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Sample records for sodium cobalt oxide

  1. Reverse microemulsion synthesis of nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for high-performance supercapacitors and sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoming; Liu, Yongchang; Wang, Luning; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Prussian blue analogues with tunable open channels are of fundamental and technological importance for energy storage systems. Herein, a novel facile synthesis of nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate/reduced graphene oxide (denoted as Ni-CoHCF/rGO) nanocomposite is realized by a reverse microemulsion method. The very fine Ni-CoHCF nanoparticles (10-20 nm) are homogeneously anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide by electrostatic adsorption and reduced graphene oxide is well-separated by Ni-CoHCF particles. Benefiting from the combined advantages of this structure, the Ni-. It CoHCF/rGO nanocomposite can be used as electrodes for both supercapacitors and sodium ion batteries exhibits excellent pseudocapacitve performance in terms of high specific capacitance of 466 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and 350 F g-1 at 10 A g-1, along with high cycling stabilities. As a cathode material for sodium ion batteries, it also demonstrates a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, good rate capability, and superior cycling stability. These results suggest its potential as an efficient electrode for high-performance energy storage and renewable delivery devices.

  2. Biphase Cobalt-Manganese Oxide with High Capacity and Rate Performance for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Charles, Daniel S. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Xu, Wenqian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS). X-ray Science Division; Feygenson, Mikhail [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) outstation Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Teng, Xiaowei [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2017-11-22

    Manganese-based metal oxide electrode materials are of great importance in electrochemical energy storage for their favorable redox behavior, low cost and environmental-friendliness. However, their storage capacity and cycle life in aqueous Na-ion electrolytes is not satisfactory. In this paper, we report the development of a bi-phase cobalt-manganese oxide (Co-Mn-O) nanostructured electrode material, comprised of a layered MnO2.H2O birnessite phase and a (Co0.83Mn0.13Va0.04)tetra(Co0.38Mn1.62)octaO3.72 (Va: vacancy; tetra: tetrahedral sites; octa: octahedral sites) spinel phase, verified by neutron total scattering and pair distribution function analyses. The bi-phase Co-Mn-O material demonstrates an excellent storage capacity towards Na-ions in an aqueous electrolyte (121 mA h g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the half-cell and 81 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 after 5000 cycles in full-cells), as well as high rate performance (57 mA h g-1 a rate of 360 C). Electro-kinetic analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction measurements further confirm that the synergistic interaction between the spinel and layered phases, as well as the vacancy of the tetrahedral sites of spinel phase, contribute to the improved capacity and rate performance of the Co-Mn-O material by facilitating both diffusion-limited redox and capacitive charge storage processes.

  3. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  4. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.; Joshi, Meenal M.; Tijare, Saumitra N.; Polshettiwar, Vivek; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Rayalu, Sadhana Suresh

    2012-01-01

    of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.

    2012-07-01

    Nano structured metal oxides including TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 have been synthesized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The photocatalytic activity of nano cobalt oxide was then compared with two other nano structured metal oxides namely TiO 2 and Fe 3O 4. The synthesized nano cobalt oxide was characterized thoroughly with respect to EDX and TEM. The yield of hydrogen was observed to be 900, 2000 and 8275 mmol h -1 g -1 of photocatalyst for TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 respectively under visible light. It was observed that the hydrogen yield in case of nano cobalt oxide was more than twice to that of TiO 2 and the hydrogen yield of nano Fe 3O 4 was nearly four times as compared to nano Co 3O 4. The influence of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining a...

  7. Magnetic Cobalt and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles in Hyperbranched Polyester Polyol Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Medvedeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cobalt (Co and its oxides based nanoparticles were synthesized by using hyperbranched polyester polyol Boltorn H20 as a platform and sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. UV, FT-IR, XRD, NTA, and TEM methods were employed to obtain physicochemical characteristics of the products. The average diameter of Co nanoparticles was approximately 8.2±3.4 nm. Their magnetic properties, including hysteresis loop, field-cooled, and zero field-cooled curves were investigated. The nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetism at room temperature, accompanied by magnetic hysteresis below the blocking temperature.

  8. Cobalt oxides from crystal chemistry to physics

    CERN Document Server

    Raveau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Unparalleled in the breadth and depth of its coverage of all important aspects, this book systematically treats the electronic and magnetic properties of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric cobaltites in both ordered and disordered phases. Authored by a pioneer and a rising star in the field, the monograph summarizes, organizes and streamlines the otherwise difficult-to-obtain information on this topic. An introductory chapter sets forth the crystal chemistry of cobalt oxides to lay the groundwork for an understanding of the complex phenomena observed in this materials class. Special emphasis is placed on a comprehensive discussion of cobaltite physical properties in different structural families. Providing a thorough introduction to cobalt oxides from a chemical and physical viewpoint as a basis for understanding their intricacies, this is a must-have for both experienced researchers as well as entrants to the field.

  9. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  10. Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Shedd, Kim B.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses based on certain key properties, including ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and production of intense blue colors when combined with silica. Cobalt is used mostly in cathodes in rechargeable batteries and in superalloys for turbine engines in jet aircraft. Annual global cobalt consumption was approximately 75,000 metric tons in 2011; China, Japan, and the United States (in order of consumption amount) were the top three cobalt-consuming countries. In 2011, approximately 109,000 metric tons of recoverable cobalt was produced in ores, concentrates, and intermediate products from cobalt, copper, nickel, platinum-group-element (PGE), and zinc operations. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]) was the principal source of mined cobalt globally (55 percent). The United States produced a negligible amount of byproduct cobalt as an intermediate product from a PGE mining and refining operation in southeastern Montana; no U.S. production was from mines in which cobalt was the principal commodity. China was the leading refiner of cobalt, and much of its production came from cobalt ores, concentrates, and partially refined materials imported from Congo (Kinshasa).The mineralogy of cobalt deposits is diverse and includes both primary (hypogene) and secondary (supergene) phases. Principal terrestrial (land-based) deposit types, which represent most of world’s cobalt mine production, include primary magmatic Ni-Cu(-Co-PGE) sulfides, primary and secondary stratiform sediment-hosted Cu-Co sulfides and oxides, and secondary Ni-Co laterites. Seven additional terrestrial deposit types are described in this chapter. The total terrestrial cobalt resource (reserves plus other resources) plus past production, where available, is calculated to be 25.5 million metric tons. Additional resources of

  11. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  12. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  13. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  14. Mechanizm of propylene oxidation on modified cobalt-molybdenum catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutyrev, M.Yu.; Rozentuller, B.V.; Isaev, O.V.; Margolis, L.Ya.; Krylov, O.V.

    1977-01-01

    Effect is studied of additions of iron, copper, nickel, and vanadium oxides, introduced into cobalt, molybdate, on oxidation reactions of propylene to acrolein and acrylicacid. The principal parameters determining the activity and selectivity of oxidation of propylene and acrolein on modified cobalt molibdate are the structure, the type of Mo-O bond, and the nature of the electron transitions in the solid under the effect of adsorption of the reaction components

  15. Development of hierarchically porous cobalt oxide for enhanced photo-oxidation of indoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. P., E-mail: chengjp@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Shereef, Anas; Gray, Kimberly A., E-mail: k-gray@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Center for Catalysis and Surface Science (United States); Wu, Jinsong [Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Porous cobalt oxide was successfully prepared by precipitation of cobalt hydroxide followed by low temperature thermal decomposition. The morphologies of the resultant oxides remained as the corresponding hydroxides, although the morphology of cobalt hydroxides was greatly influenced by the precursor salts. The cobalt oxides with average crystal size less than 20 nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, BET surface area, and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the various cobalt oxides morphologies were investigated by comparing the photo-degradation of acetaldehyde under simulated solar illumination. Relative to their low order structures and reference titania samples, the hierarchical nanostructures of cobalt oxide showed excellent abilities to rapidly degrade acetaldehyde, a model air pollutant. This was attributed to the unique nature of these hierarchical cobalt oxide nanoassemblies, which contained many catalytically active reaction sites and open pores.

  16. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  17. Fluorinated cobalt for catalyzing hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdim, O.; Demirci, U.B.; Brioude, A.; Miele, P. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS Universite Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-07-15

    The present paper reports preliminary results relating to a search for durable cobalt-based catalyst intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). Fluorination of Co [Suda S, Sun YM, Liu BH, Zhou Y, Morimitsu S, Arai K, et al. Catalytic generation of hydrogen by applying fluorinated-metal hydrides as catalysts. Appl Phys A 2001; 72: 209-12.] has attracted our attention whereas the fluorination of Co boride has never been envisaged so far. Our first objective was to compare the reactivity of fluorinated Co with that of Co boride. We focused our attention on the formation of Co boride from fluorinated Co. Our second objective was to show the fluorination effect on the reactivity of Co. Our third objective was to find an efficient, durable Co catalyst. It was observed a limited stabilization of the Co surface by virtue of the fluorination, which made the formation of surface Co boride more difficult while the catalytic activity was unaltered. The fluorination did not affect the number of surface active sites. Nevertheless, it did not prevent the formation of Co boride. The fluorination of Co boride was inefficient. Hence, fluorination is a way to gain in stabilization of the catalytic surface but it is quite inefficient to hinder the boride formation. Accordingly, it did not permit to compare the reactivity of Co boride with that of Co. (author)

  18. Bioactivity and mechanical behaviour of cobalt oxide-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tive base glass and cobalt oxide-doped glass were prepared by the addition of cobalt oxide (0, ... and 1 N HCl at 37. ◦. C as compared with the ... SO2−. 4. Cl. −. Simulated body fluid. 142.0. 5.0. 1.5. 2.5. 4.2. 1.0. 0.5. 147.8. Human blood plasma ...

  19. Dissolution of manganese and cobalt and their deposition on Type 304 stainless steel in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro

    1989-01-01

    Dissolution of manganese and cobalt and their deposition on Type 304 stainless steel in liquid sodium at 833 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks were examined using a liquid sodium pot. Manganese was easily dissolved in sodium from the iron-manganese alloy specimen and deposited on the steel to form two kind of deposition particles, α-phase (body-centered cubic) composed of iron and γ-phase (face-centered cubic) composed of iron and manganese, respectively. Cobalt which was less easily dissolved than manganese also deposited on the Type 304 stainless steel, giving an iron-cobalt alloy. These three deposition particles corresponded to the precipitation lines of iron-manganese and iron-cobalt phase diagrams at 833 K, respectively. Therefore, the deposition process of manganese or cobalt in sodium was explained as a precipitation process of iron-manganese or iron-cobalt in the solid region of the binary phase diagram. A sodium chromite (NaCrO 2 ) layer was formed on the steel surface. (author)

  20. A review of cobalt adsorption on transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    This report reviews studies of cobalt adsorption on transition metal oxides, in the context of corrosion product and radioactivity transport in PWR primary circuits. In general, uptake of cobalt increases with pH, with temperature and with decreasing ionic strength. Very little data are available under PWR primary circuit conditions, but the limited data available suggest that cobalt uptake by the zirconium oxide corrosion product layer on fuel pins may be significant compared to that deposited on fuel crud. If fuel crud levels can be reduced in future by coolant chemistry control then uptake by the zirconia will assume a greater relative role. It is planned to use an autoclave to study uptake of cobalt on oxidised Zircaloy surfaces at temperatures up to 593K under PWR primary circuit chemistry conditions. (author)

  1. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Larrude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate diluted in acetone. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that dispersed particles were formed on the MWCNTs walls. The average size increased with the increasing concentration of cobalt nitrate in acetone in the precursor mixture. TEM images indicated that nanoparticles were strongly attached to the tube walls. The Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the MWCNT structure was slightly damaged after the nanoparticle growth.

  2. Neodymium cobalt oxide as a chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, I. A.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar

    2018-03-01

    Chemical sensing and electrical transport properties of neodymium coblate, NdCoO3, was investigated in this work. It was prepared by using co-precipitation method. Pure neodymium chloride and cobalt chloride were mixing in the presence of sodium hydroxide and the obtained co-precipitated powder was calcined at 850 and 1000 °C. The synthesized composites, as-grown (NdCoO3-I), calcined at 850 °C (NdCoO3-II), and calcined at 1000 °C (NdCoO3-III) were studied in details in terms of their morphological and structural properties. The X-ray analysis confirmed that the synthesized products are well crystalline possessing single phase orthorhombic crystal system of space group Pbnm(62). The crystallite size of NdCoO3-I, NdCoO3-II, and NdCoO3-III is 22, 111, and 338 nm, respectively which reflect that crystallite size is increasing with increase in firing temperature. The DC resistivity was measured as a function of temperature in the temperature range from room temperature up to 200 °C. All NdCoO3 are semiconductor in this range of temperature but showed different activation energy which strongly depends on the crystallite size of the products. The activation energy decreased with increase in crystallite size, 0.798, 0.414 and 0.371 eV for NdCoO3-I, NdCoO3-II, and NdCoO3-III, respectively. Thus resistivity increases with increase in crystallite size of NdCoO3. All NdCoO3 products were tested as chemical sensor for acetone by electrochemical approaches and showed excellent sensitivity. Among the NdCoO3 samples, NdCoO3-III showed the highest sensitivity (3.4722 μAcm-2 mM-1) compared to other compositions and gradually decreased to 3.2407 μAcm-2 mM-1 with decreasing the crystallite size of NdCoO3-II. It is also observed that the sensitivity drastically decreased to 0.76253 μAcm-2 mM-1 in the case of NdCoO3-I. It is introduced an efficient route for the detection of environmental unsafe chemicals by electrochemical approach for the safety of healthcare and environmental

  3. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts: influence of cobalt dispersion and titanium oxides promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azib, H

    1996-04-10

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of Sol-Gel preparation parameters which occur in silica supported cobalt catalysts synthesis. These catalysts are particularly used for the waxes production in natural gas processing. The solids have been characterized by several techniques: transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), programmed temperature reduction (TPR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), Magnetism, thermodesorption of H{sub 2} (TPD). The results indicate that the control of the cobalt dispersion and oxide phases nature is possible by modifying Sol-Gel parameters. The catalytic tests in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were conducted on a pilot unit under pressure (20 atm) and suggested that turnover rates were independent of Co crystallite size, Co phases in the solids (Co deg., cobalt silicate) and titanium oxide promotion. On the other methane, the C{sub 3}{sup +} hydrocarbon selectivity is increased with increasing crystallite size. Inversely, the methane production is favoured by very small crystallites, cobalt silicate increase and titanium addition. However, the latter, used as a cobalt promoter, has a benefic effect on the active phase stability during the synthesis. (author). 149 refs., 102 figs., 71 tabs.

  4. Electrocatalytic performance evaluation of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt oxide thin films for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, P. T.; Lokhande, A. C.; Pawar, B. S.; Gang, M. G.; Jo, Eunjin; Go, Changsik; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Pawar, S. M.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2018-01-01

    The development of an inexpensive, stable, and highly active electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for the practical application of water splitting. Herein, we have synthesized an electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide on nickel foam and subsequently annealed in an air atmosphere at 400 °C for 2 h. In-depth characterization of all the films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques, which reveals major changes for their structural, morphological, compositional and electrochemical properties, respectively. The cobalt hydroxide nanosheet film shows high catalytic activity with 290 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm-2 and 91 mV dec-1 Tafel slope and robust stability (24 h) for OER in 1 M KOH electrolyte compared to cobalt oxide (340 mV). The better OER activity of cobalt hydroxide in comparison to cobalt oxide originated from high active sites, enhanced surface, and charge transport capability.

  5. Interface Controlled Oxidation States in Layered Cobalt Oxide Nanoislands on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, Alexander; Fester, Jakob; Bajdich, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Layered cobalt oxides have been shown to be highly active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER; half of the catalytic “water splitting” reaction), particularly when promoted with gold. However, the surface chemistry of cobalt oxides and in particular the nature of the synergistic effect...

  6. A novel method to synthesize cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowires from cobalt (Co) nanobowls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Akhilesh Kumar; Madhavi, S.; Ramanujan, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method suitable for the synthesis of the cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowires at targeted regions is presented in this report. Cobalt (Co) nanobowls synthesized by colloidal crystal directed assembly were transformed into Co3O4 nanowires by a simple heat treatment process. Co nanobowls exhibited...... a two phase (h.c.p. + f.c.c.) microstructure while single phase microstructure was observed for Co3O4 nanowires. Ferromagnetic Co nanobowls showed a dependence of coercivity on bowl size while Co3O4 exhibited weak ferromagnetic behavior....

  7. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  8. Photoionization of cobalt impuritiesin zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanov, V.; Godlewski, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 9 (2015), s. 1988-1992 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : absorption band * cobalt * photoionization * electron spin resonance * pulsed mode * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  9. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shijing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Boping, E-mail: bpzhang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N{sub 2} at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N{sub 2}. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  10. Weak ferromagnetism and exchange biasing in cobalt oxide nanoparticle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomou, A; Gournis, D; Panagiotopoulos, [No Value; Huang, Y; Hadjipanayis, GC; Kooi, BJ; Panagiotopoulos, I.

    2006-01-01

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticle systems have been prepared by wet chemical processing involving the encapsulation of the nanoparticles by an organic ligand shell (oleic acid and oleylamine). CoO nanoparticles were easily prepared by this method, while the synthesis of the CoPt/CoO nanocomposites was

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt-manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, J. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455-0153 (United States); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: arosalesr@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Cobalt doped/un-doped manganese oxides materials were synthesized at various doping rates by soft chemical reactions, oxidation-reduction method, which allows generating a metal-mixed oxide. The synthesized materials were characterized using several techniques including chemical analysis, X-rays diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The chemical analysis confirmed the presence of cobalt in the samples. XRD patterns reveal mainly a spinel-like structure and SEM micrographs exhibited morphology with fine aggregate of particles. TGA profiles showed weight loss due to loss of water in a first step, followed by a loss of oxygen from the lattice associated with partial reduction of Mn{sup 4+} to Mn{sup 3+}. VSM was used to measure the magnetization as a function of the applied magnetic field at temperatures T=50 and 300 K. Different magnetic behaviors were observed when cobalt percentage changed in the samples. These behaviors are considered to be related to the size of the particles and composition of the materials. Higher coercive field and lesser magnetization were observed for the sample with higher cobalt content.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt-manganese oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.; Arias, N.P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt doped/un-doped manganese oxides materials were synthesized at various doping rates by soft chemical reactions, oxidation-reduction method, which allows generating a metal-mixed oxide. The synthesized materials were characterized using several techniques including chemical analysis, X-rays diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The chemical analysis confirmed the presence of cobalt in the samples. XRD patterns reveal mainly a spinel-like structure and SEM micrographs exhibited morphology with fine aggregate of particles. TGA profiles showed weight loss due to loss of water in a first step, followed by a loss of oxygen from the lattice associated with partial reduction of Mn 4+ to Mn 3+ . VSM was used to measure the magnetization as a function of the applied magnetic field at temperatures T=50 and 300 K. Different magnetic behaviors were observed when cobalt percentage changed in the samples. These behaviors are considered to be related to the size of the particles and composition of the materials. Higher coercive field and lesser magnetization were observed for the sample with higher cobalt content.

  13. Improvement of the oxidation stability of cobalt nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celin Dobbrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the resistance of cobalt nanoparticles to oxidation in air, the impact of different stabilization strategies on the isothermal oxidation of particle dispersions and powders was kinetically investigated and compared to as-prepared particle preparations. A post-synthesis treatment with different alcohols was employed, and we also investigate the influence of two different polymer shells on the oxidation process. We found a parabolic decrease of the magnetization for all particle charges, indicating that the process is dominated by a diffusion of oxygen to the cobalt core and a radial growth of the oxide layer from the particle surface to the core. A significant deceleration of the oxidation process was observed for all alcohol-passivated particle preparations, and this resulted finally in a stagnation effect. The stabilizing effect increases in the sequence Co@OA/MeOH < Co@OA/EtOH < Co@OA/iPrOH. For polymer-coated particle preparations Co@PCL and Co@PS, the deceleration was even more pronounced. The results demonstrate that cobalt nanoparticles can effectively be protected against oxidation in order to improve their mid- to longterm stability.

  14. Friction behavior of cobalt base and nickel base hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    A friction behavior of the hardfacing materials such as cobalt base alloy ''Stellite'' and nickel base alloy ''Colmonoy'' used in the sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor was investigated in various sodium environments. Also, friction tests on these materials were carried out in argon environment. And they were compared with those in sodium environment. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In argon, the cobalt base hardfacing alloy showed better friction behavior than the nickel base hardfacing alloy. In sodium, the latter was observed to have the better friction behavior being independent of the sodium temperature. (2) The friction coefficient of each material tends to become lower by pre-exposure in sodium. Particularly, this tendency was remarkable for the nickel base hardfacing alloy. (3) The friction coefficient between SUS 316 and one of these hardfacing materials was higher than that between latter materials. Also, some elements of hardfacing alloys were recognized to transfer on the friction surface of SUS 316 material. (4) It was observed that each tested material has a greater friction coefficient with a decrease of the oxygen content in sodium. (author)

  15. Tuning size and catalytic activity of nano-clusters of cobalt oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    oxalic acid, (2) co-precipitating cobalt nitrate with sodium carbonate, and (3) using sodium dodecyl sul- .... Co(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 → CoCO3 + 2NaNO3,. CoCO3. ∆. → ∆ CoO + CO2,. CoO → (in air and heating) Co3O4. In method III, cobalt nitrate, sodium dodecyl sul- .... The conversion of cyclohexane on the current po-.

  16. Cobalt oxide nanoparticle-modified carbon nanotubes as an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of 60 mV were observed at. 100 mV s. −1 for CoOx−MWNT/GCE. An anodic peak at. 100 mV attributed to Co(II)/Co(III) redox transition associated with the electrode surface. The cathodic peak at 20 mV corre- spond to the reduction of various cobalt oxide species formed during the anodic sweep. The stability of the modified ...

  17. Gold-supported two-dimensional cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) and multilayer cobalt oxide islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fester, Jakob; Walton, Alexander; Li, Zheshen

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the facile conversion of Co-O bilayer islands on a Au(111) surface into preferentially O-Co-O trilayers in an oxygen atmosphere and O-Co-O-Co-O multilayers at elevated temperature. We characterize and compare the island morphologies with scanning tunneling...... microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and valence band spectroscopy, and show that the cobalt oxidation state changes from Co2+ in bilayers to purely Co3+ in trilayers and a mixture of Co2+ and Co3+ in the multilayer morphology. In contrast to bilayers and multilayers, the trilayer structure...

  18. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Rasul, Shahid; Roldan-Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response

  19. Physical and electrochemical study of cobalt oxide nano- and microparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquenque, D. [Dpto. de Química de los Materiales, USACh, Av. L.B.O.‘Higgins 3363, 9170022 Santiago (Chile); Dpto. de Metalurgia, USACh, Av. Ecuador 3469, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Vargas, E. [Dpto. de Física, USACh and CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Dpto. de Metalurgia, USACh, Av. Ecuador 3469, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J. [Dpto. de Física, USACh and CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, c/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Dpto. de Química de los Materiales, USACh, Av. L.B.O.‘Higgins 3363, 9170022 Santiago (Chile); Gautier, J.L., E-mail: juan.gautier@usach.cl [Dpto. de Química de los Materiales, USACh, Av. L.B.O.‘Higgins 3363, 9170022 Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt oxide nanocrystals of size 17–21 nm were synthesized by a simple reaction between cobalt acetate (II) and dodecylamine. On the other hand, micrometric Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared using the ceramic method. The structural examination of these materials was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). XRD studies showed that the oxides were pure, well-crystallized, spinel cubic phases with a-cell parameter of 0.8049 nm and 0.8069 nm for the nano and micro-oxide, respectively. The average particle size was 19 nm (nano-oxide) and 1250 μm (micro-oxide). Morphological studies carried out by SEM and TEM analyses have shown the presence of octahedral particles in both cases. Bulk and surface properties investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), point zero charge (pzc), FTIR and cyclic voltammetry indicated that there were no significant differences in the composition on both materials. The magnetic behavior of the samples was determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The compounds showed paramagnetic character and no coercivity and remanence in all cases. Galvanostatic measurements of electrodes formed with nanocrystals showed better performance than those built with micrometric particles. - Highlights: • Spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and microparticles with same structure but with different cell parameters, particle size and surface area were synthesized. • Oxide nanoparticles showed better electrochemical behavior than micrometric ones due to area effect.

  20. Cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, I.A.; Bunakova, N.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The neutron-activation method for determining cobalt in rocks, polymetallic and iron ores and rockforming minerals at 2x10 -6 -5x10 -3 % content is developed. Cobalt determination is based on the formation under the effect of thermal neutrons of nuclear reactor of the 60 Co radioactive isotope by the 59 Co (n, γ) 60 Co reaction with radiation energy of the most intensive line of 1333 keV. Cobalt can be determined by the scheme of the multicomponent analysis from the sample with other elements. Co is determined in the solution after separation of all determinable by the scheme elements. The 60 Co intensity is measured by the mUltichannel gamma-spectrometer with Ge(Li)-detector

  1. Enhanced activity of gold-supported cobalt oxide for the electrochemical evolution of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Boon Siang; Bell, Alexis T

    2011-04-13

    Scanning electron microscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on cobalt oxide films deposited on Au and other metal substrates. All experiments were carried out in 0.1 M KOH. A remarkable finding is that the turnover frequency for the OER exhibited by ∼0.4 ML of cobalt oxide deposited on Au is 40 times higher than that of bulk cobalt oxide. The activity of small amounts of cobalt oxide deposited on Pt, Pd, Cu, and Co decreased monotonically in the order Au > Pt > Pd > Cu > Co, paralleling the decreasing electronegativity of the substrate metal. Another notable finding is that the OER turnover frequency for ∼0.4 ML of cobalt oxide deposited on Au is nearly three times higher than that for bulk Ir. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the as-deposited cobalt oxide is present as Co(3)O(4) but undergoes progressive oxidation to CoO(OH) with increasing anodic potential. The higher OER activity of cobalt oxide deposited on Au is attributed to an increase in fraction of the Co sites present as Co(IV) cations, a state of cobalt believed to be essential for OER to occur. A hypothesis for how Co(IV) cations contribute to OER is proposed and discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Carbon-supported cobalt catalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline sodium borohydride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan; Liu, Xinmin; Cao, Changqing; Guo, Qingjie [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-08-01

    Low cost transition metal catalysts with high performance are attractive for the development of on-board hydrogen generation systems by catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) in fuel cell fields. In this study, hydrogen production from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} via hydrolysis process over carbon-supported cobalt catalysts was studied. The catalytic activity of the supported cobalt catalyst was found to be highly dependent on the calcination temperatures. The hydrogen generation rate increases with calcination temperatures in the range of 200-400 C, but a high calcination temperature above 500 C led to markedly decreased activity. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the catalysts experience phase transition from amorphous Co-B to crystalline cobalt hydroxide with increase in calcination temperatures. The reaction performance is also dependent on the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, and the hydrogen generation rate increases for lower NaBH{sub 4} concentrations and decreases after reaching a maximum at 10 wt.% of NaBH{sub 4}. (author)

  3. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhtari, Keivan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, Saied [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic

  4. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaj, Rahman; Akhtari, Keivan; Salimi, Abdollah; Soltanian, Saied

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO 3 ) 2 , (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic activity decreased

  5. Oxidation behaviour and electrical properties of cobalt/cerium oxide composite coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Møller, Per

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluates the performance of cobalt/cerium oxide (Co/CeO2) composite coatings and pure Co coatings to be used for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnects. The coatings are electroplated on the ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and Crofer 22H. Coated and uncoated samples...

  6. Correlation between thermal expansion and Seebeck coefficient in polycrystalline cobalt oxide (Co3O4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broemme, A.D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of the cobalt-oxide spinel Co3O4 are described. Spinel is the name for a certain crystal structure that is built up out of three sublattices; one sublattice contains, in this case, only oxygen ions, and the other two sublattices, tetrahedral and octahedral, contain the metal cobalt

  7. Nickel and cobalt bimetallic hydroxide catalysts for urea electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wei; Wang Dan; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide electrocatalysts, synthesized through a one-step electrodeposition method, were evaluated for the oxidation of urea in alkaline conditions with the intention of reducing the oxidation overpotential for this reaction. The Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and polarization techniques. A significant reduction in the overpotential (150 mV) of the reaction was observed with the Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide electrode (ca. 43% Co content) when compared to a nickel hydroxide electrode. The decrease of the urea oxidation potential on the Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide electrodes reveals great potential for future applications of urea electro-oxidation, including wastewater remediation, hydrogen production, sensors, and fuel cells.

  8. Study on cobalt oxide; Sanka kobaruto ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-28

    This is No.91 report of National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, concerning cobalt oxide. For the growth of single crystal by the Czochralski method, shape of interface and contamination of impurities are affected by the convection of molten liquid in the atmosphere. Various oxides besides CoO were investigated. Solid solutions of Cr2O3 and Al2O3 into CoO were also studied. Non-linear optic and dielectric properties of single crystals, such as Ba2NaNb5O15 and LiNbO3, were examined. It was considered that the positive electron having positive electric charge can be used for the study on the negative electric charge defect in materials. However, the positive electron itself is rare, which results in the too low efficiency of measurement. Efficiency improvement of 50 times was achieved by introducing a high performance 2D position detector, which was still low efficiency of one-hundredth compared with photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the aggregation structure of positive ion defects in CoO is a misunderstanding of phenomenon caused by the electronic state in bulk crystals. As a result of the study on the optical properties of f-electron transition metals, transparent ceramics with addition of various rare earth ions were described. 162 refs., 106 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Substoichiometric cobalt oxide monolayer on Ir(100)-(1 x 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubo, M; Ebensperger, C; Meyer, W; Hammer, L; Heinz, K

    2009-01-01

    A substoichiometric monolayer of cobalt oxide has been prepared by deposition and oxidation of slightly less than one monolayer of cobalt on the unreconstructed surface of Ir(100). The ultrathin film was investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The cobalt species of the film reside in or near hollow positions of the substrate with, however, unoccupied sites (vacancies) in a 3 x 3 arrangement. In the so-formed 3 x 3 supercell the oxide's oxygen species are both threefold and fourfold coordinated to cobalt, forming pyramids with a triangular and square cobalt basis, respectively. These pyramids are the building blocks of the oxide. Due to the reduced coordination as compared to the sixfold one in the bulk of rock-salt-type CoO, the Co-O bond lengths are smaller than in the latter. For the threefold coordination they compare very well with the bond length in oxygen terminated CoO(111) films investigated recently. The substoichiometric 3 x 3 oxide monolayer phase transforms to a stoichiometric c(10 x 2)-periodic oxide monolayer under oxygen exposure, in which, however, cobalt and oxygen species are in (111) orientation and so form a CoO(111) layer.

  10. Edge reactivity and water-assisted dissociation on cobalt oxide nanoislands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fester, J.; García-Melchor, M.; Walton, A. S.; Bajdich, M.

    2017-01-01

    Here, transition metal oxides show great promise as Earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction in electrochemical water splitting. However, progress in the development of highly active oxide nanostructures is hampered by a lack of knowledge of the location and nature of the active sites. Here we show, through atom-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and computational modelling, how hydroxyls form from water dissociation at under coordinated cobalt edge sites of cobalt oxide nanoislands. Surprisingly, we find that an additional water molecule acts to promote all the elementary steps of the dissociation process and subsequent hydrogen migration, revealing the important assisting role of a water molecule in its own dissociation process on a metal oxide. Inspired by the experimental findings, we theoretically model the oxygen evolution reaction activity of cobalt oxide nanoislands and show that the nanoparticle metal edges also display favourable adsorption energetics for water oxidation under electrochemical conditions.

  11. Heating-induced inner-sphere substitution and reduction-oxidation reactions of the solid phenanthroline containing cobalt (2) and cobalt (3) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palade, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The results of the differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses of solid phenanthroline-containing complexes of cobalt (2) and cobalt (3) in the atmosphere of the air have been analyzed. Mechanism of redox reactions occurring when cobalt (3) complexes are heated has been discussed. It is shown that some of gaseous products of the redox processes appear as a result of secondary reactions and not the processes of the ligands oxidation by Co 3+ . The influence of certain inner-sphere and coordinated anions (of I, inclusively) on cobalt (3) complexes behaviour during heating has been considered

  12. Cobalt doped CuMnOx catalysts for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhashish; Dhal, Ganesh Chandra; Mohan, Devendra; Prasad, Ram; Gupta, Rajeev Nayan

    2018-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas, recognized as a silent killer for the 21st century. It is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon containing compounds. The catalytic oxidation of CO receives a huge attention due to its applications in different fields. In the present work, hopcalite (CuMnOx) catalysts were synthesized using a co-precipitation method for CO oxidation purposes. Also, it was doped with the cobalt by varying concentration from 1 to 5wt%. It was observed that the addition of cobalt into the CuMnOx catalyst (by the deposition-precipitation method) improved the catalytic performance for the low-temperature CO oxidation. CuMnOx catalyst doped with 3wt% of cobalt exhibited most active performance and showed the highest activity than other cobalt concentrations. Different analytical tools (i.e. XRD, FTIR, BET, XPS and SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the as-synthesized catalysts. It was expected that the introduction of cobalt will introduce new active sites into the CuMnOx catalyst that are associated with the cobalt nano-particles. The order of calcination strategies based on the activity for cobalt doped CuMnOx catalysts was observed as: Reactive calcinations (RC) > flowing air > stagnant air. Therefore, RC (4.5% CO in air) route can be recommended for the synthesis of highly active catalysts. The catalytic activity of doped CuMnOx catalysts toward CO oxidation shows a correlation among average oxidation number of Mn and the position and the nature of the doped cobalt cation.

  13. Synthesis of superconducting cobalt oxyhydrates using a novel method: Electrolyzed and oxidized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-J.; Wu, T.-H.; Hsu, L.-L.; Wang, J.-S.; Chen, S.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    By deintercalation of Na + followed by inserting bilayers of water molecules into the host lattice, the layered cobalt oxide of γ-Na 0.7 CoO 2 undergoes a topotactic transformation to a layered cobalt oxyhydrate of Na 0.35 (H 2 O) 1.3 CoO 2-δ with the c-axis expanded from c ∼ 10.9 A to c ∼ 19.6 A. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superconducting phase of c ∼ 19.6 A can be directly obtained by simply immersing γ-Na 0.7 CoO 2 powders in electrolyzed/oxidized (EO) water, which is readily available from a commercial electrolyzed water generator. We found that high oxidation-reduction potential of EO water drives the oxidation of the cobalt ions accompanying by the formation of the superconductive c ∼ 19.6 A phase. Our results demonstrate how EO water can be used to oxidize the cobalt ions and hence form superconducting cobalt oxyhydrates in a clean and simple way and may provide an economic and environment-friendly route to oxidize the transition metal of complex metal oxides

  14. Synthesis of superconducting cobalt oxyhydrates using a novel method: Electrolyzed and oxidized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Jyi; Wu, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Lin-Li; Wang, Jung-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Yo

    2007-09-01

    By deintercalation of Na+ followed by inserting bilayers of water molecules into the host lattice, the layered cobalt oxide of γ-Na0.7CoO2 undergoes a topotactic transformation to a layered cobalt oxyhydrate of Na0.35(H2O)1.3CoO2-δ with the c-axis expanded from c ≈ 10.9 Å to c ≈ 19.6 Å. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superconducting phase of c ≈ 19.6 Å can be directly obtained by simply immersing γ-Na0.7CoO2 powders in electrolyzed/oxidized (EO) water, which is readily available from a commercial electrolyzed water generator. We found that high oxidation-reduction potential of EO water drives the oxidation of the cobalt ions accompanying by the formation of the superconductive c ≈ 19.6 Å phase. Our results demonstrate how EO water can be used to oxidize the cobalt ions and hence form superconducting cobalt oxyhydrates in a clean and simple way and may provide an economic and environment-friendly route to oxidize the transition metal of complex metal oxides.

  15. Synthesis of superconducting cobalt oxyhydrates using a novel method: Electrolyzed and oxidized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-J. [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50007, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: liucj@cc.ncue.edu.tw; Wu, T.-H.; Hsu, L.-L.; Wang, J.-S.; Chen, S.-Y. [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50007, Taiwan (China)

    2007-09-01

    By deintercalation of Na{sup +} followed by inserting bilayers of water molecules into the host lattice, the layered cobalt oxide of {gamma}-Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} undergoes a topotactic transformation to a layered cobalt oxyhydrate of Na{sub 0.35}(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.3}CoO{sub 2-{delta}} with the c-axis expanded from c {approx} 10.9 A to c {approx} 19.6 A. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superconducting phase of c {approx} 19.6 A can be directly obtained by simply immersing {gamma}-Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} powders in electrolyzed/oxidized (EO) water, which is readily available from a commercial electrolyzed water generator. We found that high oxidation-reduction potential of EO water drives the oxidation of the cobalt ions accompanying by the formation of the superconductive c {approx} 19.6 A phase. Our results demonstrate how EO water can be used to oxidize the cobalt ions and hence form superconducting cobalt oxyhydrates in a clean and simple way and may provide an economic and environment-friendly route to oxidize the transition metal of complex metal oxides.

  16. Electrochemical oxidation and detection of sodium urate in alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical behaviour of copper oxides electrode in the presence of sodium urate was investigated. The correlation between the anodic oxidation and the amperometric detection of sodium urate in the alkaline medium on copper oxides electrode was analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical ...

  17. Structural and surface changes of cobalt modified manganese oxide during activation and ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Wojciech; Greluk, Magdalena; Słowik, Grzegorz; Turczyniak-Surdacka, Sylwia

    2018-05-01

    Surface and structural changes of unmodified manganese and cobalt-manganese oxide during activation and ethanol steam reforming reaction conditions (ESR) were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation (TPR/TPO) and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that synthesis of cobalt manganese oxide by the redox precipitation method led to the formation of strongly dispersed cobalt ionic species within cryptomelane-based manganese oxide structure. Development of large cube-like MnO nanoparticles with spherical cobalt metallic crystallites decorated by manganese oxide on the high oxidation state and potassium species was observed during reduction. Cobalt manganese catalyst showed high initial activity and selectivity to H2 and CO2 in ethanol stem reforming reaction in the range of 390-480 °C. The drop of ethanol conversion and changes of selectivity with the time-on-stream were observed. An increase of reaction temperature led to intensification of deactivation phenomena. TEM studies evidenced coexistence of Co and CoOx nanoparticles formed under ethanol steam reforming conditions, partially covered by filamentous and encapsulating carbonaceous deposits.

  18. Experimental study on oxidation and combustion characteristics of sodium droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Sun Shubin; Liu Chongchong; Tang Yexin

    2015-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent. In this paper, the oxidation and combustion characteristics of sodium droplets were studied by carrying out the experiments of the oxidation and combustion under different conditions of initial temperatures (140-370℃) of the sodium droplets and oxygen concentrations (4%-21%). The oxidation and combustion behaviors were visualized by a set of combustion apparatus of sodium droplet and a high speed camera. The experiment results show that the columnar oxides grow longer as the initial temperature of sodium droplet and oxygen concentration become lower. Under the same oxygen concentration condition, the sodium droplet with the higher initial temperature is easier to ignite and burn. When the initial temperature of sodium droplet is below 200℃, it is very difficult to ignite. If there is a turbulence damaging the oxide layer on the surface, the sodium droplet will also burn gradually. When the initial temperature ranges from 140℃ to 370℃ and the oxygen fraction is equal to or higher than 12%, the sodium droplet could burn completely and the maximum combustion temperature could roughly reach 600-800℃. When the oxygen concentration is below 12%, the sodium droplet could not burn completely and the highest combustion temperature is below 600℃. The results are helpful to the research on the columnar flow and spray sodium fire. (authors)

  19. One-pot synthesis of graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepenienė, V.; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, L.; Jablonskienė, J.; Semaško, M.; Vaičiūnienė, J.; Vaitkus, R.; Norkus, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles were prepared via microwave synthesis. The composition of prepared catalysts was examined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The shape and size of catalyst particles were determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles was investigated towards the electro-oxidation of methanol in an alkaline medium. It has been found that the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles having the Pt:Co molar ratio 1:7 show the highest activity towards the electro-oxidation of methanol among the catalysts with the Pt:Co molar ratios equal to 1:1 and 1:44, graphene supported bare Co and Pt/C catalysts. - Highlights: • Preparation of graphene supported Pt-Co nanoparticles by microwave synthesis. • Electrocatalysts for oxidation of methanol. • Higher activity of PtCo/graphene towards methanol oxidation.

  20. Influence of cobalt oxide on structure and phase composition of zirconium-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, O.S.; Gruzdev, A.I.; Koposova, Z.L.; Lyutsareva, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of Co 3 O 4 addition in a quantity from 10 to 90% on microstructure, phase content, lattice parameter and structure of ZrO 2 ceramics spallings stabilized with yttrium oxide, is studied. It is found out that in the process of ceramics synthesis the formation of three-phased heterogeneous system of matrix type occurs. At cobalt oxide content within the range of 10-30% a matrix consist of ZrO 2 base solid solution, at cobalt oxide content from 50 to 90% it is a matrix base, at 40% Co 3 O 4 the regions with both type matrixes exist. Cobalt oxide introduction decreases the sintering temperature without loss in operation indices of heat sensitive ceramics for resistance transducers

  1. One-pot synthesis of graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepenienė, V., E-mail: virginalisk@gmail.com [Department of Catalysis, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT 01108 (Lithuania); Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, L.; Jablonskienė, J.; Semaško, M.; Vaičiūnienė, J. [Department of Catalysis, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT 01108 (Lithuania); Vaitkus, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT 03225 (Lithuania); Norkus, E. [Department of Catalysis, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT 01108 (Lithuania)

    2016-03-01

    In the present study the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles were prepared via microwave synthesis. The composition of prepared catalysts was examined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The shape and size of catalyst particles were determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles was investigated towards the electro-oxidation of methanol in an alkaline medium. It has been found that the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles having the Pt:Co molar ratio 1:7 show the highest activity towards the electro-oxidation of methanol among the catalysts with the Pt:Co molar ratios equal to 1:1 and 1:44, graphene supported bare Co and Pt/C catalysts. - Highlights: • Preparation of graphene supported Pt-Co nanoparticles by microwave synthesis. • Electrocatalysts for oxidation of methanol. • Higher activity of PtCo/graphene towards methanol oxidation.

  2. Diffusion mechanisms of strontium, cesium and cobalt in compacted sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.

    1986-01-01

    For a porous water-saturated material where diffusion in the porewater, sorption on the solid material and diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) occur, a diffusion equation can be derived where the apparent diffusivity includes two terms. One represents diffusion in the pore-water, the other surface diffusion. In this research diffusion mechanisms were studied. The apparent diffusivities of strontium, cesium and cobalt in compacted sodium bentonite were measured by a non-steady state method. The sorption factors were adjusted using different sodium chloride solutions, groundwater and addition of EDTA for saturation of the bentonite samples. The corresponding sorption factors were measured by a batch method. The results suggest that cations diffuse also while being sorbed. A combined pore diffusion-surface diffusion model has been used to explain the transport and the corresponding diffusivities have been evaluated. The surface diffusivities (D/sub s/) of Sr and Cs were 8-9 x 10 -12 m 2 /s and 4-7 x 10 -13 m 2 /s respectively. The pore diffusivity epsilon D/sub p/ of Cs was 3.5 x 10 -11 m 2 /s which has been used also for Sr. The sorption mechanisms of Co seems to be different from that of Sr or Cs and the results allow no specific conclusions of the diffusion mechanisms of Co. The apparent diffusivity of Co ranged from 2 x 10 -14 to 7 x 10 -14 m 2 /s. The anionic Co-EDTA seems to follow some other diffusion mechanism than the cations

  3. 76 FR 47996 - Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Significant New Use Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 0.1 mg/m\\3\\ for nickel. The... 2070-AB27 Cobalt Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide; Significant New Use Rule AGENCY: Environmental... lithium manganese nickel oxide (CAS No. 182442-95-1), which was the subject of premanufacture notice (PMN...

  4. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinli; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengping; Hu, Hai; Yan, Zichao; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF 2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF 2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF 2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g −1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g −1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  5. Enhancement of the piezoelectric properties of sodium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Na0.5La0.5Bi4Ti4O15) through modification with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunming; Wang Jinfeng; Zheng Limei; Zhao Minglei; Wang Chunlei

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of B-site cobalt-modified sodium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Na 0.5 La 0.5 Bi 4 Ti 4 O 15 , NLBT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. The piezoelectric properties of NLBT ceramics can be enhanced by cobalt modifications. The NLBT ceramics modified with 0.2 wt.% cobalt trioxide (NLBT-C4) possess good piezoelectric properties, with piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of 27 pC/N, electromechanical coupling factors (k p and k t ) of 6.5% and 28.5%, and mechanical quality factor Q m (k p mode) of 3400. The Curie temperature T c of cobalt-modified NLBT ceramics was found to slightly higher than that of pure NLBT ceramics. A large dielectric abnormity in dielectric loss tan δ was observed in NLBT ceramics, which can be significantly suppressed by cobalt modification. Thermal annealing studies presented the cobalt-modified NLBT ceramics possess stable piezoelectric properties.

  6. Partially oxidized atomic cobalt layers for carbon dioxide electroreduction to liquid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Lin, Yue; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Yongfu; Luo, Qiquan; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Dianqi; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of CO2 into useful fuels, especially if driven by renewable energy, represents a potentially ‘clean’ strategy for replacing fossil feedstocks and dealing with increasing CO2 emissions and their adverse effects on climate. The critical bottleneck lies in activating CO2 into the CO2•- radical anion or other intermediates that can be converted further, as the activation usually requires impractically high overpotentials. Recently, electrocatalysts based on oxide-derived metal nanostructures have been shown to enable CO2 reduction at low overpotentials. However, it remains unclear how the electrocatalytic activity of these metals is influenced by their native oxides, mainly because microstructural features such as interfaces and defects influence CO2 reduction activity yet are difficult to control. To evaluate the role of the two different catalytic sites, here we fabricate two kinds of four-atom-thick layers: pure cobalt metal, and co-existing domains of cobalt metal and cobalt oxide. Cobalt mainly produces formate (HCOO-) during CO2 electroreduction; we find that surface cobalt atoms of the atomically thin layers have higher intrinsic activity and selectivity towards formate production, at lower overpotentials, than do surface cobalt atoms on bulk samples. Partial oxidation of the atomic layers further increases their intrinsic activity, allowing us to realize stable current densities of about 10 milliamperes per square centimetre over 40 hours, with approximately 90 per cent formate selectivity at an overpotential of only 0.24 volts, which outperforms previously reported metal or metal oxide electrodes evaluated under comparable conditions. The correct morphology and oxidation state can thus transform a material from one considered nearly non-catalytic for the CO2 electroreduction reaction into an active catalyst. These findings point to new opportunities for manipulating and improving the CO2 electroreduction properties of metal systems

  7. Plasma Deposition and Characterization of Copper-doped Cobalt Oxide Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TYCZKOWSKI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of pure and copper-doped cobalt oxide films was prepared by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD. The effect of Cu-doping on the chemical structure and morphology of the deposited films was investigated. Raman and FTIR spectroscopies were used to characterize the chemical structure and morphology of the produced films. The bulk composition and homogeneity of the samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was employed to assess the surface chemical composition of pure and doped materials. The obtained results permit to affirm that the PEMOCVD technique is a simple, versatile and efficient method for providing homogeneous layers of cobalt oxides with a different content of copper. It has been found that pure cobalt oxide films mainly contain Co3O4 in the form of nanoclusters whereas the films doped with Cu are much more complex, and CoOx (also Co3O4, mixed Co-Cu oxides and CuOx nanoclusters are detected in them. Preliminary catalytical tests show that Cu-doped cobalt oxide films allow to initiate catalytic combustion of n-hexane at a lower temperature compared to the pure cobalt oxide (Co3O4 films. From what has been stated above, the plasma-deposited thin films of Cu-doped cobalt oxides pave the way towards a new class of nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2320

  8. Multi-component titanium–copper–cobalt- and niobium nanostructured oxides as catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Henych, Jiří; Ivanova, R.; Kovacheva, D.; Štengl, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2015), s. 397-408 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Copper and cobalt oxides * Effect of support * Ethyl acetate combustion * Multicomponent oxides * Titania doped with niobium Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2015

  9. Detection system of sodium oxide vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, Rolv.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a sodium oxide vapor detection system which comprises a containment, a light source located to send a light beam into and through this containment and a photodetector located to intercept the light from the source after it has covered a given path through the containment. In response to the intensity of the incident light, the photodetector produces an output signal representative of it. The feature of this device is a first polarizer located near the light source, along the path of the light coming from it and designed to polarize the light projected through the containment in a given plane, and a second polarizer located near the photodetector, along the path of the polarized light and designed virtually to prevent all the light rays whose orientation differs from the given polarization plane from reaching the photodetector [fr

  10. Copolymerisation of Propylene Oxide and Carbon Dioxide by Dinuclear Cobalt Porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.

    2013-09-18

    Two dinuclear cobalt porphyrins comprising different structural tethering motifs at the porphyrin periphery were synthesised, along with a representative mononuclear cobalt porphyrin, and their catalytic activities tested towards carbon dioxide-propylene oxide copolymerisation in the presence of bis(triphenylphosphoranyl)ammonium chloride cocatalyst. The catalytic activities of the mononuclear and the bis-para-tethered dinuclear cobalt porphyrin with selective formation of poly(propylene carbonate) are largely comparable, showing no benefit of dinuclearity in contrast to the case of cobalt salen complexes and suggesting that polymer growth proceeds exclusively from one metal centre. The alternative bis-ortho-tethered porphyrin demonstrated considerably reduced activity, with dominant formation of cyclic propylene carbonate, as a result of hindered substrate approach at the metal centre. Time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopic studies suggested a general intolerance of the cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts towards the copolymerisation conditions in the absence of carbon dioxide pressure, leading to catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species. In the presence of carbon dioxide, the bis-ortho-tethered catalyst showed the fastest deactivation, which is related to an unfavourable steric arrangement of the linker fragment, as was also confirmed by NMR spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Copolymerisation of Propylene Oxide and Carbon Dioxide by Dinuclear Cobalt Porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.; Vagin, Sergei I.; Hammann, Markus; Zimmermann, Leander; Rieger, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Two dinuclear cobalt porphyrins comprising different structural tethering motifs at the porphyrin periphery were synthesised, along with a representative mononuclear cobalt porphyrin, and their catalytic activities tested towards carbon dioxide-propylene oxide copolymerisation in the presence of bis(triphenylphosphoranyl)ammonium chloride cocatalyst. The catalytic activities of the mononuclear and the bis-para-tethered dinuclear cobalt porphyrin with selective formation of poly(propylene carbonate) are largely comparable, showing no benefit of dinuclearity in contrast to the case of cobalt salen complexes and suggesting that polymer growth proceeds exclusively from one metal centre. The alternative bis-ortho-tethered porphyrin demonstrated considerably reduced activity, with dominant formation of cyclic propylene carbonate, as a result of hindered substrate approach at the metal centre. Time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopic studies suggested a general intolerance of the cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts towards the copolymerisation conditions in the absence of carbon dioxide pressure, leading to catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species. In the presence of carbon dioxide, the bis-ortho-tethered catalyst showed the fastest deactivation, which is related to an unfavourable steric arrangement of the linker fragment, as was also confirmed by NMR spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Shape-selective synthesis of non-micellar cobalt oxide (CoO) nanomaterials by microwave irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Subrata; Jayachandran, M.

    2013-01-01

    Shape-selective formation of CoO nanoparticles has been developed using a simple one-step in situ non-micellar microwave (MW) heating method. CoO NPs were synthesized by mixing aqueous CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O solution with poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) in the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The reaction mixture was irradiated using MW for a total time of 2 min. This process exclusively generated different shapes like nanosphere, nanosheet, and nanodendrite structures just by tuning the Co(II) ion to PVA molar ratios and controlling other reaction parameters. The proposed synthesis method is efficient, straightforward, reproducible, and robust. Other than in catalysis, these cobalt oxide nanomaterials can be used for making pigments, battery materials, for developing solid state sensors, and also as an anisotropy source for magnetic recording.Graphical Abstract

  13. Cycle aging studies of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Santarelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The cycle aging of a commercial 18650 lithium-ion battery with graphite anode and lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide-based cathode at defined operating conditions is studied by regular electrochemical characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and post-mortem analysis.

  14. Photoinduced Coherent Spin Fluctuation in Primary Dynamics of Insulator to Metal Transition in Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent spin fluctuation was detected in the photoinduced Mott insulator-metal transition in perovskite cobalt oxide by using 3 optical-cycle infrared pulse. Such coherent spin fluctuation is driven by the perovskite distortion changing orbital gap.

  15. Cobalt Oxide on N-Doped Carbon for 1-Butene Oligomerization to Produce Linear Octenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongting [Department; Xu, Zhuoran [Department; Chada, Joseph P. [Department; Carrero, Carlos A. [Department; Rosenfeld, Devon C. [The Dow Chemical Company, 2301 N. Brazosport Boulevard, Freeport, Texas 77541-3257, United States; Rogers, Jessica L. [The Dow Chemical Company, 2301 N. Brazosport Boulevard, Freeport, Texas 77541-3257, United States; Hermans, Ive [Department; Huber, George W. [Department

    2017-10-02

    Cobalt oxide supported on N-doped carbon catalysts were investigated for 1-butene oligomerization. The materials were synthesized by treating activated carbon with nitric acid and subsequently with NH3 at 200, 400, 600, and 800 °C, followed by impregnation with cobalt. The 1-butene oligomerization selectivity increased with ammonia treatment temperature of the carbon support. The oligomerization selectivity of cobalt oxide on N-doped carbon synthesized at 800 °C (800A-CoOx/N-C) is 2.6 times higher than previously reported cobalt oxide on N-doped carbon synthesized with NH4OH (2A-CoOx/N-C). Over 70% of the butene dimers were linear C8 olefins for all catalysts. The oligomerization selectivity increased with 1-butene conversion. The catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitrogen content of the catalysts increases with ammonia treatment temperature as confirmed by elemental analysis. The surface content of pyridinic nitrogen with a binding energy of 398.4 ± 0.1 eV increased with ammonia treatment temperature as evidenced by deconvolution of N 1s XPS spectra.

  16. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrocatalytic miRNA Detection Using Cobalt Porphyrin-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille De Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metalated porphyrins have been described to bind nucleic acids. Additionally, cobalt porphyrins present catalytic properties towards oxygen reduction. In this work, a carboxylic acid-functionalized cobalt porphyrin was physisorbed on reduced graphene oxide, then immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes. The carboxylic groups were used to covalently graft amino-terminated oligonucleotide probes which are complementary to a short microRNA target. It was shown that the catalytic oxygen electroreduction on cobalt porphyrin increases upon hybridization of miRNA strand (“signal-on” response. Current changes are amplified compared to non-catalytic amperometric system. Apart from oxygen, no added reagent is necessary. A limit of detection in the sub-nanomolar range was reached. This approach has never been described in the literature.

  18. Phase equilibria in the iron oxide-cobalt oxide-phosphorus oxide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Prasanna, T. R. S.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel ternary compounds are noted in the present study of 1000 C solid-state equilibria in the Fe-Co-P-O system's Fe2O3-FePO4-Co3(Po4)2-CoO region: CoFe(PO4)O, which undergoes incongruent melting at 1130 C, and Co3Fe4(PO4)6, whose incongruent melting occurs at 1080 C. The liquidus behavior-related consequences of rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite formation from cobalt ferrite-phosphate melts are discussed with a view to spinel formation. It is suggested that quenching from within the spinel-plus-liquid region may furnish an alternative to quenching a homogeneous melt.

  19. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, V.

    1981-01-01

    A review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors, is presented. The results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions are included. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (author) [es

  20. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena Moreno, V.

    1981-01-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  1. PREPARATION OF NICKEL - COBALT SPINEL OXIDES NixCO3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degree of crystallinity give rise to reversible nickel incorporation. Pellets ... are of interest in solid oxide fuel cell and this is one of the features which make them attractive ... oxide system can only be obtained in a limited composition extent.

  2. Cobalt nanoparticles as recyclable catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols in liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Arijit; Mukherjee, Debkumar, E-mail: debkumarmukherjee@rediffmail.com [Ramsaday College, Department of Chemistry (India); Adhikary, Bibhutosh, E-mail: adhikarybibhu@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Engineering, Sciences and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Ahmed, Md Azharuddin [University of Calcutta, Department of Physics (India)

    2016-05-15

    Cobalt nanoparticles prepared at room temperature from cobalt sulphate and tetrabutyl ammonium bromide as surfactant have been found to be effective oxidation catalysts. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles (average size 4–6 nm) can also be prepared from PdCl{sub 2} and K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4}, respectively, using the same surfactant but require high temperature (~120 °C) and much longer preparation time. Agglomeration of nanoparticles prepared from metals like palladium and platinum in common solvents, however, restricts their use as catalysts. It is therefore our endeavour to find the right combination of catalyst and solvent that will be beneficial from industrial point of view. Magnetic property measurement of cobalt nanoclusters was made using SQUID to identify their reusability nature. Herein, we report the use of cobalt nanoparticles (average size 90–95 nm) in dichloromethane solvent as effective reusable catalysts for aerobic oxidation of a variety of alcohols.Graphical Abstract.

  3. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides using zeolite catalysts exchanged with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, E.A.; Bustamante L, F.; Montes de C, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx by methane in excess oxygen was studied over several zeolite catalysts; namely cobalt loaded mordenite, ferrierite, SM-5 and the corresponding acid forms. When NO2 predominated n the NOx mixture the acid forms showed the highest N2 formation rates under dry conditions. Mordenite supported catalysts were the most active ones followed by ferrierite and ZSM-5. The most active Co-Mordenite catalyst was tested using a NOx mixture, containing mostly NO, under dry conditions and in the presence of water and SO2. The addition of 8 % water to the reaction mixture lead to a reversible deactivation, mainly at low temperatures. When the reaction mixture contained 60 ppm SO2, the N2 formation rate decreased about a half likely due to SO2 poisoning

  4. Electrodeposited reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide electrodes for charge storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gómez, A. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Eugénio, S., E-mail: s.eugenio@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, R.G. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); ESTBarreiro, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Setúbal (Portugal); Silva, T.M. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); ADEM, GI-MOSM, ISEL-Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); ESTSetúbal, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Setúbal (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Electrochemically reduced graphene/CoOx composites were successfully produced by electrodeposition. • The composite material presents a specific capacitance of about 430 F g{sup −1}. • After heat treatment, the capacitance retention of the composite was 76% after 3500 cycles. - Abstract: In the present work, electrochemically reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide composites for charge storage electrodes were prepared by a one-step pulsed electrodeposition route on stainless steel current collectors and after that submitted to a thermal treatment at 200 °C. A detailed physico-chemical characterization was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical response of the composite electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge curves and related to the morphological and phase composition changes induced by the thermal treatment. The results revealed that the composites were promising materials for charge storage electrodes for application in redox supercapacitors, attaining specific capacitances around 430 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and presenting long-term cycling stability.

  5. Titanium oxide modification with oxides of mixed cobalt valence for photo catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis O, R.; Jimenez B, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, heterogenous photo catalysis, a technique often used for organic compound degradation toxic in water, was used. The photo catalyst most often used in this technique is TiO 2 , which due to its physical and chemical properties, can degrade a great number of organic compounds. In addition, in recent years it has been verified that the doping of semiconductors with metals or metallic oxides increases the photo catalytic activity of these semiconductors, which is why it was proposed for doping by the impregnating method using commercial TiO 2 synthesized by the Degussa company (TiO 2 Degussa P25) with and oxide of mixed cobalt valence (Co 3 O 4 ) synthesized using the sol-gel method. The synthesized photo catalyst TiO 2 /Co 3 O 4 was characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and finally, photo catalytic tests by means of the degradation of methylene blue. (Author)

  6. Titanium oxide modification with oxides of mixed cobalt valence for photo catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis O, R.; Jimenez B, J., E-mail: jaime.jimenez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, heterogenous photo catalysis, a technique often used for organic compound degradation toxic in water, was used. The photo catalyst most often used in this technique is TiO{sub 2}, which due to its physical and chemical properties, can degrade a great number of organic compounds. In addition, in recent years it has been verified that the doping of semiconductors with metals or metallic oxides increases the photo catalytic activity of these semiconductors, which is why it was proposed for doping by the impregnating method using commercial TiO{sub 2} synthesized by the Degussa company (TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25) with and oxide of mixed cobalt valence (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) synthesized using the sol-gel method. The synthesized photo catalyst TiO{sub 2}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and finally, photo catalytic tests by means of the degradation of methylene blue. (Author)

  7. Sol-gel preparation of cobalt manganese mixed oxides for their use as electrode materials in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.; Vidal-Abarca, C.

    2007-01-01

    An ethanol dehydration procedure has been used to precipitate gel-like citrate precursors containing cobalt and manganese transition metal ions. Further annealing led to the Mn x Co 3-x O 4 spinel oxide series (x: 1, 1.5, 2, 3). Annealing temperature and treatment time were also evaluated to optimize the performance of the oxides as active electrode materials in lithium cells. The manganese-cobalt mixed oxides obtained by this procedure were cubic or tetragonal phases depending on the cobalt content. SEM images showed spherical macroporous aggregates for MnCo 2 O 4 and hollow spheres for manganese oxides. The galvanostatic cycling of lithium cells assembled with these materials demonstrated a simultaneous reduction of cobalt and manganese during the first discharge and separation of cobalt- and manganese-based products on further cycling. As compared with binary manganese oxides, a notorious electrochemical improvement was observed in the mixed oxides. This behavior is a consequence of the synergistic effect of both transition metal elements, associated with the in-situ formation of a nanocomposite electrode material when cobalt is introduced in the manganese oxide composition. Values higher than 400 mAh/g were sustained after 50 cycles for MnCo 2 O 4

  8. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the oxidative stress induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative damage is often induced by abiotic stress, nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a functional molecule in modulating antioxidant metabolism of plants. In the present study, effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on the phenotype, antioxidant capacity and chloroplast ultrastructure of cucumber leaves were ...

  9. RBS and NRA of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Huerta, L.; Pineda, J.C.; Zavala, E.P.; Barrera, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Vargas, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study of cobalt oxide thin films produced by the sol-gel process on aluminum and glass substrates. These films have been analyzed using two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a) a standard RBS 4 He 2 MeV and b) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using a 1 MeV deuterium beam. The 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C nuclear reaction provides information that carbon is incorporated into the film structure, which could be associated to the sinterization film process. Other film measurements such as optical properties, XRD, and SEM were performed in order to complement the IBA analysis. The results show that cobalt oxide film coatings prepared by this technique have good optical properties as solar absorbers and potential uses in solar energy applications

  10. Synthesis of cobalt stearate as oxidant additive for oxo-biodegradable polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asriza, Ristika O.; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Division of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Cobalt stearate is an oxidant additives that can initiate a process of degradation in high density polyethylene (HDPE). To determine the effect of cobalt stearate in HDPE, oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film was given an irradiation with UV light or heating at various temperature. After given a heating, the FTIR spectra showed a new absorption peak at wave number 1712 cm{sup −1} indicating the presence of carbonyl groups in polymers, whereas after irradiation with UV light is not visible the presence of this absorption peak. The increase concentration of cobalt stearate added in HDPE and the higher heating temperature, the intensity of the absorption peak of the carbonyl group increased. The increasing intensity of the carbonyl group absorption is caused the presence of damage in the film surface after heating, and this result is supported by analysis the surface properties of the film with using SEM. Biodegradation tests were performed on oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film which has been given heating or UV light with using activated sludge under optimal conditions the growth of microorganisms. After biodegradation, the maximum weight decreased by 23% in the oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film with a cobalt stearate concentration of 0.2% and after heating at a temperature of 75 °C for 10 days, and only 0.69% in the same film after irradiation UV light for 10 days. Based on the results above, cobalt stearate additive is more effective to initiate the oxidative degradation of HDPE when it is initiated by heating compared to irradiation with UV light.

  11. Synthesis of cobalt stearate as oxidant additive for oxo-biodegradable polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asriza, Ristika O.; Arcana, I. Made

    2015-09-01

    Cobalt stearate is an oxidant additives that can initiate a process of degradation in high density polyethylene (HDPE). To determine the effect of cobalt stearate in HDPE, oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film was given an irradiation with UV light or heating at various temperature. After given a heating, the FTIR spectra showed a new absorption peak at wave number 1712 cm-1 indicating the presence of carbonyl groups in polymers, whereas after irradiation with UV light is not visible the presence of this absorption peak. The increase concentration of cobalt stearate added in HDPE and the higher heating temperature, the intensity of the absorption peak of the carbonyl group increased. The increasing intensity of the carbonyl group absorption is caused the presence of damage in the film surface after heating, and this result is supported by analysis the surface properties of the film with using SEM. Biodegradation tests were performed on oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film which has been given heating or UV light with using activated sludge under optimal conditions the growth of microorganisms. After biodegradation, the maximum weight decreased by 23% in the oxo-biodegradable polyethylene film with a cobalt stearate concentration of 0.2% and after heating at a temperature of 75 °C for 10 days, and only 0.69% in the same film after irradiation UV light for 10 days. Based on the results above, cobalt stearate additive is more effective to initiate the oxidative degradation of HDPE when it is initiated by heating compared to irradiation with UV light.

  12. Kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of cobalt at 600-8000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.S.; Yurek, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two-phase layered scales comprising CoO and Co 3 O 4 formed on cobalt during oxidation at 600 0 , 700 0 , and 800 0 C and at oxygen partial pressures in the range 0.001-1 atm. The kinetics, which were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, obeyed a parabolic rate law after an initial, nonparabolic stage of oxidation. The monoxide consisted of relatively large grains (10μ) and the spinel comprised small grains (3μ) for all conditions of oxidation. Grain boundary diffusion of cations played a significant role in the growth of the spinal layer. Thermogravimetric data and the steady-state ratio of the oxide layer thicknesses were employed to calculate the rates of thickening of the individual oxide layers and the rate of oxidation of CoO to Co 3 O 4

  13. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  14. Template-free approach to synthesize hierarchical porous nickel cobalt oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jie; Sun, Jing; Xu, Chaohe; Xu, Huan; Gao, Lian

    2012-10-01

    Nickel cobalt oxides with various Ni/Co ratios were synthesized using a facile template-free approach for electrochemical supercapacitors. The texture and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The results show that a hierarchical porous structure assembled from nanoflakes with a thickness of ~10 nm was obtained, and the ratio of nickel to cobalt in the nanocomposites was very close to the precursors. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge and discharge tests were carried out to study the electrochemical performance. Both nickel cobalt oxides (Ni-Co-O-1 with Ni : Co = 1, Ni-Co-O-2 with Ni : Co = 2) outperform pure NiO and Co3O4. The Ni-Co-O-1 and Ni-Co-O-2 possess high specific capacities of 778.2 and 867.3 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and capacitance retentions of 84.1% and 92.3% at 10 A g-1, respectively. After full activation, the Ni-Co-O-1 and Ni-Co-O-2 could achieve a maximum value of 971 and 1550 F g-1 and remain at ~907 and ~1450 F g-1 at 4 A g-1, respectively. Also, the nickel cobalt oxides show high capacity retention when fast charging.Nickel cobalt oxides with various Ni/Co ratios were synthesized using a facile template-free approach for electrochemical supercapacitors. The texture and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The results show that a hierarchical porous structure assembled from nanoflakes with a thickness of ~10 nm was obtained, and the ratio of nickel to cobalt in the nanocomposites was very close to the precursors. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge and discharge tests were carried out to study the electrochemical performance. Both nickel cobalt oxides (Ni-Co-O-1 with Ni : Co = 1, Ni-Co-O-2 with Ni

  15. Theoretical investigation of the activity of cobalt oxides for the electrochemical oxidation of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdich, Michal; García-Mota, Mónica; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Nørskov, Jens K; Bell, Alexis T

    2013-09-11

    The presence of layered cobalt oxides has been identified experimentally in Co-based anodes under oxygen-evolving conditions. In this work, we report the results of theoretical investigations of the relative stability of layered and spinel bulk phases of Co oxides, as well as the stability of selected surfaces as a function of applied potential and pH. We then study the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on these surfaces and obtain activity trends at experimentally relevant electro-chemical conditions. Our calculated volume Pourbaix diagram shows that β-CoOOH is the active phase where the OER occurs in alkaline media. We calculate relative surface stabilities and adsorbate coverages of the most stable low-index surfaces of β-CoOOH: (0001), (0112), and (1014). We find that at low applied potentials, the (1014) surface is the most stable, while the (0112) surface is the more stable at higher potentials. Next, we compare the theoretical overpotentials for all three surfaces and find that the (1014) surface is the most active one as characterized by an overpotential of η = 0.48 V. The high activity of the (1014) surface can be attributed to the observation that the resting state of Co in the active site is Co(3+) during the OER, whereas Co is in the Co(4+) state in the less active surfaces. Lastly, we demonstrate that the overpotential of the (1014) surface can be lowered further by surface substitution of Co by Ni. This finding could explain the experimentally observed enhancement in the OER activity of Ni(y)Co(1-y)O(x) thin films with increasing Ni content. All energetics in this work were obtained from density functional theory using the Hubbard-U correction.

  16. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH 4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH 4 ), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH 3 OH - ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH 4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH 3 OH - direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

  17. Preparation and characterization of zinc and cobalt (II, III) oxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Laboratório de Processos de Oxidação Avançados, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 10011, ... gated through the heterogeneous photocatalysis mediated by zinc oxide, n-type semiconductor .... 3.2 Band gap energy determination.

  18. PREPARATION OF NICKEL - COBALT SPINEL OXIDES NixCO3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last decade, the improvement of the alkaline water electrolysis cells has drained a lot of interest, especially due to an increase in consummation and prices of natural energetic resources. Oxides constitute a wide class of materials with good electrocatalytic activity for many electrode reactions from O2 evolution to ...

  19. Engineering Interfacial Energetics: A Novel Hybrid System of Metal Oxide Quantum Dots and Cobalt Complex for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Fujun; Shen, Shaohua; Wang, Jian; Guo, Liejin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A cobalt complex engineers the interfacial energetics of metal oxide quantum dots (n- or p-type) and electrolytes for highly efficient O_2 generation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • A noble-metal-free hybrid photocatalytic system using a single-site cobalt catalyst was developed for O_2 generation. • Considerable activity and excellent stability for O_2 production were achieved by this novel system. • CoSlp engineered the QDs/electrolyte interfacical energetics for efficient hole transfer. - Abstract: Here we reported a novel hybrid photocatalytic water oxidation system, containing metal oxide (n-Fe_2O_3 or p-Co_3O_4) quantum dots (QDs) as light harvester, a salophen cobalt(II) complex (CoSlp) as redox catalyst and persulfate (S_2O_8"2"−) as sacrificial electron acceptor, for oxygen generation from fully aqueous solution. The n-Fe_2O_3 QDs/CoSlp and p-Co_3O_4 QDs/CoSlp systems exhibited good O_2 evolution performances, giving turnover numbers (TONs) of ca. 33 and ca. 35 over CoSlp after visible light irradiation for 72 h, respectively. The excellent photocatalytic performance could be ascribed to the efficient hole transfer from QDs to CoSlp catalyst, leading to reduced photogenerated charge recombination, as well as the CoSlp engineered interfacial band bending of QDs, increasing the driving force or decreasing the energy barrier for hole transfer and then benefiting the following O_2 generation at the QDs/electrolyte interface. The present work successfully demonstrated a novel hybrid system for photocatalytic O_2 evolution from fully aqueous solution; and the essential role of cobalt complexes in engineering the interfacial energetics of semiconductors (n- or p-type) and electrolytes could be informative for designing efficient systems for solar water splitting.

  20. Recent advancements in the cobalt oxides, manganese oxides and their composite as an electrode material for supercapacitor: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uke, Santosh J.; Akhare, Vijay P.; Bambole, Devidas R.; Bodade, Anjali B.; Chaudhari, Gajanan N.

    2017-08-01

    In this smart edge, there is an intense demand of portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops, smart watches etc. That demands the use of such components which has light weight, flexible, cheap and environmental friendly. So that needs an evolution in technology. Supercapacitors are energy storage devices emerging as one of the promising energy storage devices in the future energy technology. Electrode material is the important part of supercapacitor. There is much new advancement in types of electrode materials as for supercapacitor. In this review, we focused on the recent advancements in the cobalt oxides, manganese oxides and their composites as an electrodes material for supercapacitor.

  1. Cobalt-deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinaemia and oxidative status of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, G I; Schwarz, F J; Jahn, B; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-01-01

    In ruminants, Co is required for the synthesis of vitamin B12, which in turn is needed for the resynthesis of methionine by methylation of homocysteine and thus, cobalamin deficiency may induce hyperhomocysteinaemia which is brought into context with perturbations of the antioxidative-prooxidative balance. The present study was conducted to explore whether Co deficiency in cattle is also associated with homocysteine-induced disturbances of oxidative status. Co deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals on either a basal maize-silage-based diet that was moderately low in Co (83 micrograms Co/kg DM), or the same diet supplemented with Co to a total of 200 micrograms Co/kg DM, for 43 weeks. Co deficiency was apparent from a reduced vitamin B12 status in serum and liver and an accumulation of homocysteine in plasma which was in excess of 4.8 times higher in Co-deprived cattle than in controls. The much increased level of circulating homocysteine did not indicate severe disturbances in antioxidant-prooxidant balance as measured by individual markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidative defence system. There were no quantitative difference in plasma thiol groups, nor were there significant changes in concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, microsomal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl groups in liver. However, there was a trend toward increased plasma carbonyl levels indicating a slight degradation of plasma proteins in the hyperhomocysteinaemic cattle. Analysis of the hepatic catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) activity revealed an 11% reduction in Co-deficient cattle relative to the controls. These results indicate that long-term moderate Co deficiency may induce a severe accumulation of plasma homocysteine in cattle, but considerable abnormalities in oxidative status failed to appear.

  2. Effect of the preparation method on the structural and catalytic properties of spinel cobalt-iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammiche-Bellal, Yasmina, E-mail: yasminahammiche@gmail.com [Laboratoire des Matériaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Alger (Algeria); Djadoun, Amar [Laboratoire de Géophysique, FSTGAT, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Alger (Algeria); Meddour-Boukhobza, Laaldja; Benadda, Amel [Laboratoire des Matériaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Alger (Algeria); Auroux, Aline [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626, Villeurbanne (France); Berger, Marie-Hélène [Centre des Matériaux PIERRE-MARIE Fourt, UMR 7633, Paris (France); Mernache, Fateh [UDEC-CRND, COMENA, BP 43 Draria, 16050, Alger (Algeria)

    2016-07-01

    Spinel cobalt-iron oxide was synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal routes. The effect of the co-precipitation experimental conditions, the calcination temperature and the hydrothermal synthesis time and temperature on the properties of the solids was studied. The prepared powders were evaluated as catalysts in the ethanol combustion reaction, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM/EDX), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms (BET, BJH) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques. Using chloride salts as starting materials and sodium hydroxide as precipitating agent, the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared powders displayed a mesoporous structure with a pore distribution strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. A monophasic spinel phase in the case of the calcined solids was obtained while the hydrothermal process led to the formation of a mixture of single oxides in addition to the spinel phase. The variation of the crystallite size and the lattice parameter as a function of calcination temperature was similar, whereas this variation found to be irregular when the synthesis residence time in autoclave was increased. The hydrothermally treated solids show the best catalytic performance in the total oxidation of ethanol. The catalytic behavior was correlated with the crystallite size and the reduction temperature of cobalt species determined by the TPR analysis. - Highlights: • Pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase is obtained by co-precipitation method at calcination temperatures 500–900 °C. • The temperature of co-precipitation procedure influences strongly the growth of the solids during the calcination step. • The hydrothermal synthesis gives a mixture of oxides; CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the predominant phase. • The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel showed a good catalytic reactivity in the ethanol combustion reaction. • The catalysts prepared by hydrothermal process are more reactive and

  3. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-04-18

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response for Lithium ion battery (LIB) applications was evaluated as well. The results herein show that the nanoporous C material was uniformly functionalized with the CoO/Co core-shell NPs. Further the NPs were crystalline with fcc-Type lattice on the Co2+ oxide shell and hcp-Type core of metallic Co0. The electrochemical study was carried out by using galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling at a current density of 1000 mA g-1. The potential of this hybrid material for LIB applications was confirmed and it is attributed to the successful dispersion of the Co2+/ Co0 NPs in the C support.

  4. Metal Oxide Decomposition In Hydrothermal Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2003-09-24

    Alkaline hydrothermal solutions of sodium orthophosphate (2.15 < Na/P < 2.75) are shown to decompose transition metal oxides into two families of sodium-metal ion-(hydroxy)phosphate compounds. Equilibria for these reactions are quantified by determining phosphate concentration-temperature thresholds for decomposition of five oxides in the series: Ti(IV), Cr(III), Fe(III, II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). By application of a computational chemistry method General Utility Lattice Program (GULP), it is demonstrated that the unique non-whole-number Na/P molar ratio of sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate is a consequence of its open-cage structure in which the H{sup +} and excess Na{sup +} ions are located.

  5. Comparative supercapacitive properties of asymmetry two electrode coin type supercapacitor cells made from MWCNTs/cobalt oxide and MWCNTs/iron oxide nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitive properties of synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles (MO) vis a vis iron oxides (Fe(sub2)O(sub3)) and cobalt oxide (Co(sub3)O(sub4)) nanoparticles integrated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in a two-electrode coin cell type...

  6. Preparation and electrochemical performances of nanoporous/cracked cobalt oxide layer for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobal, Fereydoon; Faraji, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Nanoporous/cracked structures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) electrodes were successfully fabricated by electroplating of zinc-cobalt onto previously formed TiO2 nanotubes by anodizing of titanium, leaching of zinc in a concentrated alkaline solution and followed by drying and annealing at 400 °C. The structure and morphology of the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were composed of the nanoporous/cracked structures with an average pore size of about 100 nm. The electrochemical capacitive behaviors of the nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M NaOH solution. The electrochemical data demonstrated that the electrodes display good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 430 F g-1 at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 and specific capacitance retention of ca. 80 % after 10 days of being used in electrochemical experiments, indicating to be promising electroactive materials for supercapacitors. Furthermore, in comparison with electrodes prepared by simple cathodic deposition of cobalt onto TiO2 nanotubes(without dealloying procedure), the impedance studies showed improved performances likely due to nanoporous/cracked structures of electrodes fabricated by dealloying of zinc, which provide fast ion and electron transfer routes and large reaction surface area with the ensued fast reaction kinetics.

  7. Cobalt oxide films for solar selective surfaces, obtained by spray pyrolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila G, A. [Departmento de Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, CINVESTAV del I.P.N., Av. I.P.N. no. 2508, Ap. Postal 14-740, Mexico D. F., 07360 (Mexico); Barrera C, E. [Departamento de IPH, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ap. Postal 55-5340, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Huerta A, L.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2004-05-01

    Cobalt oxide films upon stainless steel substrates were deposited by using the pneumatic spray pyrolisis technique, starting from an inorganic salt (CoNO{sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O) dissolved in a water-alcohol mixture. Stainless steel and nickeled stainless steel substrates were used. Absorptance and emittance, for selective surface applications, were evaluated from reflectance measurements in the UV-Vis and infrared ranges. X-ray diffraction, XPS and AFM measurements were done. The predominant cobalt phase is Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, but also CoO and Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, besides metallic cobalt, were detected. Films upon nickeled steel substrates at 400C exhibit high absorptances (0.86), but also the emittance is high (0.43), yielding a selectivity of 2.0. A similar film on steel substrate reaches only a figure of 0.77 absorptance, but the thermal emittance remains low (0.20), giving a selectivity of 3.85. These films are good prospects for selective solar absorption coatings.

  8. Influence of Cr doping on the stability and structure of small cobalt oxide clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Nguyen Thanh; Lievens, Peter; Janssens, Ewald, E-mail: ewald.janssens@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tam, Nguyen Minh; Nguyen, Minh Tho [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-28

    The stability of mass-selected pure cobalt oxide and chromium doped cobalt oxide cluster cations, Co{sub n}O{sub m}{sup +} and Co{sub n−1}CrO{sub m}{sup +} (n = 2, 3; m = 2–6 and n = 4; m = 3–8), has been investigated using photodissociation mass spectrometry. Oxygen-rich Co{sub n}O{sub m}{sup +} clusters (m ⩾ n + 1 for n = 2, 4 and m ⩾ n + 2 for n = 3) prefer to photodissociate via the loss of an oxygen molecule, whereas oxygen poorer clusters favor the evaporation of oxygen atoms. Substituting a single Co atom by a single Cr atom alters the dissociation behavior. All investigated Co{sub n−1}CrO{sub m}{sup +} clusters, except CoCrO{sub 2}{sup +} and CoCrO{sub 3}{sup +}, prefer to decay by eliminating a neutral oxygen molecule. Co{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup +}, Co{sub 4}O{sub 3}{sup +}, Co{sub 4}O{sub 4}{sup +}, and CoCrO{sub 2}{sup +} are found to be relatively difficult to dissociate and appear as fragmentation product of several larger clusters, suggesting that they are particularly stable. The geometric structures of pure and Cr doped cobalt oxide species are studied using density functional theory calculations. Dissociation energies for different evaporation channels are calculated and compared with the experimental observations. The influence of the dopant atom on the structure and the stability of the clusters is discussed.

  9. Hydrothermal stability investigation of micro- and mesoporous silica containing long-range ordered cobalt oxide clusters by XAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Wang, David K; Kappen, Peter; Martens, Dana L; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C

    2015-07-15

    This work investigates the hydrothermal stability of cobalt doped silica materials with different Co/Si molar ratios (0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.25). The resultant materials were characterized by N2 sorption and chemical structures by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy before and after a harsh hydrothermal exposure (550 °C, 75 mol% vapour and 40 h). The cobalt silica materials showed a lower surface area loss from 48% to 12% with increasing Co/Si molar ratio from 0.05 to 0.25 and relatively maintaining their pore size distribution, while pure silica exhibited significant surface area reduction (80%) and pore size broadening. For low cobalt loading sample (Co/Si = 0.05), the cobalt was highly dispersed in the silica network in a tetrahedral coordination with oxygen and a small proportion of Co-Co interaction in the second shell. Long range order Co3O4 was observed when Co/Si molar ratio increased to 0.10 and 0.25. The hydrothermal exposure did not affect the local cobalt environments and no cobalt-silicon interaction was observed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The hydrothermal stability of the silica matrix was attributed to the physical barrier of cobalt oxide in opposing densification and silica mobility under harsh hydrothermal conditions.

  10. Removal of carbonaceous deposits from the surface of cobalt-molybdate catalyst via oxidative regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-10-01

    The oxidative regeneration of cobalt-molybdate catalyst used during the hydrodeoxygenation of a phenol solution and for hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. SO/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ were analysed as the major products. The surface area of the spent catalysts was the main factor influencing the initial rate of regeneration, i.e. the greater the surface area the higher the initial rate. A mechanism proposed includes 12 reactions which may play an important role in the overall burn-off of hydrotreatment catalysts. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Cobalt Oxide Catalysts on Commercial Supports for N2O Decomposition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klegová, A.; Pacultová, K.; Fridrichová, D.; Volodarskaja, A.; Kovanda, J.; Jirátová, Květa

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2017), s. 981-990 ISSN 0930-7516. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2016 /22./ and the 19th Conference PRES 2016. Prague, 27.08.2016-31.08.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13750S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : N2O decomposition * cobalt oxide * shaped catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  12. Investigation of Thin Layered Cobalt Oxide Nano-Islands on Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdich, Michal; Walton, Alex S.; Fester, Jakob; Arman, Mohammad A.; Osiecki, Jacek; Knudsen, Jan; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Lauritsen, Jeppe V.

    2015-03-01

    Layered cobalt oxides have been shown to be highly active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), but the synergistic effect of contact with gold is yet to be fully understood. The synthesis of three distinct types of thin-layered cobalt oxide nano-islands supported on a single crystal gold (111) substrate is confirmed by combination of STM and XAS methods. In this work, we present DFT+U theoretical investigation of above nano-islands using several previously known structural models. Our calculations confirm stability of two low-oxygen pressure phases: (a) rock-salt Co-O bilayer and (b) wurtzite Co-O quadlayer and single high-oxygen pressure phase: (c) O-Co-O trilayer. The optimized geometries agree with STM structures and calculated oxidation states confirm the conversion from Co2+ to Co3+ found experimentally in XAS. The O-Co-O trilayer islands have the structure of a single layer of CoOOH proposed to be the true active phase for OER catalyst. For that reason, the effect of water on the Pourbaix stabilities of basal planes and edge sites is fully investigated. Lastly, we also present the corresponding OER theoretical overpotentials.

  13. Iron-Induced Activation of Ordered Mesoporous Nickel Cobalt Oxide Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohui; Öztürk, Secil; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Tüysüz, Harun

    2017-06-28

    Herein, ordered mesoporous nickel cobalt oxides prepared by the nanocasting route are reported as highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts. By using the ordered mesoporous structure as a model system and afterward elevating the optimal catalysts composition, it is shown that, with a simple electrochemical activation step, the performance of nickel cobalt oxide can be significantly enhanced. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated that charge transfer resistance increases for Co 3 O 4 spinel after an activation process, while this value drops for NiO and especially for CoNi mixed oxide significantly, which confirms the improvement of oxygen evolution kinetics. The catalyst with the optimal composition (Co/Ni 4/1) reaches a current density of 10 mA/cm 2 with an overpotential of a mere 336 mV and a Tafel slope of 36 mV/dec, outperforming benchmarked and other reported Ni/Co-based OER electrocatalysts. The catalyst also demonstrates outstanding durability for 14 h and maintained the ordered mesoporous structure. The cyclic voltammograms along with the electrochemical measurements in Fe-free KOH electrolyte suggest that the activity boost is attributed to the generation of surface Ni(OH) 2 species that incorporate Fe impurities from the electrolyte. The incorporation of Fe into the structure is also confirmed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  14. In situ synthesis and catalytic application of reduced graphene oxide supported cobalt nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Long, Qin; Deng, Yi; Liao, Li

    2018-05-01

    Controlled synthesis of magnetic nanocomposite with outstanding catalytic performances is a promising strategy in catalyst industry. We proposed a novel concept for fabrication of reduced graphene oxide-supported cobalt nanowires (RGO/Co-NWs) nanocomposite as high-efficient magnetic catalyst. Unlike the majority of experiments necessitating harsh synthesis conditions such as high-pressure, high-temperature and expensive template, here the RGO/Co-NWs were successfully prepared in aqueous solution under mild conditions with the assistance of external magnetic field. The synthetic process was facile and external magnetic force was adopted to induce the unidirectional self-assembly of cobalt crystals on graphene oxide to form RGO/Co-NWs. The possible formation mechanism laid on the fact that the dipole magnetic moments of the nanoparticles were aligned along the magnetic induction lines with the external magnetic field direction resulting in the formation of nanowires elongating in the direction of the magnetization axis. Simultaneously, a series of controlled reactions were conducted to illuminate the effect of graphene oxide, external magnetic field and PVP on the morphology and size of RGO/Co-NWs in the present approach. More importantly, the nanocomposite exhibited a high catalytic performance towards ammonia borane. Hence the novel nanocomposite holds a great potential for technological applications such as catalyst industry.

  15. Computational Modeling of Cobalt-based Water Oxidation: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Mauro; Luber, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    A lot of effort is nowadays put into the development of novel water oxidation catalysts. In this context mechanistic studies are crucial in order to elucidate the reaction mechanisms governing this complex process, new design paradigms and strategies how to improve the stability and efficiency of those catalysis. This review is focused on recent theoretical mechanistic studies in the field of homogeneous cobalt-based water oxidation catalysts. In the first part, computational methodologies and protocols are summarized and evaluated on the basis of their applicability towards real catalytic or smaller model systems, whereby special emphasis is laid on the choice of an appropriate model system. In the second part, an overview of mechanistic studies is presented, from which conceptual guidelines are drawn on how to approach novel studies of catalysts and how to further develop the field of computational modeling of water oxidation reactions.

  16. Computational Modeling of Cobalt-Based Water Oxidation: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Schilling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of effort is nowadays put into the development of novel water oxidation catalysts. In this context, mechanistic studies are crucial in order to elucidate the reaction mechanisms governing this complex process, new design paradigms and strategies how to improve the stability and efficiency of those catalysts. This review is focused on recent theoretical mechanistic studies in the field of homogeneous cobalt-based water oxidation catalysts. In the first part, computational methodologies and protocols are summarized and evaluated on the basis of their applicability toward real catalytic or smaller model systems, whereby special emphasis is laid on the choice of an appropriate model system. In the second part, an overview of mechanistic studies is presented, from which conceptual guidelines are drawn on how to approach novel studies of catalysts and how to further develop the field of computational modeling of water oxidation reactions.

  17. High performance sponge-like cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide hybrid counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jinghao; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Min; Tu, Yongguang; Lan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    A sponge-like cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide (CoS/rGO) hybrid film is deposited on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) glass by electrophoretic deposition and ion exchange deposition, following by sodium borohydride and sulfuric acid solution treatment. The film is used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and is characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel measurements. The results show that the CoS counter electrode has a sponge structure with large specific surface area, small charge-transfer resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The addition of rGO further improves the electrocatalytic activity for I3- reduction, which results in the better electrocatalytic property of CoS/rGO counter electrodes than that of Pt counter electrode. Using CoS/rGO0.2 as counter electrode, the DSSC achieves a power conversion efficiency of 9.39%; which is increased by 27.93% compared with the DSSC with Pt counter electrode (7.34%).

  18. Synthesis of cobalt-containing mesoporous catalysts using the ultrasonic-assisted “pH-adjusting” method: Importance of cobalt species in styrene oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baitao, E-mail: btli@scut.edu.cn; Zhu, Yanrun; Jin, Xiaojing

    2015-01-15

    Cobalt-containing SBA-15 and MCM-41 (Co-SBA-15 and Co-MCM-41) mesoporous catalysts were prepared via ultrasonic-assisted “pH-adjusting” technique in this study. Their physiochemical structures were comprehensively characterized and correlated with catalytic activity in oxidation of styrene. The nature of cobalt species depended on the type of mesoporous silica as well as pH values. The different catalytic performance between Co-SBA-15 and Co-MCM-41 catalysts originated from cobalt species. Cobalt species were homogenously incorporated into the siliceous framework of Co-SBA-15 in single-site Co(II) state, while Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were loaded on Co-MCM-41 catalysts. The styrene oxidation tests showed that the single-site Co(II) state was more beneficial to the catalytic oxidation of styrene. The higher styrene conversion and benzaldehyde selectivity over Co-SBA-15 catalysts were mainly attributed to single-site Co(II) state incorporated into the framework of SBA-15. The highest conversion of styrene (34.7%) with benzaldehyde selectivity of 88.2% was obtained over Co-SBA-15 catalyst prepared at pH of 7.5, at the mole ratio of 1:1 (styrene to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at 70 °C. - Graphical abstract: Cobalt-containing mesoporous silica catalysts were developed via ultrasonic-assisted “pH-adjusting” technique. Compared with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in Co-MCM-41, the single-site Co(II) state in Co-SBA-15 was more efficient for the styrene oxidation. - Highlights: • Fast and cost-effective ultrasonic technique for preparing mesoporous materials. • Incorporation of Co via ultrasonic irradiation and “pH-adjusting”. • Physicochemical comparison between Co-SBA-15 and Co-MCM-41. • Correlation of styrene oxidation activity and catalyst structural property.

  19. Copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide composites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Hee-Sang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a composite electrode structure consisting of copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide (CuNFs@CoO x . The copper nanofibers (CuNFs were fabricated on a substrate with formation of a network structure, which may have potential for improving electron percolation and retarding film deformation during the discharging/charging process over the electroactive cobalt oxide. Compared to bare CoO x thin-film (CoO x TF electrodes, the CuNFs@CoO x electrodes exhibited a significant enhancement of rate performance by at least six-fold at an input current density of 3C-rate. Such enhanced Li-ion storage performance may be associated with modified electrode structure at the nanoscale, improved charge transfer, and facile stress relaxation from the embedded CuNF network. Consequently, the CuNFs@CoO x composite structure demonstrated here can be used as a promising high-performance electrode for Li-ion batteries.

  20. Two dimensionality in quasi-one-dimensional cobalt oxides confirmed by muon-spin spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, J.; Nozaki, H.; Ikedo, Y.; Mukai, K.; Andreica, D.; Amato, A.; Brewer, J.H.; Ansaldo, E.J.; Morris, G.D.; Takami, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) cobalt oxides, A n+2 Co n+1 O 3n+3 (A=Ca, Sr and Ba, n=1-∼), were investigated by muon-spin spectroscopy under applied pressures of up to 1.1GPa. The relationship between the onset Neel temperature T N on and the inter-chain distance (d ic ), which increases monotonically with n, is well fitted by the formula T N /T N,0 =(1-d ic /d ic,0 ) β . The T N on -d ic curve also predicts a large P dependence of T N for the compounds with n>=5, i.e., in the vicinity of d ic,0 , while the n=1-4 compounds show only a very small effect. Indeed, our high-pressure μ + SR results show that T N of BaCoO 3 (n=∼) is enhanced by P, with a slope of 2.1 K/GPa, whereas no detectable changes between ambient pressure and 1.0 GPa for both Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 (n=1) and Sr 4 Co 3 O 9 (n=2). This clearly confirms the role of the 2D-AF interaction on T N on in the Q1D cobalt oxides

  1. Electroremovable Traceless Hydrazides for Cobalt-Catalyzed Electro-Oxidative C-H/N-H Activation with Internal Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ruhuai; Sauermann, Nicolas; Oliveira, João C A; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-06-27

    Electrochemical oxidative C-H/N-H activations have been accomplished with a versatile cobalt catalyst in terms of [4 + 2] annulations of internal alkynes. The electro-oxidative C-H activation manifold proved viable with an undivided cell setup under exceedingly mild reaction conditions at room temperature using earth-abundant cobalt catalysts. The electrochemical cobalt catalysis prevents the use of transition metal oxidants in C-H activation catalysis, generating H 2 as the sole byproduct. Detailed mechanistic studies provided strong support for a facile C-H cobaltation by an initially formed cobalt(III) catalyst. The subsequent alkyne migratory insertion was interrogated by mass spectrometry and DFT calculations, providing strong support for a facile C-H activation and the formation of a key seven-membered cobalta(III) cycle in a regioselective fashion. Key to success for the unprecedented use of internal alkynes in electrochemical C-H/N-H activations was represented by the use of N-2-pyridylhydrazides, for which we developed a traceless electrocleavage strategy by electroreductive samarium catalysis at room temperature.

  2. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanof...

  3. Morphological impact on the reaction kinetics of size-selected cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartling, Stephan; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Barke, Ingo; Pohl, Marga-Martina

    2015-01-01

    Apart from large surface areas, low activation energies are essential for efficient reactions, particularly in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we show that not only the size of nanoparticles but also their detailed morphology can crucially affect reaction kinetics, as demonstrated for mass-selected, soft-landed, and oxidized cobalt clusters in a 6 nm to 18 nm size range. The method of reflection high-energy electron diffraction is extended to the quantitative determination of particle activation energies which is applied for repeated oxidation and reduction cycles at the same particles. We find unexpectedly small activation barriers for the reduction reaction of the largest particles studied, despite generally increasing barriers for growing sizes. We attribute these observations to the interplay of reaction-specific material transport with a size-dependent inner particle morphology

  4. Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S.; Passos, R. R.; Pocrifka, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and morphological, structural and electrochemical characterization of ternary oxides mixture containing nickel, cobalt and tin. The ternary oxide is synthesized by Pechini method with subsequent deposition onto a titanium substrate in a thin-film form. XRD and EDS analysis confirm the formation of ternary film with amorphous nature. SEM analysis show that cracks on the film favor the gain of the surface area that is an interesting feature for electrochemical capacitors. The ternary film is investigated in KOH electrolyte solution using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge study with a specific capacitance of 328 F g-1, and a capacitance retention of 86% over 600 cycles. The values of specific power and specific energy was 345.7 W kg-1 and 18.92 Wh kg-1, respectively.

  5. Cobalt/N-Hydroxyphthalimide(NHPI)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons with Ionic Liquid Additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Xu, Bao Hua; Ren, Tian Lu

    2018-01-01

    A highly efficient and solvent-free system of cobalt/NHPI-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons was developed using imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) as an additive. These amphipathic ILs were found self-assemble at the interface between the organic hydrocarbons and the aqueous phase...... the optimum reactivity. Besides, the interfacial boundary between aqueous and organic phase composed by C2-alkylated imidazolium ILs, such as [bdmim]SbF6 and [C12dmim]SbF6, not only has ternary aggregates (hydrocarbons/IL/H2O) of higher stability but renders O2 a faster diffusion rate and higher concentration......, thereby offering a high reactivity of the protocol towards hydrocarbon oxidation....

  6. Multilayered films of cobalt oxyhydroxide nanowires/manganese oxide nanosheets for electrochemical capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Huajun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering and AIBN, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Tang, Fengqiu; Mukherji, Aniruddh; Yan, Xiaoxia; Wang, Lianzhou (Max) Lu, Gao Qing [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering and AIBN, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Lim, Melvin [Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-01-15

    Multilayered films of cobalt oxyhydroxide nanowires (CoOOHNW) and exfoliated manganese oxide nanosheet (MONS) are fabricated by potentiostatic deposition and electrostatic self-assembly on indium-tin oxide coated glass substrates. The morphology and chemical composition of these films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and the potential application as electrochemical supercapacitors are investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements. These ITO/CoOOHNW/MONS multilayered film electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical capacitance properties, including high specific capacitance (507 F g{sup -1}) and long cycling durability (less 2% capacity loss after 5000 charge/discharge cycles). These characteristics indicate that these newly developed films may find important application for electrochemical capacitors. (author)

  7. Application of Two Cobalt-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Oxidative Desulfurization Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Bagheri, Minoo; Morsali, Ali

    2015-12-07

    Two new porous cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks, [Co6(oba)5(OH)2(H2O)2(DMF)4]n · 5DMF (TMU-10) and [Co3(oba)3(O) (Py)0.5] n · 4DMF · Py (TMU-12) have been synthesized by solvothermal method using a nonlinear dicarboxylate ligand. Under mild reaction conditions, these compounds exhibited good catalytic activity and reusability in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of model oil which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-hexane. FT-IR and Mass analysis showed that the main product of DBT oxidation is its corresponding sulfone, which was adsorbed on the surfaces of catalysts. The activation energy was obtained as 13.4 kJ/mol.

  8. Cobalt Oxides Supported Over Ceria–Zirconia Coated Cordierite Monoliths as Catalysts for Deep Oxidation of Ethanol and N2O Decomposition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirátová, Květa; Balabánová, Jana; Kovanda, F.; Klegová, A.; Obalová, L.; Fajgar, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 6 (2017), s. 1379-1391 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13750S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : cobalt oxide * ceria-zirconia monoliths * ethanol oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.799, year: 2016

  9. Pyro-oxidation of plutonium spent salts with sodium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Godot, A.; Valot, C.; Devillard, D.

    2001-01-01

    The purification of plutonium generates spent salts, which are temporarily stored in a nuclear building. A development programme for pyrochemical treatment is in progress to stabilize and concentrate these salts in order to reduce the quantities for long-term disposal. The treatment, inspired by work previously done by LANL, consists of a pyro-oxidation of the salt with sodium carbonate to convert the actinides into oxides, then of a vacuum distillation to separate the oxides from the volatile salt matrix. Pyro-oxidation of NaCl/KCl base spent salts first produces a 'black salt' which contains more than 97% of the initial actinides. XRD analyses indicate PuO 2 as major plutonium species and sodium plutonates or plutonium sub-oxides PuO 2-x can also be identified. Next appears a 'white salt' containing less than 500 ppm of plutonium, which meets the operational criterion for LLW discard. For these salts, the pyro-oxidation process in and of itself is expected to reduce the quantities to be stored on-site by more than one-third. The pyro-oxidation of CaCl 2 /NaCl base americium extraction salts leads to oxides PuO 2 and probably AmO 2 , but the yield of concentration in the black salt is lower and the white salt cannot be discarded as LLW. During vacuum distillation, excess carbonate can dissociate and damage the efficiency of the process. Appropriate chlorine sparging at the end of the oxidation can eliminate this carbonate. (authors)

  10. Factors determining the activity of catalysts of various chemical types in the oxidation of hydrogen. I. Oxidation and isotope exchange of hydrogen on cobalt monoxide-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgikh, L.Y.; Golodets, G.I.; Il'chenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of data on the kinetics of the reaction 2H 2 + O 2 = 2H 2 O isotope exchange H 2 + D 2 = 2HD under the conditions of oxidative catalysis, and the kinetic isotope effect, a mechanism is proposed for the oxidation of hydrogen on cobalt monoxide-oxide. At low temperatures the reaction proceeds according to a mechanism of alternating reduction-reoxidation of the surface with the participation of hydrogen adsorbed in molecular form; at increased temperature and low P 02 /P /SUB H2/ ratios, a significant contribution to the observed rate is made by a mechanism including dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen

  11. Characterization of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louardi, A.; Rmili, A.; Ouachtari, F.; Bouaoud, A. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Elidrissi, B., E-mail: e.bachir@mailcity.com [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Erguig, H. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films show a micro porous structure. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are formed with spherical grains less than 50 nm in diameter. > The porous structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films is expected to have promising application in electrochromism. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of hydrated cobalt chloride salt (CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O) as source of cobalt. The films were deposited onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at different temperatures (300-500 deg. C). The influences of molar concentration of the starting solution and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were studied. It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the films prepared with molar concentration greater than 0.025 M/L were polycrystalline spinel type cubic structure. The preferred orientation of the crystallites of these films changes gradually from (6 2 2) to (1 1 1) when the substrate temperature increases. By Raman spectroscopy, five Raman active modes characteristic of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel type cubic structure were found and identified at 194, 484, 522, 620 and 691 cm{sup -1}. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed micro porous structure with very fine grains less than 50 nm in diameter. These films exhibited also a transmittance value of about 70% in the visible and infra red range.

  12. Recent Advancements in the Cobalt Oxides, Manganese Oxides, and Their Composite As an Electrode Material for Supercapacitor: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh J. Uke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our modern society demands the portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops, smart watches, etc. Such devices demand light weight, flexible, and low-cost energy storage systems. Among different energy storage systems, supercapacitor has been considered as one of the most potential energy storage systems. This has several significant merits such as high power density, light weight, eco-friendly, etc. The electrode material is the important part of the supercapacitor. Recent studies have shown that there are many new advancement in electrode materials for supercapacitors. In this review, we focused on the recent advancements in the cobalt oxides, manganese oxides, and their composites as an electrode material for supercapacitor.

  13. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  14. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cobalt Oxide/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Framework for Enhanced Anodic Performance in Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Xia; Liu, Ruili; Liu, Shaoqing; Xiao, Suo; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chi; Wu, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the composites of nitrogen-doped graphene framework and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with adjustable morphologies (NG/Co 3 O 4 ) were fabricated via a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route for first time. Three different surfactants including triblock copolymer F127, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate are involved in the hybrid-assembly of graphene oxide, o-phthalonitrile and cobalt acetate in water/ethanol. Among the obtained samples, the one using F127 (NG/Co 3 O 4 -F127) manifests the most homogeneous distribution of Co 3 O 4 NPs with the size of ∼ 15 nm in the macropore-walls formed by NG. As the anode material in lithium ion battery (LIB), NG/Co 3 O 4 -F127 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, which is superior to the other composites and most of the previously reported Co 3 O 4 based anode materials in LIBs.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt-nichel oxides for the oxygen formation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the compounds of cobalt and nickel oxides and the mixtures of cobalt-nickel were prepared which were characterized and evaluated as electrocatalysts in the oxygen release reaction in alkaline media. The compounds were synthesised by the sol-gel method: heated at 400 and 500 Centigrade. The compounds characterization was realized by thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. As the Co 3 O 4 and the Ni O as the mixtures Ni O/Co 3 O 4 were obtained as a porous material with a small particle size, characteristics which are presented by cause of the low temperature of synthesis. The electrocatalytic evaluation for the synthesised compounds for the oxygen release reaction was realized by cyclic volt amperometry in a 0.5M KOH solution. The oxides mixtures presented a well electrocatalytic activity to be used in the electrochemical release of oxygen. The current density and the electrochemically active area, in all the cases of mixtures is very higher to the Co 3 O 4 and Ni O ones. Observing with greater clearness the synergic effects, in the obtained mixture at 400 C. The oxides mixtures heated at 400 C were stables for the oxygen formation reaction. Therefore it is be able to say that the Ni O/Co 3 O 4 mixture counts on a great reactive area: electrocatalytic characteristic desirable to be a material used as anode in the electrolysis of water, which increases the oxygen release in the anode and so the hydrogen release in the cathode. (Author)

  16. Cobalt oxide-based catalysts deposited by cold plasma for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierski, P.; Jozwiak, L.; Sielski, J.; Tyczkowski, J., E-mail: jacek.tyczkowski@p.lodz.pl

    2015-11-02

    In proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), both the anodic hydrogen oxidation reaction and the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) require appropriate catalysts. So far, platinum-based catalysts are still the best option for this purpose. However, because these catalysts are too expensive for making commercially viable fuel cells, extensive research over the past decade has focused on developing noble metal-free alternative catalysts. In this paper, an approach based on cobalt oxide films fabricated by plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is presented. Such a material can be used to prepare catalysts for ORR in PEMFC. The films containing CoO{sub X} were deposited on a carbon paper thereby forming the electrode. Morphology and atomic composition of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The possibility of their application as the electro-catalyst for ORR in PEMFC was investigated and the electro-catalytic activities were evaluated by the electrochemical measurements and single cell tests. It was found that the fuel cell with Pt as the anode catalyst and CoO{sub X} deposit as the cathode catalyst was characterized by the open circuit voltage of 635 mV, Tafel slope of approx. 130 mV/dec and the maximum power density of 5.3 W/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells was plasma deposited. • The catalyst exhibits activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. • Morphology and atomic composition of the catalyst were determined.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Iron-Cobalt Oxide Nanocomposites Synthesized in Polystyrene Resin Matrix*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnava, P. P.; Senaratne, U.; Rodak, D.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G.; Naik, R.; Naik, V.; Wenger, L. E.; Tao, Qu; Boolchand, P.; Suryanarayanan, R.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have potential applications in memory devices and medical technology. Magnetic iron-cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared by in situ precipitation in an ion exchange resin using the method of Ziolo et al^1. The ion exchange resin, consisting of sulfonated divinyl benzene cross linked polystyrene, was exposed to different iron and cobalt salt solutions: a) 4FeCl2 + CoCl2 b) 9FeCl2 + CoCl2 c) 4FeCl3 + CoCl2 d) 9FeCl3 + CoCl_2. The ions bound to the resin are then oxidized with hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline media with mild heat. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fe^57 Mossbauer Spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. It was found that the oxide composition, particle size distribution, magnetic properties including blocking temperature and the amount of superparamagnetic phases are strongly influenced by the stoichiometry of the starting FeCl_2, FeCl_3, and CoCl2 solutions. Three major phases CoFe_2O_4, Fe_3O4 and γ-Fe_2O3 have been identified. The nanocomposites prepared using Fe^2+ and Co^2+ contain larger nanoparticles (10 nm) than those prepared by Fe^3+ and Co^2+ (3 nm) . The details of the structural characterization by XRD and TEM measurements and magnetic characteristics will be presented. *Research supported by NSF grant DGE 980720 ^1Ziolo et al, Science, 257, 5067 (1992).

  18. In situ spectroscopic investigation of the cobalt-catalyzed oxidation of lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt-catalyzed oxidation of lignin and lignin model compounds using molecular oxygen in ionic liquids proceeds readily under mild conditions, but mechanistic insight and evidence for the species involved in the catalytic cycle is lacking. In this study, a spectroscopic investigation of the

  19. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical lithium cobalt oxide lithium-ion cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary...

  20. Isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Itami, Akira

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide ion exchanger and aqueous solutions was radiochemically measured to obtain fundamental data which are useful for elucidating the ion-exchange kinetics of the material for the transition metal elements. The rate can be understood by considering that the cobalt ions were present in the exchanger as three kinds of species: (A 1 ) Free ions which can diffuse in the exchanger particles, (A 2 ) Weakly bound ions to the exchange sites which exchange rapidly with A 1 , and (B) Covalently fixed ions to the exchange sites which exchange very slowly with A 1 . At low fraction of B, the rate is controlled by the diffusion of A 1 with the effective diffusion coefficient, D eff , the values of which depend on the concentration ratios of A 2 to A 1 . When B predominates over the A species, the concentration ratios of B to A 1 affect greatly D eff . The values of D eff and their activation energy(20 kJ/mol) were also estimated

  1. Phagolysosomal pH and dissolution of cobalt oxide particles by alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, M.; Johansson, A.; Camner, P.; Falk, R.; Kreyling, W.

    1992-01-01

    We studied phagolysosomal pH in rabbit macrophages (AM) incubated with 0.-15 μM chloroquine. There was a dose-related increase in pH with chloroquine concentration. Electron microscopy showed that chloroquine increased lysosomal size. In a second experiment we studied dissolution of radiolabeled cobalt oxide particles by rabbit AM, phagolysosomal pH, and lysosomal size. The cells were incubated for 2 days with 0, 2, 5, and 10 μM chloroquine. Size and pH increased with chloroquine concentration. Dissolution of cobalt particles by the AM did not clearly change with pH. In a third experiment, dissolution in acetate buffer was faster than in the AM, and the dissolution appeared to decrease faster with increasing pH than in the AM. A simple model for dissolution of a particle in a phagolysosome was proposed. This model predicts the types of difference in dissolution between AM and buffered saline. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Weight of Polyethylene Wear Particles is Similar in TKAs with Oxidized Zirconium and Cobalt-chrome Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Shik; Huh, Wansoo; Lee, Kwang-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Background The greater lubricity and resistance to scratching of oxidized zirconium femoral components are expected to result in less polyethylene wear than cobalt-chrome femoral components. Questions/purposes We examined polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid and compared the weight, size (equivalent circle diameter), and shape (aspect ratio) of polyethylene wear particles in knees with an oxidized zirconium femoral component with those in knees with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Patients and Methods One hundred patients received an oxidized zirconium femoral component in one knee and a cobalt-chrome femoral component in the other. There were 73 women and 27 men with a mean age of 55.6 years (range, 44–60 years). The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 5.5 years; range, 5–6 years). Polyethylene wear particles were analyzed using thermogravimetric methods and scanning electron microscopy. Results The weight of polyethylene wear particles produced at the bearing surface was 0.0223 ± 0.0054 g in 1 g synovial fluid in patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.0228 ± 0.0062 g in patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Size and shape of polyethylene wear particles were 0.59 ± 0.05 μm and 1.21 ± 0.24, respectively, in the patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.52 ± 0.03 μm and 1.27 ± 0.31, respectively, in the patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Knee Society knee and function scores, radiographic results, and complication rate were similar between the knees with an oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chrome femoral component. Conclusions The weight, size, and shape of polyethylene wear particles were similar in the knees with an oxidized zirconium and a cobalt-chrome femoral component. We found the theoretical advantages of this surface did not provide the actual advantage. Level of Evidence Level I, therapeutic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete

  3. Mid-term survivorship and clinical outcomes of cobalt-chrome and oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petis, Stephen M; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; Lanting, Brent A; Howard, James L; Naudie, Douglas D R; Somerville, Lyndsay E; McCalden, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    The choice of bearing articulation for total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is amenable to debate. We compared mid-term patient-reported outcomes and survivorship across 2 different bearing articulations in a young patient cohort. We reviewed patients with cobalt-chrome or oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene who were followed prospectively between 2004 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine predicted cumulative survivorship at 5 years with all-cause and aseptic revisions as the outcome. We compared patient-reported outcomes, including the Harris hip score (HHS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short-form 12 (SF-12) scores. A total of 622 patients were followed during the study period. Mean follow-up was 8.2 (range 2.0-10.6) years for cobalt-chrome and 7.8 (range 2.1-10.7) years for oxidized zirconium. Mean age was 54.9 ± 10.6 years for cobalt-chrome and 54.8 ± 10.7 years for oxidized zirconium. Implant survivorship was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.9%-97.1%) for cobalt-chrome and 98.7% (95% CI 98.0%-99.4%) for oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene for all-cause revisions, and 97.2% (95% CI 96.2%-98.2%) for cobalt-chrome and 99.0% (95% CI 98.4%-99.6%) for oxidized zirconium for aseptic revisions. An age-, sex- and diagnosis-matched comparison of the HHS, WOMAC and SF-12 scores demonstrated no significant changes in clinical outcomes across the groups. Both bearing surface couples demonstrated excellent mid-term survivorship and outcomes in young patient cohorts. Future analyses on wear and costs are warranted to elicit differences between the groups at long-term follow-up.

  4. In Vivo Wear Performance of Cobalt-Chromium Versus Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Total Knee Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Teeter, Matthew G; Guenther, Leah E; Burnell, Colin D; Bohm, Eric R; Naudie, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the damage and wear on the polyethylene (PE) inserts from 52 retrieved Genesis II total knee replacements to identify differences in tribological performance between matched pairs of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral components. Observer damage scoring and microcomputed tomography were used to quantify PE damage and wear, respectively. No significant differences were found between CoCr and OxZr groups in terms of PE insert damage, surface penetration, or wear. No severe damage such as cracking or delamination was noted on any of the 52 PE inserts. Observer damage scoring did not correlate with penetrative or volumetric PE wear. The more costly OxZr femoral component does not demonstrate clear tribological benefit over the standard CoCr component in the short term with this total knee replacement design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathisha, D.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of about 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of Co doping concentration on structural, optical and compositional properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction result shows that the deposited thin films are polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphologies of the deposited thin films were observed by FESEM and AFM. EDS spectra showed the incorporation of Co dopants in NiO thin films. Optical properties of the grown thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap energy and transmittance of the films decrease with increasing Co doping concentration.

  6. Nanocomposite of cobalt oxide and ordered mesoporous carbon as the electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Liu, P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, J.; Tang, B. [Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    An incipient wetness impregnation method was used to prepare a cobalt oxide ordered mesoporous carbon composite for use as an electrode in supercapacitor applications. The composite was then incorporated inside periodic nanoholes in the ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm analyses were used to characterize the structures of the samples. The specific capacitance of the synthesized materials was estimated using cyclic voltammetric (CV) analyses. The study showed that composites prepared using the new method exhibited a higher reversible specific capacitance of 594.8 F per g at a scan rate of 5 mV per second. The composite also showed good cyclic stability. Results suggested that the composite can be used as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  7. Cobalt sulfide aerogel prepared by anion exchange method with enhanced pseudocapacitive and water oxidation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuyue; Shi, Zhenyu; Xue, Kaiming; Ye, Ziran; Hong, Zhanglian; Yu, Xinyao; Zhi, Mingjia

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces the anion exchange method into the sol-gel process for the first time to prepare a metal sulfide aerogel. A porous Co9S8 aerogel with a high surface area (274.2 m2 g‑1) and large pore volume (0.87 cm3 g‑1) has been successfully prepared by exchanging cobalt citrate wet gel in thioacetamide and subsequently drying in supercritical ethanol. Such a Co9S8 aerogel shows enhanced supercapacitive performance and catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to its oxide aerogel counterpart. High specific capacitance (950 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1), good rate capability (74.3% capacitance retention from 1 to 20 A g‑1) and low onset overpotential for OER (220 mV) were observed. The results demonstrated here have implications in preparing various sulfide chalcogels.

  8. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of hybrid nanfluids prepared with magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite material; preparation of nanofluids and estimation of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity has been explained experimentally in this paper. The nanocomposite material has been synthesized by using in-situ growth technique and chemical coprecipitation between cobalt chloride and sodium borohydrate. The various techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS and VSM have been used to confirm the ND and Co3O4 phase of synthesized nanocomposite. The hybrid nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing synthesized ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite in water, ethylene glycol/water mixtures. The thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity have been measured experimentally at different weight concentrations and temperatures. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity enhancements are about 16%, 9%, 14%, 11% and 10% for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Similarly the viscosity enhancements are about 1.45-times, 1.46-times, 1.15-times, 1.19-times, and 1.51-times for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Based on the experimental data new correlations for thermal conductivity and viscosity have been developed.

  9. High temperature H2/CO2 separation using cobalt oxide silica membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Diniz da Costa, J.C. [The University of Queensland, FIMLab - Films and Inorganic Membrane Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Vente, J.F. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this work high quality cobalt oxide silica membranes were synthesized on alumina supports using a sol-gel, dip coating method. The membranes were subsequently connected into a steel module using a graphite based proprietary sealing method. The sealed membranes were tested for single gas permeance of He, H2, N2 and CO2 at temperatures up to 600C and feed pressures up to 600 kPa. Pressure tests confirmed that the sealing system was effective as no gas leaks were observed during testing. A H2 permeance of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} Pa-1 was measured in conjunction with a H2/CO2 permselectivity of more than 1500, suggesting that the membranes had a very narrow pore size distribution and an average pore diameter of approximately 3 Angstrom. The high temperature testing demonstrated that the incorporation of cobalt oxide into the silica matrix produced a structure with a higher thermal stability, able to resist thermally induced densification up to at least 600C. Furthermore, the membranes were tested for H2/CO2 binary feed mixtures between 400 and 600C. At these conditions, the reverse of the water gas shift reaction occurred, inadvertently generating CO and water which increased as a function of CO2 feed concentration. The purity of H2 in the permeate stream significantly decreased for CO2 feed concentrations in excess of 50 vol%. However, the gas mixtures (H2, CO2, CO and water) had a more profound effect on the H2 permeate flow rates which significantly decreased, almost exponentially as the CO2 feed concentration increased.

  10. Effect of manure, clay, charcoal, zeolite, and calcium oxide on some properties of soil contaminated with cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiorek Milena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has been undertaken in order to determine the influence of different substances (manure, clay, charcoal, zeolite and calcium oxide on soil pH, hydrolytic acidity, total exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, the base saturation of soil contaminated with cobalt (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg·kg−1 of soil. The analysed properties of soil proved to be dependent on the cobalt contamination and the kind of substances. In the series without substances soil contamination with the highest doses of cobalt raised the soil’s hydrolytic acidity but depressed its pH, total exchangeable bases and base saturation. Among the substances applied to soil in order to neutralize the effect of contamination with cobalt, calcium oxide had the strongest influence on the soil’s properties. In the series with calcium oxide application the hydrolytic acidity was decreased and other soil properties were increased. Manure addition to soil had positive but weaker effect on analysed soil properties.

  11. A study of the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, M.; Mahjani, M.G.; Heli, H.; Gobal, F.; Khajehsharifi, H.; Hamedi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrodes (CHM/GC) prepared by the anodic deposition in presence of tartrate ions have been used for the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions where the methods of cyclic voltammetery (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) have been employed. In CV studies, in the presence of methanol the peak current of the oxidation of cobalt hydroxide increase is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This suggests that the oxidation of methanol is being catalysed through the mediated electron transfer across the cobalt hydroxide layer comprising of cobalt ions of various valence states. A mechanism based on the electro-chemical generation of Co(IV) active sites and their subsequent consumptions by methanol have been discussed and the corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer has been developed and kinetic parameters have been derived. In this context the charge transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through the IS studies have been used as a criteria. Under the CA regimes the reaction followed a Cottrellian behaviour

  12. Low-solubility particles and a Trojan-horse type mechanism of toxicity: the case of cobalt oxide on human lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Richard; Roudeau, Stephane; Perrin, Laura; Carmona, Asuncion; Bresson, Carole; Darolles, Carine; Aloin, Valerie; Malard, Veronique; Gautier, Celine; Janin, Myriam; Floriani, Magali

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of toxicity of metal oxide particles towards lung cells are far from being understood. In particular, the relative contribution of intracellular particulate versus solubilized fractions is rarely considered as it is very challenging to assess, especially for low-solubility particles such as cobalt oxide (Co_3O_4). This study was possible owing to two highly sensitive, independent, analytical techniques, based on single-cell analysis, using ion beam microanalysis, and on bulk analysis of cell lysates, using mass spectrometry. Our study shows that cobalt oxide particles, of very low solubility in the culture medium, are readily incorporated by BEAS-2B human lung cells through endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent pathway. They are partially solubilized at low pH within lysosomes, leading to cobalt ions release. Solubilized cobalt was detected within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As expected from these low-solubility particles, the intracellular solubilized cobalt content is small compared with the intracellular particulate cobalt content, in the parts-per-thousand range or below. However, we were able to demonstrate that this minute fraction of intracellular solubilized cobalt is responsible for the overall toxicity. Cobalt oxide particles are readily internalized by pulmonary cells via the endo-lysosomal pathway and can lead, through a Trojan-horse mechanism, to intracellular release of toxic metal ions over long periods of time, involving specific toxicity. (authors)

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaliyamoorthy Venkatesan,1 Dhanakotti Rajan Babu,1 Mane Prabhu Kavya Bai,2 Ravi Supriya,2 Radhakrishnan Vidya,2 Saminathan Madeswaran,1 Pandurangan Anandan,3 Mukannan Arivanandhan,3 Yasuhiro Hayakawa3 1School of Advanced Sciences, 2School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan Abstract: Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311 of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. Keywords: cytotoxicity, HR-TEM, magnetic nanoparticles, VSM 

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed.

  15. Highly selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde over a tailor-made cobalt oxide encapsulated zeolite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangyong; Wang, Zihao; Jian, Panming; Jian, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    A tailor-made catalyst with cobalt oxide particles encapsulated into ZSM-5 zeolites (Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5) was prepared via a hydrothermal method with the conventional impregnated Co 3 O 4 /SiO 2 catalyst as the precursor and Si source. Various characterization results show that the Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 catalyst has well-organized structure with Co 3 O 4 particles compatibly encapsulated in the zeolite crystals. The Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 catalyst was employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde with hydrogen peroxide as a green and economic oxidant. The effect of various reaction conditions including reaction time, reaction temperature, different kinds of solvents, styrene/H 2 O 2 molar ratio and catalyst dosage on the catalytic performance were systematically investigated. Under the optimized reaction condition, the yield of benzaldehyde can achieve 78.9% with 96.8% styrene conversion and 81.5% benzaldehyde selectivity. Such an excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the confined reaction environment and the proper acidic property. In addition, the reaction mechanism with Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 as the catalyst for the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde was reasonably proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exchange Bias Optimization by Controlled Oxidation of Cobalt Nanoparticle Films Prepared by Sputter Gas Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo López Antón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous films of cobalt nanoparticles have been obtained by sputter gas aggregation and controllably oxidized by air annealing at 100 °C for progressively longer times (up to more than 1400 h. The magnetic properties of the samples were monitored during the process, with a focus on the exchange bias field. Air annealing proves to be a convenient way to control the Co/CoO ratio in the samples, allowing the optimization of the exchange bias field to a value above 6 kOe at 5 K. The occurrence of the maximum in the exchange bias field is understood in terms of the density of CoO uncompensated spins and their degree of pinning, with the former reducing and the latter increasing upon the growth of a progressively thicker CoO shell. Vertical shifts exhibited in the magnetization loops are found to correlate qualitatively with the peak in the exchange bias field, while an increase in vertical shift observed for longer oxidation times may be explained by a growing fraction of almost completely oxidized particles. The presence of a hummingbird-like form in magnetization loops can be understood in terms of a combination of hard (biased and soft (unbiased components; however, the precise origin of the soft phase is as yet unresolved.

  17. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Liang Dai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.

  18. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4- t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris( N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  19. Kinetics of Oxidation of Cobalt(III Complexes of a Acids by Hydrogen Peroxide in the Presence of Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide oxidation of pentaamminecobalt(III complexes of α-hydroxy acids at 35°C in micellar medium has been attempted. In this reaction the rate of oxidation shows first order kinetics each in [cobalt(III] and [H2O2]. Hydrogen peroxide induced electron transfer in [(NH35 CoIII-L]2+ complexes of α-hydroxy acids readily yields 100% of cobalt(II with nearly 100% of C-C bond cleavage products suggesting that it behaves mainly as one equivalent oxidant in micellar medium. With unbound ligand also it behaves only as C-C cleavage agent rather than C-H cleavage agent. With increasing micellar concentration an increase in the rate is observed.

  20. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or....3410 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a device...

  1. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  2. Crystal Structure of the Sodium Cobaltate Deuterate Superconductor NaxCoO2o4xD2O (x=1/3)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J. D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D. G.; Burley, J. C.; Short, S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na0.31(3)CoO2o1.25(2)D2O and its anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D2O molecules (two above and two below) to each Na ion in a way that gives Na-O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D2...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mixtures of cobalt and titanium oxides by mechanical alloyed and Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto S, R.; Bonifacio M, J.; Fernandez V, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical alloyed techniques continued by combustion and Sol-Gel method, were used for the synthesis of CoTiO 3 . With the first technique was used Co 3 O 4 obtained in a balls mill SPEX in argon atmosphere, using cobalt nitrate and urea, the combustion is realized at 400 and 500 C, the characterization by X-ray diffraction showed the obtaining of the valence oxide mixed of cobalt with crystallite size from 10 to 12.5 nm and the particle size of 60 to 75 nm was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. To prepare the CoTiO 3 , the obtained Co 3 O 4 was mixed with TiO 2 on a relationship in weight (1:1) and with a milling time of 2.5 h and the combustion at 800 C. the mixed oxide of titanium cobalt was also obtained by the Sol-Gel technique starting from cobalt chloride and titanium propoxide in acetic-water acid, the gel is burned to temperature of 300, 500, 700 and 900 C, finding that this last temperature it is that provides the compound with crystalline size from 50 to 75 nm. (Author)

  4. Topotactic Synthesis of Porous Cobalt Ferrite Platelets from a Layered Double Hydroxide Precursor and Their Application in Oxidation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Klaus Friedel; Anke, Sven; Salamon, Soma; Özcan, Fatih; Heese, Justus; Andronescu, Corina; Landers, Joachim; Wende, Heiko; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin; Lunkenbein, Thomas; Behrens, Malte

    2017-09-12

    Monocrystalline, yet porous mosaic platelets of cobalt ferrite, CoFe 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from a layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor by thermal decomposition. Using an equimolar mixture of Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , and Fe 3+ during co-precipitation, a mixture of LDH, (Fe II Co II ) 2/3 Fe III 1/3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 1/6 ⋅m H 2 O, and the target spinel CoFe 2 O 4 can be obtained in the precursor. During calcination, the remaining Fe II fraction of the LDH is oxidized to Fe III leading to an overall Co 2+ :Fe 3+ ratio of 1:2 as required for spinel crystallization. This pre-adjustment of the spinel composition in the LDH precursor suggests a topotactic crystallization of cobalt ferrite and yields phase pure spinel in unusual anisotropic platelet morphology. The preferred topotactic relationship in most particles is [111] Spinel ∥[001] LDH . Due to the anion decomposition, holes are formed throughout the quasi monocrystalline platelets. This synthesis approach can be used for different ferrites and the unique microstructure leads to unusual chemical properties as shown by the application of the ex-LDH cobalt ferrite as catalyst in the selective oxidation of 2-propanol. Compared to commercial cobalt ferrite, which mainly catalyzes the oxidative dehydrogenation to acetone, the main reaction over the novel ex-LDH cobalt is dehydration to propene. Moreover, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of the ex-LDH catalyst was markedly higher compared to the commercial material. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cobalt-60 oxide aerosols: methods of production and short-term retention and distribution kinetics in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.E.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Newton, G.J.

    1976-01-01

    Cobalt-60 has been used extensively in nuclear applications and has been considered for use in nuclear auxiliary power devices. The most common chemical form used is the oxide. This study of the retention and distribution of two differnt exoides of cobalt when administered by inhalation was conducted to assess the potential inhalation hazard associated with its use. Cobaltosic oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) was formed by passing a cobalt nitrate aerosol through a heating column at 850 0 C before delivery to the dog. Cobaltous oxide (CoO) was formed by raising the heating column temperature to 1400 0 C. Three beagle dogs were exposed to 60 Co 3 O 4 and sacrificed singly at 8, 64 and 128 days. Three beagle dogs were exposed to 60 CoO and sacrificed at 8, 16 and 64 days after exposure. Whole-body retention patterns showed that 60 CoO left the body with a shorter effective half-life than 60 Co 3 O 4 . The concentration of 60 Co detected in the blood was at least an order of magnitude higher in the dogs exposed to 60 CoO than in the dogs exposed to 60 Co 3 O 4 . Cobalt-60 translocated from the lung accumulated predominantly in the kidney, liver, skeleton and cartilagenous structures such as the trachea. Higher concentrations were reached earlier in the dogs exposed to 60 CoO. After early fecal excretion of material deposited in the upper respiratory tract, excretion was greatest via the urine. The higher solubility of the 60 CoO formed at 1400 0 C relative to 60 Co 3 O 4 formed at 850 0 C is noteworthy considering that generally aerosols formed at higher temperatures are more insoluble than aerosols formed at lower temperatures. (author)

  6. Applications of x ray absorption fine structure to the in situ study of the effect of cobalt in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes for fuel cells and rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, Donald A.; Scherson, Daniel A.; Antonio, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic and structural aspects of composite nickel-cobalt hydrous oxides have been examined in alkaline solutions using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results obtained have indicated that cobalt in this material is present as cobaltic ions regardless of the oxidation state of nickel in the lattice. Furthermore, careful analysis of the Co K-edge Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data reveals that the co-electrodeposition procedure generates a single phase, mixed metal hydrous oxide, in which cobaltic ions occupy nickel sites in the NiO2 sheet-like layers and not two intermixed phases each consisting of a single metal hydrous oxide.

  7. Oxidized zirconium versus cobalt-chromium against the native patella in total knee arthroplasty: Patellofemoral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Paoli, Tommaso; Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) has demonstrated excellent mechanical properties in vitro when used against articular cartilage; less coefficient of friction and less chondral damage have been found when compared with cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants. However, controversy exists as to whether implants with a zirconium femoral component articulate safely with a native patella in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To answer this question, the clinical and radiographic results were analysed from a group of patients who underwent a TKA with patella retention; the OxZr versus CoCr femoral components were compared. The present study prospectively evaluated 83 knees of 74 patients from 2009 to 2010. Each patient was evaluated clinically (visual analogue scale, Knee Society score, patellar score) and radiographically (long leg standing radiograph, anterior-posterior and latero-lateral projections, axial view of the patella) pre-operatively and postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 4.47years. The patellar tilt and shift, and progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis were calculated with the axial view. There were no patient reported adverse reactions and none of the evaluated prostheses failed. Both the clinical and radiographic evaluations showed no statistically significant between-group differences. No adverse events were observed clinically or radiologically. These results justify pursuing the use of oxidized zirconium as an alternative bearing surface for a femoral component associated with patellar retention in TKA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Microbiological Load Of Ethylene Oxide Sterilized Medical Devices And Its Elimination By Cobalt 60 Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.; Afroze, B.; Zulfiqar, H. F.; Saleem, R.; Saleem, F.; Aslam, F.; Naz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the residing microbial flora of ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilized medical devices and optimization of safe dose of gamma radiation (Cobalt 60 source) for the complete elimination of microbial load. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan from September 2014 to June 2015. Methodology: Thirty-six samples of EtO sterilized medical devices of same batch of three different companies were collected for this study. Isolation and enumeration of microbes were done by using different selective and differential media. Gram staining and biochemically characterization by API 20 (Bio Merieux, France) kit was done for identification of the microorganisms. The medical devices having high microbial load were sent to Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS) for gamma irradiations at 3 different selected doses (20 KGy, 25 KGy, and 30 KGy). Result: Different types of Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) were isolated from the EtO sterilized samples. Gram negative bacteria and fungi were not detected on these medical devices. Gamma irradiations Result showed that 30 KGy was optimized dose for complete elimination of microbial flora on endotracheal, Nelaton, and tracheostomy tubes. Conclusion: Gamma radiations (Co 60 source) effectively decontaminate the microbial flora on the equipment previously sterilized by the ethylene oxide gas; and 30 KGy is the optimized dose for all these medical devices. (author)

  9. Cobalt Oxide Catalysts Supported on CeO2–TiO2 for Ethanol Oxidation and N2O Decomposition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirátová, Květa; Kovanda, F.; Balabánová, Jana; Koloušek, D.; Klegová, A.; Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 121-139 ISSN 1878-5190. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis. Siófok, 19.09.2016-23.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13750S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : cobalt oxide catalysts * ethanol total oxidation * N2O decomposition Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  10. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrically conductive aluminum oxide thin film used as cobalt catalyst-support layer in vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Mohd Asyadi; Ismail, Syahriza; Mohamad, Noraiham; Isomura, Kazuki; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present the unique characteristics of aluminum oxide (Al–O) and cobalt catalyst included in aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode system of energy storage device, namely electrochemical capacitor. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of the thermally oxidized Al–O used as catalyst-support layer in vertically grown single-walled CNTs were studied. Al–O films were characterized by means of current–voltage measurement and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Al–O support layer was found to be conductive, with a relatively low resistance and, approximately 20 nm film thickness of Al–O is suggested to be too thin to form insulating barrier. The scanning TEM—annular dark field analysis confirmed that the nanosized cobalt catalyst particles distributed on Al–O surfaces and also embedded inside the Al–O film structure. (paper)

  12. Cobalt oxide polymorph growth on electrostatic self-assembled nanoparticle arrays for dually tunable nano-textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulliard, Xavier; Benayad, Anass; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yun-Hyuk; Lee, Jae Cheol; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Min

    2011-01-01

    We report on a method for surface nano-texturing on a plastic substrate. Nano-objects with a silica nanoparticle core and a textured cobalt oxide crown are created with selectable density on the plastic substrate. The resulting dual morphology is easily tuned over large areas, either by changing the parameters directing nanoparticle deposition through electrostatic self-arrangement for nano-object density control, or the parameter directing cobalt oxide deposition for shape control. The entire process takes place at room temperature, with no chemicals harmful to the plastic substrate. The ready modulation of the dual morphology is used to control the wettability properties of the plastic film, which is covered by nano-objects.

  13. Breaking up of pure and simulated 'burnt' mixed oxide fuel by chemical interaction with oxidized sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, R.; Chaudat, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A large experimental program have permitted to investigate the behaviour of mixed oxide fuel coming in contact with hot oxidized sodium. The kinetic of the reaction, the size and the chemical nature of the particules after interaction have been studied. The main part of experiments have been performed using mixed oxide fuel non irradiated at first and with simulated fission products afterwards. Complementary informations have been obtained with UO 2 fuel pellets. After description of the experimental devices, the results are discussed and the importance of the main parameters, like temperature and fission products effect, are pointed out. (orig.)

  14. Nanotoxicity of cobalt induced by oxidant generation and glutathione depletion in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2017-04-01

    There are very few studies regarding the biological activity of cobalt-based nanoparticles (NPs) and, therefore, the possible mechanism behind the biological response of cobalt NPs has not been fully explored. The present study was designed to explore the potential mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of cobalt NPs in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The shape and size of cobalt NPs were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The crystallinity of NPs was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dissolution of NPs was measured in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and culture media by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Cytotoxicity parameters, such as [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release suggested that cobalt NPs were toxic to MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner (50-200μg/ml). Cobalt NPs also significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial outer membrane potential loss (MOMP), and activity of caspase-3 enzymes in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, cobalt NPs decreased intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) molecules. The exogenous supply of antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine in cobalt NP-treated cells restored the cellular GSH level and prevented cytotoxicity that was also confirmed by microscopy. Similarly, the addition of buthionine-[S, R]-sulfoximine, which interferes with GSH biosynthesis, potentiated cobalt NP-mediated toxicity. Our data suggested that low solubility cobalt NPs could exert toxicity in MCF-7 cells mainly through cobalt NP dissolution to Co 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-enzymatic glucose sensing platform using self assembled cobalt oxide/graphene nanocomposites immobilized graphite modified electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vivekananth, R.; Babu, R. Suresh; Prasanna, K.

    2018-01-01

    A new strategy to prepare the densely packed cobalt oxide (Co3O4)/graphene nanocomposites by a self-assembly method were adopted in this work. A new non-enzymatic glucose determination has been fabricated by using Co3O4/graphene nanocomposites modified electrode as a sensing material. The nanocom...... of the modified electrode for glucose determination has been evaluated in urine samples....

  16. Solid state oxidation of phenols to quinones with sodium perborate on wet montmorillonite K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Mohammed M.; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Khalili, Behzad; Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: mhashemi@sharif.edu

    2005-09-15

    Phenols were oxidized to quinones using sodium perborate (SPB) on wet montmorillonite as oxidant. The reaction was carried out at ambient temperature on the solid phase under solvent free conditions. (author)

  17. Solid state oxidation of phenols to quinones with sodium perborate on wet montmorillonite K10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Mohammed M.; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Khalili, Behzad; Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed

    2005-01-01

    Phenols were oxidized to quinones using sodium perborate (SPB) on wet montmorillonite as oxidant. The reaction was carried out at ambient temperature on the solid phase under solvent free conditions. (author)

  18. Gently reduced graphene oxide incorporated into cobalt oxalate rods as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phihusut, Doungkamon; Ocon, Joey D.; Jeong, Beomgyun; Kim, Jin Won; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Water-oxygen electrochemistry is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies (fuel cells, electrolyzers, and metal-air batteries) due to the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although much effort has been devoted to the development of improved bifunctional electrocatalysts, an inexpensive, highly active oxygen electrocatalyst, however, remains to be a challenge. In this paper, we present a facile and robust method to create gently reduced graphene oxide incorporated into cobalt oxalate microstructures (CoC 2 O 4 /gRGO) and demonstrate its excellent and stable electrocatalytic activity in both OER and ORR, arising from the inherent properties of the components and their physicochemical interaction. Our synthesis technique also explores a single pot method to partially reduce graphene oxide and form CoC 2 O 4 structures while maintaining the solution processability of reduced graphene oxide. While the OER activity of CoC 2 O 4 /gRGO is exclusively due to CoC 2 O 4 , which transformed into OER-active Co species, the combination with gRGO significantly improves OER stability. On the other hand, CoC 2 O 4 /gRGO exhibits synergistic effect towards ORR, via a quasi-four-electron pathway, leading to a slightly higher ORR limiting current than Pt/C. Remarkably, gRGO offers dual functionality, contributing to ORR activity via the N-functional groups and also enhancing OER stability through the gRGO coating around CoC 2 O 4 structures. Our results suggest a new class of metal-carbon composite that has the potential to be alternative bifunctional catalysts for regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries

  19. A novel solution combustion synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles as negative-electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wei; Wu Jinming; Tu Jiangping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the electrochemical performance of cobalt oxides fabricated by solution combustion synthesis for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. ► The additive of NaF in precursor results in an eruption combustion mode. ► The eruption combustion leads to fluffy networks with smaller grains and more macroporous voids. ► The network contributes to higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Low cost mass production of cobalt oxide nanoparticles with high electrochemical performance is of practical interest for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In this report, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by solution combustion synthesis, with the introduction of NaF into the precursor to alter the combustion mode. The novel eruption combustion resulted in fluffy networks with smaller particles and more macroporous voids, which contributed to the higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance when compared with that achieved by the conventional combustion mode.

  20. Direct Synthesis of Methanol by Partial Oxidation of Methane with Oxygen over Cobalt Modified Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Krisyuningsih Krisnandi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial oxidation of methane over mesoporous catalyst cobalt modified H-ZSM-5 has been carried out. Mesoporous Na-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 35.4 was successfully synthesized using double template method which has high surface area (450 m2/g and average pore diameter distribution of 1.9 nm. The as-synthesized Na-ZSM-5 was converted to H-ZSM-5 through multi-exchange treatment with ammonium ion solution, causing decreased crystallinity and surface area, but increased porous diameter, due to dealumination during treatment process. Moreover, H-ZSM-5 was loaded with cobalt (Co = 2.5% w by the incipient impregnation method and calcined at 550 °C. Partial oxidation of methane was performed in the batch reactor with 0.75 bar methane and 2 bar of nitrogen (with impurities of 0.5% oxygen as the input at various reaction time (30, 60 and 120 min. The reaction results show that cobalt species in catalyst has an important role, because H-ZSM-5 cannot produce methanol in partial oxidation of methane. The presence of molecular oxygen increased the percentage of methanol yield. The reaction is time-dependent with the highest methanol yield (79% was acquired using Co/H-ZSM-5 catalyst for 60 min.

  1. Controlling the oxidation of bis-tridentate cobalt(ii) complexes having bis(2-pyridylalkyl)amines: ligand vs. metal oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, S; Donring, S; Sanjib, P; Varghese, B; Murthy, Narasimha N

    2017-08-22

    Two bis-tridentate chelated cobalt(ii) complexes, which differ in the ligand structure by a methylene group, activate molecular oxygen (O 2 ), and give different oxidation products. The O 2 reaction of [Co II (pepma) 2 ] 2+ (1) with unsymmetrical 2-(2-pyridyl)-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethanamine (pepma) results in ligand oxidation, to the corresponding Co(ii) imine complex [Co II (pepmi) 2 ] 2+ (2). Contrastingly, the Co(ii) complex [Co II (bpma) 2 ] 2+ (3) of similar symmetrical bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (bpma), undergoes metal oxidation, yielding a cobalt(iii) complex, [Co III (bpma) 2 ] 2+ (4). The reversibility of the amine to imine conversion and the stability of the Co(ii) imine complex (2) are investigated. Furthermore, the solution dynamics of Co(ii) complexes are highlighted with the help of paramagnetic 1 H-NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Prompt burst energetics experiments: fresh oxide/sodium series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1978-08-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been performed to provide information on thermal energy to work conversion under prompt burst excursion (PBE) conditions. These consisted of single pin tests using fresh uranium oxide or uranium carbide fuel in a capsule geometry, with either stagnant sodium or helium in the coolant channel. The experiments were irradiated with single or double pulses in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to provide energy depositions up to 2900 J/g. This report covers the seven single and five double pulse UO 2 sodium-in tests. Experimental data includes pressure and linear motion transducer histories, measured work-energy conversion efficiencies, and post-irradiation examination. Analysis includes derived work-energy conversion efficiencies (up to 0.54%), pin failure modeling, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the channel, and piston stopping effects. Initial pressure events in the single pulse experiments appear to be dominated by fuel vapor pressure. Definite fuel-coolant interactions were observed in several experiments, including some that were coincident with stopping of the linear motion transducer piston, suggesting a possible triggering effect by the deceleration pressure

  3. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Alloys 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revet -se tside lf necessary and identify by block number) ~ lThe sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion of cobalt and...Figures 12 and 13. The Na2 SO 4 was observed to form puddles on the oxide-covered specimen surface. An oxide slag was usually suspended in the... slag (black arrows) were suspended (30 sees at 1000°C in air). b) After washing the Na2SO 4 from the specimen, the exposed oxide surface was highly

  4. Efficient removal of cobalt from aqueous solution by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khezami, L.; Modwi, A. [Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic Univ. (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Chemistry; Taha, Kamal K. [Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic Univ. (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Chemistry; Univ. of Bahri, Khartoum (Sudan). College of Applied and Industrial Sciences

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the removal of cobalt ions using zinc oxide nanopowder. The nanomaterial was prepared via the sol-gel method under supercritical drying. The nanomaterial was characterised via XRD, SEM, EDX, FTIR, and BET surface area techniques. The kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies of the metal ions adsorption on the nanomaterial were conducted in batch mode experiments by varying some parameters such as pH, contact time, initial ion concentrations, nanoparticles dose, and temperature. The data revealed significant dependence of the adsorption process on concentration, and the temperature was found to enhance the adsorption rate indicating an endothermic nature of the adsorption. The adsorption complied well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption process was found to match the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The ZnO nanoparticles could successfully remove up to 125 mg.g{sup -1} of Co(II) ions at elevated temperature. The metal ions adsorption could be described as an endothermic, spontaneous physisorption process. A mechanism for the metal ions adsorption was proposed.

  5. Water dispersible superparamagnetic Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salunkhe, Ashwini B. [Centre for advanced materials research, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Soft matter and molecular biophysics group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Khot, Vishwajeet M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Ruso, Juan M. [Soft matter and molecular biophysics group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Patil, S.I., E-mail: patil@physics.unipune.ac.in [Centre for advanced materials research, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) are synthesized chemically, and dispersed in an aqueous suspension for hyperthermia therapy application. Different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, particle concentration which regulates the competence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle as a heating agents in hyperthermia are investigated. Specific absorption rate (SAR) decreases with increase in the particle concentration and increases with increase in applied magnetic field intensity. Highest value of SAR is found to be 91.84 W g{sup −1} for 5 mg. mL{sup −1} concentration. Oleic acid conjugated polyethylene glycol (OA-PEG) coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have shown superior cyto-compatibility over uncoated nanoparticles to L929 mice fibroblast cell lines for concentrations below 2 mg. mL{sup −1}. Present work provides the underpinning for the use of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as a potential heating mediator for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic, water dispersible CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were synthesized by simple and cost effective Co precipitation route. • Effect of coating on various physical and chemical properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were studied. • The effect of coating on induction heating as well as biocompatibility of NPs were studied.

  6. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  7. Electrochemical supercapacitors of cobalt hydroxide nanoplates grown on conducting cadmium oxide base-electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas K. Tehare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dopant-free and cost-effective sprayed cadmium oxide (CdO conducting base-electrodes, obtained at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M, characterized for their structures, morphologies and conductivities by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements, respectively, are employed as base-electrodes for growing cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH2 nanoplates using a simple electrodeposition method which further are envisaged for electrochemical supercapacitor application. Polycrystalline nature and mushroom-like plane-views are confirmed from the structure and morphology analyses. Both CdO and CdO–Co(OH2 electrodes reveal specific capacitances as high as 312 F g−1 and 1119 F g−1, respectively, in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte at 10 mV s−1 sweep rate. Optimized Co(OH2–CdO configuration electrode demonstrates energy density of 98.83 W h kg−1 and power density of 0.75 kW kg−1. In order to investigate the charge transfer kinematics electrochemical impedance measurements are carried out and explored.

  8. Efficient removal of cobalt from aqueous solution by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khezami, L.; Modwi, A.; Taha, Kamal K.; Univ. of Bahri, Khartoum

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the removal of cobalt ions using zinc oxide nanopowder. The nanomaterial was prepared via the sol-gel method under supercritical drying. The nanomaterial was characterised via XRD, SEM, EDX, FTIR, and BET surface area techniques. The kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies of the metal ions adsorption on the nanomaterial were conducted in batch mode experiments by varying some parameters such as pH, contact time, initial ion concentrations, nanoparticles dose, and temperature. The data revealed significant dependence of the adsorption process on concentration, and the temperature was found to enhance the adsorption rate indicating an endothermic nature of the adsorption. The adsorption complied well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption process was found to match the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The ZnO nanoparticles could successfully remove up to 125 mg.g -1 of Co(II) ions at elevated temperature. The metal ions adsorption could be described as an endothermic, spontaneous physisorption process. A mechanism for the metal ions adsorption was proposed.

  9. Combination of Asymmetric Supercapacitor Utilizing Activated Carbon and Nickel Oxide with Cobalt Polypyridyl-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Narjes; Aghaei, Alireza; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Häggman, Leif; Wang, Michael; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Skunik-Nuckowska, Magdalena; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dye Solar Cell and supercapacitor are integrated into a single device capable of generation and storage of energy. • The solar cell part of the device utilizes the Co-based electrolyte and nickel/PEDOT counter electrode. • A cobalt-doped nickel oxide together with activated carbon is used in the capacitor part of the device. • The integrated photocapacitor is characterized by the capacitance of 32 F g −1 and the total efficiency of 0.6%. - Abstract: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the metal-free organic sensitizer and the cobalt (II, III) polypyridyl electrolyte was integrated here within an asymmetric supercapacitor utilizing cobalt-doped nickel oxide and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. A low cost nickel foil served as intermediate (auxiliary) bifunctional electrode separating two parts of the device and permitting the DSC electrolyte regeneration at one side and charge storage within cobalt-doped nickel oxide at the other. The main purpose of the research was to develop an integrated photocapacitor system capable of both energy generation and its further storage. Following irradiation at the 100 mW cm −2 level, the solar cell generated an open-circuit voltage of 0.8 V and short-circuit current of 8 mA cm −2 which corresponds to energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%. It was further shown that upon integration with asymmetric supercapacitor, the photogenerated energy was directly injected into porous charge storage electrodes thus resulting in specific capacitance of 32 F g −1 and energy density of 2.3 Wh kg −1 . The coulumbic and total (energy conversion and charge storage) efficiency of photocapacitor were equal to 54% and 0.6%, respectively

  10. Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: Behavior towards Intact and Impaired Human Skin and Keratinocytes Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and genotoxicity in vitro, but no data are available on their skin absorption and cytotoxicity on keratinocytes. Two independent 24 h in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells, using intact (experiment 1 and needle-abraded human skin (experiment 2. Co3O4NPs at a concentration of 1000 mg/L in physiological solution were used as donor phase. Cobalt content was evaluated by Inductively Coupled–Mass Spectroscopy. Co permeation through the skin was demonstrated after 24 h only when damaged skin protocol was used (57 ± 38 ng·cm−2, while no significant differences were shown between blank cells (0.92 ± 0.03 ng cm−2 and those with intact skin (1.08 ± 0.20 ng·cm−2. To further investigate Co3O4NPs toxicity, human-derived HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to Co3O4NPs and cytotoxicity evaluated by MTT, Alamarblue® and propidium iodide (PI uptake assays. The results indicate that a long exposure time (i.e., seven days was necessary to induce a concentration-dependent cell viability reduction (EC50 values: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.8–1.9 × 10−4 M, MTT essay; 3.7 × 10−5 M, 95% CI = 2.2–6.1 × 10−5 M, AlamarBlue® assay that seems to be associated to necrotic events (EC50 value: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.9–1.9 × 10−4 M, PI assay. This study demonstrated that Co3O4NPs can penetrate only damaged skin and is cytotoxic for HaCat cells after long term exposure.

  11. Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solution by an amination graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Fang [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Kong, Lingtao, E-mail: ltkong@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Jiarui [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Wu, Shibiao [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Zhang, Kaisheng [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Xuelong [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Jin [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu, E-mail: xjhuang@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Jinhuai, E-mail: jhliu@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A newly designed GO-NH{sub 2}: Higher adsorption capability than that of activated carbon. • Very quick adsorption property: More than 90% of Co(II) can be removed within 5 min. • One of the highest adsorption capabilities of today's nanomaterials for Co(II) (116.35 mg/g). • GO-NH{sub 2} membrane can remove more than 98% Co(II) from the water. - Abstract: A newly designed amination graphene oxide (GO-NH{sub 2}), a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon, was fabricated by graphene oxide (GO) combining with aromatic diazonium salt. The resultant GO-NH{sub 2} maintained a high surface area of 320 m{sup 2}/g. When used as an adsorbent, the GO-NH{sub 2} demonstrated a very quick adsorption property for the removal of Co(II) ions, more than 90% of Co(II) ions could be removed within 5 min for dilute solutions at 0.3 g/L adsorbent dose. The adsorption capability approaches 116.35 mg/g, which is one of the highest capabilities of today's materials. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that the Co(II) ions adsorption on GO-NH{sub 2} was a spontaneous process. Considering the superior adsorption capability, the GO-NH{sub 2} filter membrane was fabricated for the removal of Co(II) ions. Membrane filtration experiments revealed that the removal capabilities of the materials for cobalt ions depended on the membrane's thickness, flow rate and initial concentration of Co(II) ions. The highest percentage removal of Co(II) exceeds 98%, indicating that the GO-NH{sub 2} is one of the very suitable membrane materials in environmental pollution management.

  12. Atomistic structure of cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles for catalytic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao Liang; Piccinin, Simone; Laio, Alessandro; Fabris, Stefano

    2012-12-21

    Solar-driven water splitting is a key photochemical reaction that underpins the feasible and sustainable production of solar fuels. An amorphous cobalt-phosphate catalyst (Co-Pi) based on earth-abundant elements has been recently reported to efficiently promote water oxidation to protons and dioxygen, a main bottleneck for the overall process. The structure of this material remains largely unknown. We here exploit ab initio and classical atomistic simulations combined with metadynamics to build a realistic and statistically meaningful model of Co-Pi nanoparticles. We demonstrate the emergence and stability of molecular-size ordered crystallites in nanoparticles initially formed by a disordered Co-O network and phosphate groups. The stable crystallites consist of bis-oxo-bridged Co centers that assemble into layered structures (edge-sharing CoO(6) octahedra) as well as in corner- and face-sharing cubane units. These layered and cubane motifs coexist in the crystallites, which always incorporate disordered phosphate groups at the edges. Our computational nanoparticles, although limited in size to ~1 nm, can contain more than one crystallite and incorporate up to 18 Co centers in the cubane/layered structures. The crystallites are structurally stable up to high temperatures. We simulate the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of our nanoparticles. Those containing several complete and incomplete cubane motifs-which are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity-display a very good agreement with the experimental EXAFS spectra of Co-Pi grains. We propose that the crystallites in our nanoparticles are reliable structural models of the Co-Pi catalyst surface. They will be useful to reveal the origin of the catalytic efficiency of these novel water-oxidation catalysts.

  13. Nitrogen doped graphene supported palladium-cobalt as a promising catalyst for methanol oxidation reaction: Synthesis, characterization and electrocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyani, Roya; Rowshanzamir, Soosan; Parnian, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, palladium and palladium-cobalt supported on nitrogen doped graphene as anode materials in direct methanol fuel cells is reported. A simple and low temperature solvothermal method is used to directly prepare nanoflower-like NG and then, Pd and Pd−Co nanoparticles are precipitated onto the surface of NG using a modified polyol reduction method. The synthesized electrocatalysts are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to measure electrocatalytic methanol oxidation activity and the durability of electrocatalysts. The results show that Pd−Co/NG has better electrocatalytic activity than Pd/NG toward methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline media that is related at the presence of cobalt atoms. In addition, chronoamperometric results indicate that Pd−Co/NG is more stable than commercial Pt/C for MOR. - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped graphene (NG) was prepared by a simple solvothermal method. • Pd and Pd−Co nanoparticles were deposited on NG by polyol reduction method. • Promoting effects of cobalt over Pd/NG for MOR were investigated. • Higher activity and enhanced durability was observed for Pd−Co/NG catalyst.

  14. Phase diagram of the sodium-rich Na.sub.x./sub.CoO.sub.2./sub. cobaltates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorkovská, A.; Baran, A.; Kajňáková, M.; Feher, A.; Šebek, Josef; Šantavá, Eva; Lin, C. T.; Peng, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 247, č. 3 (2010), s. 665-667 ISSN 0370-1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : cobaltates * specific heat * magnetic phase transition * A-type antiferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  15. Thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides with interlayers of hydroxide and peroxide species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ta-Lei; Lybeck, Jenni; Chan, Ting-Shan; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Tewari, Girish C.; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M m A 2 O m+2 ] q CoO 2 , the parent m=0 phases exhibit divergent chemical features but are less understood than the more common m>0 members of the series. Here we synthesize Sr-for-Ca substituted [(Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 ] q CoO 2 zero phases up to x=0.2 through low-temperature hydrothermal conversion of precursor powders of the m=1 misfit system, [Co(Ca 1−x Sr x ) 2 O 3 ] q CoO 2 . In the zero-phase [(Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 ] q CoO 2 system, as the Sr content x increases the lattice expands anisotropically along the c axis such that the ab-plane dimension and the misfit parameter q remain essentially constant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 rock-salt block and together with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and low-temperature resistivity and thermopower measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO 2 block. The higher electrical conductivity of the Sr-substituted phases is explained as a consequence of increased carrier mobility. - Graphical abstract: Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M m A 2 O m+2 ] q CoO 2 , the parent zero (m=0) phases exhibit divergent chemical features. For [(Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 ] q CoO 2 , X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 rock-salt block and together with thermogravimetric and low-temperature transport-property measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO 2 block. - Highlights: • Parent m=0 [M m A 2 O

  16. Cobalt(III)-oxo cubane clusters as catalysts for oxidation of organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been prepared by a general method and these have been characterized by analytical, spectroscopic, electro- chemical and ... alkylaromatics, alkenes and alcohols.1 Several indus- .... us to obtain the cobalt(III)-oxo clusters in good to very.

  17. In situ electrochemical creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets with favorable performance as a high tap density anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qian; Sha, Yujing; Zhao, Bote; Chen, Yubo; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt oxide nanosheets in situ electrochemical generated from commercial LiCoO_2. • TEM indicates creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from coarse layered LiCoO_2_. • Coarse-type LiCoO_2 with high tap density shows promising anode performance. • Optimizing weight ratio of LiCoO_2 in electrode, a high capacity was achieved. - Abstract: Cobalt oxides are attractive alternative anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve the performance of conversion-type anode materials such as cobalt oxides, well dispersed and nanosized particulate morphology is typically required. In this study, we describe the in situ electrochemical generation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from commercial micrometer-sized LiCoO_2 oxide as an anode material for LIBs. The electrode material as prepared was analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. The electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and by a constant current galvanostatic discharge–charge test. The material shows a high tap density and promising anode performance in terms of capacity, rate performance and cycling stability. A capacity of 560 mA h g"−"1 is still achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 by increasing the amount of additives in the electrode to 40 wt%. This paper provides a new technique for developing a high-performance conversion-type anode for LIBs.

  18. Contribution to the study of the oxidation of cobalt and its protoxide in air at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, M.G.

    1964-01-01

    The surface oxidation process of cobalt in air follows, a parabolic law and is characterized between 750 and 1350 deg. C by an activation energy of 41,000 cals/mole. Between 400 and 900 deg. C the oxide film is made up of two layers: CoO next to the metal and Co 3 O 4 on the surface. Above 900 deg. C only CoO remains. The morphological properties of these films have been studied; growth anisotropy, crystallization facies, oxide grain growth, texture, nucleation of Co 3 O 4 on a CoO base round about 900 deg. C. The oxidation of cobalt protoxide between 700 and 910 deg. C results in the building up, on the outside surface of CoO discs, of a usually continuous layer of Co 3 O 4 . Under certain conditions this surface reaction is accompanied by a reaction along the longitudinal symmetry plane of the sample where a layer of Co 3 O 4 of very irregular thickness builds up. (author) [fr

  19. High energy and power density asymmetric supercapacitors using electrospun cobalt oxide nanowire anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Baiju; Aziz, Radhiyah Abd; Misnon, Izan Izwan; Anil Kumar, Gopinathan M.; Ismail, Jamil; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan

    2014-12-01

    Electrochemical materials are under rigorous search for building advanced energy storage devices. Herein, supercapacitive properties of highly crystalline and ultrathin cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowires (diameter ∼30-60 nm) synthesized using an aqueous polymeric solution based electrospinning process are reported. These nanowire electrodes show a specific capacitance (CS) of ∼1110 F g-1 in 6 M KOH at a current density of 1 A g-1 with coulombic efficiency ∼100%. Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) (CS ∼175 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 galvanostatic cycling) are fabricated using the Co3O4 as anode and commercial activated carbon (AC) as cathode and compared their performance with symmetric electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) fabricated using AC (CS ∼31 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 galvanostatic cycling). The Co3O4//AC ASCs deliver specific energy densities (ES) of 47.6, 35.4, 20 and 8 Wh kg-1 at specific power densities (PS) 1392, 3500, 7000 and 7400 W kg-1, respectively. The performance of ASCs is much superior to the control EDLCs, which deliver ES of 9.2, 8.9, 8.4 and 6.8 Wh kg-1 at PS 358, 695, 1400 and 3500 W kg-1, respectively. The ASCs show nearly six times higher energy density (∼47.6 Wh kg-1) than EDLC (8.4 Wh kg-1) without compromising its power density (∼1400 W kg-1) at similar galvanostatic cycling conditions (2 A g-1).

  20. Substrate dependent self-organization of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanowires with remarkable pseudocapacitance

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-05-09

    A scheme of current collector dependent self-organization of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanowires has been used to create unique supercapacitor electrodes, with each nanowire making direct contact with the current collector. The fabricated electrodes offer the desired properties of macroporosity to allow facile electrolyte flow, thereby reducing device resistance and nanoporosity with large surface area to allow faster reaction kinetics. Co 3O 4 nanowires grown on carbon fiber paper collectors self-organize into a brush-like morphology with the nanowires completely surrounding the carbon microfiber cores. In comparison, Co 3O 4 nanowires grown on planar graphitized carbon paper collectors self-organize into a flower-like morphology. In three electrode configuration, brush-like and flower-like morphologies exhibited specific capacitance values of 1525 and 1199 F/g, respectively, at a constant current density of 1 A/g. In two electrode configuration, the brush-like nanowire morphology resulted in a superior supercapacitor performance with high specific capacitances of 911 F/g at 0.25 A/g and 784 F/g at 40 A/g. In comparison, the flower-like morphology exhibited lower specific capacitance values of 620 F/g at 0.25 A/g and 423 F/g at 40 A/g. The Co 3O 4 nanowires with brush-like morphology exhibited high values of specific power (71 kW/kg) and specific energy (81 Wh/kg). Maximum energy and power densities calculated for Co 3O 4 nanowires with flower-like morphology were 55 Wh/kg and 37 kW/kg respectively. Both electrode designs exhibited excellent cycling stability by retaining ∼91-94% of their maximum capacitance after 5000 cycles of continuous charge-discharge. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Scale-Up Design Analysis and Modelling of Cobalt Oxide Silica Membrane Module for Hydrogen Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhao Ji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of a validated mathematical model for gas permeation at high temperatures focusing on demonstrated scale-up design for H2 processing. The model considered the driving force variation with spatial coordinates and the mass transfer across the molecular sieve cobalt oxide silica membrane to predict the separation performance. The model was used to study the process of H2 separation at 500 °C in single and multi-tube membrane modules. Parameters of interest included the H2 purity in the permeate stream, H2 recovery and H2 yield as a function of the membrane length, number of tubes in a membrane module, space velocity and H2 feed molar fraction. For a single tubular membrane, increasing the length of a membrane tube led to higher H2 yield and H2 recovery, owing to the increase of the membrane area. However, the H2 purity decreased as H2 fraction was depleted, thus reducing the driving force for H2 permeation. By keeping the membrane length constant in a multi-tube arrangement, the H2 yield and H2 recovery increase was attributed to the higher membrane area, but the H2 purity was again compromised. Increasing the space velocity avoided the reduction of H2 purity and still delivered higher H2 yield and H2 recovery than in a single membrane arrangement. Essentially, if the membrane surface is too large, the driving force becomes lower at the expense of H2 purity. In this case, the membrane module is over designed. Hence, maintaining a driving force is of utmost importance to deliver the functionality of process separation.

  2. Thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides with interlayers of hydroxide and peroxide species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ta-Lei; Lybeck, Jenni; Chan, Ting-Shan; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Tewari, Girish C.; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-12-01

    Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [MmA2Om+2]qCoO2, the parent m=0 phases exhibit divergent chemical features but are less understood than the more common m>0 members of the series. Here we synthesize Sr-for-Ca substituted [(Ca1-xSrx)z(O,OH)2]qCoO2 zero phases up to x=0.2 through low-temperature hydrothermal conversion of precursor powders of the m=1 misfit system, [Co(Ca1-xSrx)2O3]qCoO2. In the zero-phase [(Ca1-xSrx)z(O,OH)2]qCoO2 system, as the Sr content x increases the lattice expands anisotropically along the c axis such that the ab-plane dimension and the misfit parameter q remain essentially constant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca1-xSrx)z(O,OH)2 rock-salt block and together with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and low-temperature resistivity and thermopower measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca1-xSrx)z(O,OH)2 block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO2 block. The higher electrical conductivity of the Sr-substituted phases is explained as a consequence of increased carrier mobility.

  3. Facile synthesis of cobalt-doped zinc oxide thin films for highly efficient visible light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail: ozlemaltintas@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Arslan, Hanife; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey); Nanotechnology R& D Laboratory, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Photocatalytically active Co-ZnO thin film was obtained by sol-gel method. • Co{sup 2+} doping narrowed the band gap of pure ZnO to an extent of 3.18 eV. • Co-ZnO was effective in MB degradation under visible light. • Optimum dopant content to show high performance was 3 at.%. - Abstract: Cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co:ZnO) thin films with dopant contents ranging from 0 to 5 at.% were prepared using the sol–gel method, and their structural, morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The effect of the dopant content on the photocatalytic properties of the films was investigated by examining the degradation behavior of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and a detailed investigation of their photocatalytic activities was performed by determining the apparent quantum yields (AQYs). Co{sup 2+} ions were observed to be substitutionally incorporated into Zn{sup 2+} sites in the ZnO crystal, leading to lattice parameter constriction and band gap narrowing due to the photoinduced carriers produced under the visible light irradiation. Thus, the light absorption range of the Co:ZnO films was improved compared with that of the undoped ZnO film, and the Co:ZnO films exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity (∼92% decomposition of MB after 60-min visible light irradiation for the 3 at.% Co:ZnO film). The AQYs of the Co:ZnO films were greatly enhanced under visible light irradiation compared with that of the undoped ZnO thin film, demonstrating the effect of the Co doping level on the photocatalytic activity of the films.

  4. Investigation of structure and magnetic properties of cobalt-nickel and manganese ferrites nanoparticles synthesized in direct micelles of sodium dodecyl sulphate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosyuk, V.M.; Mirgorod, Yu.A.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles of transition metals ferrites (cobalt, nickel, manganese) synthesized by unified methods using direct sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles are presented. Crystal structure of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction on DRON-3M (in the CuKa-radiation). Particle size was investigated by transmission electron microscopy on microscope JEOL JEM-1011 (accelerating voltage 100 kV). All powders contain nanoparticles of the same size in the range 2-6 nm. Magnetic properties of the samples were estimated from temperature and field dependences of the magnetization. All samples exhibit properties of superparamagnets with different blocking temperatures below 45 K. (authors).

  5. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis at a Low Pressure on Subnanometer Cobalt Oxide Clusters: The Effect of Cluster Size and Support on Activity and Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; Seifert, Sönke; Winans, Randall E.; Vajda, Stefan

    2015-05-21

    In this study, the catalytic activity and changes in the oxidation state during the Fischer Tropsch (FT) reaction was investigated on subnanometer size-selected cobalt clusters deposited on oxide (Al2O3, MgO) and carbon-based (ultrananocrystalline diamond UNCD) supports by temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) combined with in-situ grazing-incidence X-ray absorption characterization (GIXAS). The activity and selectivity of ultrasmall cobalt clusters exhibits a very strong dependence on cluster size and support. The evolution of the oxidation state of metal cluster during the reaction reveals that metal-support interaction plays a key role in the reaction.

  6. A single α-cobalt hydroxide/sodium alginate bilayer layer-by-layer assembly for conferring flame retardancy to flexible polyurethane foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yuan, Bihe [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Pan, Ying; Feng, Xiaming; Duan, Lijin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zong, Ruowen, E-mail: zongrw@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-04-15

    A layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly coating composed of α-cobalt hydroxide (α-Co(OH){sub 2}) and sodium alginate (SA) is deposited on flexible polyurethane (FPU) foam to reduce its flammability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are employed to prove the LBL assembly process. It is obvious from SEM results that a uniform and rough coating is deposited on FPU foam compared with that of untreated one. The peak intensity of methylene of SA in FITR spectra and typical (003) diffraction peak of α-Co(OH){sub 2} nanosheets at 11.0° in XRD patterns increases gradually with increment of bilayer number. Combustion behavior and toxicity suppression property of samples are characterized by cone calorimeter (under an irradiance of 35 kW m{sup −2}) and Thermogravimetry/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The one and two bilayers (BL) coating on FPU foam can achieve excellent flame retardancy. Compared with untreated sample, the peak heat release rate of the coated FPU foam containing only one BL coating is reduced by 58.7%. The content of gaseous toxic substances during pyrolysis of FPU foam deposited with a single bilayer coating, such as CO and NCO-containing compounds, are reduced by 20.0% and 9.2%, respectively. Besides, the flame retardant mechanism of the coated FPU foam is also revealed. - Highlights: • The α-Co(OH){sub 2} nanosheets are firstly employed in LBL assembly. • A single α-cobalt hydroxide/sodium alginate bilayer LBL assembly for conferring excellent flame retardancy to FPU foam. • The flame retardant mechanism of LBL assembly FPU foam is displayed.

  7. Thermal properties of rare earth cobalt oxides and of La1- x Gd x CoO3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Yu. S.; Dudnikov, V. A.; Gorev, M. V.; Vereshchagin, S. N.; Solov'ev, L. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction data for the crystal structure, phase composition, and molar specific heat for La1‒ x Gd x CoO3 cobaltites in the temperature range of 300-1000 K have been analyzed. The behavior of the volume thermal expansion coefficient in cobaltites with isovalent doping in the temperature range of 100-1000 K is studied. It is found that the β( T) curve exhibits two peaks at some doping levels. The rate of the change in the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions is calculated for the compounds under study taking into account the spin-orbit interaction. With the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, it is demonstrated that the low-temperature peak in the thermal expansion shifts with the growth of the pressure toward higher temperatures and at pressure P ˜ 7 GPa coincides with the second peak. The similarity in the behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient in the La1- x Gd x CoO3 compounds with the isovalent substitution and the undoped LnCoO3 compound (Ln is a lanthanide) is considered. For the whole series of rare earth cobalt oxides, the nature of two specific features in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and thermal expansion is revealed and their relation to the occupation number for the high-spin state of cobalt ions and to the insulator-metal transition is established.

  8. Nanotubes of rare earth cobalt oxides for cathodes of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacanell, Joaquin [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A. Gabriela [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM. Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bellino, Martin G.; Lamas, Diego G. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos), CITEFA-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-04-02

    In this work we studied the electrochemical properties of cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) prepared with nanotubes of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO). Their nanostructures consist of agglomerated nanoparticles in tubular structures of sub-micrometric diameter. The resulting cathodes are highly porous both at the micro- and the nanoscale. This fact increases significantly the access to active sites for the oxygen reduction. We investigated the influence of the diameter of the precursor nanotubes on the polarization resistance of the LSCO cathodes on CeO{sub 2}-10 mol.% Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SDC) electrolytes under air atmosphere, evaluated in symmetrical [LSCO/SDC/LSCO] cells. Our results indicate an optimized performance when the diameter of precursor nanotubes is sufficiently small to become dense nanorods after cathode sintering. We present a phenomenological model that successfully explains the behavior observed and considers that a small starting diameter acts as a barrier that prevents grains growth. This is directly related with the lack of contact points between nanotubes in the precursor, which are the only path for the growth of ceramic grains. We also observed that a conventional sintering process (of 1 h at 1000 C with heating and cooling rates of 10 C min{sup -1}) has to be preferred against a fast firing one (1 or 2 min at 1100 C with heating and cooling rates of 100 C min{sup -1}) in order to reach a higher performance. However, a good adhesion of the cathode can be achieved with both methods. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy diffusion is enhanced while decreasing LSCO particle size. This indicates that the high performance of our nanostructured cathodes is not only related with the increase of the number of active sites for oxygen reduction but also to the fact that the nanotubes are formed by nanoparticles. (author)

  9. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  10. Rhodamine B removal on A-rGO/cobalt oxide nanoparticles composite by adsorption from contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Salam H.; Alshamsi, Hassan A. Habeeb; Jasim, Layth S.

    2018-06-01

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticles@rGO composite is prepared by using graphene oxide (GO) as a supporting substance. GO is first treated with ascorbic acid to form rGO. Finally, cobalt oxide nanoparticles reaction with rGO sheets and using as the adsorbent to removal Rh.B dye from wastewater. The morphology and chemical structure of prepared samples were characterized by FTIR, X-ray spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, TEM, AFM and TGA. The adsorption of Rh.B dye on the A-rGO/Co3O4 composite was accomplished under different conditions that are equilibrium time, pH solution, ionic strength, and temperature. The adsorption isotherms of Rh.B dye on the A-rGO/Co3O4 composite could be illustrated well by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin model. The thermodynamic factors (ΔHo, ΔSo, and ΔGo) estimated from the temperature-dependent isotherms revealed that the adsorption reaction of Rh.B dye on the A-rGO/Co3O4 composite was an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  11. Oxidation reactions catalyzed by cobalt ions in a photocatalytic system based on solutions of lecit hin vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.M.; Lymar, S.V.; Parmon, V.N.; Zamaraev, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The features of the light-induced transfer of electrons through the membranes of lecithin vesicles with an electron carrier, viz., cetyl viologen, incorporated in the lipid bilayer have been studied with the use of the water-soluble trisbipyridyl complex of ruthenium (II) as a photocatalyst. It has been shown that additions of cobalt ions to the systems just indicated are capable of catalyzing the oxidation processes of organic compounds (most probably, of lecithin), the role of the oxidizing agent being played by Ru(bpy) 3 3+ , which forms upon the transfer of an electron to the acceptor Fe(CN) 6 3- through the lipid membrane The possibility of the utilization of the photocatalytic oxidation of water to oxygen under the action of visible light has been discussed

  12. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  13. DC electrical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of various condensation polyimides containing surface cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Boggess, R. K.; Horning, L. S.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Doping polyimides with cobalt ion causes the room temperature direct current electrical resistivity to decrease relative to the polymer alone, the reduction being most pronounced for the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides. At a constant electrical field, resistivity for the volume, air-side and glass-side modes decreases yet further with an increase in temperature as expected for semiconductors and insulators. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides is predominantly Co3O4. The bulk resistivity of the air-side and activation energy of conduction for this surface are comparable to high purity sintered Co3O4. Charging characteristics at room temperature indicate a substantial polymer matrix contribution to both the glass-side and volume mode measurements but a negligible contribution to the air-side electrical properties. Volume electrical resistivity for similar additive levels is reduced by increasing the molecular flexibility of the host polymer.

  14. Toluidine blue-sodium lauryl ether sulfate complexes : Influence of ethylene oxide length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, L.F.W.; Féat, A.; Voets, I.K.; Tuinier, R.

    2017-01-01

    Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfates (SLES) are an increasingly important and versatile type of surfactants. The complexation between ortho-Toluidine blue (TBO) and a homologous series of SLES, including Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SDS) without Ethylene Oxide (EO), has been investigated using visible

  15. Improved Cycling Stability of Cobalt-free Li-rich Oxides with a Stable Interface by Dual Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Dongjiu; Li, Guangshe; Li, Qi; Fu, Chaochao; Fan, Jianming; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt-free Na_xLi_1_._2_-_xMn_0_._6_-_xAl_xNi_0_._2O_2 oxides are prepared by a sol-gel method. • Dual-doping strengthens the covalence of Mn-O bonds and suppresses the side reactions between cathode and electrolyte. • Doped cathode has a capacity retention over 92.2% after 100 cycles at a high temperature of 55 °C. - Abstract: Li-rich cobalt-free oxides, popularly used as a cathode with high capacity in lithium ion battery, always suffer from poor cycling stability between 2.0 and 4.8 V vs Li"+/Li, especially when cycled at high temperatures (>50 °C). To overcome this issue, Na"+ and Al"3"+ dual-doped Na_xLi_1_._2_-_xMn_0_._6_-_xAl_xNi_0_._2O_2 Li-rich cathode is prepared in this study. It is shown that the side reactions between cathode and electrolyte during cycling are suppressed. The improved cycling performance is observed for all of the doped samples, among which the sample with x = 0.03 exhibits the highest capacity retention of 86.1% after 200 cycles between 2.0 and 4.8 V at 2C (1C = 200 mA g"−"1) and shows a remarkable cycling stability, even at a high temperature of 55 °C (a capacity retention of 92.2% after 100 cycles). Moreover, the average voltage of the sample with x = 0.03 after 100 cycles at 0.5C remains at 3.11 V with a retention ratio of 86.6%. This work provides a new strategy to develop Li-rich cobalt-free cathodes with excellent cycling stability for lithium ion batteries at high temperatures.

  16. Fabrication of long-term stable superoleophobic surface based on copper oxide/cobalt oxide with micro-nanoscale hierarchical roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthwal, Sumit; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and cost-effective technique for the large-area fabrication of a superoleophobic surface using copper as a substrate. The whole process included three simple steps: First, the copper substrate was oxidized under hot alkaline conditions to fabricate flower-like copper oxide microspheres by heating at a particular temperature for an interval of time. Second, the copper-oxide-covered copper substrate was further heated in a solution of cobalt nitrate and ammonium nitrate in the presence of an ammonia solution to fabricate cobalt oxide nanostructures. We applied this second step to increase the surface roughness because it is an important criterion for improved superoleophobicity. Finally, to reduce the surface energy of the fabricated structures, the surfaces were chemically modified with perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact-angle measurements indicate that the micro-nano binary (MNB) hierarchical structures fabricated on the copper substrate became super-repellent toward a broad range of liquids with surface tension in the range of 21.5-72 mN/m. In an attempt to significantly improve the superoleophobic property of the surface, we also examined and compared the role of nanostructures in MNB hierarchical structures with only micro-fabricated surfaces. The fabricated MNB hierarchical structures also displays thermal stability and excellent long-term stability after exposure in air for more than 9 months. Our method might provide a general route toward the preparation of novel hierarchical films on metal substrates for various industrial applications.

  17. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  18. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  19. Eco-friendly Oxidative Iodination of Various Arenes with Sodium Percarbonate as the Oxidantâ€

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six easy laboratory procedures are presented for the oxidative iodination ofvarious aromatics, mostly arenes, with either molecular iodine or potassium iodide (usedas the sources of iodinating species, I or I3 , in the presence of sodium percarbonate(SPC, a stable, cheap, easy to handle, and eco-friendly commercial oxidant.

  20. Lanthanum cobalt oxides as models for La-promoted Co/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansteen, Ole Henrik

    1998-12-31

    Cobalt supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have for a long time been interesting catalysts for the synthesis of hydrocarbons by hydrogenation of carbonmonoxide, the so-called Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The reduction and catalytic properties of these catalysts are largely improved by addition of promotors like rhenium and lanthanum. This thesis attempts to provide additional knowledge to the nature of the reduction processes from metal oxides via partially reduced phases into metal and to the large degree of interaction/reaction between the catalyst components. It focuses on detailed studies of model oxides in the La-Co-O and Co-Al-O systems under reducing conditions typically used for the synthesis of the catalysts. 132 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. A high-capacity, low-cost layered sodium manganese oxide material as cathode for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Jian, Zelang; Liu, Pan; Zhu, Yanbei; Guo, Xianwei; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2014-08-01

    A layered sodium manganese oxide material (NaMn3 O5 ) is introduced as a novel cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterizations reveal a typical Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of the synthetic nanosheets. Electrochemical tests reveal a particularly large discharge capacity of 219 mAh g(-1) in the voltage rang of 1.5-4.7 V vs. Na/Na(+) . With an average potential of 2.75 V versus sodium metal, layered NaMn3 O5 exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg(-1) , and also presents good rate capability. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the layered NaMn3 O5 electrode is investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. The results greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries based on earth-abundant elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C.; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-10-19

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li0) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li0) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0x0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  3. Tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphate as electrolyte additive for self-discharge suppression of layered nickel cobalt manganese oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaolin; Zheng, Xiongwen; Chen, Jiawei; Huang, Ziyu; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Lu, Qilun; Li, Xiangfeng; Li, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TMSP is effective for self-discharge suppression of the charged NCM under 4.5 V. • TMSP oxidizes preferentially forming protective cathode interface film on NCM. • The film suppresses electrolyte decomposition and prevents NCM destruction. - Abstract: Application of layered nickel cobalt manganese oxide as cathode under higher potential than conventional 4.2 V yields a significant improvement in energy density of lithium ion battery. However, the cathode fully charged under high potential suffers serious self-discharge, in which the interaction between the cathode and electrolyte proceeds without potential limitation. In this work, we use tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphate (TMSP) as an electrolyte additive to solve this problem. A representative layered nickel cobalt manganese oxide, LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 , is considered. The effect of TMSP on self-discharge behavior of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is evaluated by physical and electrochemical methods. It is found that the self-discharge of charged LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 can be suppressed significantly by using TMSP. TMSP is oxidized preferentially in comparison with the standard electrolyte during initial charging process forming a protective cathode interface film, which avoids the interaction between cathode and electrolyte at any potential and thus prevents electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 from structure destruction.

  4. Electrochemical Oxidation and Detection of Sodium Urate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    3 Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands. ABSTRACT: ... both sodium urate and mixture of urate and tartrate as a cumulative response, in alkaline media, the target ..... electrochemical oxygen demand (EOD) using a.

  5. Local transport of vertically and horizontally emitted sodium oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Miller, C.W.; Cooper, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid-metal-cooled breeder reactors are expected to use large quantities of sodium or sodium-potassium alloy, and evaluation of the possible consequences of a liquid-metal fire, henceforth referred to as a sodium fire, is an important consideration. Of particular interest is the sodium aerosol concentration at the air intake ports that are used for reactor cooling, and which might suffer restricted flow under high aerosol concentrations. The authors have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released vertically and horizontally from building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. This methodology has been used to make calculations that indicate the time development of aerosol buildup, and the maximum aerosol concentration, at air intake ports. Building wake effects, momentum-driven plume rise, and density-driven plume rise are considered

  6. Direct determination by atomic absorption of calcium, cobalt and zinc in nuclear grade uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, O.O.; Amaya, Carlos.

    1975-05-01

    A study has been made of the effect of flame composition (fuel: C 2 H 2 , comburent: air or N 2 O) and location of the burner on the three analytes in a nitric medium, in presence and in absence of uranium. For calcium it was necessary to use N 2 O, while for zinc and cobalt the use of air was found more adequate. The standard additions method for the quantitative determination was adopted. The absorption at the analytical wavelength not corresponding to the elements studied was determined by comparison between this method and another indirect one, using extraction with TBP, and the results were expressed as equivalent concentrations. Confidence intervals of the analytical results were evaluated statistically using a scheme of calculation adapted to the proposed method. This evaluation allowed an estimation of the detection limits (calcium: 5 ppm, cobalt: 3 ppm, zinc: 1 ppm). (author)

  7. Power generation using spinel manganese-cobalt oxide as a cathode catalyst for microbial fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; El-Khatib, K M; El-Gohary, Fatma

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the use of spinel manganese-cobalt (Mn-Co) oxide, prepared by a solid state reaction, as a cathode catalyst to replace platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) applications. Spinel Mn-Co oxides, with an Mn/Co atomic ratios of 0.5, 1, and 2, were prepared and examined in an air cathode MFCs which was fed with a molasses-laden synthetic wastewater and operated in batch mode. Among the three Mn-Co oxide cathodes and after 300 h of operation, the Mn-Co oxide catalyst with Mn/Co atomic ratio of 2 (MnCo-2) exhibited the highest power generation 113 mW/m2 at cell potential of 279 mV, which were lower than those for the Pt catalyst (148 mW/m2 and 325 mV, respectively). This study indicated that using spinel Mn-Co oxide to replace platinum as a cathodic catalyst enhances power generation, increases contaminant removal, and substantially reduces the cost of MFCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrated Aqueous Sodium Tosylate as Green Medium for Alkene Oxidation and Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Tal; Lin, Xiaoxi; Vigalok, Arkadi

    2017-11-03

    A hydrotropic solution of highly concentrated sodium tosylate (NaOTs) can be used as a recyclable medium for the environmentally benign oxidation of conjugated alkenes with H 2 O 2 . Both uncatalyzed and metal-catalyzed reactions provided the corresponding oxidation products in higher yields than in pure water or many common organic solvents.

  9. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begović, Lidija, E-mail: lbegovic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Mlinarić, Selma, E-mail: smlinaric@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Antunović Dunić, Jasenka, E-mail: jantunovic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Katanić, Zorana, E-mail: zkatanic@biologija.unios.hr [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lončarić, Zdenko, E-mail: zdenko.loncaric@pfos.hr [Faculty of Agriculture, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Ulica kralja Petra Svačića 1d, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia); Lepeduš, Hrvoje, E-mail: hlepedus@yahoo.com [Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Lorenza Jägera 9, HR-31000 Osijek (Croatia); Cesar, Vera, E-mail: vcesarus@yahoo.com [Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, H R -31000 Osijek (Croatia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co{sup 2+} concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co{sup 2+} toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co{sup 2+}. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co{sup 2+} especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A}{sup −} and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co{sup 2+} concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  10. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt (Co"2"+) impaired the function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in L. minor L. • Electron transport through PSII components varied depending on Co"2"+ concentration. • K-band was proven to be suitable parameter for investigation of Co"2"+ toxicity. • Increased lipid peroxidation level showed early oxidative damage induced by Co"2"+. - Abstract: The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co"2"+) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1 mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01 mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co"2"+ especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor Q_A"− and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co"2"+ concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals.

  11. The influence of manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Gong, Xinglong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids are synthesized by a two-stage liquid phase method. • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS/PBT composites were prepared via a masterbatch-melt blending method. • Fire hazards are monitored and evaluated by cone calorimeter and TG-IR. • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids decrease thermal hazards and smoke hazards of PBT composites. • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids perform better catalytic oxidation of CO and organic volatile. - Abstract: By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) nano-particles, manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co 3 O 4 –GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O 4 for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide

  12. Combined cycling and calendar capacity fade modeling of a Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide Cell with real-life profile validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hoog, Joris; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a semi-empirical combined lifetime model for a Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) cathode and a graphite anode based cell, considered as one of the most promising candidates for the automotive industry. The development of this model was based on a thorough...

  13. Immobilization of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanqiu; Tu, Baojun

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate. The immobilization conditions and ammonia oxidation ability of the immobilized bacteria were investigated. The following immobilization conditions were observed to be optimal: PVA, 12%; sodium alginate, 1.1%; calcium chloride, 1.0%; inoculum concentration, 1.3 immobilized balls/mL of immobilized medium; pH, 10; and temperature, 30°C. The immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria exhibited strong ammonia oxidation ability even after being recycled four times. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate of the immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria reached 90.30% under the optimal immobilization conditions. When compared with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria immobilized by sodium alginate alone, the bacteria immobilized by PVA and sodium alginate were superior with respect to pH resistance, the number of reuses, material cost, heat resistance, and ammonia oxidation ability. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Precipitation and ion floatation of molybdenum, tungsten, copper, and cobalt compounds by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizhko, V.S.; Shekhirev, D.V.; Ignatkina, V.A.; Alimova, R.Eh.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on application of ion-flotation in purification of low-concentration (less than 10 -3 M) acid solutions from molybdenum, tungsten, copper and cobalt ions. Two collectors, i.e. DEDC and CTMAB have been tested, their optimal consumption is determined. It is shown that CTMAB provides for selective purification from Mo and W ions and allows foam product with little water on flotation in a column to be obtained. But the achieved residual W and Mo concentration of 20 to 10 mg/l require deeper finishing purification in order to meet a sanitary permissible limiting concentration value employing other methods. DEDC provides for sufficient purification from nonferrous metal ions but does not possess selectivity with respect to some metals. The obtained results have shown the possibility to apply ion-flotation in concentration of metal ions in foam product in the process of waste water purification with further finishing purification up to a sanitary permissible limiting concentration value. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  15. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  16. Structural and physical properties of a novel misfit-layered cobalt oxide (CaOH)1.14CoO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Masaaki; Shizuya, Mitsuyuki; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    We have studied crystal structure and physical properties of a new layered cobalt oxide (CaOH) 1.14 CoO 2 . The compound is a composite crystal which consists of two interpenetrating subsystems of the CdI 2 -type CoO 2 layer and the rock-salt-type double CaOH atomic layer. The two subsystems have incommensurate periodicity along the a-axis, resulting in modulated crystal structure due to the inter-subsystem interaction. We found that the observed physical properties originate in the electronic state with a 'low-carrier-density limit' in the cobalt t 2g band

  17. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, M.B.; Shenoi, M.R.K.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author)

  18. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  19. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, M B; Shenoi, M R.K.; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  1. High-temperature Thermoelectric and Microstructural Characteristics of Ga Substituted on the Co-site in Cobalt-based Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Yanagiya, S.; Sonne, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Ga substitution on the Co-site on the high-temperature thermoelectric properties and microstructure are investigated for the misfitlayered Ca3Co4O9 and the complex perovskite-related Sr3RECo4O10.5 (RE = rare earth) cobalt-based oxides. For both systems, substitution of Ga for Co...... results in a simultaneous increase in the Seebeck coefficient (S) and the electrical conductivity (σ), and the influence is more significant in the high temperature region. The power factor (S 2 σ) is thereby remarkably improved by Ga substitution, particularly at high temperatures. Texture factor......0.05O9 shows the best ZT value of 0.45 at 1200 K, which is about 87.5% higher than the nondoped one, a considerable improvement....

  2. Two-electron oxidation of cobalt phthalocyanines by thionyl chloride: Implications for lithium/thionyl chloride batteries. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, P.A.; Lever, A.B.

    1989-10-20

    Cyclic voltammetry, DPV and electronic spectroscopy are used to study the reaction between thionyl chloride and cobalt phthalocyanine. SOCl2 reacts with (Co(I)Tn Pc(2-)) and Co(II)Tn Pc(2-) to give two-electron oxidized species. Implications for Li/SOCl2 batteries are discussed. Thionyl chloride also forms a mono SOCl2 adduct with Co(II)TnPc(2-). Driving forces (Delta E values) were calculated for CoTnPc comproportionation and CoTnPc + SOCl2 reactions. Rest potential measurements of a Li/SOCl2 cells show that addition of AlCl3 stabilizes the LiCl product as LiAlCl4. A catalytic two-electron mechanism is indicated for the reduction of thionyl chloride in a Li/SOCl2/(CoTnPc,C) battery.

  3. In-situ reduction of promoted cobalt oxide supported on alumina by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan, Roya; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    the reactivity of the nanoparticles and the importance of controlling the gas composition and specimen temperature during this type of experiment. Similar behaviour was observed for a non-promoted catalyst. Imaging and analysis of the promoted sample before and after reduction indicated a uniform distribution...... resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The cobalt particles were mainly face centred cubic while some hexagonal close packed particles were also found. Reoxidation of the sample upon cooling to room temperature, still under flowing H2, underlines...

  4. Synthesis and controllable oxidation of monodisperse cobalt-doped wüstite nanoparticles and their core-shell stability and exchange-bias stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kamali, Saeed; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2015-09-14

    Cobalt-doped wüstite (CWT), Co0.33Fe0.67O, nanoparticles were prepared via the thermal decomposition of CoFe2-oleate complexes in organic solvents. A controllable oxidation process was then performed to obtain Co0.33Fe0.67O/CoFe2O4 core-shell structures with different core-to-shell volume ratios and exchange bias properties. The oxidized core-shell samples with a ∼4 nm CoFe2O4 shell showed good resistance to oxygen transmission. Thus, it is inferred that the cobalt ferrite shell provides a better oxidation barrier performance than magnetite in the un-doped case. The hysteresis loops of the oxidized 19 nm samples exhibited a high exchange bias field (H(E)), an enhanced coercivity field (H(C)), and a pronounced vertical shift, thus indicating the presence of a strong exchange bias coupling effect. More importantly, the onset temperature of H(E) was found to be higher than 200 K, which suggests that cobalt doping increases the Néel temperature (T(N)) of the CWT core. In general, the results show that the homogeneous dispersion of Co in iron precursors improves the stability of the final CWT nanoparticles. Moreover, the CoFe2O4 shells formed following oxidation increase the oxidation resistance of the CWT cores and enhance their anisotropy energy.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical sodium and lithium insertion properties of sodium titanium oxide with the tunnel type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kunimitsu; Akimoto, Junji

    2016-02-01

    Polycrystalline sample of sodium titanium oxide Na2Ti4O9 with the tunnel-type structure was prepared by topotactic sodium extraction in air atmosphere from the as prepared Na3Ti4O9 sample. The starting Na3Ti4O9 compound was synthesized by solid state reaction at 1273 K in Ar atmosphere. The completeness of oxidation reaction from Na3Ti4O9 to Na2Ti4O9 was monitored by the change in color from dark blue to white, and was also confirmed by the Rietveld refinement using the powder X-ray diffraction data. The sodium deficient Na2Ti4O9 maintained the original Na2.08Ti4O9-type tunnel structure and had the monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/m, and the lattice parameters of a = 23.1698(3) Å, b = 2.9406(1) Å, c = 10.6038(2) Å, β = 102.422(3)°, and V = 705.57(2) Å3. The electrochemical measurements of thus obtained Na2Ti4O9 sample showed the reversible sodium insertion and extraction reactions at 1.1 V, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V vs. Na/Na+, and reversible lithium insertion and extraction reactions at around 1.4 V, 1.8 V, and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li+. The reversible capacity for the lithium cell was achieved to be 104 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle.

  6. Cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation of tetrabromobisphenol A: Kinetics, reaction pathways, and formation of brominated by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yuefei [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Kong, Deyang [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Nanjing 210042 (China); Lu, Junhe, E-mail: jhlu@njau.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Jin, Hao; Kang, Fuxing; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhou, Quansuo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation of tetrabromobisphenol A. • Phenolic moiety was the reactive site for sulfate radical attack. • Pathways include β-scission, oxidation, debromination and coupling reactions. • Brominated disinfection by-products were found during TBBPA degradation. • Humic acid inhibited TBBPA degradation but promoted DBPs formation. - Abstract: Degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a flame retardant widely spread in the environment, in Co(II) catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation process was systematically explored. The second-order-rate constant for reaction of sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}{sup ·−}) with TBBPA was determined to be 5.27 × 10{sup 10} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. Apparently, degradation of TBBPA showed first-order kinetics to the concentrations of both Co(II) and PMS. The presence of humic acid (HA) and bicarbonate inhibited TBBPA degradation, most likely due to their competition for SO{sub 4}{sup ·−}. Degradation of TBBPA was initiated by an electron abstraction from one of the phenolic rings. Detailed transformation pathways were proposed, including β-scission of isopropyl bridge, phenolic ring oxidation, debromination and coupling reactions. Further oxidative degradation of intermediates in Co(II)/PMS process yielded brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs) such as bromoform and brominated acetic acids. Evolution profile of Br-DBPs showed an initially increasing and then decreasing pattern with maximum concentrations occurring around 6–10 h. The presence of HA enhanced the formation of Br-DBPs significantly. These findings reveal potentially important, but previously unrecognized, formation of Br-DBPs during sulfate radical-based oxidation of bromide-containing organic compounds that may pose toxicological risks to human health.

  7. Effect of relative humidity on growth of sodium oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarajan, A.R.; Mitragotri, D.S.; Mukunda Rao, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Behavior of aerosol resulting from sodium fires in a closed vessel is investigated and the changes in the particle size distribution of the aerosol due to coagulation and humidity have been studied. The initial mass concentration is in the range of 80 -- 500 mg/m 3 and the relative humidity is varied between 50 to 98%. The initial size of the released aerosol is found to be 0.9 μm. Equilibrium diameters of particles growing in humid air have been computed for various humidity levels using water activity of sodium hydroxide. Both theoretical and experimental results have yielded growth ratios of about 3 at about 95% relative humidity. It is recommended that the computer codes dealing with aerosol coagulation behavior in reactor containment should include an appropriate humidity-growth function. (author)

  8. Rapid photo-degradation of 2-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation using cobalt oxide-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajit; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic removal of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from water environment was investigated by TiO2-RGO-CoO. Cobalt oxide-loaded TiO2 (TiO2-CoO) supported with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized using a sol-gel method and then annealed at 500 °C for 5 min. The material characteristics were analyzed by UV-Vis analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Incorporation of cobalt oxide and RGO into the TiO2 system (TiO2-RGO-CoO) lowered the band gap energy to 2.83 eV, which greatly enhanced the visible light absorption. The TiO2-RGO-CoO photocatalyst showed complete removal of 20 mg/L 2-CP within 8 h with the addition of 0.01% H2O2 under 100 W visible light irradiation. The photo-degradation efficiency of 2-CP (10 mg/L) was 35.2, 48.9, 58.9 and 98.2% for TiO2, TiO2-RGO, TiO2-CoO and TiO2-RGO-CoO, respectively, in the presence of visible light irradiation at solution pH of 6.0. The TiO2-RGO-CoO photocatalyst retained its high removal efficiency even after five photocatalytic cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  10. Prompt Burst Energetics in the oxide/sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of twelve Prompt Burst Energetics (PBE) experiments utilizing fresh uranium dioxide fuel pins in stagnant sodium coolant has been performed in Sandia Laboratories' Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR). Results and analysis described in the paper include: observation of FCIs (pressures up to 32 MPa) in the UO 2 /Na system, some apparently triggered by small pressure transients (2 MPa); prediction of failure times via the pin model EXPAND; observed thermal-to-mechanical energy conversion ratios up to approximately 0.4%; and identification of potential reactivity effects caused by the pre- and post-failure motion of fuel

  11. The influence of manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Centre, Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Gong, Xinglong, E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behaviour and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids are synthesized by a two-stage liquid phase method. • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS/PBT composites were prepared via a masterbatch-melt blending method. • Fire hazards are monitored and evaluated by cone calorimeter and TG-IR. • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids decrease thermal hazards and smoke hazards of PBT composites. • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids perform better catalytic oxidation of CO and organic volatile. - Abstract: By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nano-particles, manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}–GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O{sub 4} for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide.

  12. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  13. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  14. p-p Heterojunction of Nickel Oxide-Decorated Cobalt Oxide Nanorods for Enhanced Sensitivity and Selectivity toward Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jun Min; Sohn, Woonbae; Shim, Young-Seok; Choi, Jang-Sik; Song, Young Geun; Kim, Taemin L; Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kwon, Ki Chang; Choi, Kyung Soon; Kang, Chong-Yun; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Jang, Ho Won

    2018-01-10

    The utilization of p-p isotype heterojunctions is an effective strategy to enhance the gas sensing properties of metal-oxide semiconductors, but most previous studies focused on p-n heterojunctions owing to their simple mechanism of formation of depletion layers. However, a proper choice of isotype semiconductors with appropriate energy bands can also contribute to the enhancement of the gas sensing performance. Herein, we report nickel oxide (NiO)-decorated cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) nanorods (NRs) fabricated using the multiple-step glancing angle deposition method. The effective decoration of NiO on the entire surface of Co 3 O 4 NRs enabled the formation of numerous p-p heterojunctions, and they exhibited a 16.78 times higher gas response to 50 ppm of C 6 H 6 at 350 °C compared to that of bare Co 3 O 4 NRs with the calculated detection limit of approximately 13.91 ppb. Apart from the p-p heterojunctions, increased active sites owing to the changes in the orientation of the exposed lattice surface and the catalytic effects of NiO also contributed to the enhanced gas sensing properties. The advantages of p-p heterojunctions for gas sensing applications demonstrated in this work will provide a new perspective of heterostructured metal-oxide nanostructures for sensitive and selective gas sensing.

  15. Adsorption of ethylene carbonate on lithium cobalt oxide thin films: A synchrotron-based spectroscopic study of the surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerle, Mathias; Späth, Thomas; Schulz, Natalia; Hausbrand, René

    2017-11-01

    The surface chemistry of cathodic lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) in contact with the Li-ion battery solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) was studied via synchrotron based soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). By stepwise in-situ adsorption of EC onto an rf-magnetron sputtered LiCoO2 thin film and consecutive recording of SXPS spectra, the chemical and electronic properties of the interface were determined. EC partially decomposes and forms a predominantly organic adlayer. Prolonged exposure results in the formation of a condensed EC layer, demonstrating that the decomposition layer has passivating properties. Lithium ions deintercalate from the electrode and are dissolved in the adsorbate phase, without forming a large amount of Li-containing reaction products, indicating that electrolyte reduction remains limited. Due to a large offset between the LiCoO2 valence band and the EC HOMO, oxidation of EC molecules is unlikely, and should require energy level shifts due to interaction or double layer effects for real systems.

  16. Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane by Cobalt Nickel Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well dispersed magnetically recyclable bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles (NPs supported on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO were synthesized by one-step in situ coreduction of aqueous solution of cobalt(II chloride, nickel (II chloride, and graphite oxide (GO with ammonia borane (AB as the reducing agent under ambient condition. The CoNi/RGO NPs exhibits excellent catalytic activity with a total turnover frequency (TOF value of 19.54 mol H2 mol catalyst−1 min−1 and a low activation energy value of 39.89 kJ mol−1 at room temperature. Additionally, the RGO supported CoNi NPs exhibit much higher catalytic activity than the monometallic and RGO-free CoNi counterparts. Moreover, the as-prepared catalysts exert satisfying durable stability and magnetically recyclability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB, which make the practical reusing application of the catalysts more convenient. The usage of the low-cost, easy-getting catalyst to realize the production of hydrogen under mild condition gives more confidence for the application of ammonia borane as a hydrogen storage material. Hence, this general method indicates that AB can be used as both a potential hydrogen storage material and an efficient reducing agent, and can be easily extended to facile preparation of other RGO-based metallic systems.

  17. A Critical Review of Spinel Structured Iron Cobalt Oxides Based Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron cobalt oxides, such as typical FeCo2O4 and CoFe2O4, are two spinel structured transitional metal oxide materials with excellent electrochemical performance. As the electrodes, they have been widely applied in the current energy storage and conversion processes such as supercapacitors, Lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. Based on synthesis approaches and controlled conditions, these two materials exhibited broad morphologies and nanostructures and thus distinct electrochemical performance. Some of them have shown promising applications as electrodes in energy storage and conversion. The incorporation with other materials to form composites further improved their performance. This review briefly summarized the recent applications of FeCo2O4 and CoFe2O4 in energy storage and conversion, current understandings on mechanisms and especially the relevance of morphologies and structures and composites to electrochemical performance. Some recommendations were finally put forward addressing current issues and future prospects on electrodes of FeCo2O4 and CoFe2O4 based materials in energy storage and conversion, implying there was still space to further optimize their performance.

  18. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  19. Contribution to the study of the oxidation of cobalt and its protoxide in air at high temperatures; Contribution a l'etude de l'oxydation du cobalt et de son protoxyde dans l'air aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, M G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-01-15

    The surface oxidation process of cobalt in air follows, a parabolic law and is characterized between 750 and 1350 deg. C by an activation energy of 41,000 cals/mole. Between 400 and 900 deg. C the oxide film is made up of two layers: CoO next to the metal and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} on the surface. Above 900 deg. C only CoO remains. The morphological properties of these films have been studied; growth anisotropy, crystallization facies, oxide grain growth, texture, nucleation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} on a CoO base round about 900 deg. C. The oxidation of cobalt protoxide between 700 and 910 deg. C results in the building up, on the outside surface of CoO discs, of a usually continuous layer of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Under certain conditions this surface reaction is accompanied by a reaction along the longitudinal symmetry plane of the sample where a layer of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} of very irregular thickness builds up. (author) [French] Le processus d'oxydation superficielle du cobalt dans l'air obeit a une loi parabolique et peut etre caracterise, entre 750 et 1350 deg. C, par une energie d'activation de 41 000 calorie s /mole. Entre 400 et 900 deg. C, la pellicule d'oxyde est constituee de deux couches superposees de CoO, au contact du metal et de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} en surface. Au-dessus de 900 deg. C, seul subsiste CoO. On a etudie les proprietes morphologiques de ces pellicules: anisotropie de croissance, facies de cristallisation, croissance des grains d'oxyde, texture, germination de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} sur un support de CoO au voisinage de 900 deg. C. L'oxydation du protoxyde de cobalt entre 700 et 910 deg. C se traduit par l'edification, sur la surface exterieure des plaquettes de CoO, d'une couche en general continue de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Dans certaines conditions, a cette reaction superficielle se superpose parfois une reaction suivant le plan de symetrie longitudinal de l'echantillon ou s'edifie alors une couche de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} d'epaisseur tres irreguliere. (auteur)

  20. Self-Assembled Hierarchical Formation of Conjugated 3D Cobalt Oxide Nanobead-CNT-Graphene Nanostructure Using Microwaves for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Pratap; Yadav, Ram Manohar

    2015-07-15

    Here we report the electrochemical performance of a interesting three-dimensional (3D) structures comprised of zero-dimensional (0D) cobalt oxide nanobeads, one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene, stacked hierarchically. We have synthesized 3D self-assembled hierarchical nanostructure comprised of cobalt oxide nanobeads (Co-nb), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene nanosheets (GNSs) for high-performance supercapacitor electrode application. This 3D self-assembled hierarchical nanostructure Co3O4 nanobeads-CNTs-GNSs (3D:Co-nb@CG) is grown at a large scale (gram) through simple, facile, and ultrafast microwave irradiation (MWI). In 3D:Co-nb@CG nanostructure, Co3O4 nanobeads are attached to the CNT surfaces grown on GNSs. Our ultrafast, one-step approach not only renders simultaneous growth of cobalt oxide and CNTs on graphene nanosheets but also institutes the intrinsic dispersion of carbon nanotubes and cobalt oxide within a highly conductive scaffold. The 3D:Co-nb@CG electrode shows better electrochemical performance with a maximum specific capacitance of 600 F/g at the charge/discharge current density of 0.7A/g in KOH electrolyte, which is 1.56 times higher than that of Co3O4-decorated graphene (Co-np@G) nanostructure. This electrode also shows a long cyclic life, excellent rate capability, and high specific capacitance. It also shows high stability after few cycles (550 cycles) and exhibits high capacitance retention behavior. It was observed that the supercapacitor retained 94.5% of its initial capacitance even after 5000 cycles, indicating its excellent cyclic stability. The synergistic effect of the 3D:Co-nb@CG appears to contribute to the enhanced electrochemical performances.

  1. Articulation of Native Cartilage Against Different Femoral Component Materials. Oxidized Zirconium Damages Cartilage Less Than Cobalt-Chrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlommel, Jan; De Corte, Ronny; Luyckx, Jean Philippe; Anderson, Melissa; Labey, Luc; Bellemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is produced by thermally driven oxidization creating an oxidized surface with the properties of a ceramic at the top of the Zr metal substrate. OxZr is much harder and has a lower coefficient of friction than cobalt-chrome (CoCr), both leading to better wear characteristics. We evaluated and compared damage to the cartilage of porcine patella plugs, articulating against OxZr vs CoCr. Our hypothesis was that, owing to its better wear properties, OxZr would damage cartilage less than CoCr. If this is true, OxZr might be a better material for the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty if the patella is not resurfaced. Twenty-one plugs from porcine patellae were prepared and tested in a reciprocating pin-on-disk machine while lubricated with bovine serum and under a constant load. Three different configurations were tested: cartilage-cartilage as the control group, cartilage-OxZr, and cartilage-CoCr. Macroscopic appearance, cartilage thickness, and the modified Mankin score were evaluated after 400,000 wear cycles. The control group showed statistically significant less damage than plugs articulating against both other materials. Cartilage plugs articulating against OxZr were statistically significantly less damaged than those articulating against CoCr. Although replacing cartilage by an implant always leads to deterioration of the cartilage counterface, OxZr results in less damage than CoCr. The use of OxZr might thus be preferable to CoCr in case of total knee arthroplasty without patella resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isotopic exchange rate of sodium ions between hydrous metal oxides and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    1991-01-01

    To elucidate the kinetics of ion-exchange reaction on hydrous metal oxide, the isotopic exchange rates of sodium ions between hydrous metal oxides such as hydrous tin (IV), niobium (V), zirconium (IV) and titanium (IV) oxides, and aqueous solutions were measured radiochemically and compared with each other. The rate of reaction cannot be understood by an unified view since the rate controlling step differs with the kind of exchangers. The rate constants relevant to each exchanger such as diffusion constants and their activation energies were also determined. (author)

  3. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles as a novel high-efficiency fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shamizadeh, Mohammad; Moradian, Rostam; Astinchap, Bandar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were introduced as a novel SPME fiber coating. • The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of BTEX in combination with GC–MS. • The fiber showed extraction efficiencies better than a PDMS fiber toward BTEX. • The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX in real samples. - Abstract: In this work cobalt oxide nanoparticles were introduced for preparation of a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique was used in order for synthesis and immobilization of the Co 3 O 4 nanomaterials on a Pt wire for fabrication of SPME fiber. The prepared cobalt oxide coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in combination with GC–MS. A simplex optimization method was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the proposed fiber showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those of a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber toward the BTEX compounds. The repeatability of the fiber and its reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than about 11%. No significant change was observed in the extraction efficiency of the new SPME fiber after over 50 extractions. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX compounds in real samples. The proposed nanostructure cobalt oxide fiber is a promising alternative to the commercial fibers as it is robust, inexpensive and easily prepared

  4. Response of Lemna minor L. to short-term cobalt exposure: The effect on photosynthetic electron transport chain and induction of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Antunović Dunić, Jasenka; Katanić, Zorana; Lončarić, Zdenko; Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Cesar, Vera

    2016-06-01

    The effect of two concentrations of cobalt (Co(2+)) on photosynthetic activity and antioxidative response in Lemna minor L. were assessed 24, 48 and 72h after the start of the exposure. Higher concentration of cobalt (1mM) induced growth inhibition while lower concentration (0.01mM) increased photosynthetic pigments content. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients revealed high sensitivity of photosystem II primary photochemistry to excess of Co(2+) especially at the higher concentration where decreased electron transport beyond primary quinone acceptor QA(-) and impaired function of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was observed. Due to impairment of OEC, oxygen production was decreased at higher Co(2+) concentration. Activity of superoxide dismutase was mainly inhibited while lipid peroxidation increased, at both concentrations, indicating that cobalt-induced oxidative damage after short exposure and moreover, susceptibility of the membranes in the cell to cobalt toxicity. Results obtained in this study suggest possible application of used parameters as tools in assessment of early damage caused by metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary sodium loading impairs microvascular function independent of blood pressure in humans: role of oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Jody L; DuPont, Jennifer J; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L; Sanders, Paul W; Edwards, David G; Farquhar, William B

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have reported dietary salt-induced reductions in vascular function independent of increases in blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term dietary sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function in normotensive adults with salt resistance. Following a control run-in diet, 12 normotensive adults (31 ± 2 years) were randomized to a 7 day low-sodium (LS; 20 mmol day−1) and 7 day high-sodium (HS; 350 mmol day−1) diet (controlled feeding study). Salt resistance, defined as a ≤5 mmHg change in 24 h mean BP determined while on the LS and HS diets, was confirmed in all subjects undergoing study (LS: 84 ± 1 mmHg vs. HS: 85 ± 2 mmHg; P > 0.05). On the last day of each diet, subjects were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres for the local delivery of Ringer solution and 20 mm ascorbic acid (AA). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure red blood cell flux during local heating-induced vasodilatation (42°C). After the established plateau, 10 mm l-NAME was perfused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. All data were expressed as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) at each site (28 mm sodium nitroprusside; 43°C). Sodium excretion increased during the HS diet (P sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function independent of BP in normotensive adults and suggest a role for oxidative stress. PMID:22907057

  6. Moessbauer effect study of oxidation and coordination states of iron in some sodium borate glasse:;

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Sanad, A.M.; Youssef, S.M.; El-Henawii, S.A.; Gomaa, S.Sh.; Mostafa, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A structural study of some sodium borate glasses containing iron was carried out applying ME spectroscopy. Both oxidation and coordination states of iron were investigated under the effect of gradual replacing of sodium carbonate by sodium nitrate in the glass batches. The glasses were melted in porcelain crucibles using an electrically heated furnace at 1000+-10 deg C, then were quenched on a steel plate at room temperature (R.T.). The ME source was 20 mCi radioactive Co-57 in chromium. The obtained ME spectra indicated that at lower sodium nitrate content both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ are present in these glasses. At moderate concentrations some Fe 3+ ions were separated in a crystalline phase and the rest of the iron ions appeared as ferric ions in glassy state. At high sodium nitrate content only Fe 3+ ions in glassy state were detected. The values of the ME parameters for all iron ions indicated that all of them are in the octahedral coordination state. The density measurements confirm the separation of a crystalline phase at moderate sodium nitrate content. (author)

  7. Green synthesis of cobalt (II, III) oxide nanoparticles using Moringa Oleifera natural extract as high electrochemical electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinise, N.; Mayedwa, N.; Fuku, X. G.; Mongwaketsi, N.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    The research work involved the development of a better, inexpensive, reliable, easily and accurate way for the fabrication of Cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles through a green synthetic method using Moringa Oleifera extract. The electrochemical activity, crystalline structure, morphology, isothermal behaviour and optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles were studied using various characterization techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles. The pseudo-capacitor behaviour of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles on Nickel foam electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3M KOH solution. The CV curve revealed a pairs of redox peaks, indicating the pseudo-capacitive characteristics of the Ni/Co3O4 electrode. EIS results showed a small semicircle and Warburg impedance, indicating that the electrochemical process on the surface electrode is kinetically and diffusion controlled. The charge-discharge results indicating that the specific capacitance Ni/Co3O4 electrode is approximately 1060 F/g at a discharge current density of at 2 A/g.

  8. Decoration of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide with cobalt tungstate nanoparticles for use in high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Hamid Reza; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    A composite of cobalt tungstate nanoparticles coated on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CoWO4/NRGO) was prepared through an in situ sonochemical approach. The composite was next evaluated as an electrode material for use supercapacitors electrodes. The characterization of the various CoWO4/NRGO nanocomposite samples was carried out through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and Raman spectroscopy. Complementary studies were also performed through cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV). The electrochemical evaluations were carried out in a 2 M H2SO4 solution as the electrolyte. The electrochemical evaluations on the nano-composite samples indicated that CoWO4/NRGO-based electrodes reveal enhanced supercapacitive characteristics (i.e. a high specific capacitance (SC) of 597 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1, an energy density (ED) value of 67.9 W h kg-1, and high rate capability). CCV studies indicated that CoWO4/NRGO-based electrodes keep 97.1% of their original capacitance after 4000 cycles. The results led to the conclusion that CoWO4/NRGO effectively merge the merits of CoWO4 and CoWO4/RGO in one new nanocomposite material.

  9. Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Flower Like Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures on Nickel Plate and Its Supercapacitance Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, N; Venugopal, T; Kannan, K

    2018-06-01

    A flower like cobalt oxide nanostructured thin film (Co2O3) on Nickel (Ni) plate as have been successfully developed via alcoholic Seed Layer assisted chemical bath Deposition (SLD) process. Through the controlled alkaline electrolytes, the flower and paddles like Co2O3 nanoarchitectures were formed. The prepared thin film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM and EDX), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy techniques. Electron micrograph reveals the flower and paddles like nanostructured Co2O3 thin film deposited on Ni plates. The electrochemical characteristics were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge and AC impedance spectroscopy in different aqueous electrolytes such as NaOH, KOH, and LiOH. The maximum specific capacitance of 856 Fg-1 was attained with 2 M KOH electrolyte with 2 mVs-1 of the Co2O3 thin film coated Ni plate at 80 °C using SLD method. The capacitance values obtained with various electrolytes are in the order of KOH > NaOH > LiOH. The results indicate that the present method is economical and the material is ecofriendly with enhanced capacitance property.

  10. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of screen-printed thick-films of misfit-layered cobalt oxides with Ag addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Samson, Alfred Junio; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of thick (~60 μm) films prepared by a screen-printing technique using p-type misfit-layered cobalt oxide Ca3Co4O9+δ with Ag addition have been studied. The screen-printed films were sintered in air at various temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1223 K. After each sintering...... process, crystal and microstructure analyses were carried out to determine the optimal sintering condition. The results show that the thermoelectric properties of pure Ca3Co4O9+δ thick film are comparable to those of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) samples. We found that the maximum power factor...... was improved by about 67% (to 0.3 mW/m K2) for film with proper silver (Ag) metallic inclusions as compared with 0.18 mW/m K2 for pure Ca3Co4O9+δ film under the same sintering condition of 1223 K for 2 h in air....

  11. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  12. Transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking of sodium caseinate improves oxidative stability of flaxseed oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hairan; Forssell, Pirkko; Kylli, Petri; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Buchert, Johanna; Boer, Harry; Partanen, Riitta

    2012-06-20

    Sodium caseinate was modified by transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking reaction prior to the emulsification process in order to study the effect of cross-linking on the oxidative stability of protein stabilized emulsions. The extent of the cross-linking catalyzed by different dosages of transglutaminase was investigated by following the ammonia production during the reaction and using SDS-PAGE gel. O/W emulsions prepared with the cross-linked and non-cross-linked sodium caseinates were stored for 30 days under the same conditions. Peroxide value measurement, oxygen consumption measurement, and headspace gas chromatography analysis were used to study the oxidative stability of the emulsions. The emulsion made of the cross-linked sodium caseinate showed an improved oxidative stability with reduced formation of fatty acid hydroperoxides and volatiles and a longer period of low rate oxygen consumption. The improving effect of transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking could be most likely attributed to the enhanced physical stability of the interfacial protein layer against competitive adsorption by oil oxidation products.

  13. Sodium oxide and uranium oxide aerosol experiments: NSPP Tests 106-108 and Tests 204-207, data record report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.E.; Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    This data record report describes three sodium oxide aerosol tests and four uranium oxide aerosol tests conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to establish the validity (or level of conservatism) of the aerosol behavioral code, HAARM-3, and follow-on codes under development at the Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Descriptions of the seven tests with tables and graphs summarizing the results are included. 92 figs.

  14. Epitaxial thin film growth and properties of unconventional oxide superconductors. Cuprates and cobaltates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krockenberger, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductors has strongly driven the development of suited thin film fabrication methods of complex oxides. One way is the adaptation of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for the growth of oxide materials. Another approach is the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which has the advantage of good stoichiometry transfer from target to the substrate. Both techniques are used within this thesis. Epitaxial thin films of new materials are of course needed for future applications. In addition, the controlled synthesis of thin film matter which can be formed far away from thermal equilibrium allows for the investigation of fundamental physical materials properties. (orig.)

  15. Epitaxial thin film growth and properties of unconventional oxide superconductors. Cuprates and cobaltates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krockenberger, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductors has strongly driven the development of suited thin film fabrication methods of complex oxides. One way is the adaptation of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for the growth of oxide materials. Another approach is the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which has the advantage of good stoichiometry transfer from target to the substrate. Both techniques are used within this thesis. Epitaxial thin films of new materials are of course needed for future applications. In addition, the controlled synthesis of thin film matter which can be formed far away from thermal equilibrium allows for the investigation of fundamental physical materials properties. (orig.)

  16. Crystal structure of the sodium cobaltate deuterate superconductor NaxCoO2ṡ4xD2O (x≈1/3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D. G.; Burley, J. C.; Short, S.

    2003-12-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na0.31(3)CoO2ṡ1.25(2)D2O and its anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2. The anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2 has two partially occupied Na sites sandwiched, in the same plane, between CoO2 layers. When Na is removed to make the superconducting composition, the Na site that experiences the strongest Na Co repulsion is emptied while the occupancy of the other Na site is reduced to about one third. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D2O molecules (two above and two below) to each remaining Na ion in a way that gives Na O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D2O molecule is hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in the CoO2 plane and the oxygen atom and the second deuteron of each D2O molecule lie approximately in a plane between the Na layer and the CoO2 layers. This coordination of Na by four D2O molecules leads in a straightforward way to ordering of the Na ions and D2O molecules consistent with the observation of additional shorter-range scattering features in the diffraction data. The sample studied here, which has Tc=4.5 K, has a refined composition of Na0.31(3)CoO2ṡ1.25(2)D2O, in agreement with the expected 1:4 ratio of Na to D2O. These results show that the optimal superconducting composition should be viewed as a specific hydrated compound, not a solid solution of Na and D2O (H2O) in NaxCoO2ṡD2O. The hydrated superconducting compound may be stable over a limited range of Na and D2O concentration, but studies of Tc and other physical properties vs Na or D2O composition should be viewed with caution until it is verified that the compound remains in the same phase over the composition range of the study.

  17. Crystal structure of the sodium cobaltate deuterate superconductor NaxCoO2·4xD2O (x≅(1/3))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D.G.; Burley, J.C.; Short, S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na 0.31(3) CoO 2 ·1.25(2)D 2 O and its anhydrous parent compound Na 0.61(1) CoO 2 . The anhydrous parent compound Na 0.61(1) CoO 2 has two partially occupied Na sites sandwiched, in the same plane, between CoO 2 layers. When Na is removed to make the superconducting composition, the Na site that experiences the strongest Na-Co repulsion is emptied while the occupancy of the other Na site is reduced to about one third. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D 2 O molecules (two above and two below) to each remaining Na ion in a way that gives Na-O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D 2 O molecule is hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in the CoO 2 plane and the oxygen atom and the second deuteron of each D 2 O molecule lie approximately in a plane between the Na layer and the CoO 2 layers. This coordination of Na by four D 2 O molecules leads in a straightforward way to ordering of the Na ions and D 2 O molecules consistent with the observation of additional shorter-range scattering features in the diffraction data. The sample studied here, which has T c =4.5 K, has a refined composition of Na 0.31(3) CoO 2 ·1.25(2)D 2 O, in agreement with the expected 1:4 ratio of Na to D 2 O. These results show that the optimal superconducting composition should be viewed as a specific hydrated compound, not a solid solution of Na and D 2 O (H 2 O) in Na x CoO 2 ·D 2 O. The hydrated superconducting compound may be stable over a limited range of Na and D 2 O concentration, but studies of T c and other physical properties vs Na or D 2 O composition should be viewed with caution until it is verified that the compound remains in the same phase over the composition range of the study

  18. Cobalt immobilization by manganese oxidizing bacteria from the Indian ridge system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, R.; Sujith, P.P.; Fernandes, S.O.; Verma, P.; Khedekar, V.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Co immobilization by two manganese oxidizing isolates from Carlsberg Ridge waters (CR35 and CR48) was compared with that of Mn at same molar concentrations. At a lower concentration of 10 mu M, CR35 and CR48 immobilized 22 and 23 fM Co cell-1...

  19. Pick up of cesium and cobalt activity by oxide sludge in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufus, A.L.; Subramanian, H.; Velmurugan, S.; Santanu Bera; Narasimhan, S.V.; Reddy, G.L.N.; Sankara Sastry, V.

    2002-01-01

    A pinhole developed near the tube sheet in the steam generator (SG) tube of a pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) caused leak of primary coolant containing radioactive contaminants ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co) to the shell side. The sludge collected from the tube sheet region was found to have adsorbed these radionuclides at the high temperature (230-240 deg C) that prevailed in the SG. An attempt has been made to evaluate the quantity of activity retained in the various oxide phases that constitute the sludge and their mode of pick-up. The sludge was characterized by XRD and XPS, which showed the presence of various oxides of iron, copper and nickel along with the silicates of calcium, magnesium and aluminium. Gamma-spectrometry of the sludge confirmed the presence of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co to an extent of 7.6, 1.3 and 0.9 μCi/g of sludge, respectively. Selective dissolution in various EDTA based formulations and equilibration with nitric acid and magnesium chloride solutions helped to understand the quantity of activity adsorbed by various constituents of the sludge. It was concluded that a major portion of cesium was picked up by a reversible ion exchange process on various oxide constituents and about 10% by an irreversible specific adsorption process on insoluble silicates. Also, it was proved that 60 Co was specifically adsorbed over the oxides of iron and nickel. (author)

  20. Catalytic oxidation of cyanides in an aqueous phase over individual and manganese-modified cobalt oxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, St.; Stoyanova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility for purification of wastewaters containing free cyanides by applying of a new method based on cyanides catalytic oxidation with air to CO 2 and N 2 at low temperature and atmospheric pressure was investigated. On this purpose, individual and modified with manganese Co-oxide systems as active phase of environmental catalysts were synthesized. The applied method of synthesis favours the preparation of oxide catalytic systems with high active oxygen content (total-O* and surface-O* s ) possessing high mobility, and the metal ions being in a high oxidation state and in an octahedral coordination-factors determining high activity in reactions of complete oxidation. The catalysts employed were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The effect of pH of the medium and catalyst loading on the effectiveness of the cyanide oxidation process, expressed by the degree of conversion (α, %), by the rate constant (k, min -1 ), and COD was studied. The results obtained reveal that using catalysts investigated a high cyanide removal efficiency could be achieved even in strong alkaline medium. The higher activity of the manganese promoted catalytic sample could be explained on the basis of higher total active oxygen content and its higher mobility both depending on the conditions, under which the synthesis of catalyst is being carried out.

  1. Prediction of Isoelectric Point of Manganese and Cobalt Lamellar Oxides: Application to Controlled Synthesis of Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Céline; Giaume, Domitille; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Lefèvre, Grégory; Barboux, Philippe

    2018-05-30

    To design novel layered materials, bottom-up strategy is very promising. It consists of (1) synthesizing various layered oxides, (2) exfoliating them, then (3) restacking them in a controlled way. The last step is based on electrostatic interactions between different layered oxides and is difficult to control. The aim of this study is to facilitate this step by predicting the isoelectric point (IEP) of exfoliated materials. The Multisite Complexation model (MUSIC) was used for this objective and was shown to be able to predict IEP from the mean oxidation state of the metal in the (hydr)oxides, as the main parameter. Moreover, the effect of exfoliation on IEP has also been calculated. Starting from platelets with a high basal surface area over total surface area, we show that the exfoliation process has no impact on calculated IEP value, as verified with experiments. Moreover, the restacked materials containing different monometallic (hydr)oxide layers also have an IEP consistent with values calculated with the model. This study proves that MUSIC model is a useful tool to predict IEP of various complex metal oxides and hydroxides.

  2. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, M.; Laucournet, R.; Billy, E.

    2014-02-01

    A hydrometallurgical process is developed to recover valuable metals of the lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Effect of parameters such as type of acid (H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl), acid concentration (1-4 mol L-1), leaching time (3-18 h) and leaching temperature (25-90 °C) with a solid to liquid ratio fixed at 5% (w/v) are investigated to determine the most efficient conditions of dissolution. The preliminary results indicate that HCl provides higher leaching efficiency. In optimum conditions, a complete dissolution is performed for Li, Ni, Co and Al. In the nickel and cobalt recovery process, at first the Co(II) in the leaching liquor is selectively oxidized in Co(III) with NaClO reagent to recover Co2O3, 3H2O by a selective precipitation at pH = 3. Then, the nickel hydroxide is precipitated by a base addition at pH = 11. The recovery efficiency of cobalt and nickel are respectively 100% and 99.99%.

  3. Surface modification of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by glycerol assisted oxidation with sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Samnani, Mohit D.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2018-01-01

    Need for improvement in water flux of thin film composite (TFC) RO membrane has been appreciated by researchers world over and surface modification approach is found promising to achieve higher water flux and solute rejection. Thin film composite RO membrane was exposed to 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution with varying concentrations of glycerol ranging from 1 to 10%. It was found that there was a drop in concentration of sodium hypochlorite after the addition of glycerol because of a new compound resulted from the oxidation of glycerol with sodium hypochlorite. The water flux of the membrane treated with 1% glycerol with 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite for 1 h was about 22% more and salt rejection was 1.36% greater than that of only sodium hypochlorite treated membrane for the same concentration and time. There was an increase in salt rejection of membrane with increase in concentration of glycerol from 1% to 5%, however, increasing glycerol concentration further up to 10%, the salt rejection declined. The water flux was found declining from 1% glycerol solution to 10% glycerol solution. The membrane samples were characterized to understand the change in chemical structure and morphology of the membrane.

  4. Sodium nitrite: the "cure" for nitric oxide insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Bryan, Nathan S

    2012-11-01

    This process of "curing" food is a long practice that dates back thousands of years long before refrigeration or food safety regulations. Today food safety and mass manufacturing are dependent upon safe and effective means to cure and preserve foods including meats. Nitrite remains the most effective curing agent to prevent food spoilage and bacterial contamination. Despite decades of rigorous research on its safety and efficacy as a curing agent, it is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite that is currently being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide (NO) insufficiency. Much of the same biochemistry that has been understood for decades in the meat industry has been rediscovered in human physiology. This review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and highlight the risk benefit evaluation surrounding nitrite in food and meat products. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of iron and copper doped manganese cobalt spinel oxides as protective coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talic, Belma; Molin, Sebastian; Wiik, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    MnCo2O4, MnCo1.7Cu0.3O4 and MnCo1.7Fe0.3O4 are investigated as coatings for corrosion protection of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Electrophoretic deposition is used to deposit the coatings on Crofer 22 APU alloy. All three coating materials reduce the parabolic oxidation...... rate in air at 900 °C and 800 °C. At 700 °C there is no significant difference in oxidation rate between coated samples and uncoated pre-oxidized Crofer 22 APU. The cross-scale area specific resistance (ASR) is measured in air at 800 °C using La0.85Sr0.1Mn1.1O3 (LSM) contact plates to simulate...... contain significant amounts of Cr after aging, while all three coatings effectively prevent Cr diffusion into the LSM. A complex Cr-rich reaction layer develops at the coating-alloy interface during oxidation. Cu and Fe doping reduce the extent of this reaction layer at 900 °C, while at 800 °C the effect...

  6. The behaviour of cesium 137, chromium 51, cobalt 60, Manganese 54, sodium 22 and zinc 65 in simulated estuarine environments. Effects of suspended mineral particles and dissolved organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.

    1985-09-01

    This laboratory investigation studied the retention of 6 radionuclides (cesium 137, chrome 51, cobalt 60, manganese 54, sodium 22 and zinc 65) on three types of clay particles (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite) and on sediments, suspended in media with salinities ranging between 0 and 34 per mill, with or without organic matters. Measurement of the radioactivity retained by the particles after 5 days' contact with the radionuclide made it possible to calculate the percentages retained and the distribution coefficients, and to follow their evolution versus salinity. Parallel experiments studied the behaviours of the 6 radionuclides as a function of experimental factors (wall effect, contact time..). An exhaustive bibliographic review gives the state-of-the-art of the knowledge. The following conclusions were derived: - the retention of all the radionuclides but chromium 51 decreased as soon as a low salinity appeared. Chromium (available as Cr 3+ ) precipitated quickly and strongly during fixation whatever the surfaces or the conditions: - as for the role of the clay type, illite showed a strong affinity for cesium 137; manganese 54 had a particular behaviour with montmorillonite that enhanced its precipitation into MnO 2 ; with cobalt, sodium and zinc, the percentages retained were always [fr

  7. Inhibition by sodium nitroprusside of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotto, S; Cuzzolin, L; Adami, A; Del Soldato, P; Suzuki, H; Benoni, G

    1995-01-01

    A well-known nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), decreases in a dose-dependent manner NO synthase (NOS) activity induced in rat neutrophils by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This inhibitory action of SNP seems not to be due to its direct effect on the enzyme activity. The strong nitrosonium ion (NO+) character of SNP could be responsible for its inhibition of NOS induction in neutrophils.

  8. Inhibition by sodium nitroprusside of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, S; Cuzzolin, L; Adami, A; Del Soldato, P; Suzuki, H; Benoni, G

    1995-01-01

    A well-known nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), decreases in a dose-dependent manner NO synthase (NOS) activity induced in rat neutrophils by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This inhibitory action of SNP seems not to be due to its direct effect on the enzyme activity. The strong nitrosonium ion (NO+) character of SNP could be responsible for its inhibition of NOS induction in neutrophils. PMID:7542530

  9. Evaluation of nitrous oxide-oxygen and triclofos sodium as conscious sedative agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conscious sedation is used in the pediatric dentistry to reduce fear and anxiety in children and promote favorable treatment outcomes. To achieve them, the primary clinical need is for a well-tolerated, effective, and expedient analgesic and sedative agent that is safe to use. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of nitrous oxide-oxygen and triclofos sodium as conscious sedative agents in 5–10-year-old children. Methodology: Sixty children aged 5–10 years showing anxious, uncooperative, and apprehensive behavior were randomly divided and assigned into two groups (Groups A and B such that Group A received 40% nitrous oxide-60% oxygen and Group B received triclofos sodium in the dose of 70 mg/kg body weight, given 30 min before the treatment procedure. During the whole course of sedation procedure, the response of the child was assessed using Houpt's behavior rating scale. The acceptance of route of drug administration by the patient and parent was also assessed. Data obtained were statistically evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. Results: Children sedated with triclofos sodium were significantly more drowsy and disoriented compared to those sedated with nitrous oxide. The overall behavior of children in both the groups was similar. Good parental acceptance was observed for both the routes of administration. Patients accepted the oral route significantly better than inhalation route. Conclusion: Both nitrous oxide-oxygen and triclofos sodium were observed to be effective sedative agents, for successful and safe use in 5–10-year-old dental patients. Patients showed a good acceptance of the oral route compared to the inhalation route for sedation.

  10. Back-illuminated Si-based photoanode with nickel cobalt oxide catalytic protection layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    as a protective catalyst for the water oxidation reaction in 1 m KOH. The sample showed a high photocurrent (21 mA cm−2) under red-light illumination (38.6 mW cm−2). Long-term stability testing showed a gradual decrease of activity in the beginning, and then the activity increased, yielding a cathodic shift...

  11. New experimental heat capacity and enthalpy of formation of lithium cobalt oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotcu-Freis, Petronela; Cupid, Damian M.; Rohde, Magnus; Seifert, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LiCoO 2 heat capacity was measured in the temperature range (160 to 953) K using DSC. • Continuous/discontinuous methods were applied on different types of calorimeters. • Enthalpy increment of LiCoO 2 was determined using drop calorimetry at T = 974 K. • Enthalpies of formation were evaluated from oxide melt drop solution calorimetry. - Abstract: The heat capacity of LiCoO 2 (O3-phase), constituent material in cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, was measured using two differential scanning calorimeters over the temperature range from (160 to 953) K (continuous method). As an alternative, the discontinuous method was employed over the temperature range from (493 to 693) K using a third calorimeter. Based on the results obtained, the enthalpy increment of LiCoO 2 was derived from T = 298.15 K up to 974.15 K. Very good agreement was obtained between the derived enthalpy increment and our independent measurements of enthalpy increment using transposed temperature drop calorimetry at 974.15 K. In addition, values of the enthalpy of formation of LiCoO 2 from the constituent oxides and elements were assessed based on measurements of enthalpy of dissolution using high temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry. The high temperature values obtained by these measurements are key input data in safety analysis and optimisation of the battery management systems which accounts for possible thermal runaway events

  12. Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}): Peroxovanadate sol gel synthesis and structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langie da Silva, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.langie@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Moreira, Eduardo Ceretta [Laboratório de Espectroscopia, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Bagé, Bagé 96400-970 (Brazil); Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Neves Vieira, Valdemar das [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Brandt, Iuri Stefani; Cas Viegas, Alexandre da; Pasa, André Avelino [Laboratório de Filmes Finos e Superfícies, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianópolis 88.040-900 (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured cobalt vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) xerogels spread onto crystalline Si substrates were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. The resulting products were characterized by distinct experimental techniques. The surface morphology and the nanostructure of xerogels correlate with Co concentration. The decrease of the structural coherence length is followed by the formation of a loose network of nanopores when the concentration of intercalated species was greater than 4 at% of Co. The efficiency of the synthesis route also drops with the increase of Co concentration. The interaction between the Co(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}{sup 2+} cations and the (H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}){sup 4−} anions during the synthesis was suggested as a possible explanation for the incomplete condensation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel. Finally the experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. In this scenario two possible preferential occupation sites for the metallic atoms in the framework of the xerogel were proposed. - Graphical abstract: Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoribbons synthesized by peroxovanadate sol gel route. - Highlights: • Nanostructured cobalt V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel spread onto c{sub S}i were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. • The micro and nanostructure correlates with the cobalt content. • The efficiency of the synthesis route shows to be also dependent of Co content. • The experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel.

  13. Layered lithium manganese(0.4) nickel(0.4) cobalt(0.2) oxide(2) as cathode for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miaomiao

    The lithium ion battery occupies a dominant position in the portable battery market today. Intensive research has been carried out on every part of the battery to reduce cost, avoid environmental hazards, and improve battery performance. The commercial cathode material LiCoO2 has been partially replaced by LiNiyCo1- yO2 in the last two years, and mixed metal oxides have been introduced in the last quarter. From a resources point of view, only about 10 million tons of cobalt deposits are available from the world's minerals. However, there is about 500 times more manganese available than cobalt. Moreover, cobalt itself is not environmentally friendly. The purpose of this work is to find a promising alternative cathode material that can maintain good cycling performance, while at the same time reducing the cost and toxicity. When the cost is lowered, it is then possible to consider the larger scale use of lithium ion batteries in application such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The research work presented in this thesis has focused on a specific composition of a layered lithium transition metal oxide, LiMn0.4Ni 0.4Co0.2O2 with the R3¯m structure. The presence of cobalt plays a critical role in minimizing transition metal migration to the lithium layer, and perhaps also in enhancing the electronic conductivity; however, cobalt is in limited supply and it is therefore more costly than nickel or manganese. The performance of LiMn0.4Ni0.4Co 0.2O2 was investigated and characterized utilizing various techniques an its performance compared with cobalt free LiMn0.5N i0.5O2, as well as with LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co 1/3O2, which is the most extensively studied replacement candidate for LiNiyCo1- yO2, and may be in SONY'S new hybrid cells. First, the structure and cation distribution in LiMn0.4Ni 0.4Co0.2O2 was studied by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. This combination study shows that about 3--5% nickel is present in the lithium layer, while manganese and

  14. Enhancing Activity for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction: The Beneficial Interaction of Gold with Manganese and Cobalt Oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frydendal, R.; Busch, M.; Halck, N. B.; Paoli, E. A.; Krtil, Petr; Chorkendorff, I.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2015), s. 149-154 ISSN 1867-3880 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cobalt * electrocatalysis * gold Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.724, year: 2015

  15. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors; Compatibilidad del sodio con oxidos ceramicos utilizados en reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena Moreno, V

    1981-07-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  16. Peculiarities of the diffusion of silver and sodium ions in phosphate glasses with a high content of sodium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syutkin, V.M.; Tolkatchev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phosphate glasses with a high content of alkali metal ions are good ionic conductors. Despite active studies, the mechanism of ion diffusion is not so far clear. The present work discusses the characteristics of ion diffusion in phosphate glasses with a high content of sodium oxide. An effective method to study ion transport is the investigation of relaxation processes the kinetics of which depends on ion diffusion. We use the data for two types of relaxation processes the kinetics of which is determined by ion diffusion. This is the conductivity relaxation due to sodium (host) ions and the decay of radiation-induced centers controlled by silver (guest) ion diffusion. Both of the processes being actually the first-order processes display a nonexponential kinetic behavior. The relaxation law can be interpreted either as the inherently nonexponential function or as the weighted sum of exponential decay functions with a distribution of relaxation times. It has been demonstrated that on the molecular level the relaxation function should be interpreted in the frame of the scheme of parallel first-order processes. This fact allows one to formulate a number of features of ion diffusion: (i) the mean square displacement of ions does not exceed several angstrom when transport becomes non-dispersive; (ii) the diffusion coefficient of ions is the function of coordinates. In this case, a characteristic distance at which D(r) noticeably varies is no less than a hundred of angstrom; (iii) the instantaneous concentration of mobile ions is well below the overall concentration ions

  17. Polytypic transformations during the thermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2010-01-01

    The isothermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature leads to the formation of Co 3 O 4 . The phase evolution during the decomposition process was monitored using powder X-ray diffraction. The transformation of cobalt hydroxide to cobalt oxide occurs via three phase mixture while cobalt hydroxynitrate to cobalt oxide occurs through a two phase mixture. The nature of the sample and its preparation method controls the decomposition mechanism. The comparison of topotactical relationship between the precursors to the decomposed product has been reported in relation to polytypism. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal thermal decomposition studies of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature show the metastable phase formed prior to Co 3 O 4 phase.

  18. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles aggravate DNA damage and cell death in eggplant via mitochondrial swelling and NO signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Saquib, Quaiser; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly

    2016-03-18

    Despite manifold benefits of nanoparticles (NPs), less information on the risks of NPs to human health and environment has been studied. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4-NPs) have been reported to cause toxicity in several organisms. In this study, we have investigated the role of Co3O4-NPs in inducing phytotoxicity, cellular DNA damage and apoptosis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Violetta lunga 2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Co3O4-NPs showing phytotoxicity in eggplant. The data revealed that eggplant seeds treated with Co3O4-NPs for 2 h at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml retarded root length by 81.5 % upon 7 days incubation in a moist chamber. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated the uptake and translocation of Co3O4-NPs into the cytoplasm. Intracellular presence of Co3O4-NPs triggered subcellular changes such as degeneration of mitochondrial cristae, abundance of peroxisomes and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Co3O4-NPs (1.0 mg/ml) treated root protoplasts revealed 157, 282 and 178 % increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane potential (ΔΨm) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Besides, the esterase activity in treated protoplasts was also found compromised. About 2.4-fold greater level of DNA damage, as compared to untreated control was observed in Comet assay, and 73.2 % of Co3O4-NPs treated cells appeared apoptotic in flow cytometry based cell cycle analysis. This study demonstrate the phytotoxic potential of Co3O4-NPs in terms of reduction in seed germination, root growth, greater level of DNA and mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and cell death in eggplant. The data generated from this study will provide a strong background to draw attention on Co3O4-NPs environmental hazards to vegetable crops.

  19. Comparison of Core Performance with Various Oxide fuels on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The system is called Prototype GenIV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). Ultimate goal of PGSFR is test for capability of TRU transmutation. Purpose of this study is test for evaluation of in-core performance and TRU transmutation performance by applying various oxide fuel loaded TRU. Fuel type of reference core is changed to uranium-based oxide fuel. Oxide fuel has a lot of experience through fuel fabrication and reactor operation. This study performed by compared and analyzed a core performance of various oxide fuels. (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,TRU)O{sub 2} which various oxide fuel types are selected as extreme case for comparison with core performance and transmutation capability of TRU isotopes. Thorium-based fuel is known that it has good performance for burner reactor due to low proliferation characteristic. To check the performance of TRU incineration for comparison with uranium-based fuel on prototype SFR, Thorium-based fuel, (Th,U)O{sub 2}, (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} and (Th,TRU)O{sub 2}, is selected. Calculations of core performance for various oxide fuel are performed using the fast calculation tool, TRANSX / DANTSTS / REBUS-3. In this study, comparison of core performance and transmutation performance is conducted with various fuel types in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Mixed oxide fuel with TRU can produce the energy with small amount of fissile material. However, the TRU fuel is confirmed to bring a potential decline of the safety parameters. In case of (Th,U)O2 fuel, the flux level in thermal neutron region becomes lower because of higher capture cross-section of Th-232 than U-238. However, Th-232 has difficulty in converting to TRU isotopes. Therefore, the TRU consumption mass is relatively high in mixed oxide fuel with thorium and TRU.

  20. Comparison of Core Performance with Various Oxide fuels on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The system is called Prototype GenIV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). Ultimate goal of PGSFR is test for capability of TRU transmutation. Purpose of this study is test for evaluation of in-core performance and TRU transmutation performance by applying various oxide fuel loaded TRU. Fuel type of reference core is changed to uranium-based oxide fuel. Oxide fuel has a lot of experience through fuel fabrication and reactor operation. This study performed by compared and analyzed a core performance of various oxide fuels. (U,Pu)O_2 and (U,TRU)O_2 which various oxide fuel types are selected as extreme case for comparison with core performance and transmutation capability of TRU isotopes. Thorium-based fuel is known that it has good performance for burner reactor due to low proliferation characteristic. To check the performance of TRU incineration for comparison with uranium-based fuel on prototype SFR, Thorium-based fuel, (Th,U)O_2, (Th,Pu)O_2 and (Th,TRU)O_2, is selected. Calculations of core performance for various oxide fuel are performed using the fast calculation tool, TRANSX / DANTSTS / REBUS-3. In this study, comparison of core performance and transmutation performance is conducted with various fuel types in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Mixed oxide fuel with TRU can produce the energy with small amount of fissile material. However, the TRU fuel is confirmed to bring a potential decline of the safety parameters. In case of (Th,U)O2 fuel, the flux level in thermal neutron region becomes lower because of higher capture cross-section of Th-232 than U-238. However, Th-232 has difficulty in converting to TRU isotopes. Therefore, the TRU consumption mass is relatively high in mixed oxide fuel with thorium and TRU.

  1. Comparison of iron and copper doped manganese cobalt spinel oxides as protective coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Belma; Molin, Sebastian; Wiik, Kjell; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Lein, Hilde Lea

    2017-12-01

    MnCo2O4, MnCo1.7Cu0.3O4 and MnCo1.7Fe0.3O4 are investigated as coatings for corrosion protection of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Electrophoretic deposition is used to deposit the coatings on Crofer 22 APU alloy. All three coating materials reduce the parabolic oxidation rate in air at 900 °C and 800 °C. At 700 °C there is no significant difference in oxidation rate between coated samples and uncoated pre-oxidized Crofer 22 APU. The cross-scale area specific resistance (ASR) is measured in air at 800 °C using La0.85Sr0.1Mn1.1O3 (LSM) contact plates to simulate the interaction with the cathode in a SOFC stack. All coated samples have three times lower ASR than uncoated Crofer 22 APU after 4370 h aging. The ASR increase with time is lowest with the MnCo2O4 coating, followed by the MnCo1.7Fe0.3O4 and MnCo1.7Cu0.3O4 coatings. LSM plates contacted to uncoated Crofer 22 APU contain significant amounts of Cr after aging, while all three coatings effectively prevent Cr diffusion into the LSM. A complex Cr-rich reaction layer develops at the coating-alloy interface during oxidation. Cu and Fe doping reduce the extent of this reaction layer at 900 °C, while at 800 °C the effect of doping is insignificant.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the deep electrochemical oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Borisova, D. A.; Rosenwinkel, K.-H.; Weichgrebe, D.; Stopp, P.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the deep oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode are studied to develop a technique for purifying wastewater from pharmaceutical products. The products of sodium diclofenac electrolysis are analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. It is shown that the toxicity of the drug and products of its electrolysis decreases upon its deep oxidation.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2} production on CdS nanorod using cobalt-phosphate as oxidation cocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Tingmin; Zhu, Bicheng; Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Co-Pi/CdS composites were synthesized by a simple photodeposition method. • The composites showed superior photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity. • The optimal H{sub 2} production rate of Co-Pi/CdS was even higher than that of Pt-CdS. • Co-Pi is a good oxidation cocatalyst used for capture of photogenerated hole. - Abstract: Employing visible light responsive semiconductor for photocatalytic hydrogen production by water splitting is an efficient way for utilizing renewable solar energy to solve the depletion of fossil fuel and environmental contamination. Herein, we report enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2}-production performance over CdS nanorod using cobalt-phosphate (Co-Pi) as a water oxdation cocatalyst. The optimal Co-Pi modified CdS nanocomposite photocatalyst with the Co-Pi content of 8.4 mol% has a superior visible light H{sub 2}-production rate of 13.3 mmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1} with an apparent quantum efficiency of 24.3% at 420 nm, which is even higher than that of 1 wt% Pt-CdS (11.3 mmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1}) under the same conditions. The enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity was attributed to the hole trapping and collecting ability of Co-Pi cocatalyst, which could effectively suppress the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and increase the electron density for hydrogen production. This work shows a possibility of using earth-abundant Co-Pi as cocatalyst for enhancing photocatalytic H{sub 2} production.

  4. Growth of zinc cobaltate nanoparticles and nanorods on reduced graphene oxide porous networks toward high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Changhui; Fu, Wenbin; Zhang, Zemin; Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhou, Jinyuan; Pan, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjpan@lzu.edu.cn; Xie, Erqing

    2016-05-25

    A type of composite network constructed from zinc cobaltate (ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles and nanorods on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets has been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that the rGO nanosheets are covered by ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evenly due to the abundant surface functional groups on surface of original GO, and supported by some cross-linked ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods in the entire structures. With a rational combination, the composite networks present a meso-/macroporous architecture with a larger specific surface area than those of pristine ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods. As expected, the prepared ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances, which shows a high specific capacitance (626 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}), excellent rate capability (81% retention of the initial capacitance at 30 A g{sup −1}), and long-term cycling stability (99.7% retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}). Such remarkable electrochemical performances of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO electrode can be due to the effective pathways for both electronic and ionic transport in these porous networks. - Highlights: • Porous ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO composite networks can be prepared by a hydrothermal method. • These networks are mainly constructed from ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods and rGO nanosheets. • The rGO nanosheets are uniformly covered by ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The composite networks can promote capacitive performances as electrode materials.

  5. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Using 3D Nanoporous Carbon and Cobalt Oxide Electrodes Synthesized from a Single Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Tang, Jing; Kamachi, Yuichiro; Nakato, Teruyuki; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-06-23

    Nanoporous carbon and nanoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) materials have been selectively prepared from a single metal-organic framework (MOF) (zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-67) by optimizing the annealing conditions. The resulting ZIF-derived carbon possesses highly graphitic walls and a high specific surface area of 350 m(2)·g(-1), while the resulting ZIF-derived nanoporous Co3O4 possesses a high specific surface area of 148 m(2)·g(-1) with much less carbon content (1.7 at%). When nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 were tested as electrode materials for supercapacitor application, they showed high capacitance values (272 and 504 F·g(-1), respectively, at a scan rate of 5 mV·s(-1)). To further demonstrate the advantages of our ZIF-derived nanoporous materials, symmetric (SSCs) and asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were also fabricated using nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes. Improved capacitance performance was successfully realized for the ASC (Co3O4//carbon), better than those of the SSCs based on nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 materials (i.e., carbon//carbon and Co3O4//Co3O4). The developed ASC with an optimal mass loading can be operated within a wide potential window of 0.0-1.6 V, which leads to a high specific energy of 36 W·h·kg(-1). More interestingly, this ASC also exhibits excellent rate capability (with the highest specific power of 8000 W·kg(-1) at a specific energy of 15 W·h·kg(-1)) combined with long-term stability up to 2000 cycles.

  6. Improved catalytic activity of cobalt core–platinum shell nanoparticles supported on surface functionalized graphene for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mingmei; Li, Yuan; Yan, Zaoxue; Jing, Junjie; Xie, Jimin; Chen, Min

    2015-01-01

    Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene supported bimetallic catalysts of shell platinum on core cobalt (Co@Pt/PDDA-G) are synthesized using a two-step procedure involving the microwave synthesis method and replacement method. TEM indicate that a uniform dispersion of Co@Pt nanoparticles on PDDA functionalized graphene have the average particle size of 1.9 nm. The composite is applied to electrocatalysis for methanol oxidation. And the electrochemical surface areas of the as-prepared Co@Pt/PDDA-G, Pt supported on PDDA-graphene (Pt/PDDA-G), Co@Pt supported on graphene (Co@Pt/G) are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, which are calculated to be 105.6 m 2 g −1 Pt , 92.8 m 2 g −1 Pt , and 83.4 m 2 g −1 Pt , with respect to 37.8 m 2 g −1 Pt of commercial Pt/C (TKK) catalyst. The current being examined by chronoamperometry reach a constant at 23 mA mg −1 for Co@Pt/PDDA–G catalyst, which is roughly 3.3-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The electrochemical tests show that the activity and stability of Co@Pt supported on PDDA-G is highly better than the widely used Pt supported on PDDA-graphene sheets, also better than that of Co@Pt on unfunctional graphene with the same Pt content on the electrode. This improved activity could be attributed to not only the PDDA playing a crucial role in the dispersion and stabilization of Co@Pt on graphene, but also the high use ratio of Pt for its shell structure and the electronic effect of the underlying metal and Pt surface layer

  7. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Safia; Tufail, Rabia; Rashid, Khalid; Zia, Rehana; Riaz, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability of Co x Fe (2-x) O 3 nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co 2+ ions in magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co x Fe 3-x O 4 where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co 2+ doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm −1 , which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co 2+ content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co 2+ concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co 2+ content in B-site of Fe 3 O 4 structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  8. Application in industry and energy production of active carbon/cobalt catalyst for nitrogen oxide neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhandzhiev, D.; Nikolov, R.; Lyutskanov, L.; Dushanov, D.; Lakov, L.

    1997-01-01

    A new material for neutralization of nitrogen oxides is presented. Two or three metals containing catalysts with a good activity and selectivity towards NO x have been obtained. Preparation of carbon catalysts by deposition of the active phase precursor on the initial carbon material prior to activation is considered as the most promising method. An active carbon-based catalyst (AC/Co) has been synthesized Apricot shells preliminary impregnated with a water-alcohol solution of Co nitrate have been used as initial carbon material. after drying they have been subjected to one-phase steam pyrolysis using a fix-bed reactor. The catalyst thus obtained has a specific surface area (BET) of 53 m 2 g -1 , a favorable mesopore volume/total volume ratio (about 0.85) determined by nitrogen adsorption, a suitable mesopore distribution, about 70% of the mesopores being characterized by r p larger than 25 A and a high dispersion of the Co oxide phase. In addition the catalyst possesses the necessary mechanical resistance. The catalyst has exhibited a high activity with respect to NO x reduction with CO at low temperatures (at 150-250 o C which are the temperatures of industrial flue gases, nO conversion up to 60-95% occurs) and a high selectivity. No presence of H 2 O has been established over the whole temperature range (100-300 o C). An additional advantage of the catalyst is the fact that the amount of CO above 150 o C is lower than the stoichiometric which indicates parallel participation in the process of both the active phase and the support (active carbon) It is also important that the presented catalyst has a low price due to the use of waste products from agriculture and the elimination of special thermal treatment of the supported Co nitrate. There are possibilities of using of other organic wastes from agriculture as well as wastes obtained during flotation of coal. (author)

  9. Rational Design of Cobalt-Iron Selenides for Highly Efficient Electrochemical Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ye; Lv, Lin; Tian, Yifan; Li, Zhishan; Ao, Xiang; Lan, Yucheng; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Chundong

    2017-10-04

    Exploring active, stable, earth-abundant, low-cost, and high-efficiency electrocatalysts is highly desired for large-scale industrial applications toward the low-carbon economy. In this study, we apply a versatile selenizing technology to synthesize Se-enriched Co 1-x Fe x Se 2 catalysts on nickel foams for oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) and disclose the relationship between the electronic structures of Co 1-x Fe x Se 2 (via regulating the atom ratio of Co/Fe) and their OER performance. Owing to the fact that the electron configuration of the Co 1-x Fe x Se 2 compounds can be tuned by the incorporated Fe species (electron transfer and lattice distortion), the catalytic activity can be adjusted according to the Co/Fe ratios in the catalyst. Moreover, the morphology of Co 1-x Fe x Se 2 is also verified to strongly depend on the Co/Fe ratios, and the thinner Co 0.4 Fe 0.6 Se 2 nanosheets are obtained upon selenization treatment, in which it allows more active sites to be exposed to the electrolyte, in turn promoting the OER performance. The Co 0.4 Fe 0.6 Se 2 nanosheets not only exhibit superior OER performance with a low overpotential of 217 mV at 10 mA cm -2 and a small Tafel slope of 41 mV dec -1 but also possess ultrahigh durability with a dinky degeneration of 4.4% even after 72 h fierce water oxidation test in alkaline solution, which outperforms the commercial RuO 2 catalyst. As expected, the Co 0.4 Fe 0.6 Se 2 nanosheets have shown great prospects for practical applications toward water oxidation.

  10. Controllable synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoflakes on three-dimensional porous cobalt networks as high-performance cathode for alkaline hybrid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua, E-mail: chenminghuahrb@126.com [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications, Ministry of Education, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Jiawei; Qi, Meili; Yin, Jinghua; Chen, Qingguo [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications, Ministry of Education, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Construct self-supported porous Co networks. • Porous Co/CoO composite films show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous conductive metal network is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Herein we report porous three-dimensional cobalt networks supported CoO nanoflakes by the combination of successive electro-deposition methods. The electrodeposited Co networks have average large pores of ∼5 μm and all the branches are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. CoO nanoflakes with thickness of ∼15 nm are uniformly coated on the Co networks forming self-supported Co/CoO composite films. The as-prepared Co/CoO composite films possess combined properties of porous structure and strong mechanical stability. As cathode for alkaline hybrid batteries, the Co/CoO composite films exhibit good electrochemical performances with high capacity of 83.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and stable high-rate cycling life (65 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 A g{sup −1} after 15,000 cycles). The hierarchical porous architecture provides positive roles in the enhancement of electrochemical properties, including fast electronic transportation path, short diffusion of ions and high contact area between the active material and the electrolyte.

  11. Disagregation of (U, Pu)O2 fuels in molten sodium nitrate and oxides system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    An oxidation process based on the use of an alkali-nitrate melt has been considered as a possible head end step for the reprocessing of FBR spent fuels. The total alkali solubility in the nitrate melt was examined. It is influenced by the temperature. At 500 degC the alkali solubility in the sodium nitrate melt is about 17 mol %. Examining solidified mixture of sodium and nitrate or sodium oxides and nitrite by X-ray diffraction has revealed five unknown lattices. NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O 2 is cubic (a=8.71A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O 2 is tetragonal (a=5.939A, c=9.997A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O is cubic (a=10.586A). The structure of NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O and NaNO 3 .xNaO 2 could not be determined. The solubility of barium and ruthenium was briefly investigated. The reaction (U,Pu)O 2 with the alkaline sodium nitrate melt proceeds along the grain boundaries of the solid solution. Two steps have been recognized. First (U,Pu)O 2 is oxidized to (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) and in a subsequent step (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) reacts with sodium peroxide to form (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 . Disaggregation efficiency is a function of temperature, alkali concentration and physical properties of the pellets. High temperature and low alkali concentration lead to high efficiency. The structure of the reaction products (U,Pu)O 2 with alkaline NaNO 3 melt was shown to depend mainly on the alkali concentration. As the alkali concentration is lower than 2 mole % (U,Pu) 2 O 5 . Na 2 O 2 is the dominate phase. (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .3Na 2 O 2 corresponds to 6 mole % and over 11 mole % alkali, (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 becomes the main product. The solubility of the fuel (U,Pu) in the alkali sodium nitrate melt increases with the alkali concentration up to 6000-8000 ppm for uranium and 1200-1700 ppm for plutonium at 500 degC with only 5 mole % alkali. As a result of high losses of fissile material in the salt bath molten salt process must regarded as uneligible for a general head end step in fuel reprocessing. Nevertheless its application can still be

  12. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-02-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel cobalt-free layered GdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} cathode for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Hanping; Xue, Xingjian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    While cobalt-containing perovskite-type cathode materials facilitate the activation of oxygen reduction, they also suffer from problems like poor chemical stability in CO{sub 2} and high thermal expansion coefficients. In this research, a cobalt-free layered GdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} (GBF) perovskite was developed as a cathode material for protonic ceramic membrane fuel cells (PCMFCs) based on proton conducting electrolyte of stable BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BZCY7). The button cells of Ni-BZCY7 vertical stroke BZCY7 vertical stroke GBF were fabricated and characterized using complex impedance technique from 600 to 700 C. An open-circuit potential of 1.007 V, maximum power density of 417 mW cm{sup -2}, and a low electrode polarization resistance of 0.18 {omega} cm{sup 2} were achieved at 700 C. The results indicate that layered GBF perovskite is a good candidate for cobalt-free cathode material, while the developed Ni-BZCY7 vertical stroke BZCY7 vertical stroke GBF cell is a promising functional material system for solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  14. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles as a novel high-efficiency fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: MB.Gholivand@yahoo.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shamizadeh, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Rostam; Astinchap, Bandar [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Technology Research Laboratory, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were introduced as a novel SPME fiber coating. • The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of BTEX in combination with GC–MS. • The fiber showed extraction efficiencies better than a PDMS fiber toward BTEX. • The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX in real samples. - Abstract: In this work cobalt oxide nanoparticles were introduced for preparation of a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique was used in order for synthesis and immobilization of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterials on a Pt wire for fabrication of SPME fiber. The prepared cobalt oxide coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fiber was evaluated for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in combination with GC–MS. A simplex optimization method was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the proposed fiber showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those of a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber toward the BTEX compounds. The repeatability of the fiber and its reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than about 11%. No significant change was observed in the extraction efficiency of the new SPME fiber after over 50 extractions. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of BTEX compounds in real samples. The proposed nanostructure cobalt oxide fiber is a promising alternative to the commercial fibers as it is robust, inexpensive and easily prepared.

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrogen production and cobalt oxidation susceptibility under ethanol reforming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, C.N. de; Hori, C.E.; Assis, A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    A comparative thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming reactions was conducted using an in-house code. Equilibrium compositions were estimated using the Lagrange multipliers method, which generated systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically. Effects of temperature, pressure and steam to ethanol, O 2 to ethanol and CO 2 to ethanol ratios on the equilibrium compositions were evaluated. The validation was done by comparing these data with experimental literature. The results of this work proved to be useful to foresee whether the experimental results follow the stoichiometry of the reactions involved in each process. Mole fractions of H 2 and CO 2 proved to be the most reliable variables to make this type of validation. Maximization of H 2 mole fraction was attained between 773 and 873 K, but maximum net mole production of H 2 was only achieved at higher temperatures (>1123 K). This work also advances in the thermodynamics of solid-gas phase interactions. A solid phase thermodynamic analysis was performed to confirm that Co 0 formation from CoO is spontaneous under steam reforming conditions. The results showed that this reduction process occurs only for temperatures higher than 430 K. It was also found that once reduced, Co based catalysts will never oxidize back to Co 3 O 4 . -- Highlights: → Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming reactions using an in-house code. → Analysis performed by solving systems of non-linear algebraic equations. → H 2 and CO 2 equilibrium data are useful to validate catalytic tests. → Maximization of H 2 mole fraction achieved between 773 and 873 K → CoO reduction is spontaneous under steam reforming of ethanol conditions.

  16. 3D carbon/cobalt-nickel mixed-oxide hybrid nanostructured arrays for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Sun, Zhipeng; Luo, Jingshan; Fan, Zhanxi; Huang, Xintang; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Ting

    2014-07-23

    The electrochemical performance of supercapacitors relies not only on the exploitation of high-capacity active materials, but also on the rational design of superior electrode architectures. Herein, a novel supercapacitor electrode comprising 3D hierarchical mixed-oxide nanostructured arrays (NAs) of C/CoNi3 O4 is reported. The network-like C/CoNi3 O4 NAs exhibit a relatively high specific surface area; it is fabricated from ultra-robust Co-Ni hydroxide carbonate precursors through glucose-coating and calcination processes. Thanks to their interconnected three-dimensionally arrayed architecture and mesoporous nature, the C/CoNi3 O4 NA electrode exhibits a large specific capacitance of 1299 F/g and a superior rate performance, demonstrating 78% capacity retention even when the discharge current jumps by 100 times. An optimized asymmetric supercapacitor with the C/CoNi3 O4 NAs as the positive electrode is fabricated. This asymmetric supercapacitor can reversibly cycle at a high potential of 1.8 V, showing excellent cycling durability and also enabling a remarkable power density of ∼13 kW/kg with a high energy density of ∼19.2 W·h/kg. Two such supercapacitors linked in series can simultaneously power four distinct light-emitting diode indicators; they can also drive the motor of remote-controlled model planes. This work not only presents the potential of C/CoNi3 O4 NAs in thin-film supercapacitor applications, but it also demonstrates the superiority of electrodes with such a 3D hierarchical architecture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mesoporous cobalt monoxide nanorods grown on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with high lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Huang, Hui; Gan, Yongping; Tao, Xinyong; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Wenkui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of mesoporous CoO NRs/rGO composite by a hydrothermal method. • The composite has an unique 1D porous nanorods/2D sheets hybrid nanostructure. • The CoO NRs/rGO composite shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: Graphene-based hybrid nanostructures could offer many opportunities for improved lithium storage performance. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of mesoporous CoO nanorods (CoO NRs) on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) substrate by hydrothermal and calcination treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation reveals that the CoO NRs with a diameter of 20–60 nm are tightly anchored on the surface of rGO sheets. Compared to pure CoO NRs, the CoO NRs/rGO composite shows higher lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The CoO NRs/rGO composite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1452 mAh g −1 , and it can still remains 960 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 A g −1 . After each 10 cycles at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 A g −1 , the specific capacities of the composite are about 1096, 1049, 934 and 513 mAh g −1 , respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the composite is closely related to its unique structure, such as 1D mesoporous morphology of CoO NRs and its tightly-contacting with rGO nanosheets, which could shorten the transport pathway for both electrons and ions, enhance the electrical conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion during prolonged cycling

  18. High-performance binder-free supercapacitor electrode by direct growth of cobalt-manganese composite oxide nansostructures on nickel foam

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Long, Hu; Sun, Yongming; Zhou, Wei; Tang, Zirong

    2014-01-01

    A facile approach composed of hydrothermal process and annealing treatment is proposed to directly grow cobalt-manganese composite oxide ((Co,Mn)3O4) nanostructures on three-dimensional (3D) conductive nickel (Ni) foam for a supercapacitor electrode. The as-fabricated porous electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and high specific capacitance of 840.2 F g-1 at the current density of 10 A g-1, and the electrode also shows excellent cycling performance, which retains 102% of its initial d...

  19. High-performance binder-free supercapacitor electrode by direct growth of cobalt-manganese composite oxide nansostructures on nickel foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Long, Hu; Sun, Yongming; Zhou, Wei; Tang, Zirong

    2014-09-01

    A facile approach composed of hydrothermal process and annealing treatment is proposed to directly grow cobalt-manganese composite oxide ((Co,Mn)3O4) nanostructures on three-dimensional (3D) conductive nickel (Ni) foam for a supercapacitor electrode. The as-fabricated porous electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and high specific capacitance of 840.2 F g-1 at the current density of 10 A g-1, and the electrode also shows excellent cycling performance, which retains 102% of its initial discharge capacitance after 7,000 cycles. The fabricated binder-free hierarchical composite electrode with superior electrochemical performance is a promising candidate for high-performance supercapacitors.

  20. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  1. Thermodynamics of manganese oxides: Sodium, potassium, and calcium birnessite and cryptomelane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Manganese oxides with layer and tunnel structures occur widely in nature and inspire technological applications. Having variable compositions, these structures often are found as small particles (nanophases). This study explores, using experimental thermochemistry, the role of composition, oxidation state, structure, and surface energy in the their thermodynamic stability. The measured surface energies of cryptomelane, sodium birnessite, potassium birnessite and calcium birnessite are all significantly lower than those of binary manganese oxides (Mn3O4, Mn2O3, and MnO2), consistent with added stabilization of the layer and tunnel structures at the nanoscale. Surface energies generally decrease with decreasing average manganese oxidation state. A stabilizing enthalpy contribution arises from increasing counter-cation content. The formation of cryptomelane from birnessite in contact with aqueous solution is favored by the removal of ions from the layered phase. At large surface area, surface-energy differences make cryptomelane formation thermodynamically less favorable than birnessite formation. In contrast, at small to moderate surface areas, bulk thermodynamics and the energetics of the aqueous phase drive cryptomelane formation from birnessite, perhaps aided by oxidation-state differences. Transformation among birnessite phases of increasing surface area favors compositions with lower surface energy. These quantitative thermodynamic findings explain and support qualitative observations of phase-transformation patterns gathered from natural and synthetic manganese oxides. PMID:28130549

  2. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Safia, E-mail: safia_anjum@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Tufail, Rabia [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Khalid [PCSIR Laboratories Lahore (Pakistan); Zia, Rehana [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, S. [Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The stability of Co{sub x}Fe{sub (2-x)}O{sub 3} nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co{sup 2+} ions in magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co{sup 2+} doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm{sup −1}, which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co{sup 2+} content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co{sup 2+} concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co{sup 2+} content in B-site of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  3. Characteristics of agglomerates of sodium oxide aerosol particles: Task 7, topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseke, J.A.; Reed, L.D.; Jordan, H.; Lee, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate macroscopic predictions of aerosol population behavior within enclosed containments are known to depend strongly upon the microscopic characteristics of the individual aerosols. Also, coagulation rates due to mechanisms which produce relative motions between particles within the suspended aerosol are known to depend upon the cross sectional areas of the individual particles. Hence, it has been the primary concern of this study to examine experimentally the microscopic characteristics of sodium oxide aerosols produced in air. The results of these measurements can now be incorporated into the various macroscopic aerosol behavior prediction models

  4. Influence of the manganese and cobalt content on the electrochemical performance of P2-Na0.67MnxCo1-xO2 cathodes for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, K; Jayakumar, M; Prakash, A S

    2018-01-23

    The resurgence of sodium-ion batteries in recent years is due to their potential ability to form intercalation compounds possessing a high specific capacity and energy density comparable to existing lithium systems. To comprehend the role of cobalt substitution in the structure and electrochemical performance of Na 0.67 MnO 2 , the solid solutions of P2-Na 0.67 Mn x Co 1-x O 2 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are synthesized and characterized. The XRD-Rietveld analysis revealed that the Co-substitution in Na 0.67 MnO 2 decreases lattice parameters 'a' and 'c' resulting in the contraction of MO 6 octahedra and the enlargement of inter-layer 'd' spacing. XPS indicates that the isovalent cobalt substitution in Na 0.67 MnO 2 results in the partial/complete replacement of Jahn-Teller active trivalent manganese to form low-spin complexes of better structural stability. The Na-ion diffusion coefficient, D Na + , derived from cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy, confirmed the enhanced mass transport in Co-rich phases compared to Mn-rich phases. Furthermore, higher diffusion coefficient values are observed for Co 3+ /Co 4+ than for their Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ redox processes. In addition, Co-rich phases exhibit a high structural stability and superior capacity retention, whereas Mn-rich phases discharge higher capacities.

  5. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g -1 , which is about three times of 372 mA h g -1 , the value expected for the LiC 6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  6. Catalytic Activity of Cobalt Grafted on Ordered Mesoporous Silica Materials in N2O Decomposition and CO Oxidation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuboňová, L.; Peikertová, P.; Mamulová Kutláková, K.; Jirátová, Květa; Słowik, G.; Obalová, L.; Cool, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 437, AUG 2017 (2017), s. 57-72 ISSN 2468-8231 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13750S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mesoporous ordered silica * cobalt * N2O decomposition Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering

  7. Does oxidative stress affect the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Joanna; Kedzierska, Karolina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Stachowska, Ewa; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Mazur, Olech; Staniewicz, Zdzisław; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) takes place in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Oxidative stress causes disorders in the activity of the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE). Studies on NHE in CRF produced results that are discrepant and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that oxidative stress had an effect on the activity of NHE. We enrolled 87 subjects divided into 4 groups: patients with CRF treated conservatively; patients with CRF hemodialyzed without glucose--HD-g(-); patients with CRF hemodialyzed with glucose--HD-g(+); controls (C). The activity of NHE, the rate of proton efflux V(max), Michaelis constant (Km), and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an indicator of oxidative stress) in plasma, as well as the concentration of reduced glutathione in blood were determined. The concentration of TBARS was significantly higher in hemodialyzed patients before and after dialysis and in patients with CRF on conservative treatment in comparison with group C. TBARS in plasma correlated negatively with VpH(i)6.4 in group C and with V(max) and VpH(i)6.4 after HD in group HD-g(-). We found that the concentration of creatinine correlated with TBARS (p < 0.0001; r = +0.51) in the conservatively treated group. We observed a marked oxidative stress and decreased NHE activity when dialysis was done without glucose, whereas patients dialyzed with glucose demonstrated a relatively low intensity of oxidative stress.

  8. Oxidative stress and sodium methyldithiocarbamate-induced modulation of the macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Stephen B; Cheng, Bing; Fan, Ruping; Tan, Wei; Sebastian, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is the third most abundantly used conventional pesticide in the United States, and hundreds of thousands of persons are exposed to this compound or its major breakdown product, methylisothiocyanate, at levels greater than recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. A previous study suggests three mechanisms of action involved to some degree in the inhibition of inflammation and decreased resistance to infection caused by exposure of mice to the compound. One of these mechanisms is oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to confirm that this mechanism is involved in the effects of SMD on cytokine production by peritoneal macrophages and to further characterize its role in altered cytokine production. Results indicated that SMD significantly decreased the intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), suggesting oxidative stress. This was further indicated by the upregulation of genes involved in the "response to oxidative stress" as determined by microarray analysis. These effects were associated with the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of several proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental depletion of GSH with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) partially prevented the decrease in LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production caused by SMD and completely prevented the decrease in IL-12. In contrast, BSO plus SMD substantially enhanced the production of IL-10. These results along with results from a previous study are consistent with the hypothesis that SMD causes oxidative stress, which contributes to modulation of cytokine production. However, oxidative stress alone cannot explain the increased IL-10 production caused by SMD.

  9. Co-exposure to nickel and cobalt chloride enhances cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Eshan; Lynch, Christine; Ruff, Victoria; Reynolds, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt are heavy metals found in land, water, and air that can enter the body primarily through the respiratory tract and accumulate to toxic levels. Nickel compounds are known to be carcinogenic to humans and animals, while cobalt compounds produce tumors in animals and are probably carcinogenic to humans. People working in industrial and manufacturing settings have an increased risk of exposure to these metals. The cytotoxicity of nickel and cobalt has individually been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these heavy metals have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of exposure of H460 human lung epithelial cells to nickel and cobalt, both alone and in combination, on cell survival, apoptotic mechanisms, and the generation of reactive oxygen species and double strand breaks. For simultaneous exposure, cells were exposed to a constant dose of 150 μM cobalt or nickel, which was found to be relatively nontoxic in single exposure experiments. We demonstrated that cells exposed simultaneously to cobalt and nickel exhibit a dose-dependent decrease in survival compared to the cells exposed to a single metal. The decrease in survival was the result of enhanced caspase 3 and 7 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Co-exposure increased the production of ROS and the formation of double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine alleviated the toxic responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates that co-exposure to cobalt and nickel is significantly more toxic than single exposure and that toxicity is related to the formation of ROS and DSB. -- Highlights: ► Decreased survival following simultaneous exposure to NiCl 2 and CoCl 2 . ► Enhanced caspase and PARP cleavage following co-exposure. ► Increased formation of ROS in dual exposed cells. ► N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment decreases Co and Ni toxicity. ► Co-exposure to Ni and Co enhances the formation of double strand

  10. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zheng, Tongzhang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); Wise, John Pierce, E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  11. No difference in in vivo polyethylene wear particles between oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chromium femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Yukihide; Hata, Kanako; Iwaki, Hiroyoshi; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inori, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    Polyethylene wear particle generation is one of the most important factors affecting mid- to long-term results of total knee arthroplasties. Oxidized zirconium was introduced as a material for femoral components to reduce polyethylene wear generation. However, an in vivo advantage of oxidized zirconium on polyethylene wear particle generation is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo polyethylene wear particles between oxidized zirconium total knee prosthesis and conventional cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) total knee prosthesis. Synovial fluid was obtained from the knees of 6 patients with oxidized zirconium total knee prosthesis and from 6 patients with conventional cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) total knee prosthesis 12 months after the operation. Polyethylene particles were isolated and examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analyser. Total number of particles in each knee was 3.3 ± 1.3 × 10(7) in the case of oxidized zirconium (mean ± SD) and 3.4 ± 1.2 × 10(7) in that of Co-Cr (n.s.). The particle size (equivalent circle diameter) was 0.8 ± 0.3 μm in the case of oxidized zirconium and 0.6 ± 0.1 μm in that of Co-Cr (n.s.). The particle shape (aspect ratio) was 1.4 ± 0.0 in the case of oxidized zirconium and 1.4 ± 0.0 in that of metal Co-Cr (n.s). Although newly introduced oxidized zirconium femoral component did not reduce the in vivo polyethylene wear particles in early clinical stage, there was no adverse effect of newly introduced material. At this moment, there is no need to abandon oxidized zirconium femoral component. However, further follow-up of polyethylene wear particle generation should be performed to confirm the advantage of the oxidized zirconium femoral component. Therapeutic study, Level III.

  12. Sensitive warfarin sensor based on cobalt oxide nanoparticles electrodeposited at multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (CoxOyNPs/MWCNTs/GCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Solgi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In this work, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were electrodeposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE) to develop a new sensor for warfarin determination. The modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of cobalt oxide nanoparticles on the electrode surface enhanced the warfarin accumulation and its result was the improvement in the electrochemical response. The effect of various parameters such as pH, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and pulse amplitude on the sensor response were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetric (DPASV) response of the modified electrode was linear in the ranges of 8 nM to 50 μM and 50 μM to 800 μM with correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. The limit of detection of the proposed method was 3.3 nM. The proposed sensor was applied to determine warfarin in urine and plasma samples.

  13. Study of the sodium oxide aerosol behavior in a containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Fast breeder reactor safety analysis needs validated models to predict the behavior of sodium oxide aerosols (released during hypothetical accidents) in the different reactor compartments and, in particular, to evaluate the quantity (and the size distribution) of the particles which can be released outside the containment building by taking into account the associated devices (ventilation, especially). In order to validate the computer models, experimental tests were performed by CEA/DSN (Atomic Energy Commission/Nuclear Safety Department) at Cadarache: sodium pool fire tests in a 400 m 3 concrete vessel (CASSANDRE tests) and in a 4.4 m 3 steel vessel (EMIS tests). Furthermore, we utilized the results of the experimental tests performed by our German colleagues of KFK/LAF (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe/Laboratorium fuer Aerosolphysik und Filtertechnik): sodium pool fire tests in a 220 m 3 steel vessel (FAUNA tests). The application of the computer models to the experimental tests and to the reactor case allowed us: - to explain the differences observed between the results given by the codes ''with log-normal hypothesis'' (HAARM 3) and ''with finite difference'' (PARDISEKO 3B), - to define the limits of application of the codes ''with log-normal hypothesis'', - to determine the important parameters (characteristics of the aerosol source, form factors of the agglomerates and collision efficiency) and the important phenomena (turbulent coagulation, in particular) [fr

  14. Unithiol - a cobalt antidote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkes, A.I.; Braver-Chernobul'skaya, B.S.

    1977-06-01

    The blockade of the sulfhydryl groups of the proteins leads to a disturbance of the normal activity of many enzymes and thus of the functioning of the organs and tissue. The search for antidotes against these substances which inactivate the enzymes led to the synthesis of a large group of thiols in the Ukrainian Scientific Research Sanitary Chemical Institute. The most active is sodium dithiol-2,3-dimercaptonpropansulphonate CH 2 SH-CHSH-CH 2 SO 3 Na x H 2 O, named unithiol. Its antidote activity is discussed in detail, especially concerning cobalt intoxication. (HK) [de

  15. Air oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfide solutions with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, D; Chaudhuri, S K [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1999-02-01

    The paper investigated the potential of coal fly ash as a catalyst in the air oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) solutions in the temperature range of 303-333 K. The rate of oxidation was found to be independent of the initial concentration of Na{sub 2}S in the range of 5.80 x 10{sup -2} - 28.45 x 10{sup -2} kmol/m{sup 3}. The effects of fly ash loading, source of fly ash, speed of agitation, air flow rate, fly ash particle size were also studied. Experimental results suggested a film-diffusion controlled reaction mechanism. The deactivation of the catalytic effect of fly ash was found to be less than 31% even after five repeated uses.

  16. Positron annihilation in sodium and copper β-vanadium oxide bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Rogowska, E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of copper and sodium β-vanadium oxide bronzes are performed using positron annihilation measured with a long slit angular correlation apparatus. The dependences of peak coincidence rate on temperature (40 to 310deg C) are obtained for different concentrations of donor atoms in the case of copper vanadium oxide bronzes. A three-states model corresponding to the annihilation of positrons in donor atom sublattice is applied for the description of the experimental data. The creation enthalpy of vacancies for that sublattice is equal to (0.60 ± 0.01) eV for Na 0.33 V 2 O 5 and equal to (0.64 ± 0.01) eV for Cu x V 2 O 5 . (author)

  17. Oxidation of sodium (2-14C) acetate with alkaline permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of the oxidation of sodium acetate with permanganate in alkile and neutral media have been investigated using (2- 14 C) acetate. The reaction is first order with respect to both permanganate and acetate ions. The initial second order rate constants depend linearly on the square of the hydroxide ion concentration. Arrhenius activation energy of the oxidation reaction carried out in 12M NaOH is 24.0 kcal/mole in the temperature interval of 50-100 deg C. The mechanism of the principal path leading to the oxalate formation and the mechanism of the side reaction resulting in the carbon dioxide production have been proposed and discussed. (author)

  18. Studies on the kinetics of UO2 dissolution in carbonate-bicarbonate medium using sodium hypochlorite as oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.N.; Bhattacharya, K.; Swami, R.G.; Tangri, S.K.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolution of UO 2 in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions containing sodium hypochlorite as an oxidant has been investigated. The effect of temperature, sodium hypochlorite concentration and stirring speed was examined. In the temperature range of 303 to 318 K, the leaching reaction displayed linear kinetics. Apparent activation energy obtained from the differential approach was found to be 57 kJ mol -1 . This relatively high activation energy value indicates a chemically controlled behavior of UO 2 dissolution. The order of reaction with respect to sodium hypochlorite concentration was found to be unity. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  19. Electroplated zinc-cobalt alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.E.O.S.; Farr, J.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on the deposition and use of ectrodeposited zinc-cobalt alloys is surveyed. Alloys containing lower of Nuclear quantities of cobalt are potentially more useful. The structures of the deposits is related to their chemical and mechanical properties. The inclusion of oxide and its role in the deposition mechanism may be significant. Chemical and engineering properties relate to the metallurgical structure of the alloys, which derives from the mechanism of deposition. The inclusion of oxides and hydroxides in the electroplate may provide evidence for this mechanism. Electrochemical impedance measurements have been made at significant deposition potentials, in alkaline electrolytes. These reveal a complex electrode behaviour which depends not only on the electrode potential but on the Co content of the electrolyte. For the relevant range of cathodic potential zinc-cobalt alloy electrodeposition occurs through a stratified interface. The formation of an absorbed layer ZnOH/sup +/ is the initial step, this inhibits the deposition of cobalt at low cathodic potentials, so explaining its 'anomalous deposition'. A porous layer of zinc forms on the adsorbed ZnOH/sup +/ at underpotential. As the potential becomes more cathodic, cobalt co- deposits from its electrolytic complex forming a metallic solid solution of Co in Zn. In electrolytes containing a high concentration of cobalt a mixed entity (ZnCo)/sub +/ is assumed to adsorb at the cathode from which a CoZn intermetallic deposits. (author)

  20. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahan, Aydin; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO 2 -PuO 2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  1. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.ed [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States)

    2010-01-31

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  2. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (n-hexane, benzene, toluene, o-xylene promoted by cobalt catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3-CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt catalysts supported on γ-alumina, ceria and γ-alumina-ceria, with 10 or 20%wt of cobalt load, prepared by the wet impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET/BJH methods, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, O2-chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction (TPR were used to promote the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (n-hexane, benzene, toluene and o-xylene. For a range of low temperatures (50-350 °C, the activity of the catalysts with a higher cobalt load (20% wt was greater than that of the catalysts with a lower cobalt load (10% wt. The Co/γ-Al2O3-CeO2 catalytic systems presented the best performances. The results obtained in the characterization suggest that the higher catalytic activity of the Co20/γ-Al2O3-CeO2 catalyst may be attributed to the higher metal content and amount of oxygen vacancies, as well as the effects of the interaction between the cobalt and the alumina and cerium oxides.

  3. Catalytic and non-catalytic wet air oxidation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate: kinetics and biodegradability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Kim, Jungkwon; Carrera, Julián; Metcalfe, Ian S; Font, Josep

    2007-06-18

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater containing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS). Two hours WAO semi-batch experiments were conducted at 15 bar of oxygen partial pressure (P(O2)) and at 180, 200 and 220 degrees C. It was found that the highest temperature provides appreciable total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement of about 42 and 47%, correspondingly. Based on the main identified intermediates (acetic acid and sulfobenzoic acid) a reaction pathway for DBS and a kinetic model in WAO were proposed. In the case of CWAO experiments, seventy-two hours tests were done in a fixed bed reactor in continuous trickle flow regime, using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst. The temperature and P(O2) were 140-160 degrees C and 2-9 bar, respectively. The influence of the operating conditions on the DBS oxidation, the occurrence of oxidative coupling reactions over the AC, and the catalytic activity (in terms of substrate removal) were established. The results show that the AC without any supported active metal behaves bi-functional as adsorbent and catalyst, giving TOC conversions up to 52% at 160 degrees C and 2 bar of P(O2), which were comparable to those obtained in WAO experiments. Respirometric tests were completed before and after CWAO and to the main intermediates identified through the WAO and CWAO oxidation route. Then, the readily biodegradable COD (COD(RB)) of the CWAO and WAO effluents were found. Taking into account these results it was possible to compare whether or not the CWAO or WAO effluents were suitable for a conventional activated sludge plant inoculated with non adapted culture.

  4. Catalytic and non-catalytic wet air oxidation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate: Kinetics and biodegradability enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ojeda, Maria Eugenia [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Edifici Q-ETSE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Kim, Jungkwon [Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences Department, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrera, Julian [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Edifici Q-ETSE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Metcalfe, Ian S. [Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials Department, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Font, Josep [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.font@urv.cat

    2007-06-18

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater containing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS). Two hours WAO semi-batch experiments were conducted at 15bar of oxygen partial pressure (P{sub O{sub 2}}) and at 180, 200 and 220deg. C. It was found that the highest temperature provides appreciable total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement of about 42 and 47%, correspondingly. Based on the main identified intermediates (acetic acid and sulfobenzoic acid) a reaction pathway for DBS and a kinetic model in WAO were proposed. In the case of CWAO experiments, seventy-two hours tests were done in a fixed bed reactor in continuous trickle flow regime, using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst. The temperature and P{sub O{sub 2}} were 140-160deg. C and 2-9bar, respectively. The influence of the operating conditions on the DBS oxidation, the occurrence of oxidative coupling reactions over the AC, and the catalytic activity (in terms of substrate removal) were established. The results show that the AC without any supported active metal behaves bi-functional as adsorbent and catalyst, giving TOC conversions up to 52% at 160deg. C and 2 bar of P{sub O{sub 2}}, which were comparable to those obtained in WAO experiments. Respirometric tests were completed before and after CWAO and to the main intermediates identified through the WAO and CWAO oxidation route. Then, the readily biodegradable COD (COD{sub RB}) of the CWAO and WAO effluents were found. Taking into account these results it was possible to compare whether or not the CWAO or WAO effluents were suitable for a conventional activated sludge plant inoculated with non adapted culture.

  5. Catalytic and non-catalytic wet air oxidation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate: Kinetics and biodegradability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Ojeda, Maria Eugenia; Kim, Jungkwon; Carrera, Julian; Metcalfe, Ian S.; Font, Josep

    2007-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater containing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS). Two hours WAO semi-batch experiments were conducted at 15bar of oxygen partial pressure (P O 2 ) and at 180, 200 and 220deg. C. It was found that the highest temperature provides appreciable total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement of about 42 and 47%, correspondingly. Based on the main identified intermediates (acetic acid and sulfobenzoic acid) a reaction pathway for DBS and a kinetic model in WAO were proposed. In the case of CWAO experiments, seventy-two hours tests were done in a fixed bed reactor in continuous trickle flow regime, using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst. The temperature and P O 2 were 140-160deg. C and 2-9bar, respectively. The influence of the operating conditions on the DBS oxidation, the occurrence of oxidative coupling reactions over the AC, and the catalytic activity (in terms of substrate removal) were established. The results show that the AC without any supported active metal behaves bi-functional as adsorbent and catalyst, giving TOC conversions up to 52% at 160deg. C and 2 bar of P O 2 , which were comparable to those obtained in WAO experiments. Respirometric tests were completed before and after CWAO and to the main intermediates identified through the WAO and CWAO oxidation route. Then, the readily biodegradable COD (COD RB ) of the CWAO and WAO effluents were found. Taking into account these results it was possible to compare whether or not the CWAO or WAO effluents were suitable for a conventional activated sludge plant inoculated with non adapted culture

  6. Melatonin protect the development of preimplantation mouse embryos from sodium fluoride-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiamin; Fu, Beibei; Peng, Wei; Mao, Tingchao; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Recently study shows that melatonin can protect embryos from the culture environment oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of melatonin on the mouse development of preimplantation embryos under sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress is still unclear. Here, we showed that exposure to NaF significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, decreased the blastocyst formation rates, and increased the fragmentation, apoptosis and retardation of blastocysts in the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. However, the protective of melatonin remarkable increased the of blastocyst formation rates, maintained mitochondrial function and total antioxidant capacity by clearing ROS. Importantly the data showed that melatonin improved the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA), and increased the expression levels of antioxidative genes. Taken together, our results indicate that melatonin prevent NaF-induced oxidative damage to mouse preimplantation embryo through down regulation of ROS level, stabilization of mitochondrial function and modulation of the activity of antioxidases and antioxidant genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2017-01-01

    .2 ratio NaCas:NaAlg by Box-Behnken's design, the formulae 70%-1.4%-1.2 was decided due to high fish oil content's decreasing effect on droplet size and peroxide value. Practical applications: Physically and oxidatively stable high fat (50-70%) omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions are of high......A systematic study was carried out in order to evaluate the physical and oxidative stability of high fat omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The influence of 3 factors related to emulsion composition...... (fish oil content: 50, 60 and 70%; total amount of NaCas and NaAlg: 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 %; and ratio NaCas:NaAlg: 0.4, 1.2 and 2) on physical (droplet size, viscosity and zeta potential) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) parameters was evaluated. It was possible to produce emulsions...

  8. Three-dimensional hierarchical porous flower-like nickel-cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high-capacity supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peipei; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yafei; Yao, Mingming; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D hierarchical porous flower-like Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs was synthesized. • The electrode shows a large specific surface area and desirable mesoporosity. • High specific capacitances and outstanding stability were obtained. • The content of MWCNTs affects the electrochemical properties of the electrode. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous flower-like nickel-cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs) nanocomposites were fabricated by a facile and template-free hydrothermal method as electrodes for high-capacity supercapacitors. The samples were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical performance was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cycle life. It was found that Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs nanocomposites displayed a high specific capacitance (1703 F g −1 at a discharge current density of 1 A g −1 ) and, additionally, an excellent cycling performance, retaining 97% of the maximum capacitance after 2000 cycles at 10 A g −1 . Even at a high current density (20 A g −1 ), the specific capacitance was still up to 1309 F g −1 . This outstanding capacitive performance may be attributed to the ideal composition of the material and to its unique 3D hierarchical porous flower-like architecture

  9. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiang Zhu, Li, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Shi, Yi [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ∼5.5 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ∼2.0 μF/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, 2.8 × 10{sup 6}, and 130 mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  10. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na 3 MO 4 , where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na 3 MO 4 observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig

  11. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  12. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive

  13. Study of the ideal vitrification conditions of sodium containing waste after oxidation on a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfour, B.; Rahier, A.

    1997-08-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has patented a new process for the treatment of metallic sodium. This process is fully integrated since it allows to vitrify easily the mixture resulting from the oxidation step. To ensure the link between the treatment and the conditioning, the vitrification conditions have been studied. It is confirmed that an adequate control of the temperature decrease during the vitrification is essential to obtain a product whose area is well known and controlled. Also, the release of Cs and Co has been examined through leaching tests. The study has led to the choice of adequate composition ranges for SiO 2 , Na 2 O, Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 and CaO. Further studies will be carried out to assess the possible use of vitro-crystalline materials for long term conditioning. vitro-crystalline materials for long term conditioning

  14. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  15. Effective oxidation of benzylic and alkane C-H bonds catalyzed by sodium o-iodobenzenesulfonate with Oxone as a terminal oxidant under phase-transfer conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Qian; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Chi

    2011-04-07

    Catalytic oxidation of benzylic C-H bonds could be efficiently realized using IBS as a catalyst which was generated in situ from the oxidation of sodium 2-iodobenzenesulfonate (1b) by Oxone in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst, tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen sulfate, in anhydrous acetonitrile at 60 °C. Various alkylbenzenes, including toluenes and ethylbenzenes, several oxygen-containing functionalities substituted alkylbenzenes, and a cyclic benzyl ether could be efficiently oxidized. And, the same reagent system of cat. 1b/Oxone/cat. n-Bu(4)NHSO(4) could be applied to the effective oxidation of alkanes as well.

  16. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  17. Cholesterol oxidation in meat products and its regulation by supplementation of sodium nitrite and apple polyphenol before processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, K; Hoshina, S; Nakamura, S; Sugano, M

    2000-09-01

    The levels of cholesterol oxidation derivatives (OxChol) in eight commercial species of meat products were examined. These products contained more than 1 mg/100 g of OxChol, and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol + 5beta-epoxycholesterol (111-1092 microg/100 g), 5alpha-epoxycholesterol (80-712 microg/100 g), cholestanetriol (0-368 microg/100 g), and 7-ketocholesterol (708-1204 microg/100 g) were detected. To know the interaction of sodium nitrite supplementation against cholesterol oxidation in meat products, sausage was produced with or without varying levels of sodium nitrite and stored in the refrigerator for 15 days. As a result, cholesterol oxidation in sausage was inhibited by addition of sodium nitrite in a dose-dependent manner. This observation may be associated with inactivation of O(2)(-) radical and stabilization of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the levels of OxChol in sausage increased, accompanying the decrease of coexisting linoleic acid when sodium nitrite was not added to sausage meat. Thus, cholesterol oxidation in meat products seems to be considarably promoted by the oxidation of coexisting PUFAs. On the other hand, additive apple polyphenol also inhibited linoleic acid oxidation in sausage and then suppressed cholesterol oxidation through its radical scavenging effects. Therefore, apple polyphenol, having a large amount of an oligomer of catechin, may interfere with cholesterol oxidation in meat processing or storage of meat products through its antioxidative action and be useful as a new antioxitant for meat products when it is added to the original meat before processing.

  18. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  19. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  20. Effect of silymarin on sodium fluoride-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in rat cardiac tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Nabavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat cardiac tissues. Animals were pretreated with silymarin at 20 and 10 mg/kg prior to sodium fluoride consumption (600 ppm through drinking water. Vitamin C at 10 mg/kg was used as standard antioxidant. There was a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level (59.36 ± 2.19 nmol MDA eq/g tissue along with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity (64.27 ± 1.98 U/g tissue for superoxide dismutase activity and 29.17 ± 1.01 µmol/min/mg protein for catalase activity and reduced glutathione level (3.8 ± 0.15 µg/mg protein in the tissues homogenates of the sodium fluoride-intoxicated rats. Silymarin administration to animals before sodium fluoride consumption modified the levels of biochemical parameters.Este estudo objetiva avaliar o efeito protetor da silimarina em fluoreto de sódio induzida por estresse oxidativo em tecido cardíaco de ratos. Os animais foram pré-tratados com silimarina a 20 e 10 mg/kg antes do consumo de fluoreto de sódio (600 ppm através da água de beber. A vitamina C a 10 mg/kg foi utilizada como antioxidante padrão. Houve um aumento significativo no nível de substâncias tiobarbitúrico reativo de ácido (59,36 ± 2.19 nmol MDA eq/g tecido, juntamente com uma diminuição da atividade de enzimas antioxidantes (64,27 ± 1,98 U/g tecido para a atividade de superóxido dismutase e 29,7 ± 1,01 mmol/min/mg de proteína para a atividade da catalase e nível de glutationa reduzida (3,8 ± 0,15 mg/mg de proteína nos homogeneizados de tecidos dos fluoreto de sódio-intoxicados ratos. Administração de silimarina a animais, antes do consumo de fluoreto de sódio modifou os níveis de parâmetros bioquímicos.

  1. Self-Stacked Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Coated with Cobalt-Nickel Hydroxide by One-Step Electrochemical Deposition toward Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Yu, Zi-You; Wang, Jin-Long; Yu, Shu-Hong; Lei, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of an optical function into supercapacitors is an innovative approach to make energy storage devices smarter and to meet the requirements of smart electronics. Here, it is reported for the first time that nickel-cobalt hydroxide on reduced graphene oxide can be utilized for flexible electrochromic supercapacitors. A new and straightforward one-step electrochemical deposition process is introduced that is capable of simultaneously reducing GO and depositing amorphous Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 on the rGO. It is shown that the rGO nanosheets are homogeneously coated with metal hydroxide and are vertically stacked. No high temperature processes are used so that flexible polymer-based substrates can be coated. The synthesized self-stacked rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material exhibits pseudocapacitive charge storage behavior with excellent rate capability, high Columbic efficiency, and nondiffusion limited behavior. It is shown that the electrochemical behavior of the Ni(OH)2 can be modulated, by simultaneously depositing nickel and cobalt hydroxide, into broad oxidization and reduction bands. Further, the material exhibits electrochromic property and can switch between a bleached and transparent state. Literature comparison reveals that the performance characteristics of the rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material, in terms of gravimetric capacitance, areal capacitance, and long-term cycling stability, are among the highest reported values of supercapacitors with electrochromic property. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Low-energy excitations and Fermi surface topology of parent cobaltate superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.; Qian, D.; Foo, M.; Cava, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The essential framework for cuprate superconductivity is that of a spin-1/2 electron system in the vicinity of a half filled (Mott limit) lattice. Of all oxide superconductors, this framework is most closely matched in the sodium doped cobalt oxides except that it is realized on a triangular lattice. We employ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the quasiparticle dynamics of the parent cobaltate superconductor. Results reveal a single hole-like Fermi surface generated by the crossing of heavy (∼15 m e ∼ 3m LDA ) quasiparticles with a negative effective hopping (t eff F (k → )∼v F ∼0.4±0.1 eV A) observed. ARPES data is consistent with bulk thermodynamic specific heat and quantum oscillation measurements

  3. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  4. Cobalt(II) and Cobalt(III) Coordination Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment which illustrates the formation of tris(phenanthroline)cobalt complexes in the 2+ and 3+ oxidation states, the effect of coordination on reactions of the ligand, and the use of a ligand displacement reaction in recovering the transformed ligand. Uses IR, UV-VIS, conductivity, and NMR. (MVL)

  5. Effect of Mesoporous Chitosan Action and Coordination on the Catalytic Activity of Mesoporous Chitosan-Grafted Cobalt Tetrakis(p-SulfophenylPorphyrin for Ethylbenzene Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To simulate the active site cavity structure function and axial coordination of cytochrome P-450 enzymes, mesoporous chitosan(mesp-CTS was used as a scaffold for a meso-sized cavity to immobilize cobalt tetrakis(p-sulphophenylporphyrin chloride(Co TPPS. Immobilization was achieved via an acid–base reaction and axial coordination of the H2N-C group to the Co ion in Co TPPS, thus forming the biomimetic catalyst Co TPPS/mesp-CTS. Several approaches, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BETtechnique, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, were used to characterize the grafted catalyst. The catalytic performance of Co TPPS/mesp-CTS in ethylbenzene oxidation without any solvents and additives was investigated. The results showed that only 0.96 × 10 mol of Co TPPS grafted onto mesp-CTS could be recycled three times for 200 mL of ethylbenzene oxidation, with an average yield of 44.6% and selectivity of 68.8%. The highly efficient catalysis can be attributed to promotion by mesp-CTS, including the effect of the mesoporous structure and the axial coordination to the Co ion in Co TPPS. This biomimetic methodology provides a method for clean production of acetophenone via ethylbenzene oxidation.

  6. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a film composed of cobalt oxide nanoparticles and graphene for electrochemical sensing of H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Su-Juan; Du, Ji-Min; Zhang, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a graphene-based hybrid nanomaterial by electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (CoOxNPs) on the surface of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the immobilized nanoparticles. Electrochemical determination of H 2 O 2 is demonstrated with the modified GCE at pH 7. Compared to GCEs modified with CoO x NPs or graphene sheets only, the new electrode displays larger oxidative current response to H 2 O 2 , probably due to the synergistic effects between the graphene sheets and the CoO x NPs. The sensor responds to H 2 O 2 with a sensitivity of 148.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 and a linear response range from 5 μM to 1 mM. The detection limit is 0.2 μM at a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of three. The method was successfully applied to the determination of H 2 O 2 in hydrogen peroxide samples. (author)

  7. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Guangyao; Luo, Honglin; Zuo, Guifu; Ren, Kaijing; Wan, Yizao

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts

  8. Sodium benzoate induced developmental defects, oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Purushothaman, Srinithi; Pullaguri, Narasimha; Bhargava, Yogesh; Bhargava, Anamika

    2018-05-28

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a common food preservative. Its FDA described safety limit is 1000 ppm. Lately, increased use of SB has prompted investigations regarding its effects on biological systems. Data regarding toxicity of SB is divergent and controversial with studies reporting both harmful and beneficial effects. Therefore, we did a systematic dose dependent toxicity study of SB using zebrafish vertebrate animal model. We also investigated oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva treated with SB. Our results indicate that SB induced developmental (delayed hatching), morphological (pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and tail bending), biochemical (oxidative stress) and behavioural (anxiety-like behaviour) abnormalities in developing zebrafish larva. LC 50 of SB induced toxicity was approximately 400 ppm after 48 h of SB exposure. Our study strongly supports its harmful effects on vertebrates at increasing doses. Thus, we suggest caution in the excessive use of this preservative in processed and convenience foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Guangyao [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Honglin [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zuo, Guifu [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009 (China); Ren, Kaijing [Department of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wan, Yizao, E-mail: yzwantju@126.com [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts.

  10. Study of complex formation of cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) in acrylamide aqueous solutions and in the phase of acrylamide hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailova, M.M.; Egorova, L.A.; Khamidov, B.O.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to study of complex formation of cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) in acrylamide aqueous solutions and in the phase of acrylamide hydrogel. The condition of cobalt in various rate of oxidation in acrylamide aqueous solutions was studied. The concentration conditions of stability of system Co(II)-Co(III) were defined. The composition of coordination compounds of cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) in acrylamide aqueous solutions and in the phase of acrylamide hydrogel was determined.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of iron cobalt (FECO) nanorods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and characterization of iron cobalt (FECO) nanorods prepared by simple ... shaped by increasing annealing temperature from room temperature to 800 ... Keywords: FeCo nanoparticles, sodium borohydrid, CTAB, chemical synthesis ...

  12. Improved hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution using cobalt catalysts supported on modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie; Yue, Xuehai [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production from alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution via hydrolysis process over activated carbon supported cobalt catalysts is studied. Activated carbons are used in their original form and after liquid phase oxidation with HNO{sub 3}. The changes in surface functional groups of the activated carbon are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of HNO{sub 3} oxidation on the properties of the activated carbon and the resulting catalyst performance are investigated. FTIR analysis reveals that the oxidative treatment leads to the formation of various functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. Cobalt catalysts supported on the modified activated carbon are found to exhibit higher activity and stability. (author)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of mixtures of cobalt and titanium oxides by mechanical alloyed and Sol-Gel;Sintesis y caracterizacion de mezclas de oxidos de cobalto y titanio por aleado mecanico y Sol-Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basurto S, R.; Bonifacio M, J.; Fernandez V, S. M., E-mail: rafael.basurto@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical alloyed techniques continued by combustion and Sol-Gel method, were used for the synthesis of CoTiO{sub 3}. With the first technique was used Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} obtained in a balls mill SPEX in argon atmosphere, using cobalt nitrate and urea, the combustion is realized at 400 and 500 C, the characterization by X-ray diffraction showed the obtaining of the valence oxide mixed of cobalt with crystallite size from 10 to 12.5 nm and the particle size of 60 to 75 nm was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. To prepare the CoTiO{sub 3}, the obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was mixed with TiO{sub 2} on a relationship in weight (1:1) and with a milling time of 2.5 h and the combustion at 800 C. the mixed oxide of titanium cobalt was also obtained by the Sol-Gel technique starting from cobalt chloride and titanium propoxide in acetic-water acid, the gel is burned to temperature of 300, 500, 700 and 900 C, finding that this last temperature it is that provides the compound with crystalline size from 50 to 75 nm. (Author)

  14. Efficient removal of cobalt(II) and strontium(II) metals from water using ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Hany; Moustafa, Wafaa M. [Nuclar Fuel Cycle Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Naser City, Cairo (Egypt); Farghali, Ahmed A.; El Rouby, Waleed M.A. [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PASA), Beni-Suef University (Egypt); Khalil, Waleed F. [Nuclar Fuel Cycle Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Naser City, Cairo (Egypt); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PASA), Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2017-12-04

    Graphene oxide (GO) with high specific surface area was prepared and functionalized with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The as-prepared GO and the functionalized one (GO-EDTA) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared and EDTA functionalized GO were applied as adsorbent to remove strontium(II) and cobalt(II) from water. The results indicated that the prepared materials are efficient adsorbents for strontium(II) and cobalt(II) removal. The adsorption of Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} under effects of contact time, temperature, and pH was investigated It is concluded that the maximum adsorption capacities of GO for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} were about 168 and 140 mg.g{sup -1}, whereas of GO-EDTA the values were about 197 and 158 mg.g{sup -1}, respectively. It is indicated that pH 6 and temperature 40 C are the best condition for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} removal from water. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that Langmuir isotherm is best fit for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} equilibrium adsorption. Adsorption kinetics were studied by applying pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models on the experimental data. The results proved that pseudo second-order model is the best represented adsorption kinetics. Appling the intraparticle diffusion regressions on the experimental data indicated that intraparticle diffusion involved in adsorption process, which was not the only rate-controlling step. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Insights into the Effects of Zinc Doping on Structural Phase Transition of P2-Type Sodium Nickel Manganese Oxide Cathodes for High-Energy Sodium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xuehang; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zhong, Guiming; Gong, Zhengliang; McDonald, Matthew J.; Zheng, Shiyao; Fu, Riqiang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Yong

    2016-08-31

    P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ Xray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na0.66Ni0.33-xZnxMn0.67O2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na0.66Ni0.33Mn0.67O2. Zinc doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni4+/Ni3+/ Ni2+ redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.

  16. Quasi-zero-dimensional cobalt-doped CeO2 dots on Pd catalysts for alcohol electro-oxidation with enhanced poisoning-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiang; Zhu, Haiyan; Guo, Shengwu; Chen, Yuanzhen; Jiang, Tao; Shu, Chengyong; Chong, Shaokun; Hultman, Benjamin; Liu, Yongning; Wu, Gang

    2017-08-31

    Deactivation of an anode catalyst resulting from the poisoning of CO ad -like intermediates is one of the major problems for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR & EOR), and remains a grand challenge towards achieving high performance for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Herein, we report a new approach for the preparation of ultrafine cobalt-doped CeO 2 dots (Co-CeO 2 , d = 3.6 nm), which can be an effective anti-poisoning promoter for Pd catalysts towards MOR and EOR in alkaline media. Compared to Pd/CeO 2 and pure Pd, the hybrid Pd/Co-CeO 2 nanocomposite catalyst exhibited a much enhanced activity and remarkable anti-poisoning ability for both MOR and EOR. The nanocomposite catalyst showed much higher mass activity (4×) than a state-of-the-art PtRu catalyst. The promotional mechanism was elucidated using extensive characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). A bifunctional effect of the Co-CeO 2 dots was discovered to be due to (i) an enhanced electronic interaction between Co-CeO 2 and Pd dots and (ii) the increased oxygen storage capacity of Co-CeO 2 dots to facilitate the oxidation of CO ad . Therefore, the Pd/Co-CeO 2 nanocomposite appears to be a promising catalyst for advanced DAFCs with low cost and high performance.

  17. Assessment of thyroid endocrine system impairment and oxidative stress mediated by cobalt ferrite (CoFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Liu, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Hongzhou; Zhao, Fangfang; Ling, Zhaoxing; Xu, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Fascinating super paramagnetic uniqueness of iron oxide particles at nano-scale level make them extremely useful in the state of the art therapies, equipments, and techniques. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in nano-based medicine and electronics, results in extensive discharge and accumulation into the environment. However, very limited information is available for their endocrine disrupting potential in aquatic organisms. In this study, the thyroid endocrine disrupting ability of CoFe 2 O 4 NPs in Zebrafish larvae for 168-h post fertilization (hpf) was evaluated. The results showed the elevated amounts of T4 and T3 hormones by malformation of hypothalamus pituitary axis in zebrafish larvae. These elevated levels of whole body THs leads to delayed hatching, head and eye malformation, arrested development, and alterations in metabolism. The influence of THs disruption on ROS production and change in activities of catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione s-transferase (mu-GST), and acid phosphatase (AP) were also studied. The production of significantly higher amounts of in vivo generation of ROS leads to membrane damage and oxidative stress. Presences of NPs and NPs agglomerates/aggregates were also the contributing factors in mechanical damaging the membranes and physiological structure of thyroid axis. The increased activities of CAT, mu-GST, and AP confirmed the increased oxidative stress, possible DNA, and metabolic alterations, respectively. The excessive production of in vivo ROS leads to severe apoptosis in head, eye, and heart region confirming that malformation leads to malfunctioning of hypothalamus pituitary axis. ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage by formation of 8-OHdG DNA adducts elaborates the genotoxicity potential of CoFe 2 O 4 NPs. This study will help us to better understand the risk and assessment of endocrine disrupting potential of nanoparticles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 2068

  18. Three-dimensional hierarchical porous flower-like nickel-cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high-capacity supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peipei; Hu, Zhonghua, E-mail: huzh@tongji.edu.cn; Liu, Yafei; Yao, Mingming; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • 3D hierarchical porous flower-like Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs was synthesized. • The electrode shows a large specific surface area and desirable mesoporosity. • High specific capacitances and outstanding stability were obtained. • The content of MWCNTs affects the electrochemical properties of the electrode. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous flower-like nickel-cobalt oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs) nanocomposites were fabricated by a facile and template-free hydrothermal method as electrodes for high-capacity supercapacitors. The samples were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical performance was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and cycle life. It was found that Ni-Co oxide/MWCNTs nanocomposites displayed a high specific capacitance (1703 F g{sup −1} at a discharge current density of 1 A g{sup −1}) and, additionally, an excellent cycling performance, retaining 97% of the maximum capacitance after 2000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. Even at a high current density (20 A g{sup −1}), the specific capacitance was still up to 1309 F g{sup −1}. This outstanding capacitive performance may be attributed to the ideal composition of the material and to its unique 3D hierarchical porous flower-like architecture.

  19. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Aytekin; Makaraci, Murat; Usta, Metin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R a ) and critical load (L c ) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 μm, and 4.4 to 6.58 μm, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  20. Role of lycopene against hepatorenal oxidative stress induced by sodium fluoride and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Abd El Azeem, M.G.; Ismael, N.E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorosis is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. The present study have been designed to evaluate the potential efficacy of lycopene in protecting the hepatic as well as renal tissues from the sodium fluoride (NaF) and gamma radiation (IRR) induced oxidative stress in male mice. Biochemical and histopathological examinations were utilized for evaluation of the oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Results showed that NaF and IRR (2 Gy) caused elevation in liver and kidney MDA and NO (x) levels and reduction in SOD activity and GSH content. The activities of AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, urea nitrogen, creatinine and lipid profiles were increased, HDL-c was decreased. Ultrastructural examination of liver and kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data. Irradiation exhibited hepatocytes with varying lesions that included lysis of cytoplasm with fragmented endoplasmic reticulum, dilated blood sinusoids with thickness membrane. Serious damage of the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubules of irradiated mice was manifested by development of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, swelling mitochondria and pyknotic nuclei also, degeneration in brush border. NaF induced degeneration in nucleus, mitochondria, erosion in brush border in kidney, fragmentation in endoplasmic reticulum, thickness of blood sinusoids membrane in liver. Serious damage of the hepatocytes and proximal tubules of the mice treated with NaF and exposed to irradiation. Administration of lycopene (5 mg/kg, oral gavage), prior to NaF and/or IRR, ameliorated the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by NaF and/or IRR. The present results revealed that lycopene has a protective effect against NaF and/or IRR-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity by antagonizing the free radicals generation and enhancement of the antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  1. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Ya-Xian Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB, a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent.

  2. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jian-Nan; Huang, Song; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent. PMID:26903706

  3. Polycation-sodium lauryl ether sulfate-type surfactant complexes: influence of ethylene oxide length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Leo F W; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-05-21

    Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES with only one or two ethylene oxide (EO) groups are used for this application. We have studied the influence of the size of the EO block (ranging from 0 to 30 EO groups) on complexation with two model polycations: linear polyDADMAC and branched PEI. PESC size and electrostatic properties were determined during stepwise titration of buffered polycation solutions. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of PESC was determined by surface tension measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. For polyDADMAC, there is no influence of the size of the EO block on the complexation behavior; the stiff polycation governs the structure formation. For PEI, it was seen that the EO block size does affect the structure of the complexes. The CAC value of the investigated complexes turns out to be rather independent of the EO block size; however, the CMC/CAC ratio decreases with increasing size of the EO block. This latter observation explains why the Lochhead-Goddard effect is most effective for small EO blocks.

  4. Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 292 and 535 K. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reactions are obtained from a least- squares analysis of the data. Altogether, thermochemical properties are established for five anionic complexes: Cu(OH) 3 - , Cu(OH) 4 = , Cu(OH) 2 (HPO 4 ) = , Cu(OH) 3 (H 2 PO 4 ) = , and Cu(OH) 2 (PO 4 ) ≡ . Precise thermochemical parameters are also derived for the Cu(OH) + hydroxocomplex based on CuO solubility behavior previously observed in pure water (*) at elevated temperatures. The relative ease of Cu(II) ion hydrolysis is such that Cu(OH) 3 - species become the preferred hydroxocomplex for pH ≥ 9.4. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Characterization of Polyethylene Oxide and Sodium Alginate for Oil Contaminated-Sand Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have been employed in many soil applications, such as oil-contaminated soil remediation, due to their environmentally friendly characteristics. This study focused on changes in the wettability and viscosity of polyethylene oxide (PEO and sodium alginate (SA, according to the variation in concentration and their impact on oil-contaminated soil remediation using biopolymer-decane displacement tests. The contact angle and interfacial tension vary with concentration by adding biopolymer to water; however both parameters yield relatively constant values within the range of 2–10 g/L for the concentration of PEO and SA. In this study, their influence on fluid invasion patterns is insignificant compared to viscosity and flow rate. Viscosity increases with the concentration of PEO and SA, within the range of 0–10 g/L, which causes the biopolymer-decane displacement ratio to increase with concentration. Biopolymer-decane displacement increases with injected fluid velocity. At low flow rates, the effect of the biopolymer concentration on the displacement ratio is prominent. However the effect decreases with an increase in flow rate. Thus both biopolymer concentration and injection velocity should be considered to achieve the economic efficiency of soil remediation. The experimental results for the distribution of soils with different grain sizes indicate that the displacement ratio increases with the uniformity of the coefficient of soils.

  6. GeO2 decorated reduced graphene oxide as anode material of sodium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Taiqiang; Hu, Bingwen; Sun, Zhuo; Pan, Likun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: GeO 2 -reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared by a simple freeze-drying method. After thermal annealing in N 2 atmosphere at 450 °C for 2 hours, the composites were examined as anode materials of sodium ion batteries for the first time. Their morphology, structure and electrochemical performance were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. A maximum specific capacity of 330 mAh g −1 can be achieved after 50 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 by tuning the RGO content in the composites. Even after 650 cycles at a high current density of 1 A g −1 , the specific capacity can still maintain at 153.7 mAh g −1 , demonstrating the excellent Na ion storage properties of the GeO 2 -RGO composites

  7. Material properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels for core materials of FBR. Mechanical strength properties of sodium exposed and Nickel diffused materials. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2004-02-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel have excellent resistance to swelling and superior creep strength, they are expected to be used as a long-life cladding material in future advanced fast reactor. In this study, sodium environmental effects on the ODS steel developed by JNC were clarified through tensile test after sodium exposure for maximum 10,000hrs and creep-rupture test in sodium at elevated temperature. The exposure to sodium was conducted using a sodium test loop constituted by austenitic steels. For the conditions of sodium exposure test, the sodium temperatures were 923 K and 973 K, the oxygen concentration in sodium was below 2ppm and sodium flow rate on the surface of specimen was less than 1x10 -4 m/s. Further the specimen with the nickel diffused was prepared, which is simulate to nickel diffusing through sodium from the surface of structural stainless steels. The main results obtained were as follows; (1) The results showed excellent sodium-resistance up to a high temperature of about 973 K in stagnant sodium conditions, and its considered that the effects of sodium environment of tensile properties were negligible. In case of stagnant sodium condition, creep-rupture strength in sodium was equal to the in argon gas, and no sodium environmental effect was observed. The same is true for the creep-rupture ductility. (2) The tensile properties of nickel diffused test specimens at high temperatures simulating microstructure change were equal to that of the thermal aging process specimens. These tensile tests suggest that sodium environmental effects can be ignored. However, the effect of nickel diffusion on creep strength are not clear at present and experimental investigation are being conducted. (3) The coefficient of nickel diffusion in the ODS steel can be estimated based on the results of nickel concentration measurement. This value is larger than that of the diffusion coefficient for typical α-Fe steel at temperature below 973 K

  8. Red Phosphorus Nanodots on Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Flexible and Ultra-Fast Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Shen, Chenfei; Liu, Qingzhou; Cao, Xuan; Ma, Yuqiang; Chen, Liang; Lau, Christian; Chen, Tian-Chi; Wei, Fei; Zhou, Chongwu

    2017-06-27

    Sodium-ion batteries offer an attractive option for potential low cost and large scale energy storage due to the earth abundance of sodium. Red phosphorus is considered as a high capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries with a theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. However, similar to silicon in lithium-ion batteries, several limitations, such as large volume expansion upon sodiation/desodiation and low electronic conductance, have severely limited the performance of red phosphorus anodes. In order to address the above challenges, we have developed a method to deposit red phosphorus nanodots densely and uniformly onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (P@RGO) to minimize the sodium ion diffusion length and the sodiation/desodiation stresses, and the RGO network also serves as electron pathway and creates free space to accommodate the volume variation of phosphorus particles. The resulted P@RGO flexible anode achieved 1165.4, 510.6, and 135.3 mAh/g specific charge capacity at 159.4, 31878.9, and 47818.3 mA/g charge/discharge current density in rate capability test, and a 914 mAh/g capacity after 300 deep cycles in cycling stability test at 1593.9 mA/g current density, which marks a significant performance improvement for red phosphorus anodes for sodium-ion chemistry and flexible power sources for wearable electronics.

  9. Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Sodium Hydroxide on the Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out, together with the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate, using sodium hydroxide to increase surface activity and enhance nanoparticle adsorption. Polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide in an ultrasonic bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confi rmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The self-cleaning property of treated fabrics was evaluated through discolouring using methylene blue stain under solar irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against common pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound-treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

  10. Ultrafine tin oxide on reduced graphene oxide as high-performance anode for sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yandong; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A nanohybrid based on ultrafine SnO 2 and few-layered rGO has been prepared. • The nanohybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties. • The rGO supplies combined conducting, buffering and dispersing effects. - Abstract: Na-ion Battery is attractive alternative to Li-ion battery due to the natural abundance of sodium resource. Searching for suitable anode materials is one of the critical issues for Na-ion battery due to the low Na-storage activity of carbon materials. In this work, we synthesized a nanohybrid anode consisting of ultrafine SnO 2 anchored on few-layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a facile hydrothermal route. The SnO 2 /rGO hybrid exhibits a high capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability. The hybrid can deliver a high charge capacity of 324 mAh g SnO2 −1 at 50 mA g −1 . At 1600 mA g −1 (2.4C), it can still yield a charge capacity of 200 mAh g SnO2 −1 . After 100 cycles at 100 mA g −1 , the hybrid can retain a high charge capacity of 369 mAh g SnO2 −1 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ex situ transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the origin of the excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties of SnO 2 /rGO

  11. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  12. Observation of high-spin mixed oxidation state of cobalt in ceramic Co3TeO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harishchandra; Ghosh, Haranath; Chandrasekhar Rao, T. V.; Sinha, A. K.; Rajput, Parasmani

    2014-12-01

    We report coexistence of high spin Co3+ and Co2+ in ceramic Co3TeO6 using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), DC magnetization, and first principles ab-initio calculations. The main absorption line of cobalt Co K-edge XANES spectra, along with a linear combination fit, led us to estimate relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+as 60:40. The pre edge feature of XANES spectrum shows crystal field splitting of ˜1.26 eV between eg and t2g states, suggesting a mixture of high spin states of both Co2+ and Co3+. Temperature dependent high field DC magnetization measurements reveal dominant antiferromagnetic order with two Neel temperatures (TN1 ˜ 29 K and TN2 ˜ 18 K), consistent with single crystal study. A larger effective magnetic moment is observed in comparison to that reported for single crystal (which contains only Co2+), supports our inference that Co3+ exists in high spin state. Furthermore, we show that both Co2+ and Co3+ being in high spin states constitute a favorable ground state through first principles ab-initio calculations, where Rietveld refined synchrotron X-ray diffraction data are used as input.

  13. Non-carbon titanium cobalt nitride nanotubes supported platinum catalyst with high activity and durability for methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiang; Li, Wuyi; Pan, Zhanchang; Xu, Yanbin; Liu, Gen; Hu, Guanghui; Wu, Shoukun; Li, Jinghong; Chen, Chun; Lin, Yingsheng

    2018-05-01

    Titanium cobalt nitride nanotubes (Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs) hybrid support, a novel robust non-carbon support material prepared by solvothermal and post-nitriding processes, is further decorated with Pt nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of methanol. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. The morphology, structure and composition of the synthesized Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs suggest that the nanotube wall is porous and consists of homogeneous cohesively attached nitrides nanocube particles. Notable, Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs supported Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation compared with the conventional JM Pt/C catalyst. The experimental data indicate that enhanced catalytic activity and stability of Pt/Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs towards methanol electrooxidation might be mainly attributed to the tubular nanostructures and synergistic effect introduced by the Co doping. Both of them are playing an important role in improving the activity and durability of the Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs catalyst.

  14. Enhancing Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells by Cobalt-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole Transport Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yulin; Lu, Kai; Duan, Jiashun; Jiang, Youyu; Hu, Lin; Liu, Tiefeng; Zhou, Yinhua; Hu, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Electron and hole transport layers have critical impacts on the overall performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, for the first time, a solution-processed cobalt (Co)-doped NiO X film was fabricated as the hole transport layer in inverted planar PSCs, and the solar cells exhibit 18.6% power conversion efficiency. It has been found that an appropriate Co-doping can significantly adjust the work function and enhance electrical conductivity of the NiO X film. Capacitance-voltage ( C- V) spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra indicate clearly that the charge accumulation becomes more pronounced in the Co-doped NiO X -based photovoltaic devices; it, as a consequence, prevents the nonradiative recombination at the interface between the Co-doped NiO X and the photoactive perovskite layers. Moreover, field-dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that Co-doped NiO X -based devices can also effectively inhibit the radiative recombination process in the perovskite layer and finally facilitate the generation of photocurrent. Our work indicates that Co-doped NiO X film is an excellent candidate for high-performance inverted planar PSCs.

  15. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4− has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ⋅ − upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19  ×  10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27  ×  1012 molecule cm−3 s, only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we

  16. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  17. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (Psodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of antimony-oxide on the shielding properties of some sodium-boro-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulfakar, A M; Abdel-Ghany, A M; Abou-Elnasr, T Z; Mostafa, A G; Salem, S M; El-Bahnaswy, H H

    2017-09-01

    Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na 2 O - (20) SiO 2 - (60-x) B 2 O 3 - (x) Sb 2 O 3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb 2 O 3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples. The experimentally obtained shielding parameters were approximately coincident with those obtained theoretically by applying WinXCom program. At low gamma-ray energies (0.356 and 0.662MeV) Sb 2 O 3 has approximately no effect on the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient, while at high energies it acts to increase the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient gradually. The obtained Half Value Layer and Mean Free Path values showed gradual decrease as Sb 2 O 3 was gradually increased. Also, the Total Mass Attenuation Coefficient values obtained between about 0.8 and 3.0MeV gamma-ray energy showed a slight decrease, as gamma-ray photon energy increased. This may be due to the differences between the Attenuation Coefficients of both antimony and boron oxides at various gamma-ray photon energies. However, it can be stated that the addition of Sb 2 O 3 into sodium-boro-silicate glasses increases the gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficient and the best sample is that contains 20 mol% of Sb 2 O 3 , which is operating well at 0.356 and 0.662MeV gamma-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication of iron-doped cobalt oxide nanocomposite films by electrodeposition and application as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingxuan; Wang, Xuemei; Qin, Dongdong; Xue, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • We fabricated the Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms for the first time by potentiostatic electrodeposition method. • The Fe was doped homogeneously in the nanofilms by this method. • Among the different concentration ratios of Co{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 2+}, nanofilm with the ratio of 1:5 exhibits the optimal performance in electrochemical properties assessments. • The Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms in this work exhibit good electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and appear to be promising cathodic electrocatalyst in alkaline fuel cells. - Abstract: In this work, Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms were fabricated by electrodeposition on FTO glass substrates for the first time. The structures of the as-prepared nanofilms were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization results demonstrate that Fe was doped homogeneously in the nanofilms. As the different concentration ratios of Fe{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} were explored, nanofilm with the ratio of 1:5 exhibits the optimal performance in electrochemical properties assessments. It is considered that the difference in the catalytic activities for the ORR of the samples may be due to the fact that the joining of iron changed the catalyst surface's electric state and enhanced the acidity of cobalt centers, on the other hand, the doping process probably modified the absorption property of the nanofilms. The experimental results suggest that the Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofilms in this work exhibit favorable electrocatalytic activity toward ORR and appear to be promising cathodic electrocatalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

  20. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g -1 after 330 cycles at 500 mA g -1 and 1185 mA h g -1 could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g -1 for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  1. Addressing the selectivity issue of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film iso-butane sensors: Conductance transients and principal component analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Majumder, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Iso-butane (i-C4H10) is one of the major components of liquefied petroleum gas which is used as fuel in domestic and industrial applications. Developing chemi-resistive selective i-C4H10 thin film sensors remains a major challenge. Two strategies were undertaken to differentiate carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and iso-butane gases from the measured conductance transients of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin films. Following the first strategy, the response and recovery transients of conductances in these gas environments are fitted using the Langmuir adsorption kinetic model to estimate the heat of adsorption, response time constant, and activation energies for adsorption (response) and desorption (recovery). Although these test gases have seemingly different vapor densities, molecular diameters, and reactivities, analyzing the estimated heat of adsorption and activation energies (for both adsorption and desorption), we could not differentiate these gases unequivocally. However, we have found that the lower the vapor density, the faster the response time irrespective of the test gas concentration. As a second strategy, we demonstrated that feature extraction of conductance transients (using fast Fourier transformation) in conjunction with the pattern recognition algorithm (principal component analysis) is more fruitful to address the cross-sensitivity of Co doped ZnO thin film sensors. We have found that although the dispersion among different concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide could not be avoided, each of these three gases forms distinct clusters in the plot of principal component 2 versus 1 and therefore could easily be differentiated.

  2. Functionalized Cobalt Triarylcorrole Covalently Bonded with Graphene Oxide: A Selective Catalyst for the Two- or Four-Electron Reduction of Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jijun; Ou, Zhongping; Guo, Rui; Fang, Yuanyuan; Huang, Dong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Guo, Song; McFarland, Frederick M; Kadish, Karl M

    2017-08-07

    A cobalt triphenylcorrole (CorCo) was covalently bonded to graphene oxide (GO), and the resulting product, represented as GO-CorCo, was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, and micro-Raman spectroscopy as well as by HRTEM, TGA, XRD, XPS, and AFM. The electrocatalytic activity of GO-CorCo toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was then examined in air-saturated 0.1 M KOH and 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solutions by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry using a rotating disk electrode and/or a rotating ring-disk electrode. An overall 4-electron reduction of O 2 is obtained in alkaline media while under acidic conditions a 2-electron process is seen. The ORR results thus indicate that covalently bonded GO-CoCor can be used as a selective catalyst for either the 2- or 4-electron reduction of oxygen, the prevailing reaction depending upon the acidity of the solution.

  3. Influence of calcination temperature on the morphology and energy storage properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures directly grown over carbon cloth substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2013-09-23

    Nanostructured and mesoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowire in flower-like arrangements have been directly grown over flexible carbon cloth collectors using solvothermal synthesis for supercapacitor applications. Changes in the morphology and porosity of the nanowire assemblies have been induced by manipulating the calcination temperature (200–300 °C) of the one-dimensional (1-D) structures, resulting in significant impact on their surface area and pseudocapacitive properties. As the calcination temperature increases from 200 to 250 °C, the flower morphology gradually modifies to the point where the electrolyte could access almost all the nanowires over the entire sample volume, resulting in an increase in specific capacitance from 334 to 605 Fg−1, depending on the nanowire electrode morphology. The 300 °C calcination results in the breakdown of the mesoporous morphology and decreases the efficiency of electrolyte diffusion, resulting in a drop in pseudocapacitance after 300 °C. A peak energy density of 44 Wh kg−1 has been obtained at a power density of 20 kW kg−1 for the 250 °C calcined sample.

  4. Influence of calcination temperature on the morphology and energy storage properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures directly grown over carbon cloth substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Chen, Wei; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured and mesoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowire in flower-like arrangements have been directly grown over flexible carbon cloth collectors using solvothermal synthesis for supercapacitor applications. Changes in the morphology and porosity of the nanowire assemblies have been induced by manipulating the calcination temperature (200–300 °C) of the one-dimensional (1-D) structures, resulting in significant impact on their surface area and pseudocapacitive properties. As the calcination temperature increases from 200 to 250 °C, the flower morphology gradually modifies to the point where the electrolyte could access almost all the nanowires over the entire sample volume, resulting in an increase in specific capacitance from 334 to 605 Fg−1, depending on the nanowire electrode morphology. The 300 °C calcination results in the breakdown of the mesoporous morphology and decreases the efficiency of electrolyte diffusion, resulting in a drop in pseudocapacitance after 300 °C. A peak energy density of 44 Wh kg−1 has been obtained at a power density of 20 kW kg−1 for the 250 °C calcined sample.

  5. Cobalt hydroxide film on Pt as co-catalyst for oxidation of polyhydric alcohols in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debasmita; Das, Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of chemically prepared Co(OH) 2 film on Pt has been studied in alkaline medium using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Amount of Co(OH) 2 deposited increases linearly with the number of times of deposition. The deposit is of fibrous structure, as shown by scanning electron microphotograph. There is evidence of Co II /Co III and Co III /Co IV redox transitions during the cyclic potential scan. The former oxidation proceeds under diffusion control. The Co(OH) 2 deposit acts as an efficient co-catalyst for anodic oxidation of ethanediol, propanediol and glycerol on Pt in alkaline medium. This is demonstrated by appreciable enhancement of the alcohol oxidation currents upon deposition of Co(OH) 2 on Pt. Among the alcohols studied, the highest oxidation currents are obtained for ethanediol, both on Co(OH) 2 /Pt and bare Pt. Co(OH) 2 alone also acts as a redox mediator for alcohol oxidation at more positive potentials.

  6. Sodium oxide aerosol behavior in a closed vessel. Comparison of computer modeling with aerosol experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, Jean.

    1979-08-01

    Fast breeder reactor safety needs models validated to predict the behavior of sodium aerosols in the different reactor compartments during hypothetical sodium accident. Besides their chemical toxicity, the sodium aerosols are a transfer vector of radioactivity during a contaminated sodium fire. The purpose of this work is to validate models (HAARM 2 and PARDISEKO 3) with tests of sodium pool fires in a 400 m 3 concrete vessel in a confined atmosphere (CASSANDRE tests). The comparison between calculations and experimental results reveals that difficulties still exist, especially as to the selection of the values to be given to some input parameters (physical data of experimental origin, in particular the aerosols source function, the characteristics of the distribution of the emitted particles and the form factor of the agglomerated particles) [fr

  7. Surface generation of a cobalt-derived water oxidation electrocatalyst developed in a neutral HCO3 -/CO2 system

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2014-06-04

    Neutral HCO3 -/CO2 is a new electrolyte system for in situ generation of robust and efficient Co-derived (Co-Ci) water oxidation electrocatalysts. The Co-Ci/indium tin oxide system shows a remarkable 2.0 mA cm-2 oxygen evolution current density that is sustained for several hours. 7.5 nmol of electroactive species per cm2 generates about 109 μmol of O2 at a rate of 0.51 per mol of catalyst per second.

  8. Surface generation of a cobalt-derived water oxidation electrocatalyst developed in a neutral HCO3 -/CO2 system

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; De Groot, Huub J M

    2014-01-01

    Neutral HCO3 -/CO2 is a new electrolyte system for in situ generation of robust and efficient Co-derived (Co-Ci) water oxidation electrocatalysts. The Co-Ci/indium tin oxide system shows a remarkable 2.0 mA cm-2 oxygen evolution current density that is sustained for several hours. 7.5 nmol of electroactive species per cm2 generates about 109 μmol of O2 at a rate of 0.51 per mol of catalyst per second.

  9. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and regulate the apoptotic genes through ROS in human liver cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Khan, M A Majeed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles (CIO NPs) have been one of the most widely explored magnetic NPs because of their excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness and heat generating potential. However, there is limited information concerning the interaction of CIO NPs with biological systems. In this study, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cytotoxicity and apoptotic response of CIO NPs in human liver cells (HepG2). Diameter of crystalline CIO NPs was found to be 23nm with a band gap of 1.97eV. CIO NPs induced cell viability reduction and membrane damage, and degree of induction was dose- and time-dependent. CIO NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress revealed by induction of ROS, depletion of glutathione and lower activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. Real-time PCR data has shown that mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were higher, while the expression level of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was lower in cells following exposure to CIO NPs. Activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes was also higher in CIO NPs exposed cells. Furthermore, co-exposure of N-acetyl-cysteine (ROS scavenger) efficiently abrogated the modulation of apoptotic genes along with the prevention of cytotoxicity caused by CIO NPs. Overall, we observed that CIO NPs induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS via p53 pathway. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of CIO NPs should be further investigated in animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  11. Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine effectively catalyzes water electrooxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez

    2014-12-08

    Efficient electrocatalysis of water oxidation under mild conditions at neutral pH was achieved by a fluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine immobilized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surfaces with an onset potential at 1.7 V vs. RHE. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and inhibition studies indicate that phthalocyanine molecular species are the operational active sites. Neither free cobalt ions nor heterogeneous cobalt oxide particles or films were observed. During long-term controlled-potential electrolysis at 2 V vs. RHE (phosphate buffer, pH 7), electrocatalytic water oxidation was sustained for at least 8 h (TON ≈ 1.0 × 105), producing about 4 μmol O2 h-1 cm-2 with a turnover frequency (TOF) of about 3.6 s-1 and no measurable catalyst degradation.

  12. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is to act both as a diffusion barrier for chromium and provide better protection against high temperature oxidation than a pure cobalt coating. This work presents a characterization of a cobalt-tungsten alloy coating electrodeposited on the ferritic steel Crofer 22 H which subsequently was oxidized in air......A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  13. Manganese oxide electrode with excellent electrochemical performance for sodium ion batteries by pre-intercalation of K and Na ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengya; Du, Qinghua; Su, Li; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Guiling; Ma, Zhipeng; Gao, Weimin; Qin, Xiujuan; Shao, Guangjie

    2017-05-22

    Materials with a layered structure have attracted tremendous attention because of their unique properties. The ultrathin nanosheet structure can result in extremely rapid intercalation/de-intercalation of Na ions in the charge-discharge progress. Herein, we report a manganese oxide with pre-intercalated K and Na ions and having flower-like ultrathin layered structure, which was synthesized by a facile but efficient hydrothermal method under mild condition. The pre-intercalation of Na and K ions facilitates the access of electrolyte ions and shortens the ion diffusion pathways. The layered manganese oxide shows ultrahigh specific capacity when it is used as cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It also exhibits excellent stability and reversibility. It was found that the amount of intercalated Na ions is approximately 71% of the total charge. The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials.

  14. Combined effects of gamma radiation doses and sodium nitrite content on the lipid oxidation and color of mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Monalisa Pereira; Cardoso, Giselle Pereira; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Silva, Douglas Roberto Guimarães; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Ramos, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-12-15

    The effects of different doses of gamma radiation (0-20kGy) on the color and lipid oxidation of mortadella prepared with increasing nitrite levels (0-300ppm) were evaluated using a central composite rotatable design. Higher radiation doses increased the redox potential, promoted the lipid oxidation and elevating the hue color of the mortadellas. Nevertheless, higher addition of sodium nitrite elevated the residual nitrite content, reduced the lipid oxidation and promoted the increase of redness and the reduce of hue color of the mortadellas, regardless of the radiation dose applied. Nitrite addition had a greater effect than irradiation on the quality parameters evaluated, and even at low levels (∼75ppm), its use decreased the deleterious effects of irradiation at doses as high as 20kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Efficient and Stable Hydrophobic Molecular Cobalt Catalyst for Water Electro-oxidation at Neutral pH

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ba-Tian

    2016-06-14

    The synthesis of a library of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on the Co complex of tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine is described. Hydrophobicity was identified as the key variable in mediating the catalytic competence of the complexes. The change in this parameter correlates with both the conformational mobility of the ligand core and the structural changes in the local solvent environment around the metal site. The optimal Co complex identified is hydrophobic, because of three semifluorinated side chains. It catalyzes water electro-oxidation efficiently at neutral pH, with an overpotential of 390 mV and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1.83 s-1 in the absence of soluble Co salts. The catalyst can be immobilized through physisorption, and it remains stable in prolonged electrolysis experiments. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. An Efficient and Stable Hydrophobic Molecular Cobalt Catalyst for Water Electro-oxidation at Neutral pH

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Batian; Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Adogla, Enoch; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Rodionov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a library of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on the Co complex of tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine is described. Hydrophobicity was identified as the key variable in mediating the catalytic competence of the complexes. The change in this parameter correlates with both the conformational mobility of the ligand core and the structural changes in the local solvent environment around the metal site. The optimal Co complex identified is hydrophobic, because of three semifluorinated side chains. It catalyzes water electro-oxidation efficiently at neutral pH, with an overpotential of 390 mV and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1.83 s-1 in the absence of soluble Co salts. The catalyst can be immobilized through physisorption, and it remains stable in prolonged electrolysis experiments. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Guideline tests on the corrosion of sintered uranium oxide by lead and sodium about 450 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoff, A.; Pointud, R.

    1958-05-01

    Within the frame of the investigation of behaviour of a fuel element (such as UO 2 ) under irradiation, the authors report the study of the physical-chemical action of the coolant at different temperatures on the body to be irradiated. Thus, sintered uranium oxide has been submitted to corrosion by lead and by sodium during 250 hours at temperatures between 400 and 500 C. The physical characteristics of the UO 2 powder and of different sintered UO 2 pellets produced from this powder under different sintering processes are indicated, as well as the results of a spectrographic analysis of the sintered UO 2 . Corrosion devices, treatments and obtained results are reported for corrosion by lead and by sodium. In the latter case, extraction processes are discussed (using butyl alcohol, or melting in vaseline oil)

  18. Layer by Layer Ex-Situ Deposited Cobalt-Manganese Oxide as Composite Electrode Material for Electrochemical Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusi; Chan, P Y; Majid, S R

    2015-01-01

    The composite metal oxide electrode films were fabricated using ex situ electrodeposition method with further heating treatment at 300°C. The obtained composite metal oxide film had a spherical structure with mass loading from 0.13 to 0.21 mg cm(-2). The structure and elements of the composite was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The electrochemical performance of different composite metal oxides was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). As an active electrode material for a supercapacitor, the Co-Mn composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 285 Fg(-1) at current density of 1.85 Ag(-1) in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The best composite electrode, Co-Mn electrode was then further studied in various electrolytes (i.e., 0.5 M KOH and 0.5 M KOH/0.04 M K3Fe(CN) 6 electrolytes). The pseudocapacitive nature of the material of Co-Mn lead to a high specific capacitance of 2.2 x 10(3) Fg(-1) and an energy density of 309 Whkg(-1) in a 0.5 M KOH/0.04 M K3Fe(CN) 6 electrolyte at a current density of 10 Ag(-1). The specific capacitance retention obtained 67% of its initial value after 750 cycles. The results indicate that the ex situ deposited composite metal oxide nanoparticles have promising potential in future practical applications.

  19. Local transport of vertically- and horizontally-emitted sodium oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Miller, C.W.; Cooper, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid-metal cooled breeder reactors are expected to use large quantities of sodium or sodium-potassium alloy, and evaluation of the possible consequences of a liquid-metal fire, henceforth referred to as a sodium fire, is an important consideration. Of particular interest is the sodium aerosol concentration at the air intake ports that are used for reactor cooling, and which might suffer restricted flow under high aerosol concentrations. We have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released vertically and horizontally from building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. We have used this methodology to make calculations that indicate the time-development of aerosol build-up, and the maximum aerosol concentrations, at air intake ports. Building wake effects, momentum-driven plume rise, and density-driven plume rise are considered

  20. Calcium-assisted reduction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for nanostructured iron cobalt with enhanced magnetic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, B.; Andrew, J. S.; Arnold, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of a calcium-assisted reduction process for synthesizing fine-grain (~100 nm) metal alloys from metal oxide nanoparticles. To demonstrate the process, an iron cobalt alloy (Fe_6_6Co_3_4) is obtained by hydrogen annealing 7-nm cobalt ferrite (CoFe_2O_4) nanoparticles in the presence of calcium granules. The calcium serves as a strong reducing agent, promoting the phase transition from cobalt ferrite to a metallic iron cobalt alloy, while maintaining high crystallinity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate the annealing temperature is the dominant factor of tuning the grain size and magnetic properties. Annealing at 700 °C for 1 h maximizes the magnetic saturation, up to 2.4 T (235 emu/g), which matches that of bulk iron cobalt.

  1. Calcium-assisted reduction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for nanostructured iron cobalt with enhanced magnetic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B. [University of Florida, Interdisciplinary Microsystems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States); Andrew, J. S. [University of Florida, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Arnold, D. P., E-mail: darnold@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Interdisciplinary Microsystems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This paper demonstrates the potential of a calcium-assisted reduction process for synthesizing fine-grain (~100 nm) metal alloys from metal oxide nanoparticles. To demonstrate the process, an iron cobalt alloy (Fe{sub 66}Co{sub 34}) is obtained by hydrogen annealing 7-nm cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles in the presence of calcium granules. The calcium serves as a strong reducing agent, promoting the phase transition from cobalt ferrite to a metallic iron cobalt alloy, while maintaining high crystallinity. Magnetic measurements demonstrate the annealing temperature is the dominant factor of tuning the grain size and magnetic properties. Annealing at 700 °C for 1 h maximizes the magnetic saturation, up to 2.4 T (235 emu/g), which matches that of bulk iron cobalt.

  2. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanlong [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Wang, Chunhong [Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Wang, Yuhua [College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Ma, Zhenhua [First Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); McClain, Craig [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Li, Xiaokun [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Feng, Wenke, E-mail: wenke.feng@louisville.edu [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physical hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl{sub 2} treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl{sub 2}-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl{sub 2}-induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl{sub 2} increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl{sub 2}-induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and

  3. Novel Non-Stoichiometric Manganese – Cobalt – Nickel – Oxide Composite as Humidity Sensor Through Solid-State Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sundaram

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar amounts of manganese(II chloride, cobalt(III nitrate and nickel(II chloride in aqueous solution were reacted with ammonia and the resulting precipitate of hydroxides was heated to 7500 C in 6h to yield a non stoichiometric oxides having a composition of Mn0.06Co0.6Ni0.6O2.5 as analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy to a pellet and sintered at 6000 C. Characterization of the material has been made with AAS, Far-IR, TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, VSM and electrical conductance measurement. The far-IR spectra indicated the presence of metal-oxygen bonds and the discrete nature of the oxide was established from power X-ray diffraction pattern recorded at room temperature. The thermogravimetric data indicated the successive loss and gain of fraction of oxygen atoms, a specific feature of non-stoichiometric metal oxides. It was subjected to solid-state DC electrical conductivity measurements at room temperature. The current increases linearly with applied field and exponentially with increase in temperature showing conformance to ohmic law and semiconducting nature. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were carried out to study the surface and pores structure of the sensor materials. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface adsorption studies showed that the radiuses of the pore sizes were found to be distributed from 10-45A with the pore specific volume being 0.01 cm3 g-1. As the composites having micropores are preferred for humidity sensing properties, the material was subjected to water vapour of different humidity achieved by various water buffers at room temperature and the electrical conductivity was measured as a function of relative humidity (RH. The electrical resistivity drastically decreases with increase in humidity, proving the material to be a good water vapour sensor. The sensitivity factor (Sf was 55000 in the range 5–98% RH, meaning the resistivity falls by a factor of 5.5 x 104 when the atmospheric RH increases from 5

  4. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanlong; Wang, Chunhong; Wang, Yuhua; Ma, Zhenhua; Xiao, Jian; McClain, Craig; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physical hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl 2 treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl 2 administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl 2 -induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl 2 -induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl 2 administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl 2 increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl 2 -induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and absorption. -- Graphical abstract: Physical

  5. Determination of gold and cobalt dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide by slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Daria G.; Eskina, Vasilina V.; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B.; Vladimirova, Svetlana A.; Gaskov, Alexander M.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Karpov, Yuri A.

    2018-02-01

    A novel approach is developed for the determination of Co and Au dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS GFAAS) with direct slurry sampling. Sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is an effective stabilizer for diluted suspensions. Use Na-CMC allows to transfer the analytes into graphite furnace completely and reproducibly. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not higher than 4%. Accuracy was proven by means inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in solutions after decomposition as a comparative technique. To determine Au and Co in the volume of SnO2, the acid decomposition conditions (HCl, HF) of the samples were suggested by means of an autoclave in a microwave oven.

  6. Role of lycopene against spleen oxidative stress induced by sodium fluoride and gamma rays:Ultrastructural Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Azeem, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In connection with earlier studies, response of spleen ultrastructure effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) was examined. Sodium fluoride is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world, as in the case of many chronic degenerative diseases, increased production of reactive oxygen species has been considered to play an important role, even in the pathogenesis of chronic fluoride toxicity. Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant in the cells, which is suggested to culminate in cell death. The present study have been designed to evaluate the possible protective role of lycopene on spleen injure from the sodium fluoride (NaF) and gamma radiation in male mice. Ultrastructural studies were utilized for evaluation of these oxidative stress. Results showed that mice received (NaF) dose, lymphocyte revealed most appear with crystallized acicular structures and large specific 2 Gy granules they have dense internal crystalloid structure of variable shapes and densities. Interstitial haemorrhage, inflammatory area and, pyknotic nuclei with dense nuclear chromatin were observed .Their cytoplasm contained dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and active lysosomes as a result of the stress action of NaF. Whole body exposure of male mice to 2 Gy gamma radiation showing lymphocytes have pyknotic nuclei with dense nuclear chromatin, swollen mitochondria and active lysosomes, and fragmented of endoplasmic reticulum were also seen. The bundles of collagen fibrils among of the peri lymphocyte space accompanied with vacuolated cytoplasm area. Treatment of mice with lycopene (5 mg/kg, oral gavage) for 7 days, before NaF or IR, ameliorated the ultrastructural injury of the spleen induced by NaF and/or IR. Therefore, the present results revealed that lycopene has a protective effect against NaF and/or IR-induced spleen toxicity by antagonizing the free

  7. Low-energy excitations and Fermi surface topology of parent cobaltate superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, M.Z. [Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: mzhasan@princeton.edu; Qian, D. [Department of Physics, Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Foo, M.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The essential framework for cuprate superconductivity is that of a spin-1/2 electron system in the vicinity of a half filled (Mott limit) lattice. Of all oxide superconductors, this framework is most closely matched in the sodium doped cobalt oxides except that it is realized on a triangular lattice. We employ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the quasiparticle dynamics of the parent cobaltate superconductor. Results reveal a single hole-like Fermi surface generated by the crossing of heavy ({approx}15 m{sub e} {approx} 3m{sub LDA}) quasiparticles with a negative effective hopping (t{sub eff} < 0). The observed ground state as given by the topology of the Fermi surface is found be very close to a collective charge instability with {radical}(3)x{radical}(3) symmetry. The measured electron dynamic parameters reveal the unusual character of the parent cobaltate class likely due to small and almost isotropic Fermi velocity (v{sub F}(k{sup {yields}}){approx}v{sub F}{approx}0.4{+-}0.1 eV A) observed. ARPES data is consistent with bulk thermodynamic specific heat and quantum oscillation measurements.

  8. Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J. [Separations Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Wurth, L.A. [Zinc Air Inc., 5314-A US Hwy 2 West, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

  9. Photo release of nitrous oxide from the hyponitrite ion studied by infrared spectroscopy. Evidence for the generation of a cobalt-N2O complex. Experimental and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón Villalba, M Elizabeth; Franca, Carlos A; Güida, Jorge A

    2017-04-05

    The solid state photolysis of sodium, silver and thallium hyponitrite (M 2 N 2 O 2 , M=Na, Ag, Tl) salts and a binuclear complex of cobalt bridged by hyponitrite ([Co(NH 3 ) 5 -N(O)-NO-Co(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ ) were studied by irradiation with visible and UV light in the electronic absorption region. The UV-visible spectra for free hyponitrite ion and binuclear complex of cobalt were interpreted in terms of Density Functional Theory calculations in order to explain photolysis behavior. The photolysis of each compound depends selectively on the irradiation wavelength. Irradiation with 340-460nm light and with the 488nm laser line generates photolysis only in silver and thallium hyponitrite salts, while 253.7nm light photolyzed all the studied compounds. Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow the photolysis process and to identify the generated products. Remarkably, gaseous N 2 O was detected after photolysis in the infrared spectra of sodium, silver, and thallium hyponitrite KBr pellets. The spectra for [Co(NH 3 ) 5 -N(O)-NO-Co(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ suggest that one cobalt ion remains bonded to N 2 O from which the generation of a [(NH 3 ) 5 CoNNO] +3 complex is inferred. Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations confirm the stability of this last complex and provide the theoretical data which are used in the interpretation of the electronic spectra of the hyponitrite ion and the cobalt binuclear complex and thus in the elucidation of their photolysis behavior. Carbonate ion is also detected after photolysis in all studied compounds, presumably due to the reaction of atmospheric CO 2 with the microcrystal surface reaction products. Kinetic measurements for the photolysis of the binuclear complex suggest a first order law for the intensity decay of the hyponitrite IR bands and for the intensity increase in the N 2 O generation. Predicted and experimental data are in very good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic activity of dual catalysts system based on nano-manganese oxide and cobalt octacyanophthalocyanine toward four-electron reduction of oxygen in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dun; Chi, Dahe; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The electrocatalysis of the dual functional catalysts system composed of electrolytic nano-manganese oxide (nano-MnOx) and cobalt octacyanophthalocyanine (CoPcCN) toward 4-electron reduction of oxygen (O 2 ) in alkaline media was studied. Nano-MnOx electrodeposited on the CoPcCN monolayer-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was clarified as the nano-rods with ca. 10-20 nm diameter by scanning electron microscopy. The peak current for O 2 reduction at the dual catalysts-modified GC electrode increases largely and the peak potential shifts by ca. 160 mV to the positive direction in cyclic voltammograms compared with those obtained at the bare GC electrode. The Koutecky-Levich plots indicate that the O 2 reduction at the dual catalysts-modified GC electrode is an apparent 4-electron process. Collection efficiencies obtained at the dual catalysts-modified GC electrode are much lower than those at the GC electrode and are almost similar to those at the Pt nano-particles modified GC electrode. The obtained results demonstrate that the dual catalysts system possesses a bifuctional catalytic activity for redox-mediating 2-electron reduction of O 2 to HO 2 - by CoPcCN as well as catalyzing the disproportionation of HO 2 - to OH - and O 2 by nano-MnOx, and enables an apparent 4-electron reduction of O 2 at a relatively low overpotential in alkaline media. In addition, it has been found that the cleaning of the dual catalysts-modified electrode by soaking in 0.1 M sulfuric acid solution enhances its catalytic activity toward the reduction of O 2

  11. Synthesis and characterization of sodium vanadium oxide gels: the effects of water (n) and sodium (x) content on the electrochemistry of Na(x)V2O5·nH2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Marschilok, Amy C; Subramanian, Aditya; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2011-10-28

    Sodium vanadium oxide gels, Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O, of varying sodium content (0.12 n > 0.01) and interlayer spacing were found to be inversely proportional to the sodium level (x), thus control of sodium (x) content provided a direct, chimie douce approach for control of hydration level (n) and interlayer spacing, without the need for high temperature treatment to affect dehydration. Notably, the use of high temperatures to modify hydration levels can result in crystallization and collapse of the interlayer structure, highlighting the distinct advantage of our novel chimie douce synthesis strategy. Subsequent to synthesis and characterization, results from an electrochemical study of a series of Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O samples highlight the significant impact of interlayer water on delivered capacity of the layered materials. Specifically, the sodium vanadium oxide gels with higher sodium content and lower water content provided higher capacities in lithium based cells, where capacity delivered to 2.0 V under C/20 discharge ranged from 170 mAh/g for Na(0.12)V(2)O(5)·0.23H(2)O to 300 mAh/g for Na(0.32)V(2)O(5)·0.01H(2)O. The capacity differences were maintained as the cells were cycled. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  12. Material properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels for core materials of FBR. Tensile properties of sodium exposed and nickel diffused materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2002-12-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel is candidate for a long-life core materials of future FBR, because of good swelling resistance and high creep strength. In this study, tensile tests were carried out the long-term extrapolation of sodium environmental effects on the mechanical properties of ODS steels. The tested heats of materials are M93, M11 and F95. The specimens were pre-exposed to sodium for 1,000 and 3,000 hours under non-stress conditions. The pre-exposure to sodium was conducted using a sodium test loop constituted by austenitic steels. For the conditions of sodium exposure test, the sodium temperature was 650 and 700degC, the oxygen concentration in sodium was about 1 ppm and sodium flow rate on the surface of specimen was less than 1x10 -4 m/seconds (nearly static). Further the specimen with the nickel diffused was prepared, which is simulate to nickel diffusing through sodium from the surface of structural stainless steels. The main results obtained were as follows; (1) The tensile strength and the fracture elongation after sodium exposure (maximum 3,000 hours) were same as that of as-received materials. If was considered that the sodium environmental effect is negligible under the condition of this study. (2) Tensile properties of nickel diffused specimens were slightly lower than that of the as-received specimens, but it remains equal to that of thermal aging specimens. (3) The change in microstructure such as a degraded layer was observed on the surface of nickel diffused specimen. In the region of the degraded layer, phase transformations from the α-phase to the γ-phase were recognized. But, the microscopic oxide particles were observed same as that of α-phase base metal. (author)

  13. Hierarchical Mesoporous Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Ternary Oxide Nanowire Arrays on Nickel Foam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Ying; Shen, Pei Kang; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-12-09

    Nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a simple two-step approach including a hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination process and directly utilized for supercapacitive investigation for the first time. The nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire arrays possess an ultrahigh specific capacitance value of 2481.8 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability of about 91.9% capacitance retention at 5 A g(-1). More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor with a high energy density (35.6 Wh kg(-1)) and remarkable cycle stability performance (94% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles) is assembled successfully by employing the ZNCO electrode as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The remarkable electrochemical behaviors demonstrate that the nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire array electrodes are highly desirable for application as advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  14. Controlled Synthesis of Uniform Cobalt Phosphide Hyperbranched Nanocrystals Using Tri- n -octylphosphine Oxide as a Phosphorus Source

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Robinson, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    A new method to produce hyperbranched Co 2P nanocrystals that are uniform in size, shape, and symmetry was developed. In this reaction tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as both a solvent and a phosphorus source. The reaction exhibits a novel monomer-saturation-dependent tunability between Co metal nanoparticle (NP) and Co 2P NP products. The morphology of Co 2P can be controlled from sheaflike structures to hexagonal symmetric structures by varying the concentration of the surfactant. This unique product differs significantly from other reported hyperbranched nanocrystals in that the highly anisotropic shapes can be stabilized as the majority shape (>84%). This is the first known use of TOPO as a reagent as well as a coordinating background solvent in NP synthesis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. On the Properties and Long-Term Stability of Infiltrated Lanthanum Cobalt Nickelates (LCN) in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Zielke, Philipp; Veltzé, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration as a fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) electrodes is offering significant improvements in cell performance at reduced materials and fabrication costs, especially when combined with co-sintering. However, important questions regarding the long-term performance...... and microstructural stability remain unanswered. Here, we present the results of a three-year project, where large footprint anode-supported SOFCs with a co-sintered cathode backbone and infiltrated La0.95Co0.4Ni0.6O3 (LCN) cathodes were developed and thoroughly characterized. The initial long-term performance...... in the electrode properties using SEM, BET area, and in-plane conductivity measurements. Finally, the mechanical properties of co-sintered cathode backbone cells were determined in four-point bending tests carried out both at room temperature and at 800°C in air. Based on these results, degradation mechanisms were...

  16. Controlled Synthesis of Uniform Cobalt Phosphide Hyperbranched Nanocrystals Using Tri- n -octylphosphine Oxide as a Phosphorus Source

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Haitao

    2011-01-12

    A new method to produce hyperbranched Co 2P nanocrystals that are uniform in size, shape, and symmetry was developed. In this reaction tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as both a solvent and a phosphorus source. The reaction exhibits a novel monomer-saturation-dependent tunability between Co metal nanoparticle (NP) and Co 2P NP products. The morphology of Co 2P can be controlled from sheaflike structures to hexagonal symmetric structures by varying the concentration of the surfactant. This unique product differs significantly from other reported hyperbranched nanocrystals in that the highly anisotropic shapes can be stabilized as the majority shape (>84%). This is the first known use of TOPO as a reagent as well as a coordinating background solvent in NP synthesis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. An unusual high-spin ground state of Co3+ in octahedral coordination in brownmillerite-type cobalt oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, S Ya; Tyablikov, O A; Kazakov, S M; Antipov, E V; Kurbakov, A I; Tsirlin, A A; Hollmann, N; Chin, Y Y; Lin, H-J; Chen, C T; Tanaka, A; Tjeng, L H; Hu, Z

    2015-06-21

    The crystal and magnetic structures of brownmillerite-like Sr(2)Co(1.2)Ga(0.8)O(5) with a stable Co(3+) oxidation state at both octahedral and tetrahedral sites are refined using neutron powder diffraction data collected at 2 K (S.G. Icmm, a = 5.6148(6) Å, b = 15.702(2) Å, c = 5.4543(6) Å; R(wp) = 0.0339, R(p) = 0.0443, χ(2) = 0.775). The very large tetragonal distortion of CoO(6) octahedra (1.9591(4) Å for Co-O(eq) and 2.257(6) Å for Co-O(ax)) could be beneficial for the stabilization of the long-sought intermediate-spin state of Co(3+) in perovskite-type oxides. However, the large magnetic moment of octahedral Co(3+) (3.82(7)μ(B)) indicates the conventional high-spin state of Co(3+) ions, which is further supported by the results of a combined theoretical and experimental soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy study at the Co-L(2,3) edges on Sr(2)Co(1.2)Ga(0.8)O(5). A high-spin ground state of Co(3+) in Sr(2)Co(1.2)Ga(0.8)O(5) resulted in much lower in comparison with a LaCoO(3) linear thermal expansion coefficient of 13.1 ppm K(-1) (298-1073 K) determined from high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction data collected in air.

  18. Hydrogen or synthesis gas production via the partial oxidation of methane over supported nickel-cobalt catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Alaric C.W. [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Chen, Luwei; Lin, Jianyi [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Kee Leong, Weng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Johnson, Brian F.G.; Khimyak, Tetyana [University Chemical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Activity, selectivity, and coking-resistance of a series of Ni{sub x}Co{sub y} (where x,y are the respective metal loadings of 0, 1, 2 or 3 wt.%; x+y=3) bimetallic catalysts supported on CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied for hydrogen/synthesis gas production via the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane. Catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis (XRF). Their activity for the partial oxidation of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (at 1 bar, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 144,000cm{sup 3}g{sup -1}h{sup -1} and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} molar ratio of 2) was investigated, and coke deposited on the spent catalysts was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activity was found to decrease in the order of Ni{sub 2}Co>Ni{sub 3}>NiCo{sub 2}>>Co{sub 3}, while CO and H{sub 2} selectivities were found to be in the order ofNi{sub 2}Co>Ni{sub 3}{approx}NiCo{sub 2}>Co{sub 3}. Ni{sub 2}Co is also shown to be more resistant to coking as compared to Ni{sub 3}, which is a current catalyst of choice. Results show that not only does Ni{sub 2}Co have the highest activity and selectivity among all the catalysts tested, it is also relatively resistant to coking. This finding would be helpful for catalyst design to achieve high coking resistivity catalysts for hydrogen production from CPO of methane. (author)

  19. Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soomro, Razium Ali, E-mail: raziumsoomro@gmail.com [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Nafady, Ayman [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Hallam, Keith Richard [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jawaid, Sana [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Al Enizi, Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Sirajuddin [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174, Norrkoping (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01–0.46 μM. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 μM of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: • Template-assisted growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • Shape-dependent electro-catalysis of atropine. • Effect of functionalisation of signal sensitivity.

  20. Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites as low-cost/high-performance catalysts for hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fei; Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    The production of clean and renewable hydrogen through the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has received much attention owing to increasing global energy demands. Graphene sheets/cobalt (GRs/Co) nanocomposites, which are highly efficient catalysts, have been prepared using a one-step solvothermal method in ethylene glycol. Co 2+ salts were converted to Co nanoparticles, which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers with the reduction of graphite oxide sheets to GRs. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The maximum saturation magnetization value reached 80.8 emu g −1 , meaning they are more suitable for magnet-controlled generation of H 2 than noble metal catalysts. The catalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in aqueous solution both with and without a GRs support. It was found that the high electronic conductive GRs support increased the hydrogen generation rate (about two times) compared with pure cobalt. The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling makes the GRs/Co nanocomposites promising candidates as catalysts for hydrogen generation. Highlights: ► Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites were prepared by a one-step solvothermal method. ► The maximum saturation magnetization value of the composites reached 80.8 emu g −1 . ► The graphene support greatly increased the catalytic activity of cobalt. ► An easily removed, recycled and controlled functional filter was obtained.

  1. Enhanced Proton Conductivity and Methanol Permeability Reduction via Sodium Alginate Electrolyte-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Bio-membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Basri, S.; Shyuan, L. K.; Masdar, M. S.; Nordin, D.

    2018-03-01

    The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane. The optimum properties and performances were presented by the SA/SGO membrane with a loading of 0.2 wt% SGO, which gave a proton conductivity of 13.2 × 10-3 Scm-1, and the methanol permeability was 1.535 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 25 °C, far below that of Nafion (25.1 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C. The mechanical properties of the sodium alginate polymer in terms of tensile strength and elongation at break were improved by the addition of SGO.

  2. Thermodynamic study of sodium-iron oxides. Part 2. Ternary phase diagram of the Na-Fe-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jintao; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been carried out from the thermodynamic point of view. Thermodynamic data of main ternary Na-Fe oxides Na 4 FeO 3 (s), Na 3 FeO 3 (s), Na 5 FeO 4 (s) and Na 8 Fe 2 O 7 (s) have been assessed. A user database has been created by reviewing literature data together with recent DSC and vapor pressure measurements by the present authors. New ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been constructed from room temperature to 1000K. Stable conditions of the ternary oxides at 800K were presented in predominance diagram as functions of oxygen pressure and sodium pressure

  3. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  4. Three-dimensional interconnected cobalt oxide-carbon hollow spheres arrays as cathode materials for hybrid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Zhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical porous metal oxides arrays is critical for development of advanced energy storage devices. Herein, we report a facile template-assisted electro-deposition plus glucose decomposition method for synthesis of multilayer CoO/C hollow spheres arrays. The CoO/C arrays consist of multilayer interconnected hollow composite spheres with diameters of ∼350 nm as well as thin walls of ∼20 nm. Hierarchical hollow spheres architecture with 3D porous networks are achieved. As cathode of high-rate hybrid batteries, the multilayer CoO/C hollow sphere arrays exhibit impressive enhanced performances with a high capacity (73.5 mAh g−1 at 2 A g−1, and stable high-rate cycling life (70 mAh g−1 after 12,500 cycles at 2 A g−1. The improved electrochemical performance is owing to the composite hollow-sphere architecture with high contact area between the active materials and electrolyte as well as fast ion/electron transportation path.

  5. Hydrothermal growth of Cobalt germanate/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as superior anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongkuan; Feng, Jinkui; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanosized Co 2 GeO 4 and Co 2 GeO 4 /RGO nanocomposites were prepared by a facile one pot hydrothermal route. • The Co 2 GeO 4 and Co 2 GeO 4 /RGO nanocomposites could be used as novel high capacity anodes with both alloying and conversion reactions. • The RGO incorporation can improve the electrochemical performance of Co 2 GeO 4 by buffering the volume changes and enhancing the conductivity of the electrodes. • The CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g −1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. - Abstract: Well dispersed Co 2 GeO 4 (CGO) nanoplates and CGO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are prepared via hydrothermal method and characterized as novel lithium anode materials for the first time. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the CGO/RGO nanocomposites exhibit a large reversible capacity of 1250 mAh g −1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1085 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. Remarkable rate performance was also recorded. The superior electrochemical performance of the CGO/RGO nanocomposites electrode compared to the pure CGO electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the conversion reactions

  6. Nanotoxicity of gold and gold-cobalt nanoalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, E; Khalil, W K B; Emam, A N; Mohamed, M B; Rao, K V

    2012-05-21

    Nanotoxicology test of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoalloy is an important step in their safety evaluation for biomedical applications. The Au and Au-Co NPs were prepared by reducing the metal ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping material. The average size and shape of the nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cobalt presence in the nanoalloy was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, and the magnetic properties of these particles were determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Gold and gold-cobalt NPs of average size 15 ± 1.5 nm were administered orally to mice with a dose of 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg per body weight (bw) using gavages. Samples were collected after 7 and 14 days of the treatment. The results indicated that the Au-Co NPs were able to induce significant alteration in the tumor-initiating genes associated with an increase of micronuclei (MNs) formation and generation of DNA adduct (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) as well as a reduction in the glutathione peroxidase activity. This action of Au-Co NPs was observed using 160 and 320 mg/kg bw at both time intervals. However, Au NPs had much lower effects than Au-Co NPs on alteration in the tumor-initiating genes, frequency of MNs, and generation of 8-OHdG as well as glutathione peroxidase activity except with the highest dose of Au NPs. This study suggests that the potential to cause in vivo genetic and antioxidant enzyme alterations due to the treatment by Au-Co nanoalloy may be attributed to the increase in oxidative stress in mice.

  7. EFTF cobalt test assembly results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.A.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A cobalt test assembly containing yttrium hydride pins for neutron moderation was irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility during Cycle 9A for 137.7 equivalent full power days at a power level fo 291 MW. The 36 test pins consisted of a batch of 32 pins containing cobalt metal to produce Co-60, and a set of 4 pins with europium oxide to produce Gd-153, a radioisotope used in detection of the bone disease Osteoporosis. Post-irradiation examination of the cobalt pins determined the Co-60 produced with an accuracy of about 5 %. The measured Co-60 spatially distributed concentrations were within 20 % of the calculated concentrations. The assembly average Co-60 measured activity was 4 % less than the calculated value. The europium oxide pins were gamma scanned for the europium isotopes Eu-152 and Eu-154 to an absolute accuracy of about 10 %. The measured europium radioisotpe anc Gd-153 concentrations were within 20 % of calculated values. In conclusion, the hydride assembly performed well and is an excellent vehicle for many Fast Flux Test Facility isotope production applications. The results also demonstrate that the calculational methods developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company are very accurate. (author)

  8. Polycation–sodium lauryl ether sulfate-type surfactant complexes : influence of ethylene oxide length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, L.F.W.; Pollet, J.; Tuinier, R.

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES

  9. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES

  10. Thermometric titration of cadmium with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, with oxidation by hydrogen peroxide as indicator reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, T; Yoshida, H

    1987-08-01

    A new method of end-point indication is described for thermometric titration of cadmium with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). It is based on the redox reaction between hydrogen peroxide added to the system before titration, and the first excess of DDTC. Amounts of cadmium in the range 10-50 mumoles are titrated within 1% error.

  11. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  12. Thermoelectric Properties and Microstructure of Modified Novel Complex Cobalt Oxides Sr3RECo4O10.5 (RE = Y, Gd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    We report on the high-temperature thermoelectric properties and microstructure of modified novel complex cobalt oxides Sr3RECo4O10.5 (RE = Y, Gd), in which the Sr- and Co-sites are partly substituted by Ca and Ga, respectively. We have found that the sample with RE = Gd shows a significant higher......-sample resulting in a substantial decrease in porosity, its thermal diffusivity exhibits a lower value then the non-doped one, particularly in high temperature region. © 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  13. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets by a sodium diphenylamine sulfonate reduction process and its electrochemical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yunzhou; Liu, Qi; Cheng, Meiling; Lai, Lifang; Li, Zhanfeng; Peng, Yuxin; Yang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a new method to convert graphene oxide (GO) to stable colloidal dispersion of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGONS) using sodium diphenylamine sulfonate (SDAS) as a reductant, as well as itself and its redox product as the stabilizer. The as-prepared RGONS have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the bulk of oxygen-containing functional groups from GO have been removed. Based on the cyclic voltammogram (CV) analyses, it is found that the RGONS-based material exhibits better electrochemical activity in sensing ascorbic acid than GO. The simple method provides a new efficient route for the synthesis of water-soluble RGONS on a large scale and novel composites. - Highlights: • We report a new environment-friendly reductant for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The reduction process needn't use other stabilizer except for using reductant. • The reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (RGONS) aqueous dispersion is stable. • The RGONS shows a high electrochemical activity in sensing ascorbic acid

  14. Comparison of computer codes related to the sodium oxide aerosol behavior in a containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.

    1984-09-01

    In order to ensure that the problems of describing the physical behavior of sodium aerosols, during hypothetical fast reactor accidents, were adequately understood, a comparison of the computer codes (ABC/INTG, PNC, Japan; AEROSIM, UKAEA/SRD, United Kingdom; PARDISEKO IIIb, KfK, Germany; AEROSOLS/A2 and AEROSOLS/B1, CEA France) was undertaken in the frame of the CEC: exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a prearranged input

  15. Oxidative Stress and Sodium Methyldithiocarbamate–Induced Modulation of the Macrophage Response to Lipopolysaccharide In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Pruett, Stephen B.; Cheng, Bing; Fan, Ruping; Tan, Wei; Sebastian, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is the third most abundantly used conventional pesticide in the United States, and hundreds of thousands of persons are exposed to this compound or its major breakdown product, methylisothiocyanate, at levels greater than recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. A previous study suggests three mechanisms of action involved to some degree in the inhibition of inflammation and decreased resistance to infection caused by exposure of mice to the compo...

  16. A study of sodium oxide crystallization mechanisms and kinetics in cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, C.

    1984-04-01

    After showing up the present lack of data on crystallization mechanisms and kinetics, a number of tests were conducted on a sodium test loop equipped with two experimental cold traps. The effects of several geometric and thermohydraulic parameters on purification efficiency were also studied. The test results were used to develop a simulation model. An optimization code based on the model can be used to determine the nucleation and growth kinetics

  17. Influence of sodium nitrite on protein oxidation and nitrosation of sausages subjected to processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Jia, Xu; Guo, Yan; Lei, Na; Hackman, Robert M; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of NaNO2 content on protein oxidation and nitrosation was investigated in cooked sausages at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg NaNO2/kg). Dependent on concentration, NaNO2 had both anti- and pro-oxidant effects on protein oxidation. The antioxidant effects of NaNO2 on the protein oxidation were evidenced by significantly lower carbonyl contents, higher free amines and lower surface hydrophobicities. The pro-oxidant effects of NaNO2 on protein oxidation resulted in a decrease of sulfhydryls and an increase of disulfide bonds. NaNO2 also improved the protein nitrosation inducing the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Moreover, 3-NT had significant correlations with parameters of protein oxidation, indicating that 3-NT may be a possible marker for protein oxidation. Results of this study contribute to an understanding of the impact of NaNO2 on food quality and help to identify optimal formulations of cured meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constructing Ultrahigh-Capacity Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Oxide@Ni(OH)2 Core-Shell Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Coaxial Fiber-Shaped Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qichong; Xu, Weiwei; Sun, Juan; Pan, Zhenghui; Zhao, Jingxin; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Jun; Man, Ping; Guo, Jiabin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Zhang, Zengxing; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Yuegang; Xu, Lai; Yao, Yagang

    2017-12-13

    Increased efforts have recently been devoted to developing high-energy-density flexible supercapacitors for their practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. Although high operating voltages have been achieved in fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors (FASCs), low specific capacitance still restricts the further enhancement of their energy density. This article specifies a facile and cost-effective method to directly grow three-dimensionally well-aligned zinc-nickel-cobalt oxide (ZNCO)@Ni(OH) 2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) on a carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF) with an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2847.5 F/cm 3 (10.678 F/cm 2 ) at a current density of 1 mA/cm 2 , These levels are approximately five times higher than those of ZNCO NWAs/CNTF electrodes (2.10 F/cm 2 ) and four times higher than Ni(OH) 2 /CNTF electrodes (2.55 F/cm 2 ). Benefiting from their unique features, we successfully fabricated a prototype coaxial FASC (CFASC) with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V, which was assembled by adopting ZNCO@Ni(OH) 2 NWAs/CNTF as the core electrode and a thin layer of carbon coated vanadium nitride (VN@C) NWAs on a carbon nanotube strip (CNTS) as the outer electrode with KOH poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the gel electrolyte. A high specific capacitance of 94.67 F/cm 3 (573.75 mF/cm 2 ) and an exceptional energy density of 33.66 mWh/cm 3 (204.02 μWh/cm 2 ) were achieved for our CFASC device, which represent the highest levels of fiber-shaped supercapacitors to date. More importantly, the fiber-shaped ZnO-based photodetector is powered by the integrated CFASC, and it demonstrates excellent sensitivity in detecting UV light. Thus, this work paves the way to the construction of ultrahigh-capacity electrode materials for next-generation wearable energy-storage devices.

  19. Removal of Cobalt Ions by Precipitate Foam Flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-30

    Simulated waste liquid containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was tested by precipitate flotation using a sodium lauryl sulfate as a collector. The effects of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH, surfactant concentration, flotation time, gas flow rate and foreign ions on removal efficiency of cobalt ion were studied. Pretreatment of the waste liquid with 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} prior to precipitate flotation made shift of optimal flotation pH from the strong alkalinity to weak alkaline range and made a favorable flotation of cobalt ion in wide range of pH. For the result of this experiment, 99.8% removal efficiency was obtained on the conditions of initial cobalt ion concentration 50 ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70 ml/min, flotation time 30 min. The simulate ion was formed to be the most harmful ion against removal of cobalt by precipitate flotation of the species which were tested. The presence of 0.1 M of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion decreased removal efficiency of cobalt to 90% while the cobalt were almost entirely removed in the absence of sulfate ion. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Degradation of lithium ion batteries employing graphite negatives and nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide + spinel manganese oxide positives: Part 2, chemical-mechanical degradation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Justin; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason; Soukiazian, Souren; Tataria, Harshad; Verbrugge, Mark W.

    2014-12-01

    Capacity fade is reported for 1.5 Ah Li-ion batteries containing a mixture of Li-Ni-Co-Mn oxide (NCM) + Li-Mn oxide spinel (LMO) as positive electrode material and a graphite negative electrode. The batteries were cycled at a wide range of temperatures (10 °C-46 °C) and discharge currents (0.5C-6.5C). The measured capacity losses were fit to a simple physics-based model which calculates lithium inventory loss from two related mechanisms: (1) mechanical degradation at the graphite anode particle surface caused by diffusion-induced stresses (DIS) and (2) chemical degradation caused by lithium loss to continued growth of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). These two mechanisms are coupled because lithium is consumed through SEI formation on newly exposed crack surfaces. The growth of crack surface area is modeled as a fatigue phenomenon due to the cyclic stresses generated by repeated lithium insertion and de-insertion of graphite particles. This coupled chemical-mechanical degradation model is consistent with the observed capacity loss features for the NCM + LMO/graphite cells.

  1. Determination of trace amounts of lead, arsenic, nickel and cobalt in high-purity iron oxide pigment by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after iron matrix removal with extractant-contained resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuyu; Zhou Jianfeng; Wang Guoxin; Zhou Jinfan; Tao Guanhong

    2007-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was applied to the determination of lead, arsenic, nickel and cobalt in high-purity iron oxide pigment. Samples were dissolved with hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest was passed through a column, which was packed with a polymer resin containing a neutral organophosphorus extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate. Iron was sorbed selectively on the resin and the analytes of interest passed through the column, allowing the effective separation of them from the iron matrix. Conditions of separation were optimized. The detection limits (3σ) in solution were 10, 40, 7 and 5 μg L -1 , and in pigment were 0.2, 0.8, 0.14 and 0.1 mg kg -1 for lead, arsenic, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 95% to 107% when sample digests were spiked with 5 μg of the analytes of interest, and relative standard deviations (n = 6) were 1.5-17.6% for the determination of the spiked samples. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of these elements in high-purity iron oxide pigment samples

  2. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prophylactic effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on sodium fluoride induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasla, Asma; Bouasla, Ihcène; Boumendjel, Amel; Abdennour, Cherif; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Messarah, Mahfoud

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice (PGJ) on oxidative damages in liver tissue and erythrocytes of rats intoxicated by sodium fluoride (NaF). Rats were randomly divided into two groups: group I received standard diet and group II received orally 1 mL of PGJ. After 5 weeks of pretreatment, each group was divided again into two subgroups and treated for another 3 weeks as follows: group I was subdivided into a control group and a group that was treated with 100 ppm of NaF (in drinking water); group II was subdivided into one group that was treated daily with both 100 ppm NaF and PGJ (1 mL orally) and one that received daily 1 mL of pomegranate juice. Exposure to NaF decreased hematological parameters, changed the total protein, albumin, bilirubin levels, and increased the activities of hepatic marker enzymes. We also noted an increase in lipid peroxidation contents, accompanied by a decrease of reduced glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzyme activities in both tissues were modified in the NaF group compared with the control group. However, the administration of PGJ juice caused an amelioration of the previous parameters. Our results indicated the potential effects of NaF to induce oxidative damage in tissues and the ability of PGJ to attenuate NaF-induced oxidative injury.

  4. Alkali-Metal-Ion-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Superior Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fang; Li, Yu-Han; Liu, Dai-Huo; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-06-06

    Although graphene oxide (GO) has large interlayer spacing, it is still inappropriate to use it as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of the existence of H-bonding between the layers and ultralow electrical conductivity which impedes the Na(+) and e(-) transformation. To solve these issues, chemical, thermal, and electrochemical procedures are traditionally employed to reduce GO nanosheets. However, these strategies are still unscalable, consume high amounts of energy, and are expensive for practical application. Here, for the first time, we describe the superior Na storage of unreduced GO by a simple and scalable alkali-metal-ion (Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) )-functionalized process. The various alkali metals ions, connecting with the oxygen on GO, have played different effects on morphology, porosity, degree of disorder, and electrical conductivity, which are crucial for Na-storage capabilities. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that sodium-ion-functionalized GO (GNa) has shown outstanding Na-storage performance in terms of excellent rate capability and long-term cycle life (110 mAh g(-1) after 600 cycles at 1 A g(-1) ) owing to its high BET area, appropriate mesopore, high degree of disorder, and improved electrical conductivity. Theoretical calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to further study the Na-storage capabilities of functionalized GO. These calculations have indicated that the Na-O bond has the lowest binding energy, which is beneficial to insertion/extraction of the sodium ion, hence the GNa has shown the best Na-storage properties among all comparatives functionalized by other alkali metal ions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Experimental study of contamination by a mixture resulting from the combustion of sodium in the presence of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nenot, J.C.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    The introduction into industry of breeder reactors using liquid sodium as the coolant gives rise to fresh radiotoxicological problems; the most likely chemical form in which the plutonium and sodium mixture may be found after a possible accident is a soluble oxide of plutonium(VI) or plutonium(VII). The biological behaviour of such mixtures was analysed in rats and monkeys following parenteral administration. In the case of rats distribution in the organs was analysed from 30 minutes to 30 days following intramuscular contamination. In the monkeys the authors only analysed distribution in the organs after one month. The biological behaviour of the mixture is marked by very high plutonium solubility. The maximum burden in the organs attains roughly 20% of the quantity deposited both in monkeys and rats. The spread of the plutonium proceeds gradually from the day of administration; it indicates that a soluble form of plutonium is present for a long time. Also observed is an increasing osteotropic tendency in the diffusible form. The liver fraction is rapidly removed, if it is assumed that faecal excretion represents biliary excretion. In the experimental conditions selected, the spread of a liquid aerosol of the solution is rapid and constitutes about 10% of the quantity deposited in the airways at the end of inhalation. Treatment with DTPA makes it possible to reduce the body burden, but less efficiently than after contamination by Pu(IV). (author)

  6. Surface modification of graphene oxide nanosheets by protamine sulfate/sodium alginate for anti-cancer drug delivery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meng; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lijiao; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Yeping; Li, Huaming; Xie, Jimin

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of anticancer drug delivery, a graphene oxide (GO) based drug delivery system modificated by natural peptide protamine sulfate (PRM) and sodium alginate (SA) was established via electrostatic attraction at each step of adsorption based on layer-by-layer self-assembly. The nanocomposites were then loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) to estimate the feasibility as drug carriers. The nanocomposites loaded with DOX revealed a remarkable pH-sensitive drug release property. The modification with protamine sulfate and sodium alginate could not only impart the nanocomposites an improved dispersibility and stability under physiological pH, but also suppress the protein adhesion. Due to the high water dispersibility and the small particle size, GO-PRM/SA nanocomposites were able to be uptaken by MCF-7 cells. It was found that GO-PRM/SA nanocomposites exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells, while GO-PRM/SA-DOX exhibited better cytotoxicity than GO-DOX. Therefore, the GO-PRM/SA nanocomposites were feasible as drug delivery vehicles.

  7. Binary Synergy Strengthening and Toughening of Bio-Inspired Nacre-like Graphene Oxide/Sodium Alginate Composite Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Shi, Bin; Yue, Yonghai; Qi, Juanjuan; Guo, Lin

    2015-08-25

    A crucial requirement for most engineering materials is the excellent balance of strength and toughness. By mimicking the hybrid hierarchical structure in nacre, a kind of nacre-like paper based on binary hybrid graphene oxide (GO)/sodium alginate (SA) building blocks has been successfully fabricated. Systematic evaluation for the mechanical property in different (dry/wet) environment/after thermal annealing shows a perfect combination of high strength and toughness. Both of the parameters are nearly many-times higher than those of similar materials because of the synergistic strengthening/toughening enhancement from the binary GO/SA hybrids. The successful fabrication route offers an excellent approach to design advanced strong integrated nacre-like composite materials, which can be applied in tissue engineering, protection, aerospace, and permeable membranes for separation and delivery.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin and highly bioavailable curcumin on oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside in rat striatal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Qand Agha; Kume, Toshiaki; Izuo, Naotaka; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Akaike, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa, has several pharmacological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin and THERACURMIN, a highly bioavailable curcumin, against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced oxidative damage in primary striatal cell culture. THERACURMIN as well as curcumin significantly prevented SNP-induced cytotoxicity. To elucidate the cytoprotective effects of curcumin and THERACURMIN, we measured the intracellular glutathione level in striatal cells. Curcumin and THERACURMIN significantly elevated the glutathione level, which was decreased by treatment with SNP. Moreover, curcumin showed potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging ability. Finally, a ferrozine assay showed that curcumin (10-100 µg/mL) has potent Fe(2+)-chelating ability. These results suggest that curcumin and THERACURMIN exert potent protective effects against SNP-induced cytotoxicity by free radical-scavenging and iron-chelating activities.

  9. Cobalt-free cathode material SrFe{sub 0.9}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qingjun [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Zhang, Leilei; He, Tianmin [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A cobalt-free cubic perovskite oxide, SrFe{sub 0.9}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (SFN) was investigated as a cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). XRD results showed that SFN cathode was chemically compatible with the electrolyte Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) for temperatures up to 1050 C. The electrical conductivity of SFN sample reached 34-70 S cm{sup -1} in the commonly operated temperatures of IT-SOFCs (600-800 C). The area specific resistance was 0.138 {omega} cm{sup 2} for SFN cathode on SDC electrolyte at 750 C. A maximum power density of 407 mW cm{sup -2} was obtained at 800 C for single-cell with 300 {mu}m thick SDC electrolyte and SFN cathode. (author)

  10. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  11. Passivation and corrosion behaviours of cobalt and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Babic, R.

    2007-01-01

    Passivation and corrosion behaviour of the cobalt and cobalt-base alloy Co30Cr6Mo was studied in a simulated physiological solution containing chloride and bicarbonate ions and with pH of 6.8. The oxido-reduction processes included solid state transformations occurring at the cobalt/electrolyte interface are interpreted using theories of surface electrochemistry. The dissolution of cobalt is significantly suppressed by alloying it with chromium and molybdenum, since the alloy exhibited 'chromium like' passivity. The structural and protective properties of passive oxide films formed spontaneously at the open circuit potential or during the anodic polarization were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the wide frequency range

  12. Optical study of gamma irradiated sodium metaphosphate glasses containing divalent metal oxide MO (ZnO or CdO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nabhan

    Full Text Available Sodium metaphosphate glasses containing divalent metal oxide, ZnO or CdO with composition 50 P2O5 – (50 − x Na2O – x MO (ZnO, or CdO where x = 0, 10, 20 (mol% were prepared by conventional melt method. UV/visible spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy are measured before and after exposing to successive gamma irradiation doses (5–80 kGy. The optical absorption spectra results of the samples before irradiation reveal a strong UV absorption band at (∼230 nm which is related to unavoided iron impurities. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. From the optical absorption spectral data, the optical band gap is evaluated. The main structural groups and the influence of both divalent metal oxide and gamma irradiation effect on the structural vibrational groups are realized through IR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of γ-irradiated samples are characterized by the stability of the number and position for the main characteristic band of phosphate groups. To better understood the structural changes during γ-irradiation, a deconvolution of FTIR spectra in the range 650–1450 cm−1 is made. The FTIR deconvolution results found evidence that, the changes occurring after gamma irradiation have been related to irradiation induced structural defects and compositional changes. Keywords: Sodium metaphosphate glass, UV–visible spectra, IR spectra, Deconvolution, Optical band gap, Gamma ray

  13. Cobalt sensitization and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    : This clinical review article presents clinical and scientific data on cobalt sensitization and dermatitis. It is concluded that cobalt despite being a strong sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen to come up on patch testing should be regarded as a very complex metal to test with. Exposure...

  14. XPS characterization of the anodic oxide film formed on uranium metal in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiaoguo; Wang Xiaolin; Guo Huanjun; Wang Qingfu; Zhao Zhengping; Zhong Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to examine the anodic oxide film formed on uranium metal in 0.8 mol/L NaOH solution. The U4f 7/2 fitting spectra suggests that the anodic oxide film is composed of uranium trioxide and a small amount of UO 2+x . Under UHV condition, the U4f peak shifts to the lower binding energy, while a gradual increase in the intensity of U5f peak and the broad of U4f peak are also observed. All of these changes are due to reduction of uranium trioxide in the anodic oxide film. XPS quantitative analysis confirms the occurrence of reduction reaction

  15. Cobalt, titanium or cerium oxide protective coatings for the nickel cathode of the molten carbonate fuel cells; Revetements protecteurs a base d'oxyde de cobalt, de titane ou de cerium pour la cathode de nickel des piles a combustible a carbonates fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Blanco, L.

    2003-10-15

    The aim of this work is to combine the MCFC cathode Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}O properties to those of the protective coatings of LiCoO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or of CeO{sub 2}, less soluble in the molten carbonates. In the cases of LiCoO{sub 2}, have been carried out by controlled potential coulometry in aqueous solution, a deposition of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} on dense Ni. The cobalt oxide reacts rapidly in the Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} medium at 650 C to give LiCoO{sub 2}, a spinel cubic phase revealed by Raman spectroscopy. (O.M.)

  16. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase supports Renin release during sodium restriction through inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sällström, Johan; Jensen, Boye L; Skøtt, Ole

    2010-01-01

    NOS supports renin release by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. METHODS: The experiments were performed in conscious nNOS⁻(/)⁻ and wild types after 10 days on a low-sodium diet...... by measurements of inulin- and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearances, respectively. RESULTS: The basal PRC was reduced in nNOS⁻(/)⁻ compared to the wild types. Administration of milrinone caused a more pronounced PRC increase in nNOS⁻(/)⁻, resulting in normalized renin levels, whereas PDE5 inhibition did...... not affect PRC in any genotype. The blood pressure was similar in both genotypes, and milrinone did not affect blood pressure compared to vehicle. GFR and RPF were similar at baseline and were reduced by milrinone. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides in vivo evidence supporting the view that NO...

  17. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  18. Electrodeposition of porous zinc oxide electrodes in the presence of sodium laurylsulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michaelis, E.; Wöhrle, D.; Rathouský, Jiří; Wark, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 497, 1-2 (2006), s. 163-169 ISSN 0040-6090 Grant - others:Volkswagen Foundation(DE) I/77723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : zinc oxide * electrochemistry * structural properties * templating Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  19. Reaction products and corrosion of molybdenum electrode in glass melt containing antimony oxides and sodium sulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, J.; Langrová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 280-285 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : antimony oxides * corrosion * glass melt * Molybdenum electrode * sulfate Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_03_280.pdf

  20. Sulphate decomposition and sodium oxide activity in soda-lime-silica glass metls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Reaction equilibrium constants for the sulfate decomposition process, which releases oxygen and sulfur oxide gas in sodalimesilica glass melts, have been determined. The chemical solubility of SO2, probably in the form of sulfite ions in sodalimesilica melts, has also been determined. The chemical

  1. REACTION PRODUCTS AND CORROSION OF MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODE IN GLASS MELT CONTAINING ANTIMONY OXIDES AND SODIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ MATĚJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The products on the interface of a molybdenum electrode and glass melt were investigated primarily at 1400°C in three model glass melts without ingredients, with 1 % Sb2O3 and with 1 % Sb2O3 and 0.5 % SO3 (wt. %, both under and without load by alternating current. Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide. Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. The composition of sulfide layers formed at 1400°C approximates that of Mo2S3. At 1100°C, the sulfide composition approximates that of MoS4. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles. Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.

  2. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  3. Sodium selenite/selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) protect cardiomyoblasts and zebrafish embryos against ethanol induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Jeyabharathi, Subhaschandrabose; Sundar, Krishnan; Muthukumaran, Azhaguchamy

    2015-10-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is the damage caused to the heart muscles due to high level of alcohol consumption resulting in enlargement and inflammation of the heart. Selenium is an important trace element that is beneficial to human health. Selenium protects the cells by preventing the formation of free radicals in the body. In the present study, protein mediated synthesis of SeNPs was investigated. Two different sizes of SeNPs were synthesized using BSA and keratin. The synthesized SeNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elemental composition analysis Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This study demonstrates the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative effects of sodium selenite and SeNPs. Further selenium and SeNPs were evaluated for their ability to protect against 1% ethanol induced oxidative stress in H9C2 cell line. The selenium and SeNPs were found to reduce the 1% ethanol-induced oxidative damage through scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species. The selenium and SeNPs could also prevent pericardial edema induced ethanol treatment and reduced apoptosis and cell death in zebrafish embryos. The results indicate that selenium and SeNPs could potentially be used as an additive in alcoholic beverage industry to control the cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  5. A Neutronic Feasibility Study on the Recycling of an Oxide Fuel in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2006-06-15

    Neutronic feasibility was implemented for the recycling of a mixed oxide fuel in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) through a thermal/mechanical dry process, which is recognized as one of the most proliferation- resistant recycling processes. In order to assess the applicability of a simple dry process which is not capable of completely removing all the fission products from a spent fuel, sensitivity calculations were performed for the reactor physics parameters with a dependency on the fission product removal rate of the recycled spent fuel. The equilibrium core calculations were performed by the REBUS-3 code for a BN-600 core without blanket fuels and a modified core with an increased fuel volume fraction. The reactor performance parameters such as the transuranic content, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing and reactivity coefficients were calculated for an equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a recycling of the oxide fuel in the SFR is feasible if the fission products are removed by more than 70% through the dry process as far as the material balance is concerned. However the physics analysis also showed that some of the physics design parameters are slightly deteriorated. The results of this study indicate that the recycling characteristics can be improved if the dry process can remove more fission products, and the reactor configuration is further optimized or the spent fuel composition is adjusted.

  6. A Neutronic Feasibility Study on the Recycling of an Oxide Fuel in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2006-06-01

    Neutronic feasibility was implemented for the recycling of a mixed oxide fuel in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) through a thermal/mechanical dry process, which is recognized as one of the most proliferation- resistant recycling processes. In order to assess the applicability of a simple dry process which is not capable of completely removing all the fission products from a spent fuel, sensitivity calculations were performed for the reactor physics parameters with a dependency on the fission product removal rate of the recycled spent fuel. The equilibrium core calculations were performed by the REBUS-3 code for a BN-600 core without blanket fuels and a modified core with an increased fuel volume fraction. The reactor performance parameters such as the transuranic content, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing and reactivity coefficients were calculated for an equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a recycling of the oxide fuel in the SFR is feasible if the fission products are removed by more than 70% through the dry process as far as the material balance is concerned. However the physics analysis also showed that some of the physics design parameters are slightly deteriorated. The results of this study indicate that the recycling characteristics can be improved if the dry process can remove more fission products, and the reactor configuration is further optimized or the spent fuel composition is adjusted

  7. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt-nichel oxides for the oxygen formation reaction; Sintesis y caracterizacion de oxidos de cobalto-niquel para la reaccion de formacion de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales G, P

    2001-07-01

    In this work the compounds of cobalt and nickel oxides and the mixtures of cobalt-nickel were prepared which were characterized and evaluated as electrocatalysts in the oxygen release reaction in alkaline media. The compounds were synthesised by the sol-gel method: heated at 400 and 500 Centigrade. The compounds characterization was realized by thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. As the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the Ni O as the mixtures Ni O/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were obtained as a porous material with a small particle size, characteristics which are presented by cause of the low temperature of synthesis. The electrocatalytic evaluation for the synthesised compounds for the oxygen release reaction was realized by cyclic volt amperometry in a 0.5M KOH solution. The oxides mixtures presented a well electrocatalytic activity to be used in the electrochemical release of oxygen. The current density and the electrochemically active area, in all the cases of mixtures is very higher to the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni O ones. Observing with greater clearness the synergic effects, in the obtained mixture at 400 C. The oxides mixtures heated at 400 C were stables for the oxygen formation reaction. Therefore it is be able to say that the Ni O/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} mixture counts on a great reactive area: electrocatalytic characteristic desirable to be a material used as anode in the electrolysis of water, which increases the oxygen release in the anode and so the hydrogen release in the cathode. (Author)

  8. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2008-01-01

    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied

  9. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.com; Hosseini, Rahim; Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied.

  10. Sodium-Ion Intercalated Transparent Conductors with Printed Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Gu, Feng; Bao, Wenzhong; Dai, Jiaqi; Shen, Fei; Luo, Wei; Han, Xiaogang; Urban, Daniel; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-06-10

    In this work, we report for the first time that Na-ion intercalation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can significantly improve its printed network's performance as a transparent conductor. Unlike pristine graphene that inhibits Na-ion intercalation, the larger layer-layer distance of RGO allows Na-ion intercalation, leading to simultaneously much higher DC conductivity and higher optical transmittance. The typical increase of transmittance from 36% to 79% and decrease of sheet resistance from 83k to 311 Ohms/sq in the printed network was observed after Na-ion intercalation. Compared with Li-intercalated graphene, Na-ion intercalated RGO shows much better environmental stability, which is likely due to the self-terminating oxidation of Na ions on the RGO edges. This study demonstrated the great potential of metal-ion intercalation to improve the performance of printed RGO network for transparent conductor applications.

  11. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, I.

    1994-01-01

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  12. Salvianic acid A sodium protects HUVEC cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury via mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Li, Tian; Chen, Xiaofei; Ding, Xuan; Chai, Yifeng; Chen, Alex F; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Chuan

    2018-01-05

    Salvianic acid A (Danshensu) is a major water-soluble component extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), which has been widely used in clinic in China for treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of salvianic acid A sodium (SAAS) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) oxidative injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the antioxidant activity-assessing model, SAAS pretreatment significantly ameliorated the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by t-BHP. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) based-metabolic profiling was developed to investigate the metabolic changes of HUVEC cells in response to t-BHP and SAAS. The results revealed that t-BHP injury upregulated 13 metabolites mainly involved in tryptophan metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism which were highly correlated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, and 50 μM SAAS pretreatment effectively reversed these metabolic changes. Further biomedical research indicated that SAAS pretreatment reduced the t-BHP induced increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and the decrease of key antioxidant enzymes through mitochondria antioxidative pathways via JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signalings. Taken together, our results suggested that SAAS may protect HUVEC cells against t-BHP induced oxidative injury via mitochondrial antioxidative defense system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of sodium selenite on chosen anti- and pro-oxidative parameters in rats treated with lithium: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kocot, Joanna; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element of antioxidant properties. Lithium is widely used in medicine but its administration can cause numerous side effects including oxidative stress. The present study aimed at evaluating if sodium selenite could influence chosen anti- and pro-oxidant parameters in rats treated with lithium. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control) - treated with saline; II (Li) - treated with lithium (2.7 mgLi/kg b.w. as Li2CO3), III (Se) - treated with selenium (0.5 mgSe/kg b.w. as Na2SeO3), IV (Li+Se) - treated with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3 together at the same doses as in group II and III, respectively. All treatments were performed by stomach tube for three weeks in form of water solutions. The following anti- and pro-oxidant parameters: total antioxidant status (TAS) value, catalase (CAT) activity, concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as well as whole blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. Selenium given alone markedly enhanced whole blood GPx and diminished plasma CAT vs. Lithium significantly decreased plasma CAT and slightly increased AA vs. Selenium co-administration restored these parameters to the values observed in control animals. Furthermore, selenium co-administration significantly increased GPx in Li-treated rats. All other parameters (TAS, SOD and MDA) were not affected by lithium and/or selenium. Further research seems to be warranted to decide if application of selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth considering. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of Fluoride Ion from Aqueous Solution by Nanocomposite Hydrogel Based on Starch/Sodium Acrylate/Nano Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of fluoride in drinking water has received increasing interest, due to its beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Contamination of drinking water by fluoride can cause potential hazards to human health. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to different methods for the removal of fluoride from drinking and waste waters. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of nano composite hydrogel based on starch/sodium acrylate/aluminum oxide in reduction of fluoride concentration in drinking water and industrial waste water. In a batch system, the dynamic and equilibrium adsorption of fluoride ions were studied with respect to changes in determining parameters such as pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, starch/acrylic acid weight ratio and weight percent of nano aluminum oxide. The obtained equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models, as well as the kinetic data with pseudo-first order and pseudo- second order models. The results showed that optimum pH was found to be in the range of 5 to 7. Removal efficiency of fluoride was increased with decreases in initial concentration of fluoride. Sixty percent of initial value of fluoride solution was removed by nano composite hydrogel (4 wt% of nano aluminum oxide at 240 min (initial fluoride concentration = 5 ppm, pH 6.8 and temperature = 25ºC. Under the same condition, the equilibrium adsorption of fluoride ions was 85% and 68% for initial solution concentration of 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Adsorption isotherm data showed that the fluoride sorption followed the Langmuir model. Kinetics of sorption of fluoride onto nano composite hydrogel was described by pseudo-first order model.

  15. Facile and efficient room temperature solid state reaction enabled synthesis of antimony nanoparticles embedded within reduced graphene oxide for enhanced sodium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiukui; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Xiaofang; Shi, Hongxia; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Wei, Shaohua; Zhou, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    Herein, a very simple and cost-effective solid state reaction method is employed to obtain, for the first time, the antimony nanoparticles embedded within reduced graphene oxide matrices (designated as Sb/rGO). By directly grinding antimony chloride and sodium hydroxide together at room temperature in the presence of graphene oxide (GO), Sb4O5Cl2 precursor was quickly obtained, which is evenly incorporated in the graphene oxide matrices. After subsequent chemical reduction by NaBH4, the Sb/rGO composite was successfully synthesized. The as-prepared Sb/rGO composite consists of uniform Sb nanoparticles of sub-20 nm, all of which have been wrapped in and protected by the rGO matrices. The Sb nanoparticles serve as a sufficient sodium ion reservoir while the rGO matrices provide highly efficient pathways for transport of sodium ions and electrons. Moreover, the volume expansion of Sb during sodiation can be buffered in the rGO matrices. As a result, the Sb/rGO composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), including an enhanced cycling stability with a highly reversible charge capacity of 455 mA h g-1 after 45 cycles at 100 mA g-1, and a coulombic efficiency exceeding 98% during cycling. The findings in the present work pave the way to not only synthesize the designated promising electrode materials for high performance SIBs, but also thoroughly understand the solid-state reaction.

  16. The protective effect of curcumin against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabavi S.F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the cardioprotective effects of curcumin, a herbal polyphenolic compound, against sodium fluoride (NaF-induced toxicity in rat heart was evaluated. Fifty rats were divided into five experimental groups containing 10 rats each. Group I received standard water and diet and was used as a normal group; groups II and III were pretreated with curcumin intraperitoneally for 7 days prior to NaF intoxication. Group IV was pretreated with vitamin C, a standard antioxidant, intraperitoneally for 7 days prior to NaF intoxication and used as a positive control group. The animals in group V were intoxicated with NaF for the same time and used as a control group. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation along with a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in the homogenates of tissues of the NaF-treated animals. Curcumin pretreatment in animals prior to fluoride intoxication normalized the levels of biochemical parameters measured.

  17. Hot corrosion of low cobalt alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The hot corrosion attack susceptibility of various alloys as a function of strategic materials content are investigated. Preliminary results were obtained for two commercial alloys, UDIMET 700 and Mar-M 247, that were modified by varying the cobalt content. For both alloys the cobalt content was reduced in steps to zero. Nickel content was increased accordingly to make up for the reduced cobalt but all other constituents were held constant. Wedge bar test samples were produced by casting. The hot corrosion test consisted of cyclically exposing samples to the high velocity flow of combustion products from an air-fuel burner fueled with jet A-1 and seeded with a sodium chloride aqueous solution. The flow velocity was Mach 0.5 and the sodium level was maintained at 0.5 ppm in terms of fuel plus air. The test cycle consisted of holding the test samples at 900 C for 1 hour followed by 3 minutes in which the sample could cool to room temperature in an ambient temperature air stream.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of the conversion of a coordinated thiol to a coordinated disulfide by the one-equivalent oxidants neptunium(VI) and cobalt(III) in aqueous perchloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.; Karbwang, J.; Sullivan, J.C.; Deutsch, E.

    1976-01-01

    Reaction of excess (2-mercaptoethylamine-N,S)bis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III), I, with the 1-equiv oxidant Np(VI) (or Co 3+ (aq)) in aqueous perchloric acid media is shown to lead to (2-aminoethyl-N 2-ammonioethyl disulfide-S 1 ) bis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III), II, according to the stoichiometry 5H + + 2I + Np(VI) → II + Co 2+ (aq) + Np(V) + 2enH 2 2+ . This reaction follows the rate law -d[I]/dt = k'' [I] [oxidant]. For Np(VI) as oxidant k'' is independent of [H + ]; at 25 0 C, μ = 1.00 M (LiClO 4 ), k'' = k 0 = 2842 +- 15 M -1 s -1 , ΔH 0 * = 7.57 +- 0.08 kcal/mol, and ΔS 0 * = -17.4 +- 0.3 eu. For Co 3+ (aq) as oxidant, k'' = k 0 + k/sub -1/[H + ] -1 where the inverse acid path is taken to reflect oxidation by CoOH 2+ (aq); at 25 0 C, μ = 1.00 M (LiClO 4 ), k 0 = 933 +- 32 M -1 s -1 , k/sub -1/ = 1152 +- 22 s -1 , ΔH 0 * = 12.5 +- 0.7 kcal/mol, ΔH*/sub -1/ = 18.0 +- 0.4 kcal/mol, ΔS 0 *= -3.1 +- 2.4 eu, and ΔS*/sub -1/ = 15.8 +- 1.2 eu. It is proposed that the conversion of I to II proceeds by initial 1-equiv oxidation of the coordinated thiol, reaction of the resultant coordinated thiol radical (RS.) with additional I to form a relatively stable radical ion dimer (RSSR. - ), and then internal electron transfer within the dimer to yield Co 2+ (aq) and II which contains a coordinated disulfide. The possible generality of this mechanism and its relevance to biological metal-thiol-disulfide interactions are noted

  19. Cobalt metabolism and toxicology-A brief update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole, E-mail: LOSimonsen@dadlnet.dk; Harbak, Henrik; Bennekou, Poul

    2012-08-15

    Cobalt metabolism and toxicology are summarized. The biological functions of cobalt are updated in the light of recent understanding of cobalt interference with the sensing in almost all animal cells of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) stabilizes the transcriptional activator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and thus mimics hypoxia and stimulates erythropoietin (Epo)