify hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome: a provisional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenswijk, Werner; Ilias, Mohamad Ikram; Raes, Ann; Donckerwolcke, Raymond; Walle, Johan Vande

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence pointing to a decrease of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a subgroup of nephrotic children, likely secondary to hypovolemia. The aim of this study is to validate the use of urinary potassium to the sum of potassium plus sodium ratio (UK/UK+UNa) as an indicator of hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome, enabling detection of those patients who will benefit from albumin infusion. We prospectively studied 44 nephrotic children and compared different parameters to a control group (36 children). Renal perfusion and glomerular permeability were assessed by measuring clearance of para-aminohippurate and inulin. Vaso-active hormones and urinary sodium and potassium were also measured. Subjects were grouped into low, normal, and high GFR groups. In the low GFR group, significantly lower renal plasma flow (p = 0.01), filtration fraction (p = 0.01), and higher UK/UK+UNa (p = 0.03) ratio were noted. In addition, non-significant higher plasma renin activity (p = 0.11) and aldosteron (p = 0.09) were also seen in the low GFR group. A subgroup of patients in nephrotic syndrome has a decrease in glomerular filtration, apparently related to hypovolemia which likely can be detected by a urinary potassium to potassium plus sodium ratio > 0.5-0.6 suggesting benefit of albumin infusion in this subgroup. What is Known: • Volume status can be difficult to assess based on clinical parameters in nephrotic syndrome, and albumin infusion can be associated with development of pulmonary edema and fluid overload in these patients. What is New: • Urinary potassium to the sum of urinary potassium plus sodium ratio can accurately detect hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome and thus identify those children who would probably respond to albumin infusion.

  2. An experimental study on sodium-water reaction in the double pool LMFBR, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Uotani, Masaki; Akimoto, Tokuzo

    1989-01-01

    Double Pool type LMFBR set the rectangular cross-sectional steam generator (SGs) inside a secondary vessel. The initial spike pressure rise caused by large sodium-water reaction in SGs might be radiated into a large sodium pool in the secondary vessel. Therefore basic experiments on pressure wave propagation were carried out by generating pressure wave in water by mean of a set of drop hummer and piston. But the experimental apparatus in water was not convenience to simulate the structure near the bottom end of the SGs shell. In this reports, experiments were carried out by generating pulse sound pressure in air, and compared with the results pressure waves in water. (author)

  3. A study of sodium alginate and calcium chloride interaction through films for intervertebral disc regeneration uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, Andreia Grossi Santos de; Costa Junior, Ezequiel de Souza; Costa, Hermes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The injured intervertebral disc (IVD) requires some measures in order to promote its regeneration. The sodium alginate in conjunction with CaCl_2 forms a net, potentiating its mechanical properties so it may be an alternative for IVD treatment. In this work, the viability of films of sodium alginate crosslinked with CaCl_2 and submitted to variations in their solutions' preparations is verified, comparing the effects of the addition of CaCl_2 through their immersions, before and after drying the films. The films had their physicochemical properties analyzed by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The results indicated that films with a greater proportion of CaCl_2 were more stable in the DSC analysis when compared to films with smaller proportions of CaCl_2. These results indicate alginate's modulation capacity which may be useful for IVD regeneration. (author)

  4. The reaction between barium and nitrogen in liquid sodium: resistivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.C.; Creffield, G.K.; Hubberstey, P.; Pulham, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of nitrogen with solutions of barium (between 0.34 and 6.89 mol % Ba) in liquid sodium at 573 K has been followed by changes in the electrical resistivity of the liquid. The capillary method has been employed, continuous sampling during reaction being achieved by electromagnetic pumping. The initial solution of nitrogen in the metal, followed by precipitation of barium and nitrogen from sodium as the nitride Ba 2 N, are reflected in the resistivity changes. The solubility of nitrogen in the alloy is a linear function of the barium concentration: S(mol % N) = x/4 (0 <= x <= 6.89 mol % Ba). This and the decrease in resistivity which invariably occurs during the solution process, provides additional information on the nature of solvation of nitrogen in solution in the liquid metal. (author)

  5. Food pattern modeling shows that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium and potassium cannot be met simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommended limiting intake of sodium to 1500 mg/d for people older than 50 years, African Americans, and those suffering from chronic disease. The guidelines recommended that all other people consume less than 2300 mg sodium and 4700 mg of potassium per day. The theoretical feasibility of meeting the sodium and potassium guidelines while simultaneously maintaining nutritional adequacy of the diet was tested using food pattern modeling based on linear programming. Dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were used to create optimized food patterns for 6 age-sex groups. Linear programming models determined the boundary conditions for the potassium and sodium content of the modeled food patterns that would also be compatible with other nutrient goals. Linear programming models also sought to determine the amounts of sodium and potassium that both would be consistent with the ratio of Na to K of 0.49 and would cause the least deviation from the existing food habits. The 6 sets of food patterns were created before and after an across-the-board 10% reduction in sodium content of all foods in the Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies. Modeling analyses showed that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for sodium were incompatible with potassium guidelines and with nutritionally adequate diets, even after reducing the sodium content of all US foods by 10%. Feasibility studies should precede or accompany the issuing of dietary guidelines to the public. PMID:23507224

  6. Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies on Titanium-doped Sodium Aluminum Hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnane, Lance F.

    Hydrogen fuel cells play an important role in today's diverse and blossoming alternative energy industry. One of the greatest technological barriers for vehicular applications is the storage of hydrogen (which is required to power hydrogen fuel cells). Storing hydrogen as a gas is not volume efficient, and storing it as a liquid is not cost effective, therefore solid-state storage of hydrogen, such as in metal hydrides offers the most potential for success since many metal hydrides have attractive qualities for hydrogen storage such as: high volumetric capacity, cost efficiency, weight efficiency, low refueling times, and most importantly, high safety. Unfortunately, a compound has not been discovered which contains all of the attractive hydrogen storage qualities for vehicular applications. Sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH 4) is one of the few compounds which is close to meeting requirements for car manufacturers, and has perhaps been researched the most extensively out of all metal hydrides in the last 15 years. This arises from the remarkable discovery by Bogdanovic who found that doping NaAlH4 with Ti dopants enabled the reversible dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH 4 at mild conditions. Various evidence and theories have been proposed to suggest explanations for the enhanced kinetic effect that Ti-doping and ball-milling provide. However, the research community has not reached a consensus as to the exact role of Ti-dopants. If the role of titanium in the NaAlH4 dehydrogenation/hydrogenation mechanism could be understood, then more attractive metal hydrides could be designed. To this end, we conducted Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies to explain the role of the Ti dopants. The first known thorough particle size analysis of the NaAlH4 system was conducted, as well as TEM-EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy), TEM-EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), and in-situ imaging studies. Preparation methods were found to be important for the

  7. Treating hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients admitted to ICU with sodium phenylbutyrate: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicolas; Tripon, Simona; Lodey, Marion; Guiller, Elsa; Junot, Helga; Monneret, Denis; Mayaux, Julien; Brisson, Hélène; Mallet, Maxime; Rudler, Marika; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Thabut, Dominique

    2018-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) influences short-term and long-term prognoses. Recently, glycerol phenylbutyrate (PB), that lowers ammonia by providing an alternate pathway to urea for waste nitrogen excretion, has shown that it was effective in preventing the occurrence of HE in RCT. The aim was to assess the benefits of sodium PB in cirrhotic patients admitted to ICU for overt HE, in terms of ammonia levels decrease, neurological improvement, and survival. Cirrhotic patients who presented with overt HE, ammonia levels >100 μmol/L, and did not display any contra-indication were included. Sodium PB was administered at 200 mg/kg/day. Control group included historical controls treated by standard therapy, matched for age, sex, MELD score, and severity of HE. Eighteen patients were included and treated with sodium PB (age: 59 [45-68], male gender: 15 [83%], Child-Pugh B: 8 [44%], Child-Pugh C: 10 [56%], and MELD score: 16 [13-23]). Ammonia levels significantly decreased in the PB as compared to the control group from inclusion to 12 h and from inclusion to 48 h (P = 0.0201 and P = 0.0230, respectively). The proportion of patients displaying neurological improvement was only higher in the PB-treated group as compared to controls at ICU discharge (15 [83%] vs. 9 [50%], P = 0.0339). ICU discharge survival was significantly higher in patients treated with PB (17 [94%] vs. 9 [50%], P = 0.0017). In cirrhotic patients with overt HE, sodium PB could be effective in reducing ammonia levels and might be effective in improving neurological status and ICU discharge survival. More extensive data, especially a RCT, are mandatory. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Studies on a double-interferometer and mesospheric temperature measurements with a sodium-LIDAR-instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serwazi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The first part of this report describes the integration and alignment of a second Fabry-Perot-Interferometer into the optical bench of the sodium LIDAR experiment in Northern Norway. The spectral efficiency of this double interferometer was instrumentally and theoretically examined. The second part of the report presents results of temperature measurements in March 1989, which were made jointly with a Rayleigh LIDAR from the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy. Measured temperatures and Na densities of three nights are presented. (orig.)

  9. Simple experiments studying the catastrophic corrosion of stainless steel caused by sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathison, J.; Trevalion, P.A.; Hamer, A.N.

    1971-01-01

    Under certain conditions, small quantities of soditum escaping through a small hole may cause extensive corrosion and cratering on the outside of the containment in the vicinity of the leak and there is a possibility that this might lead to a major rupture of the containment. It is difficult to estimate such a corrosion rate by conducting post mortems after an incident because of the lack of precise information about times and temperatures. Simple sodium burning experiments have therefore been carried out in an attempt to provide rough quantitative data on the size of these corrosion rates. These showed that the average rate of corrosion of specimens of 18.8.1 stainless steel beneath a burning pool of sodium was of the order of 0.05 cm/hr at 600 ° C and 0.005 cm/hr at 400 ° C. Enhanced corrosion occurs at the periphery of the burning sodium. The rate of penetration will depend on the shape of the corrosion profile which exists in the affected surface. The times needed to penetrate different wall thicknesses of stainless steel pipework have been calculated for various corrosion profiles similar to those which have been observed after incidents in REML. (author)

  10. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H.; Moreira Junior, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag ) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y aq ] and [Y aq ] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles (γ ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I 1 /I 3 vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  11. CP ESFR: Collaborative Project for a European Sodium Fast Reactor Core studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiron, L.; Vasile, A.; Sunderland, R.

    2013-01-01

    • Significant progress has been made in optimizing both the oxide and carbide ESFR cores; • For the oxide core the optimisation process concentrated on the reduction of the sodium void reactivity effect and on the evaluation of MA burning performances. The CONF2 axial configuration has provided a significant overall reduction of the sodium void reactivity effect. • The carbide core had a significantly higher reactivity loss over the fuel cycle compared to the oxide one. By increasing slightly the fuel pin diameter, whilst still retaining the advantages of lower fuel temperatures of carbide fuel, and making changes in the core layout, the reactivity loss over the cycle has been reduced to a level similar to that of the oxide core. By adopting the CONF2 axial configuration initially developed for the oxide core, the sodium void reactivity of the carbide core has also been reduced appreciably. • The MA transmutation performances of the optimized ESFR oxide core have been investigated with respect to two boundary configurations. The HET2 configuration shows a low MA transmutation rate sufficient to burn the MA produced by the ESFR core without affecting the safety parameters. The HOM4 configuration (where 4%wt. MA are loaded homogeneously in each core SA) is the most challenging configuration due to its impact on safety coefficients but it shows an high MA burning rate suitable for burning also MA accumulated by a thermal reactor fleet

  12. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: quina@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos

    2013-02-15

    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  13. Study of the sodium oxide aerosol behavior in a containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Fast breeder reactor safety analysis needs validated models to predict the behavior of sodium oxide aerosols (released during hypothetical accidents) in the different reactor compartments and, in particular, to evaluate the quantity (and the size distribution) of the particles which can be released outside the containment building by taking into account the associated devices (ventilation, especially). In order to validate the computer models, experimental tests were performed by CEA/DSN (Atomic Energy Commission/Nuclear Safety Department) at Cadarache: sodium pool fire tests in a 400 m 3 concrete vessel (CASSANDRE tests) and in a 4.4 m 3 steel vessel (EMIS tests). Furthermore, we utilized the results of the experimental tests performed by our German colleagues of KFK/LAF (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe/Laboratorium fuer Aerosolphysik und Filtertechnik): sodium pool fire tests in a 220 m 3 steel vessel (FAUNA tests). The application of the computer models to the experimental tests and to the reactor case allowed us: - to explain the differences observed between the results given by the codes ''with log-normal hypothesis'' (HAARM 3) and ''with finite difference'' (PARDISEKO 3B), - to define the limits of application of the codes ''with log-normal hypothesis'', - to determine the important parameters (characteristics of the aerosol source, form factors of the agglomerates and collision efficiency) and the important phenomena (turbulent coagulation, in particular) [fr

  14. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  15. Study of thermophysical and thermohydraulic properties of sodium for fast sodium cooled reactors; Estudio de las propiedades termofisicas y termohidraulicas del sodio para reactores rapidos enfriados por sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega R, A. K.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: a.karen.vr@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The importance of liquid sodium lies in its use as a coolant for fast reactors, but why should liquid metal be used as a coolant instead of water? Water is difficult to use as a coolant for a fast nuclear reactor because its acts as a neutron moderator, that is, stop the fast neutrons and converts them to thermal neutrons. Nuclear reactors such as the Pressurized Water Reactor or the Boiling Water Reactor are thermal reactors, which mean they need thermal neutrons for their operation. However, is necessary for fast reactors to conserve as much fast neutrons, so that the liquid metal coolants that do have this capability are implemented. Sodium does not need to be pressurized, its low melting point and its high boiling point, higher than the operating temperature of the reactor, make it an adequate coolant, also has a high thermal conductivity, which is necessary to transfer thermal energy and its viscosity is close to that of the water, which indicates that is an easily transportable liquid and does not corrode the steel parts of the reactor. This paper presents a brief state of the art of the rapid nuclear reactors that operated and currently operate, as well as projects in the door in some countries; types of nuclear reactors which are cooled by liquid sodium and their operation; the mathematical models for obtaining the properties of liquid sodium in a range of 393 to 1673 Kelvin degrees and a pressure atmosphere. Finally a program is presented in FORTRAN named Thermo-Sodium for the calculation of the properties, which requires as input data the Kelvin temperature in which the liquid sodium is found and provides at the user the thermo-physical and thermo-hydraulic properties for that data temperature. Additional to this the user is asked the Reynolds number and the hydraulic diameter in case of knowing them, and in this way the program will provide the value of the convective coefficient and that of the dimensionless numbers: Nusselt, Prandtl and Peclet. (Author)

  16. [Extracellular hydration status and residual urinary sodium excretion in chronic hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochette, Romain; Lobbedez, Thierry; Hanoy, Mélanie; Le Roy, Frank; Potier, Jacky; Besselièvre, Thibault; Cardineau, Éric; Landru, Isabelle; Ficheux, Maxence; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Henri, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    In dialysis patients, a misevaluation of dry weight may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional multicenter study was to evaluate the association between residual urinary sodium excretion and extracellular volume status in chronically treated hemodialysis patients. Dry weight was determined clinically and by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (Body Composition Monitor, Fresenius Medical Care) prior to a mid-week session in 40 chronic hemodialysis patients with significant residual diuresis (more than 250 mL per day) and receiving treatment in four dialysis centers. Regarding their hydration status assessed by the Body Composition Monitor and in comparison to a healthy reference population, patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 categories: overhydrated, normohydrated and dehydrated. Urine output, urinary sodium excretion and residual renal function were measured for all patients within 30 days before dry weight assessment. The median post-HD session FO was of-0.40 L (IQR: from-1.95 to+0.90) and the median residual urinary sodium excretion was of 64 mmol/L (IQR: 46-79). Among these patients, 16 were normohydated, 16 were dehydrated and 8 were overhydrated. There was a linear relationship between the hydration status after HD session and the urinary sodium excretion (estimate: 5.6±1.5; phydration status evaluated by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized, Observer-blind, Split-face Compatibility Study with Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% gel and Facial Foundation Makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Neal; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Cosmetic compatibility in the treatment of acne is an important issue significantly impacting quality of life, but often overlooked, as dermatologists commonly recommended avoidance of cosmetic foundations when treating adult female patients. Fixed combinations of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide are widely used in the treatment of acne, but little is known about the impact of their concomitant use with facial foundation. To assess the compatibility of clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel with foundation makeup for up to six hours after application. Twenty-nine female subjects applied makeup to their face after randomly applying clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel to one side of the face. Investigator and subject self- assessment included facial skin attributes, facial tolerability, and cosmetic compatibility post-application and at Hour 6; as well as cutaneous tolerability. No statistical difference was noted between the treated and untreated side of the face in terms of coverage, blotchiness, appearance, skin tone, or visual smoothness. Tolerability was excellent, with no erythema, edema, dryness, and peeling post-makeup application. For both the treated and untreated side, there was a slight lack of improvement in cosmetic appearance six hours post-makeup application. Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel was shown to have excellent cosmetic compatibility with facial foundation.

  18. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: shijf@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: xugang@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  19. Pain control in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery with/without preoperative (preemptive) parecoxib sodium injection: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchanon, Sarwinee; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn; Traipak, Khanitta

    2011-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of preoperative parecoxib sodium injection for pain relief after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. A prospective double-blind, randomized study was conducted in 268 patients who underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery at Vajira Hospital between November 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either single intravenous 40 mg parecoxib (treatment group; n = 133) or normal saline (control group; n = 135) 30 min before surgery. The degree of postoperative pain was assessed every 2 h in the first 8 h postoperation, then every 4 h until completion of 24 h by using a verbal rating scale. Total consumption of meperidine over a 24-h period and the adverse events relevant to parecoxib sodium were also recorded. Mean pain scores at all measured times in the treatment group were insignificantly lower than those in the control group (p = 0.106). The mean 24-h postoperative meperidine consumption in the treatment group was significantly lower compared to that in the control group (26.3 +/- 28.1 mg and 39.1 +/- 34.6 mg, respectively, p = 0.001). The proportion of patients requiring meperidine in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (58.6% and 70.3%, respectively, p = 0. 045). No serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Preoperative parecoxib sodium significantly reduced postoperative meperidine requirement and consumption, while insignificantly declined the pain scores. Serious adverse events were not encountered

  20. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Q.Z.; Shi, J.F.; Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W.; Xu, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO_2/Na_2O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO_2/Na_2O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  1. A Numerical Design and Feasibility Study of Self-Wastage Experiment Using Simulant Material in a Sodium Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyon Jang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A sodium–water reaction takes place when high-pressured water vapor leaks into sodium through a tiny defect on the surface of the heat transfer tube in a steam generator of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. The sodium–water reaction brings deterioration of the mechanical strength of the heat transfer tube at the initial leakage site. As a result, it damages the crack itself, which may eventually enlarge into a larger opening. This self-enlargement is called “self-wastage phenomenon.” In this study, a simulant experiment was proposed to reproduce the self-enlargement of a crack and to evaluate the mechanism of the self-wastage. The damage on the surface of the crack was simulated by making the neutralization reaction with hydrochloric acid solution and sodium hydroxide solution. A numerical investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the approach and to determine experimental conditions. From the computation results, it is observed that when 5M HCl is injected into 5M of NaOH with 0.05 m/s inlet velocity, the temperature at the surface near the crack increased over 319.26 K. The computational results show that the self-wastage phenomenon is capable of being reproduced by the simulant experiment.

  2. Changes in the flexural strength of engineering ceramics after high temperature sodium corrosion test. Influence after sodium exposure for 1000 hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kano, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Komine, Ryuji; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1998-02-01

    Engineering ceramics have excellent properties such as high strength, high hardness and high heat resistance compared with metallic materials. To apply the ceramic in fast reactor environment, it is necessary to evaluate the sodium compatibility and the influence of sodium on the mechanical properties of ceramics. In this study, the influence of high temperature sodium on the mechanical properties of sintered ceramics of conventional and high purity Al 2 O 3 , SiC, SiAlON, AlN and unidirectional solidified ceramics of Al 2 O 3 /YAG eutectic composite were investigated by means of flexure tests. Test specimens were exposed in liquid sodium at 823K and 923K for 3.6Ms. There were no changes in the flexural strength of the conventional and high purity Al 2 O 3 , AlN and Al 2 O 3 /YAG eutectic composite after the sodium exposure at 823K. On the contrary, the decrease in the flexural strength was observed in SiC and SiAlON. After the sodium exposure at 923K, there were also no changes in the flexural strength of AlN and Al 2 O 3 /YAG eutectic composite. In the conventional and high purity Al 2 O 3 and SiC, the flexural strength decreased and signs of grain boundary corrosion were detected by surface observation. The flexural strength of SiAlON after the sodium exposure at 923K increased instead of severe corrosion. In the specimens those showed no changes in the flexural strength, further exposure in sodium is needed to verify whether the mechanical properties degrade or not. For SiAlON, it is necessary to clarify the reason for the increased strength after the sodium exposure at 923K. (author)

  3. Study on integrated TRU multi-recycling in sodium cooled fast reactor CDFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yun; Xu Mi; Wang Kan

    2010-01-01

    In view of recently proposed closed fuel cycle strategy which would recycle the integrated transuranics (TRU) from PWR spent fuel in the fast reactors, the neutronics characteristics of TRU recycled in China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) are studied in this paper. The results show that loading integrated TRU to substitute pure Pu as driver fuel will mainly make the influence on sodium void worth and negligible effects on other parameters, and hence TRU recycling in CDFR is feasible from viewpoint of core neutronics. If TRU is multi-recycled, the variation of TRU composition depends on fuel types and the ratio of TRU and U when recycling. It is indicated that, when TRU is multi-recycled in CDFR with MOX fuel, the minor actinides (MA) fraction in TRU will firstly decrease to ∼7.24% (minimum) within 8 TRU recycle times and then slowly increase to ∼7.7% after 20 TRU recycle times; while when TRU is multi-recycled in CDFR with metal fuel (TRU-U-10Zr), the MA fraction in TRU will gradually approach to an equilibrium state with the MA fraction of ∼3.8%, demonstrating better MA transmutation effect in metal fuel core. No matter 7.7 or 3.8%, they are both lower than ∼10% in PWR spent fuel with burnup of 45 GWd/tU, which presents satisfying effect of MA amount controlling for TRU multi-recycling strategy. On the other hand, the corresponding recycling parameters such as TRU heat release and neutron emission rate are also much lower in metal fuel than those in MOX fuel. Moreover, TRU recycled in metal fuel will bring greater fissile Pu isotopes equilibrium fraction due to better breeding capability of metal fuel. Finally, it could be summarized that integrated TRU multi-recycling in fast reactor can make contributions to both breeding and transmutation, and such strategy is a prospective closed fuel cycle manner to achieve the object of effective control of cumulated MA amount and sustainable development of nuclear energy.

  4. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate solution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113 or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107 before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865. The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12% in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.1% in the saline group (RR: 1.68, CI 95%: 0.72 to 3.94. Conclusion: Our investigation showed that there were no differences between normal saline solution (extended infusion vs. bicarbonate solution for nephroprotection.

  5. A neutronics study for improving the safety and performance parameters of a 3600 MWth Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kaichao; Krepel, Jiri; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Chawla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The potential for neutronics design optimization is assessed for a large SFR core. ► Both beginning-of-life and equilibrium fuel cycle conditions are considered. ► The sodium void effect is decomposed via a neutron balance based methodology. ► The optimized core options adopt an appropriate sodium plenum design to reduce the void effect. ► The introduction of moderator pins is considered for enhancing the Doppler effect. - Abstract: The Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the most promising Generation IV systems with many performance advantages, but has one dominating neutronics drawback – a positive sodium void reactivity. The starting point for the present study is an SFR core design considered in the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). The aim is to analyze, for this reference core, four safety and performance parameters from the viewpoint of four different optimization options, and to propose possible optimized core designs. In doing so, the study focuses not only on the beginning-of-life state of the core, but also on the beginning of equilibrium closed fuel cycle. The four studied optimization options are: (a) introducing an upper sodium plenum and boron layer, (b) varying the core height-to-diameter (H/D) ratio, (c) introducing moderator pins into the fuel assembly, and (d) modifying the initial plutonium content. The sensitivity of the void reactivity, Doppler constant, nominal reactivity and breeding gain has been evaluated. In particular, the void reactivity, which is the most crucial safety parameter for the SFR, has been decomposed into its reaction-wise, isotope-wise and energy-group-wise components using a methodology based on the neutron balance equation. Extended voiding in the upper sodium plenum region – in conjunction with the effect of a boron layer introduced above the plenum – is found to be particularly effective in the void effect reduction while, at the same time

  6. Studies Conducted of Sodium Carbonate Contaminant Found on the Wing Leading Edge and the Nose Cap of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Palou, Jaime J.

    2003-01-01

    In early 2001, three of the space shuttle orbiters were found to have a sodium carbonate contaminant on the wing leading edge and nose cap. These parts are made of a reinforced carbon/carbon material protected by silicon carbide (SiC) and a glass coating. The glass coating is known as Type A and is primarily sodium silicate with particles of SiC. NASA Glenn Research Center's Environmental Durability Branch was asked to determine the chemistry of this deposit formation and assess any possible detrimental effects. At low temperatures, the reverse reaction is favorable. Previous studies of the corrosion of glass show that carbon dioxide in the presence of water does form sodium carbonate on sodium silicate glass (ref. 1). It is quite likely that a similar scenario exists for the orbiter wing leading edge. All three orbiters that formed sodium carbonate were exposed to rain. This formation of sodium carbonate was duplicated in the laboratory. The Type A glass, which coats the wing leading edge and nose cap, was made in a freestanding form and exposed to water in two separate experiments. In one set of experiments, the coating was placed in a petri dish filled with water. As the water evaporated, sodium carbonate formed. In another case, water was slowly dripped on the coating and sodium carbonate formed. The sodium carbonate was detected by chemical analysis and, in some cases, xray diffraction showed a hydrated sodium carbonate. The next step was to examine possible detrimental effects of this sodium carbonate. There are three likely scenarios for the sodium carbonate deposit: (1) it may be removed with a simple rinse, (2) it may remain and flow back into the Type A glass after heating during reentry, or (3) it may remain and flow onto unprotected SiC and/or other parts after heating during reentry. The effect of case 1 is to remove the Na2O constituent from the Type A glass, thus decreasing its effectiveness as a sealant. Even so, overall, it is probably the best

  7. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  8. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the