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Sample records for sodium chloride produced

  1. The medical sodium chloride

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  2. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  3. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  4. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  5. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  6. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  7. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  8. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  9. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  10. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  12. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  13. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  14. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  15. Flame generation of sodium chloride aerosol for filter testing

    Edwards, J.; Kinnear, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for sodium chloride aerosol is described, which when used in conjunction with a sensitive portable sodium flame detector unit, will permit the in-place testing of large filter installations having air throughputs up to about 80,000 m 3 /h, at penetrations down to at least 0.005 percent. (U.S.)

  16. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  17. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  18. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  19. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  20. Amendment trials for bioremediation of sodium and chloride contaminated soils

    Wilson, D. [Western Alfalfa Milling Co. Ltd., Norquay, SK (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Details of a soil amendment experiment was presented. Soil samples from sodium and chloride contaminated soil were taken from a site located in southeastern Alberta. Soil amendments included high protein dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 2 types of Zeolite, and used coconut coir. The aim of the study was to find an effective in-situ method of remediating the soil while establishing the highest possible plant biomass. Preliminary trial data indicated a strong trend for high plant protein pellets to increase plant productivity on sodium and chloride contaminated soil. The addition of alfalfa increased plant height and stem diameter, as well as leaf width, which increased incrementally with higher volumes of alfalfa. Equivalent rates of .5 MT to 4 MT per acre application rates were used in the trial. Coconut coir was used at a rate of 30 per cent of the volume of the growing medium and also showed increased growth. An experiment was conducted using harvested plant matter from the samples to determine the effect of the 3 amendments on sodium uptake by the plants. Results showed that the sodium uptake significantly increased with the application of soil amendments, particularly when alfalfa pellets were applied, with percentages of sodium found in the plant tissue almost twice as high as percentages found in the control sample. Sodium levels also increased in the plant tissues where coconut coir was used, although to a lesser degree than levels found in plants grown with the alfalfa amended soils. Zeolite did not perform as well on its own. However, it was noted that previous trials have shown good performance when Zeolite was mixed into sodium/chloride contaminated soils and combined with water filtration. It was concluded that the soil amendments improved plant growth, and increased the sodium uptake by plants. The consortium is pursuing industry support to plan larger field studies in the 2006 season. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Effect of radioactive chromate on the corrosion and polarisation of mild steel in sodium chloride solution

    Subramanyan, N.; Ramakrishnaiah, K.; Iyer, S.V.; Kapali, V.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion tests of mild steel in 0.01% sodium chloride containing radioactive chromate and non-radioactive chromate have been carried out. It has been observed that the labelled sodium chromate has a deleterious effect on the inhibitive action of non-radioactive chromate. The effect of radioactive chromate on the potentiostatic polarization of m.s. in sodium chloride solution containing non-radioactive sodium chromate has also been studied. It is observed that both the cathodic and the anodic polarisation of the metal is diminished in the presence of radioactive chromate. The behaviour of the system in the presence of radioactive chromate is attributed both to the action of depolarisers produced by radiolysis of water and to the effect of gamma radiation on the metal. (author)

  2. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  3. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel' man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    The efficiency of corrosion protection of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in chloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylanthranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys.

  4. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  5. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs

    Raquel de Araújo Cantarella

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015 with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013, increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001, most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  6. Progress and recent developments in sodium, metal chloride batteries

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of rechargeable sodium batteries emerged in the last decade mainly due to the efforts in South Africa and the United Kingdom. These systems include solid transition metal chlorides in sodium tetrachloroaluminates as cathodes. Significant developments have been made on two systems, i.e., Na/NiCl 2 and Na/FeCl 2 ; high energy densities of the order of 130 Wh/Kg have been demonstrated at the cell level both with FeCl 2 and NiCl 2 cathodes. Long cycle life of over 2000 cycles was demonstrated with NiCl 2 , especially with a sulfur additive to the electrolyte to retain the sintered structure of the NiCl 2 electrode. Various environmental and safety tests have been successfully performed on the cells. Scale up efforts resulted in cells of 40 - 100 Ah, which were evaluated in an electric vehicle application. Additionally, it appears from a recent evaluation study carried out by European Space Agency on Na/NiCl 2 for GEO and LEO applications that energy densities of the order of 120 Wh/Kg and 100 Wh/Kg respectively at the cell level are feasible and long cycle lives (beyond 2800 cycles are possible). Several fundamental and developmental studies have been carried out at other laboratories aimed at understanding the reaction mechanisms, determining the kinetics and identifying various rate governing processes, and screening various other metal chlorides. Finally, the specific energies and especially the power densities projected for Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 systems based on alternate designs for beta alumina solid electrolyte, i.e., multiple tubes and flat plates are very attractive for electric vehicle and space applications. In this paper, the authors propose to present a detailed account of the developments made hither to as well as the key research issues being addressed in the sodium - metal chloride battery technology

  7. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions

  9. Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes

    Donatas Stakišaitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-dependent Cl−/HCO3- exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl− efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl− efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+ by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG. For Na+ and Cl− substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl− was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl−-free buffer (Cl− substituted with isethionate acid and in Na+ and Cl−-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl− efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl− efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl− efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl− efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl− efflux via Cl−/HCO3- exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger.

  10. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Benzalkonium chloride neutralizes the irritant effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    McFadden, J P; Holloway, D B; Whittle, E G; Basketter, D A

    2000-11-01

    When benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a cationic surfactant, is added to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and used in patch testing, on the basis of their known physicochemical interaction, it is possible to predict that there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the expected irritant response when compared to SDS alone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BKC could reduce the irritant response to SDS when applied after the SDS exposure. 54 non-atopic adult volunteers were recruited for the study. 20% SDS was applied for 2 h under occlusion. 1% BKC was then applied to the same site. Various controls, including SDS application followed by water for 2 h, were included. The irritant reaction was assessed at 24 h and 48 h. 40 of the 54 subjects had some reaction when SDS was applied for 2 h followed by either benzalkonium chloride or water control under occlusion. In comparison to water control, where BKC was applied after SDS, 20 of the 40 responders had a weaker reaction but only 4 had a stronger response. This study shows that BKC applied to skin exposed to SDS attenuates the resulting irritant reaction.

  12. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  13. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  14. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    Pontikis, Vassilis

    1977-01-01

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 T melting ). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ d k with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author) [fr

  15. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  16. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  17. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEAT-CURING BRINES.

    GOLDMAN, M; DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1963-05-01

    Goldman, Manuel (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Interrelationship between temperature and sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat-curing brines. J. Bacteriol. 85:1017-1021. 1963.-An elevation of the temperature limit for growth of some Pediococcus homari (Gaffkya homari) and motile Lactobacillus strains could be effected by the addition of sodium chloride to the growth medium. At the optimal temperature for growth, sodium chloride was stimulatory, and as the temperature of incubation was increased a mandatory requirement for sodium chloride was manifested. At the optimal temperature for growth (30 C), the highest sodium chloride concentrations were tolerated; as the temperature was increased, this tolerance decreased, although the optimal sodium chloride concentration increased. No other substances were found that would replace the sodium chloride requirement at higher temperatures of incubation.

  18. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  19. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  20. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  1. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na(+)) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K(+)) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis...

  4. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  5. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  6. Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions

    Wu, P.C.S.; Grundy, B.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82 0 C and with chloride content up to 500 ppM. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304 stainless steel failed in the high chloride solution (500 ppM) within ten days at the same temperature. The failure was initiated by pitting and subsequently accelerated by intergranular attack. The results also show that high pH tends to reduce the susceptibility to failure while procedures commonly used for sodium removal have no significant effect on the water corrosion behavior of the test material. Based on the current results, it is concluded that water shortage is feasible for spent fuels in a LMFBR reprocessing plant

  7. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  8. Effects of sodium chloride on radiation protection and modification of gamma-ray treated rice seeds

    Wang Cailian; Zhao Kongnan; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Chen Qiufang

    1992-11-01

    The radiation protection effect of sodium chloride on dormant and germinating rice seeds treated with gamma-rays, and modification effect of sodium chloride on mutation were studied. Results show that the radiation-damage effect on seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility in M 1 generation is significantly enhanced with the increasing of dose. However, the seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility can be improved if the irradiated seeds are pre-treated with sodium chloride solution having concentrations of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mol/L. The difference between treated group and control group is very significant. Results also show that pre-treatment and post-treatment by sodium chloride can raise the mutation frequencies of chlorophyll deficient seedlings, especially, the mutation frequency of early heading date and height is more considerably. The conclusion is that the sodium chloride, as a radiation protection agent, combined with gamma-ray treatment could reduce the effect of radiation-damage on M 1 generation and raise the mutation frequency in M 2 generation, and this result will be helpful in rice breeding

  9. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel; Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg -1 = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10 -8 to 143 . 10 -8 ) mol . kg -1 . Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol -1 . The standard molar Gibbs free energies, Δ tr G o , enthalpies, Δ tr H o , and entropies, Δ tr S o , for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated Δ tr G o values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol -1 ]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  10. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  11. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  12. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    raw vegetables were examined. Vinegar solution (1-2% acidity, 3-7% NaCl) produced more than 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers of E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of cutting board, and cabbage and cucumber at 20-50 degrees C. These results suggested that the treatment with vinegar solution containing sodium chloride may be one of the useful methods to prevent food poisoning.

  13. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  14. Zinc sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperatures in sodium chloride and tap water environments

    Othman, Othman Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Zinc sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tested in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified for this study. This was partly due to the high resistivity of the medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in water tap medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. In tap water environment the anode weight loss was negligible. The zinc anode suffered intergranular corrosion in sodium chloride environment and this was noticed starting at 40 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the zinc anode demonstrated interesting behavior beyond 60 degree centigrade, that could be attributed to the phenomenon of reversal of potential at elevated temperatures. It also showed shallow pitting spots in tap water environment without any sign of intergranular corrosion. Zinc anodes would suffer intergranular corrosion at high temperatures. (author)

  15. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Liu Min; Wang Lili; Zhu Lanying; Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei

    2010-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h xy , h xxy , and h xyy ) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h xy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  16. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  18. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  19. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  20. Benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium intake by replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in industrial food products in Norway.

    Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan

    2018-01-01

    High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium Chloride Crystal-Induced SERS Platform for Controlled Highly Sensitive Detection of Illicit Drugs.

    Yu, Borong; Li, Pan; Zhou, Binbin; Tang, Xianghu; Li, Shaofei; Yang, Liangbao

    2018-04-03

    A sodium chloride crystal-driven spontaneous 'hot spot' structure was demonstrated as a SERS-active platform, to get reproducible SERS signals, and eliminate the need for mapping large areas, in comparison with solution phase testing. During the process of solvent evaporation, the crystals produced induced silver aggregates to assemble around themselves. The micro-scale crystals can also act as a template to obtain an optical position, such that the assembled hot area is conveniently located during SERS measurements. More importantly, the chloride ions added in colloids can also replace the citrate and on the surface of the silver sol, and further decrease the background interference. High quality SERS spectra from heroin, methamphetamine (MAMP), and cocaine have been obtained on the crystal-driven hot spot structure with high sensitivity and credible reproducibility. This approach can not only bring the nanoparticles to form plasmonic hot spots in a controlled way, and thus provide high sensitivity, but also potentially be explored as an active substrate for label-free detection of other illicit drugs or additives. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  3. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Fardy, J J; McOrist, G D; Farrar, Y J; Bowles, C J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    Lakoza, G.N.; Grigor'eva, O.L.; Mart'yanova, B.M.; Vorob'eva, E.N.; Kuznetsova, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  6. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  7. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  8. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    strength increase at 3 and 7 days over control cubes; at 28 days concrete cubes containing 5%. RHA cured in NaCl solutions recorded higher strength loss compared to control cubes. Keywords: ... chloride in mixing water reported it to cause.

  9. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the ... iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers .... o u n d. Zn adsorption by. MSC-SC. Zn adsorption by. MOC-SC .... Okuda T, Baes AU, Nishijima W, Okada M (2001).

  10. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  11. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  12. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel'man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  13. Sodium

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  14. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ...

  15. Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride

    Oro-Sole, J.; Frontera, C.; Beltran-Porter, D.; Lebedev, O.I.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Fuertes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na x HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains

  16. Influence of sodium chloride on aflatoxin production by irradiated and non-irradiated spores of aspergillus flavus

    El-Bazza, Z.E.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid medium consisting of 2% yeast extract, 4% sucrose and 0-10% sodium chloride was inoculated with aspergillus flavus and incubated at 22.30 and 37 degree C for 8 days. Aflatoxin was determined in the medium by thin layer chromatography. Aflatoxin production was enhanced by 2 and 4% sodium chloride at 22 and 30 degree C and by 2-6% sodium chloride at 37 degree C. Aflatoxin was decreased by 8 and 10% sodium chloride at the three temperatures. Exposure of Asp. flavus spores to gamma radiation enhanced aflatoxin at 1 kGy and inhibited it at 2 kGy, with the different concentrations of sodium chloride.2 tab

  17. Hazard identification for human and ecological effects of sodium chloride road salt.

    2007-07-01

    The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) requested an evaluation of : the human and ecological risks associated with the application of sodium chloride (NaCl) road : salt to roadways. NaCl is the major de-icing agent used in NH to...

  18. Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by γ-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of γ-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO 4 - ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO 4 - ions. The extent to which MnO 4 - ions are reduced are found to vary with

  19. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  20. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  1. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  2. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  3. Roentgen-phase analysis of sodium chloride of Khodja-Mumindeposit

    Nazarov, K.M.; Pulatov, M.S.; Isupov, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of determination of mineral composition of sodium chloride by authors was carried out the roentgen-phase analysis till its purification, after filtration and after purification from Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 4 2 + i ons by barium-carbonate and hydrochloride-acid methods

  4. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 1454-1460 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * neutron scattering * agueous sodium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  5. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  6. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl−) and sodium (Na...

  7. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  8. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  9. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  10. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  12. Extended stability of intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution after prolonged heating or cooling.

    Puertos, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of an intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution that had been cooled or heated for an extended period of time. Fifteen sterile 1 L bags of 0.9% sodium chloride solution were randomly selected for this experiment. Five bags were refrigerated at an average temperature of 5.2°C, 5 bags were heated at an average temperature of 39.2°C, and 5 bags were stored at an average room temperature of 21.8°C to serve as controls. All samples were protected from light and stored for a period of 199 days prior to being assayed and analyzed for microbial and fungal growth. There was no clinically significant difference in the mean sodium values between the refrigerated samples, the heated samples, and the control group. There were no signs of microbial or fungal growth for the duration of the study. A sterile intravenous solution of 0.9% sodium chloride that was heated or cooled remained stable and showed no signs of microbial or fungal growth for a period of 199 days. This finding will allow hospitals and emergency medical technicians to significantly extend the expiration date assigned to these fluids and therefore obviate the need to change out these fluids every 28 days as recommended by the manufacturer.

  13. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  14. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  15. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1982-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period.

  16. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E.

    1982-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period. (author)

  17. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  18. Use of Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution at Surgery under Extracorporeal Circulation

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data available in the references on different aspects of using hypertonic sodium chloride solution during surgery under extracorporeal circulation in cardiosurgical care. The hypertonic solution is shown to lower positive fluid balance in the perioperative period, to increase cardiac output with simultaneously decreased vascular resistance, to improve lung oxygenating function, and to normalize tissue blood circulation and neurological status in patients exposed to artificial perfusion. There is evidence for its effect on the immune system and capillary endothelium. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the effect of the hypertonic solution on the incidence of complications and death rates during surgery under extracorporeal circulation and it is proposed to use the solution under long-term extracorporeal circulation. Key words: hypertonic saline, sodium chloride, extracorporeal circulation.

  19. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells.

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna; Staub, Olivier; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na + ) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K + ) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed the use of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system. In radiotracer assays, induced cells grown on filters had robust thiazide-sensitive and chloride dependent sodium-22 ( 22 Na) uptake from the apical side. To minimize cost and maximize throughput, assays were modified to use cells grown on plastic. On plastic, cells had similar thiazide-sensitive 22 Na uptakes that increased following preincubation of cells in chloride-free solutions. NCC was detected in the plasma membrane, and both membrane abundance and phosphorylation of NCC were increased by incubation in chloride-free solutions. Furthermore, in cells exposed for 15 min to low or high extracellular K + , the levels of phosphorylated NCC increased and decreased, respectively. To demonstrate that the system allows rapid and systematic assessment of mutated NCC, three phosphorylation sites in NCC were mutated, and NCC activity was examined. 22 Na fluxes in phosphorylation-deficient mutants were reduced to baseline levels, whereas phosphorylation-mimicking mutants were constitutively active, even without chloride-free stimulation. In conclusion, this system allows the activity, cellular localization, and abundance of wild-type or mutant NCC to be examined in the same polarized mammalian expression system in a rapid, easy, and low-cost fashion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation in sterilization of dry dextran as plasma substitute and sodium chloride

    Piatkiewicz, A; Kusewicz, D [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of dry dextran, sodium chloride and polyethylene packing to 0,3-2 Mrad of gamma irradiation decreased their contamination by 60 to 96%. The sterilization effect of irradiation increased with gamma-ray dose. Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were shown to be the most resistant to gamma-ray treatment. In some samples the resistant Micrococcus was also detected.

  1. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  2. The role of chloride in deoxycorticosterone hypertension: selective sodium loading by diet or drinking fluid

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef; Jelínek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2004), s. 149-154 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0769; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : sodium * chloride * DOCA-salt hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  3. Studies of the effect of ethanol and sodium chloride on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate by gel filtration

    Suzuki, H.

    1976-06-01

    The effects of the addition of ethanol and sodium chloride to aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by the gel-filtration method. With an increase in the concentration of ethanol, the CMC decreased and then increased after passing a minimum, while the micellar weight increased and then decreased, showing a corresponding maximum. Above about 40 vol percent ethanol, no micelle formation was observed. The micellar weight and aggregation number in the presence of ethanol were measured in the SDS concentration range of a constant elution rate of micelles. A decrease in the CMC and an increase in the micellar weight of SDS were observed with an increase in the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The gel-filtration study enabled us to make a direct experimental confirmation of the effects of ethanol and NaCl on the micelle formation of SDS.

  4. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  5. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J.; Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A.

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  6. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  7. Association between continuous peripheral i.v. infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection and phlebitis in adults.

    Meng, Lina; Nguyen, Cherwyn M; Patel, Samit; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley

    2018-03-01

    One institution's experience with use of peripheral i.v. (PIV) catheters for prolonged infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection at rates up to 100 mL/hr is described. A prospective, observational, 13-month quality assurance project was conducted at an academic medical center to evaluate frequencies of patient and catheter phlebitis among adult inpatients who received both an infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection for a period of ≥4 hours through a dedicated PIV catheter and infusions of routine-care solutions (RCSs) through separate PIV catheters during the same hospital stay. Sixty patients received PIV infusions through a total of 291 catheters during the study period. The majority of patients (78%) received infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection for intracranial hypertension, with 30% receiving such infusions in the intensive care unit. Phlebitis occurred in 28 patients (47%) during infusions of 3% sodium chloride and 26 patients (43%) during RCS infusions ( p = 0.19). Catheter phlebitis occurred in 73 catheters (25%), with no significant difference in the frequencies of catheter phlebitis with infusion of 3% sodium chloride versus RCSs (30% [32 of 106 catheters]) versus 22% [41 of 185 catheters]), p = 0.16). Patient and catheter phlebitis rates were not significantly different with infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection versus RCSs, suggesting that an osmolarity cutoff value of 900 mOsm/L for peripheral infusions of hypertonic saline solutions may not be warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  9. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  10. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due

  11. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  12. Compatibility of butorphanol and droperidol in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2013-03-15

    The compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate and droperidol in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 15 days were studied. Admixtures were assessed initially and for 15 days after preparation in PVC bags and glass bottles using 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent and stored at 4°C and 25°C. The initial drug concentrations were 0.08 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate and 0.05 mg/mL for droperidol. Samples were withdrawn from each container immediately after preparation and at predetermined intervals (2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 240, and 360 hours after preparation). The solutions were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. After 15 days of storage, all formulations tested retained >98% of the initial concentrations of both drugs. The drug mixtures were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and droperidol 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for at least 360 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light.

  13. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  14. Internal structure, hydroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles

    Liu, Y.; Minofar, Babak; Desyaterik, Y.; Dames, E.; Zhu, Z.; Cain, J. P.; Hopkins, R. J.; Gilles, M. K.; Wang, H.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 25 (2011), s. 11846-11857 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME09062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : sodium methanesulfonate particles * air/water interface * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  15. Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Chloride for All-Cause Mortality After Coronary Angiography

    Brown, Robert James (Jim); Pearlman, D. M.; Marshall, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine the relation between sodium bicarbonate prophylaxis for contrast associated nephropathy (CAN) and mortality. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis from multiple randomized controlled trials. We obtained individual patient data sets for 7 of 10 eligible trials (2......,292 of 2,764 participants). For the remaining 3 trials, time-to-event data were imputed based on follow-up periods described in their original reports. We included all trials that compared periprocedural intravenous sodium bicarbonate to periprocedural intravenous sodium chloride in patients undergoing...... bicarbonate was associated with lower mortality hazard than sodium chloride at 1 year (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.89, p = 0.011). Although periprocedural sodium bicarbonate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of CAN (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.91, p = 0...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  17. Corrosion of nickel in potassium and sodium chloride melts containing vanadium trichloride

    Kochergin, V.P.; Ponomarev, Yu.S.; Bezvoritnij, V.A.; Bajbakov, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    Corrosion of nickel has been studied by the method of the rotating disc in melts of potassium and sodium chlorides containing vanadium trichloride in the concentration 0-20.0 wt.% in the temperature range 1103-1328 K. Corrosion proceeds in the diffusion region, the corrosion rate being controlled by diffusion of either V 3+ or V 2+ depending on the concentration of VCl 3 in the melts. The apparent activation energy of nickel corrosion is 43,110-74660 joule/mol

  18. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  19. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  20. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  1. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  2. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  3. Corrosion of Dental Au-Ag-Cu-Pd Alloys in 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Solution

    Chiba, Atsushi; Kusayanagi, Yukiharu

    2005-01-01

    Two Au-Ag-Cu-Pd dental casting alloys (Au:12% and 20%) used. The test solutions used 0.9 % NaCl solution (isotonic sodium chloride solution), 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid, and 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The surface of two samples in three sample solutions was not natural discoloration during one year. The alloy containing 12 % gold was easily alloyed and the composition was uniform comparing with the alloy containing 20 % gold. The rest potentials have not a little effect after three months. The kinds of metals could not definitely from the oxidation and reduction waves of metal on the cyclic voltammograms. The dissolutions of gold and palladium were 12 % Au sample in the 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The pH of solution had an affect on dissolution of copper, and sulfur ion had an affect on dissolution of silver. The copper dissolved amount from 20 % gold sample was about 26 times comparing with that of 12 % gold sample in the 0.9 % solution containing 1 % lactic acid. Corrosion products were silver chloride and copper chloride in NaCl solution, and silver sulfide and copper sulfide in NaCl solution containing Na 2 S

  4. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    Hill, J.; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium

  5. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  6. Modeling the Combined Effects of Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride and Sodium Lactate Concentrations on the Growth Rate of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, microorganisms with probiotic or antimicrobial properties are receiving major attention as alternative resources for food preservation. Lactic acid bacteria are able to synthetize compounds with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage flora. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 has exhibited this capacity, and further studies reveal that the microorganism is able to produce bacteriocins. An assessment of the growth of L. plantarum ATCC 8014 at different conditions becomes crucial to predict its development in foods. A response surface model of the growth rate of L. plantarum was built in this study as a function of temperature (4, 7, 10, 13, and 16°C, pH (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5, and sodium chloride (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% and sodium lactate (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% concentrations. All the factors were statistically significant at a confidence level of 90%  (p<0.10. When temperature and pH increased, there was a corresponding increase in the growth rate, while a negative relationship was observed between NaCl and Na-lactate concentrations and the growth parameter. A mathematical validation was carried out with additional conditions, demonstrating an excellent performance of the model. The developed model could be useful for designing foods with L. plantarum ATCC 8014 added as a probiotic.

  7. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  8. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  9. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  10. Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application

    Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Mattson, Claire N.; Peterson, Peter K.; May, Nathaniel W.; Prendergast, Rashad K.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of salts and salty brines to roads is common practice during the winter in many urban environments. Road salts can become aerosolized, thereby injecting sodium and chloride particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere. Here, data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network were used to assess temporal trends of sodium and chloride PM2.5 (PM road salt aerosols. Sodium and chloride PM2.5 concentrations were an average of three times higher in the winter, as compared to the summer, for locations with greater than 25 cm of average annual snowfall. Winter urban chloride PM2.5 concentrations attributed to road salt can even sometimes rival those of coastal sea spray aerosol-influenced sites. In most snow-influenced cities, chloride and sodium PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with snowfall; however, this relationship is complicated by differences in state and local winter maintenance practices. This study highlights the ubiquity of road salt aerosols in the United States and their potential impact on wintertime urban air quality, particularly due to the potential for multiphase reactions to liberate chlorine from the particle-phase. Since road salt application is a common practice in wintertime urban environments across the world, it is imperative that road salt application emissions, currently not included in inventories, and its impacts be investigated through measurements and modeling.

  11. Could vitamin C and zinc chloride protect the germ cells against sodium arsenite?

    Altoé, L S; Reis, I B; Gomes, Mlm; Dolder, H; Pirovani, Jc Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with natural and human processes such as volcanic emissions, mining and herbicides production, being an important pollutant. Several studies have associated As intake with male fertility reduction, thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether vitamin C and/or zinc would counteract As side effects within the testicles. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (100 mg/kg/day), zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ; 20 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite + vitamin C and sodium arsenite + ZnCl 2 . Testicles and epididymis were harvested and either frozen or routinely processed to be embedded in glycol methacrylate resin. As reduced the seminiferous epithelium and tubules diameter due to germ cell loss. In addition, both the round spermatids population and the daily sperm production were reduced. However, ZnCl 2 and vitamin C showed to be effective against such side effects, mainly regarding to sperm morphology. Long-term As intake increased the proportions of abnormal sperm, whereas the concomitant intake of As with zinc or vitamin C enhanced the proportions of normal sperm, showing that such compounds could be used to protect this cell type against morphological defects.

  12. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO 3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO 3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO 3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO 3 , which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The

  13. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  14. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist. streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Neal, C.; Kirchner, J. W.

    Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist), stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments), Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils. Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is high. This

  15. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  16. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  17. Relations of enzymes inAspergillus repens grown under sodium chloride stress.

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Aspergillus repens, a salt-pan isolate, was halotolerant. When grown for 72 h (log phase) and 144 h (beginning of stationary phase) in a medium containing 2M sodium chloride, the activities of invertase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were found to have increased. Control cultures grown in a medium devoid of 2M NaCl failed to show such changes. The activities of MDH, G6PDH, and GDH increased with rising concentrations of Na(+) (as NaCl) when added up to 100MM in vitro. At higher concentrations they decreased. Changes in kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of these enzymes, as well as their de novo synthesis, were found to be some of the responses to NaCl stress-mediated changes.

  18. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  19. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  20. Corrosion behaviour of 2124 aluminium alloy-silicon carbide metal matrix composites in sodium chloride environment

    Singh, Nirbhay; Vadera, K.K.; Ramesh Kumar, A.V.; Singh, R.S.; Monga, S.S.; Mathur, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Aluminium alloy based particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for a range of applications. Their mechanical properties have been investigated in detail, but more information about their corrosion resistance is needed. In this investigation, the corrosion behaviour of silicon carbide particulates (SiC p )-2124 aluminium metal matrix composites was studied in 3 wt% sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical technique and optical microscope. The effects of weight percentages and particle size of silicon carbide particulates on corrosion behaviour of the composite were studied in NaCl and it was observed that corrosion rate increases linearly with the increasing weight percentage of SiC p . The corrosion rate of the MMC increases by increasing the size of SiC particles. Anodization improved corrosion resistance of the composites. (author)

  1. Corrosion performance of SiCsubp/6061 Al metal matrix composites in sodium chloride solution

    Mohmad Soib bin Selamat

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion performance of silicon carbide particle/aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCsubp/Al) were studied in sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical, microscopic, gravimetric and analytical techniques. The materials under investigation were compocasting processed 6061 Al reinforced with increasing amounts of SiC particles. Potentiostatic polarization tests were done in 0.1M NaCl solutions that were aerated or deaerated to observe overall corrosion behaviour. It was seen that the corrosion potentials did not vary greatly in relation to the amounts of SiCsubp reinforcement. Corrosion tests showed that the degree of corrosion increased with increasing SiCsubp content. SEM analysis technique was used to study the corroded samples and the pitting morphology. By TEM, no intermetallic layer was found at SiC/Al interface. A model for pitting process was proposed

  2. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  3. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  4. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Peta Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  5. Filtration of aerosols produced by a sodium fire

    Duverger de Cuy, G.; Colome, J.

    1977-01-01

    The containment system of the Super Phenix reactor takes account of the possibility of contaminated sodium fires, particularly in the vicinity of the fuel storage drum. It is thus necessary to contain the emitted radioactivity associated with a quantity of sodium aerosols of the order of some 10 g/m 3 . Investigations previously carried out had shown that the retention capacity of high-efficiency asbestos filters was clearly insufficient. A new research programme on the filtration of sodium aerosols has thus been worked out with the aim of: gaining a better understanding of the granulometry of the aerosols produced by the fire; checking the efficiency of the new glass-fibre media of which high-efficiency filters are composed; selecting a prefiltering system which, in conjunction with the high-efficiency filter, would ensure a suitable retention capacity for the whole unit. The following prefilters are under investigation: agglomerating cyclones; fabric prefilters (dense filter media - variable density filters - bag filters); water prefilters; sand prefilters. The experimental equipment on which this programme has been based is presented. Results have so far been obtained for agglomerating cyclones (recirculating loop with a cyclone of 95% efficiency), for a number of textile prefilters and for the retention capacity of high-efficiency filters

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (−) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  7. Extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash using hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution.

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Hummel, Wolfgang; Schlumberger, Stefan; Klink, Waldemar; Fisch, Martin; Mäder, Urs K

    2018-03-17

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains a large potential for recyclable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the treatment of fly ash and recovery of metals to be implemented by 2021. More than 60% of the fly ash in Switzerland is acid leached according to the FLUWA process, which provides the basis for metal recovery. The investigation and optimization of the FLUWA process is of increasing interest and an industrial solution for direct metal recovery within Switzerland is in development. With this work, a detailed laboratory study on different filter cakes from fly ash leaching using HCl 5% (represents the FLUWA process) and concentrated sodium chloride solution (300 g/L) is described. This two-step leaching of fly ash is an efficient combination for the mobilization of a high percentage of heavy metals from fly ash (Pb, Cd ≥ 90% and Cu, Zn 70-80%). The depletion of these metals is mainly due to a combination of redox reaction and metal-chloride-complex formation. The results indicate a way forward for an improved metal depletion and recovery from fly ash that has potential for application at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Kyoung-Min Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS, on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (− charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete.

  9. Stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in single-dose plastic containers.

    Denson, D D; Crews, J C; Grummich, K W; Stirm, E J; Sue, C A

    1991-03-01

    The stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers was studied. Commercially available methadone hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and 25-mL single-dose bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were used. Six samples each were prepared at methadone hydrochloride concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL. The solutions were stored at room temperature and were not protected from light. Immediately after preparation and after two, three, and four weeks of storage, each of the 18 samples was divided into three aliquots, each of which was analyzed in duplicate for methadone hydrochloride concentration by gas chromatography. There was less than 10% change in methadone hydrochloride concentration in any sample throughout the four-week study period. Methadone hydrochloride at concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL prepared in commercially available flexible polyvinyl chloride containers of 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature without deliberate protection from light is stable for at least four weeks.

  10. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  11. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    El-Zayat, M.M.; Farahat, A.A.; Saad, N.H.; Shaarawy, N.S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  12. The study of interaction of lanthanum-, cerium- and neodymium chlorides with sodium borohydride in pyridine- and tetrahydrofuran medium

    Mirsaidov, U.; Rotenberg, T.G.; Dymova, T.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bis-tetrahydrofurans of lanthanum and neodymium borohydrides and bis-pyridinates of lanthanum, cerium and neodymium borohydrides were obtained by interacting sodium borohydride with lanthanum-, cerium and neodymium chlorides in pyridine and tetrahydrofuran media. All operations involving reagent combination, sampling and phase separation are performed in inert atmosphere using argonvacuum equipment. The reaction in pyridine was virtually instantaneous and accompanied by flocculanet precipitation. The interaction of lanthanum chloride and neodymium chloride with sodium borohydride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) was a slow (23-30 hr) heterophase process. The interaction rate was affected by size reduction of the intial substances, temperature, reagent proportion and mixing rate. The reaction time was twice reduced with boiling tetrahydrofuran

  13. Stability of i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Kintzel, Polly E; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2014-12-01

    The chemical stability of a sterile admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was evaluated. Triplicate samples were prepared and stored at room temperature without light protection for a total of 48 hours. Aliquots from each sample were tested for chemical stability immediately after preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were selectively monitored using multiple-reaction monitoring. Samples were diluted differently for quantitation using three individual LC-MS/MS methods. To determine the drug concentration of the three compounds in the samples, three calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area or the peak area ratio versus the concentration of the calibration standards of each tested compound. Apixaban was used as an internal standard. Linearity of the calibration curve was evaluated by the correlation coefficient r(2). Constituents of the admixture of metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection retained more than 90% of their initial concentrations over 48 hours of storage at room temperature without protection from light. The observed variability in concentrations of these three compounds was within the limits of assay variability. An i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was chemically stable for 48 hours when stored at room temperature without light protection. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  15. Oxygen, water, and sodium chloride transport in soft contact lenses materials.

    Gavara, Rafael; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Oxygen permeability, diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions and water flux and permeability in different conventional hydrogel (Hy) and silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lenses have been measured experimentally. The results showed that oxygen permeability and transmissibility requirements of the lens have been addressed through the use of siloxane containing hydrogels. In general, oxygen and sodium chloride permeability values increased with the water content of the lens but there was a percolation phenomenon from a given value of water uptake mainly in the Si-Hy lenses which appeared to be related with the differences between free water and bound water contents. The increase of ion permeability with water content did not follow a unique trend indicating a possible dependence of the chemical structure of the polymer and character ionic and non-ionic of the lens. Indeed, the salt permeability values for silicone hydrogel contact lenses were one order of magnitude below those of conventional hydrogel contact lenses, which can be explained by a diffusion of sodium ions occurring only through the hydrophilic channels. The increase of the ionic permeability in Si-Hy materials may be due to the confinement of ions in nanoscale water channels involving possible decreased degrees of freedom for diffusion of both water and ions. In general, ionic lenses presented values of ionic permeability and diffusivity higher than most non-ionic lenses. The tortuosity of the ionic lenses is lower than the non-ionic Si-Hy lenses. Frequency 55 and PureVision exhibited the highest water permeability and flux values and, these parameters were greater for ionic Si-Hy lenses than for ionic conventional hydrogel lenses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2218-2231, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    Choi, Eun-Su; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In, E-mail: nsi12@jbnu.ac.kr [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ye-Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok-Soon, E-mail: sskim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Jeollabuk-do 753-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-13

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices.

  17. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  18. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  19. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  20. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  1. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  2. Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity

    Fontana, Pietro; Pettit, Donald; Cristoforetti, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0.2-0.7 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by a wire frame, thick liquid layers, 4-6 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by metal frame, and hemispherical sessile drops, 20-32 mm diameter, supported by a flat polycarbonate surface or an initially flat gelatin film, were carried out under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular [111]-oriented crystals, and dendrites. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops, 1-4 mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support (polycarbonate or gelatin) self-assembling into a shell. Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals 100 times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  4. Coulometric sodium chloride removal system with Nafion membrane for seawater sample treatment.

    Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Sohail, Manzar; Pawlak, Marcin; Neel, Bastien; Shvarev, Alexey; de Marco, Roland; Bakker, Eric

    2012-07-17

    Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics.

  5. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2009-07-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our objectives were to identify potential levels of uptake as the trees developed and stages of plantation development that are conducive to variable application rates of high-salinity irrigation. The projected cumulative uptake of Cl- and Na+ during mid-rotation plantation development was stable 2 to 3 years after planting but increased steadily from year 3 to 6. Year six cumulative uptake ranged from 22 to 175 kg Cl- ha(-1) and 8 to 74 kg Na+ ha(-1), while annual uptake ranged from 8 to 54 kg Cl- ha(-1) yr(-1) and 3 to 23 kg Na+ ha(-1) yr(-1). Full-rotation uptake was greatest from 4 to 9 years (Cl-) and 4 to 8 years (Na+), with maximum levels of Cl- (32 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Na+ (13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) occurring in year six. The relative uptake potential of Cl- and Na+ at peak accumulation (year six) was 2.7 times greater than at the end of the rotation.

  6. An eco-friendly approach for sodium chloride free cotton dyeing

    Umer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Present study was conducted with an aim to develop an environmental friendly method of dyeing cotton as an alternative to standard reactive dyeing process that requires high level of salt. When dyeing was carried out in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), an extremely lighter depth of shade was experienced, and hence this particular research was focused on the reduction of the total colour difference (AE) to a minimum level. Instead of adding any other chemical or any additional process like cationization, salt-free reactive dyeing was carried out by varying three common process parameters (dyes, alkali, and process time) to achieve required depth of shade. The results obtained were compared with those of conventionally dyed fabrics in terms of depth of shade (AL), total colour difference (AE), washing fastness, and rubbing fastness. The results were found to be promising and comparable to those dyed with using NaCl. Moreover, the investigated method showed a significant reduction of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in the wastewater, and thus proved to be an environment friendly process. (author)

  7. Impact of stirring speed, glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations on photoprotective nanoemulsions

    Débora Granemann e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New technologies that improve the physical as the sensory properties of sunscreens can help to increase its continued use and impact on health. The use of nanoemulsions in the development of photoprotective vehicles is an advantage, since nanostructured components may have superior properties regarding their performance when compared to conventional products. The advantages of using nanobiotechnology in manufacture of cosmetic and dermatological formulations arise from the protection of compounds from chemical or enzymatic degradation, from the control of their release, and also to the prolonged retention time of cosmetic ingredients in the stratum corneum. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of stirring speed and of glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations in the development and effectiveness of a nanoemulsion containing ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone-3. The results of statistical analyses regarding the impact of the variables in the process of nanoemulsion development showed that these parameters affect the phase inversion temperature (PIT. However, this did not affect the particle size and the photoprotective efficacy in vitro.

  8. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P  0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical and Chemical Stability of Urapidil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Elastomeric Infusion Pump.

    Tomasello, Cristina; Leggieri, Anna; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Baietto, Lorena; Fulcheri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; De Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Urapidil is an antihypertensive agent, usually administered through intravenous bolus injection, slow-intravenous infusion, or continuous-drug infusion by perfusor. Since to date no evidences are available on drug stability in elastomeric pumps, patients have to be hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate urapidil stability in an elastomeric infusion pump, in order to allow continuous infusion as home-care treatment. Analyses were conducted by diluting urapidil in an elastomeric pump. Two concentrations were evaluated: 1.6 mg/mL and 3.3 mg/mL. For the analyses, a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic- photodiode array detection instrument was used. Stressed degradation, pH changes, and visual clarity were used as stability indicators up to 10 days after urapidil solution preparation. The drug showed no more than 5% degradation during the test period at room temperature. No pH changes and no evidences of incompatibility were observed. Stress tests resulted in appreciable observation of degradation products. Considering the observed mean values, urapidil hydrochloride in sodium chloride 0.9% in elastomeric infusion pumps is stable for at least 10 days. These results indicate that this treatment could be administered at home for a prolonged duration (at least 7 days) with a satisfactory response. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  11. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    Busenberg, E.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  12. effect of ascorbic acid and/or sodium chloride on irradiated mungbean seeds

    Hussein, O.S.

    2010-01-01

    dry seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (0, 50, 100, 250 Gy) dose rate was 1.33 Gy/sec and germinated under laboratory conditions (28 degree C±2 degree C) in 100 mM of sodium chloride or 10 mM ascorbic acid or mixture of both in equal amounts . a group of irradiated and unirradiated seeds were moistened with tap water and considered as control. the growth parameters of two weeks old seedling were recorded. photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, crud protein and amino acids contents were also determined. gamma radiation (50-100 Gy)increased total chlorophylls and carotenoid pigments while the highest dose of irradiation (250 Gy) reduced these contents. saline condition decreased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of seedlings resulted from irradiated seeds than control. adding of ascorbic acid to irradiated mungbean seeds in presence of NaCl overcame partially the inhibitory effect of NaCl on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of seedlings. the pattern of changes in amino acids content was more or less similar to that of photosynthetic pigments.

  13. Stability study of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection with limit tests for impurities

    Nissen, Klaus; Bogedal Jorgensen, Lene; Lindegaard Berg, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Results of an evaluation of the stability of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are presented. Methods. Methotrexate concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) was diluted to nominal concentrations of 0.2 and 20 mg/mL in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium...... chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The filled bags were stored for 28 days at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity and protected from light. Samples were withdrawn for analysis on the day of preparation and after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test program included visual inspections, measurements...... in amounts of known and unknown degradation products were detected. In 5% dextrose injection, methotrexate at the higher concentration was stable for 28 days, with minor formation of degradation products; in the 0.2-mg/mL solution, however, methotrexate was stable for only 3 days. At later time points...

  14. Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste

    Jegle, U.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB) [de

  15. Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride Gas with Sodium Carbonate and Its Deep Removal in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, Po-Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 49 (2014), s. 19145-19158 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hot fuel gas purification * hydrogen chloride gas * active sodium carbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014

  16. Comparison of heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride for maintaining peripheral intravenous catheter patency in dogs.

    Ueda, Yu; Odunayo, Adesola; Mann, F A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether heparinized saline would be more effective in maintaining the patency of peripheral IV catheters in dogs compared to 0.9% sodium chloride. Prospective blinded randomized study. University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Thirty healthy purpose bred dogs, intended for use in the junior surgery laboratory, were utilized. The dogs were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, 2 treatment groups and a control group. An 18-Ga cephalic catheter was placed in the cephalic vein of each dog. Each dog in the treatment group had their catheter flushed with either 10 IU/mL heparinized saline or 0.9% sodium chloride every 6 hours for 42 hours. The dogs in the control group did not have their catheters flushed until the end of the study period. Immediately prior to flushing catheters, each catheter was evaluated for patency by aspiration of blood and the catheter site was evaluated for phlebitis. All dogs in the heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride group had catheters that flushed easily at each evaluation point. More dogs in the saline group had catheters from which blood could not be aspirated, but there was no significant difference between these groups. All dogs in the control group had catheters that flushed easily at the end of the assigned 6 hour interval except in 1 dog. Phlebitis was not detected in any dog. Flushes of 0.9% sodium chloride were found to be as effective as 10 IU/mL heparinized saline flushes in maintaining patency of 18-Ga peripheral venous catheters in dogs for up to 42 hours. For peripheral catheters placed with the intention of performing serial blood draws, heparinized flushes may be warranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  17. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Doorn, J; Storteboom, T T R; Mulder, A M; de Jong, W H A; Rottier, B L; Kema, I P

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in small volumes of sweat. Precision, linearity and limit of detection of an in-house developed IC/HPLC method were established. Method comparison between the newly developed IC/HPLC method and the traditional Chlorocounter was performed, and trueness was determined using Passing Bablok method comparison with external quality assurance material (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia). Precision and linearity fulfill criteria as established by UK guidelines are comparable with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods. Passing Bablok analysis demonstrated excellent correlation between IC/HPLC measurements and external quality assessment target values, for both chloride and sodium. With a limit of quantitation of 0.95 mmol/L, our method is suitable for the analysis of small amounts of sweat and can thus be used in combination with the Macroduct collection system. Although a chromatographic application results in a somewhat more expensive test compared to a Chlorocounter test, more accurate measurements are achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurements of sodium concentrations will result in better detection of false positives, less test repeating and thus faster and more accurate and effective diagnosis. The described IC/HPLC method, therefore, provides a precise, relatively cheap and easy-to-handle application for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in sweat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  19. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  1. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  2. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  3. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  4. Effect of a Benzalkonium Chloride Surfactant-Sodium Hypochlorite Combination on Elimination of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Baron, Aleksandr; Lindsey, Kimberly; Sidow, Stephanie J; Dickinson, Douglas; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a sodium hypochlorite-surfactant combination on the removal of Enterococcus faecalis from infected teeth. Sixty-four extracted human single canal anterior teeth were prepared with rotary instrumentation and sterilized. Teeth were divided into 4 groups, N = 16. Three experimental groups were inoculated with E. faecalis and cultured for 21 days before use: positive control group, no irrigation; NaOCl group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl; and NaOCl/BAK group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl/0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The negative control group received medium only and no inoculate. Paper point sampling of the canals was obtained before irrigation (S1) for all 4 groups and for 2 groups after irrigation (S2) to determine remaining colony-forming units. After sampling, all teeth were split in half and evaluated for bacterial viability colony-forming units and penetration of dentinal tubules by using fluorescent vital dye staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Comparison of pre-irrigation and post-irrigation paper point samples from the 2 irrigated groups showed a significant reduction in bacterial canal load (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis), with a significantly lower load in the NaOCl/BAK group than in the NaOCl group (P = .001, Mann-Whitney U test); 68.8% of the NaOCl/BAK samples gave no recoverable counts. In contrast, no significant difference between these groups was found for counts recovered from dentin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed no differences in tubule penetration. The addition of BAK to NaOCl significantly reduced the number of remaining bacteria within the canal after irrigation compared with NaOCl alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  6. High Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Improve Microbicidal Activity of Ibuprofen against Common Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    Adrián J. Muñoz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen (IBU-H, a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes. In short time periods, where neither IBU-Na nor controls with 1 M NaCl show activity, the combination of both leads to a reduction in the bacterial load. We also analyzed whether the changes caused by salt on the bacterial membrane also promoted the activity of other microbicide compounds used in cystic fibrosis like gentamicin, tobramycin and phosphomycin. The results show that the presence of ionic strength only enhanced the bactericidal activity of the amphipathic molecule of IBU-Na. In this respect, the effect of saline concentration was also reflected in the surface properties of IBU-Na, where, in addition to the clear differences observed between 145 mM and 1 M, singular behaviors were also found, different in each condition. The combination of anti-inflammatory activity and this improved bactericidal effect of Na-IBU in hypertonic solution provides a new alternative for the treatment of respiratory infections of fibrotic patients based on known and widely used compounds.

  7. Study of the transport characteristics of uranyl chloride in a highly concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride

    Murso, H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the transport processes of uranyl chloride at various temperatures, in order to be able to estimate the danger potential of the intrusion of water during storage in salt form. For this the concentration dependency of the approximated principal diffusion coefficients of uranyl chloride in a table salt solution, which with a c(NaCl) = 5.2 mol/l is almost at the saturation point, was studied at 25, 40 and 50degC. The measurements were successful in the ternarian system UO 2 Cl 2 -NaCl-H 2 O with absorption optics. An unexpected temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficients was found, which reached its minimum at 40degC with UO 2 Cl 2 concentrations of less than 2x10 -2 mol/l. For comparison the diffusion coefficients were measured in the binary system UO 2 Cl 2 -H 2 O and compared with theoretical calculations. The cause for the poor correlation found here is thought to be the hydrolysis products, whose formation is strongly influenced by the foreign-electrolyte concentration (NaCl). For clarification, viscosity measurements and molar mass determinations (ultracentrifuge) will be done. Some pH-dependent hydrolysis equilibriums are being postulated and the equilibrium constants of uranyl hydroxo complexes are being determined by sedimentation analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  8. Localized corrosion of alloys C-276 and 625 in aerated sodium chloride solutions at 25 to 200 degrees C

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1991-12-01

    Two molybdenum-bearing nickel alloys, Alloy C-276 and Alloy 625, were previously identified for consideration as candidate container materials for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Because of the paucity of data for the localized corrosion behaviour of these passive alloys under conditions that may be experienced in a disposal vault, this project was undertaken to study the crevice and pitting corrosion of Alloys C-276 and 625 in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical and immersion tests have been conducted in neutral sodium chloride solutions (0.1 wt% to saturated) at 25 to 200 degrees C, in an attempt to identify the conditions under which localized corrosion occurs and to relate the actual corrosion behaviour to that expected on the basis of electrochemical studies. Cyclic polarization studies showed that the passivation breakdown potentials move rapidly to more active values with increasing temperatures. Above 100 degrees C the resistance to localized corrosion is greatly reduced. The results of the immersion tests are presented in the form of T versus (C1-) diagrams. These susceptibility diagrams suggest that there is a limiting crevice-corrosion temperature for each alloy in aerated, neutral sodium chloride solutions. Below this temperature corrosion does not occur, regardless of the chloride concentration. The values of the limiting crevice-corrosion temperatures were in the range 100 to 125 degrees C for Alloy C-276 and 100 to 115 degrees C for Alloy 625. Such values suggest that saturation of the chloride solutions by surface boiling could occur without the initiation of localized corrosion. These electrochemical results indicate that a large safety margin for susceptibility to localized corrosion might be found below 100 degrees C

  9. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities.

  10. Reduction of mercury from mackerel fillet using combined solution of cysteine, EDTA, and sodium chloride.

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2012-06-13

    An acidic solution containing mercury chelating agents to eliminate mercury in raw fish (mackerel) fillet was developed. The solution contained hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, cysteine, EDTA, and NaCl. The optimum conditions for mercury reduction were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM) at cysteine concentration of 1.25%, EDTA of 275 mg/L, NaCl of 0.5%, pH of 3.75, and exposure time of 18 min. The optimized conditions produced a solution which can remove up to 91% mercury from raw fish fillet. Cysteine and EDTA were identified as potential chelating agents with the greatest potential for use. The solution can be employed in fish industries to reduce mercury in highly contaminated fish.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  12. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Zalesny, Jill A.; Zalesny, Ronald S.; Wiese, Adam H.; Sexton, Bart; Hall, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6 deg. N, 89.4 deg. W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na + and Cl - concentration in preplanting and harvest soils, and in leaf, woody (stems + branches), and root tissue. The leachate-irrigated soils at harvest had the greatest Na + and Cl - levels. Genotypes exhibited elevated total tree Cl - concentration and increased biomass (clones NC14104, NM2, NM6), elevated Cl - and decreased biomass (NC14018, NC14106, DM115), or mid levels of Cl - and biomass (NC13460, DN5). Leachate tissue concentrations were 17 (Na + ) and four (Cl - ) times greater than water. Sodium and Cl - levels were greatest in roots and leaves, respectively. - Sodium and chloride supplied via landfill leachate irrigation is accumulated at high concentrations in tissues of Populus

  13. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

    2008-01-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor (σ 0 ), activation energy (ΔE) and T 0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T 0 . The calculated values of T 0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain

  14. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  16. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  17. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  18. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  19. Delaminated sodium nonatitanate and a method for producing delaminated sodium nonatitanate

    Nyman, May D.

    2016-02-02

    A hydrothermal synthesis method of making a delaminated titanate is disclosed. The delaminated titanate has a unique structure or morphology. The delaminated titanate is first formed by forming at a low temperature a layered sodium nonatitanate (SNT), which may be referred to as layered sodium titanate. The layered SNT has a unique morphology. The layered SNT is then synthesized into a delaminated titanate having a unique morphology.

  20. Electrochemical reduction of lanthanum trichloride in a molten equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    Glagolevskaya, A.L.; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Polyakov, E.G.; Stangrit, P.T.

    1987-09-20

    The authors used linear voltamperometry for the investigation of the mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum. The mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride in molten equimolar NaCl-KCl may be seen as consisting of a slow irreversible electrode reaction with a subsequent rapid irreversible chemical reaction. Lanthanum ions in a lower oxidation state were not found upon the prolonged maintenance of metallic lanthanum in molten NaCl-KCl-LaCl/sub 3/. Only an increase in the concentration of lanthanum(III) chloride in the melt was noted. The appearance of oxygen anions in the melt does not lead to a change in the mechanism of the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride but reduces the concentration of this chloride due to the formation of lanthanum oxochloride which is insoluble in the melt.

  1. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride

    Teutonico, L.J.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  4. Inhibitive effect of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution, at different temperatures

    Hassoune Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution by N,N'- Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA, at different temperatures, was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained confirm that DMEA is a good organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M of NaCl (concentration encountered in the Mediterranean seawater, over the whole range of temperatures studied. The inhibition efficiency (IE% increases with increasing DMEA concentration; it reaches highest value for a concentration around 0.125 mol.L-1. Potentiodynamic polarization data show that, the compound studied in this research predominantly act as anodic-type inhibitor. The EIS study reveals that the addition of DMEA decreases the corrosion rate of carbon steel in neutral sodium chloride solution, due to the fact that the inhibitor molecules are strongly adsorbed on the active sites following Langmuir isotherm, thus leading to the formation of a stable protective film on the steel surface which is able to keep the metal/solution interface in a passive state. Furthermore, the values of the activation parameters, i.e. ΔHa and Ea obtained in this study indicate that the adsorption process of DMEA is endothermic and could be mainly attributed to chemisorption, respectively.

  5. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  6. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  9. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  10. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  11. Sodium Chloride Supplementation Is Not Routinely Performed in the Majority of German and Austrian Infants with Classic Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Has No Effect on Linear Growth and Hydrocortisone or Fludrocortisone Dose.

    Bonfig, Walter; Roehl, Friedhelm; Riedl, Stefan; Brämswig, Jürgen; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Fricke-Otto, Susanne; Hübner, Angela; Bettendorf, Markus; Schönau, Eckhard; Dörr, Helmut; Holl, Reinhard W; Mohnike, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males). Of these, 86 patients (27.7%) received oral sodium chloride supplementation in a mean dose of 0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/kg/day (excluding nutritional sodium content) during the first year of life. 225 patients (72.3%) were not treated with sodium chloride. The percentage of sodium chloride-supplemented patients rose from 15.2% in children born 1999-2004 to 37.5% in children born 2011-2015. Sodium chloride-supplemented and -unsupplemented infants did not significantly differ in hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose, target height-corrected height-SDS, and BMI-SDS during the first 2 years of life. In the AQUAPE CAH database, approximately one-third of infants with salt-wasting CAH receive sodium chloride supplementation. Sodium chloride supplementation is performed more frequently in recent years. However, salt supplementation had no influence on growth, daily fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone dose, and frequency of adrenal crisis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  13. Electrolysis of acidic sodium chloride solution with a graphite anode. I. Graphite electrode

    Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1969-01-01

    A graphite anode evolving Cl from a chloride soln. is slowly oxidized to CO and CO2. This oxidn. causes a change in the characteristics of the electrode in aging, comprising a change of the nature of the graphite surface and an increase of the surface area. It appears that a new graphite electrode

  14. Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.c [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

  15. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  16. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence...... or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release...

  17. The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeability and is regulated by chloride

    Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagene......The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted...

  18. Paleohydrology on Mars constrained by mass balance and mineralogy of pre-Amazonian sodium chloride lakes

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride-bearing deposits on Mars record high-elevation lakes during the waning stages of Mars' wet era (mid-Noachian to late Hesperian). The water source pathways, seasonality, salinity, depth, lifetime, and paleoclimatic drivers of these widespread lakes are all unknown. Here we combine reaction-transport modeling, orbital spectroscopy, and new volume estimates from high-resolution digital terrain models, in order to constrain the hydrologic boundary conditions for forming the chlorides. Considering a T = 0°C system, we find that (1) individual lakes were >100 m deep and lasted decades or longer; (2) if volcanic degassing was the source of chlorine, then the water-to-rock ratio or the total water volume were probably low, consistent with brief excursions above the melting point and/or arid climate; (3) if the chlorine source was igneous chlorapatite, then Cl-leaching events would require a (cumulative) time of >10 years at the melting point; and (4) Cl masses, divided by catchment area, give column densities 0.1-50 kg Cl/m2, and these column densities bracket the expected chlorapatite-Cl content for a seasonally warm active layer. Deep groundwater was not required. Taken together, our results are consistent with Mars having a usually cold, horizontally segregated hydrosphere by the time chlorides formed.

  19. Accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces in water and sodium chloride solutions: Implications for coal flotation

    Hampton, M.A.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved gases can preferentially accumulate at the hydrophobic solid-water interface as revealed by neutron reflectivity measurements. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine accumulation of dissolved gases at a hydrophobic surface in water and sodium chloride solutions. The solvent-exchange method was used to artificially form gaseous domains accumulated at the interface suitable for AFM imaging. Smooth graphite surfaces were used as model surfaces to minimize the secondary effect of surface roughness on the imaging. The concentration of NaCl up to 1 M was found to have a negligible influence on the geometry and population of pre-existing nanobubbles, nanopancakes and nanobubble-nanopancake composites. The implications of the findings on coal flotation in saline water are discussed in terms of attraction between hydrophobic surfaces in water, bubble-particle attachment and hydrophobic coagulation between particles.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    Stefec, R.; Franz, F.; Holecek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 750 0 C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  2. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  4. AFM study of the early corrosion of a high strength steel in a diluted sodium chloride solution

    Sanchez, Javier; Fullea, Jose; Andrade, Carmen; Gaitero, Juan J.; Porro, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The high strength steels employed as reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete structures are drawn wire steels of eutectoid composition with a pearlitic microstructure. This work is focused on the study, by atomic force microscopy, of the early stages of the corrosion of such steels as a consequence of their exposition to a sodium chloride solution. The obtained images show the pearlitic microstructure of the steel, with a preferential attack of the ferrite phase and the cementite acting as a cathode. The corrosion rate was determined by calculating the amount of material lost from a roughness analysis. The obtained results are in good agreement with the predictions of Galvelel's theory, according to which the corrosion rate slows down as the pit depth increases

  5. Effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the physicochemical properties of soft wheat flour doughs and gluten polymerization.

    Chen, Gengjun; Ehmke, Laura; Miller, Rebecca; Faa, Pierre; Smith, Gordon; Li, Yonghui

    2018-06-07

    Soft wheat flour doughs were prepared with different levels of salt (NaCl) and/or baking soda (NaHCO3). Oscillation rheology, elongational viscosity, and extensibility of doughs were tested to evaluate the effect of salt and/or baking soda on the physical properties of doughs. Furthermore, a series of physical-biochemical analytical techniques were used to investigate gluten polymerization in doughs, including Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), spectrophotometer, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Addition of high levels of NaHCO3 (1.0 % fwb), either by itself or in combination with NaCl, increased dough strength, elongational viscosity, and viscoelasticity. RP-HPLC results demonstrated macromolecular aggregation of gluten proteins in the presence of NaCl and/or NaHCO3. Addition of NaHCO3 or NaCl also decreased both free sulfhydryl content and random coil structure of gluten isolated from the doughs. Overall, NaCl and/or NaHCO3 induced the changes of molecular conformation of gluten, which impacted the physicochemical qualities of soft wheat flour dough. Our study provides a better understanding of salt and baking soda functionality in the formation of soft flour dough, which will support the searching of feasible sodium reduction strategies in soft flour bakery products.

  6. Compatibility of butorphanol with granisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection packaged in glass bottles or polyolefin bags.

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Hui-Min; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng

    2015-08-15

    The stability of admixtures containing butorphanol and granisetron in polyolefin bags and glass bottles stored at 4 and 25 °C was studied. Commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and granisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL; the resulting mixtures were packaged in polyolefin bags and glass bottles. The admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 48 hours after storage at 25 °C without protection from room light and up to 14 days at 4 °C with protection from room light. The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against room light and dark backgrounds. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the percentages of the initial concentrations of butorphanol and granisetron in the various solutions remained above 97% during the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags or glass bottles remained stable for 48 hours when stored at 25 °C exposed to room light and for 14 days when stored at 4 °C protected from room light. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of tacrolimus injection diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in Excel bags.

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yanping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Shank, Brandon R; Deaver, Melissa A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-12-15

    The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). Chemical stability was assessed by measuring tacrolimus concentrations using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity, particle size, and drug content. All test solutions stored at 23 or 4 °C had a no greater than 6% loss of the initial tacrolimus concentration throughout the nine-day study period. All test samples of tacrolimus admixtures, under both storage conditions, were without precipitation and remained clear initially and throughout the nine-day observation period. Changes in turbidities were minor; measured particulates remained few in number in all samples throughout the study. Extemporaneously prepared infusion solutions of tacrolimus 2, 4, and 8 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in Excel bags were chemically and physically stable for at least nine days when stored at room temperature (23 °C) without protection from light and when stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) in the dark. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Could Sodium Chloride be an Environmental Trigger for Immune-Mediated Diseases? An Overview of the Experimental and Clinical Evidence.

    Toussirot, Eric; Béreau, Matthieu; Vauchy, Charline; Saas, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4 + T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation. Experimental data in murine models of arthritis, colitis and encephalomyelitis corroborate these findings. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the effects of sodium chloride on innate and adaptive immunity. We also performed a systematic literature review for clinical studies examining the relationships between salt consumption and the development or the activity/severity of the most common IMDs mediated by the IL-23/Th17 pathway, i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Crohn's disease (CD). Nine studies were found, 4 in RA, 4 in MS and 1 in CD. An association was found between developments of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA in smokers and salt intake, but these results were not confirmed in another study. For MS, no association was observed in pediatric subjects while in adult patients, a link was found between salt intake and disease activity. However, this result was not confirmed in another study. These conflicting results highlight the fact that further evaluation in human IMDs is required. Moreover, physicians need to develop clinical trials with diet interventions to evaluate the impact of low salt intake on disease activity/severity of IMDs.

  9. Could Sodium Chloride be an Environmental Trigger for Immune-Mediated Diseases? An Overview of the Experimental and Clinical Evidence

    Eric Toussirot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases (IMDs are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th cells (Th17 cells, by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1 that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R. The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation. Experimental data in murine models of arthritis, colitis and encephalomyelitis corroborate these findings. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the effects of sodium chloride on innate and adaptive immunity. We also performed a systematic literature review for clinical studies examining the relationships between salt consumption and the development or the activity/severity of the most common IMDs mediated by the IL-23/Th17 pathway, i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA, multiple sclerosis (MS, and Crohn's disease (CD. Nine studies were found, 4 in RA, 4 in MS and 1 in CD. An association was found between developments of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive RA in smokers and salt intake, but these results were not confirmed in another study. For MS, no association was observed in pediatric subjects while in adult patients, a link was found between salt intake and disease activity. However, this result was not confirmed in another study. These conflicting results highlight the fact that further evaluation in human IMDs is required. Moreover, physicians need to develop clinical trials with diet interventions to evaluate the impact of low salt intake on disease activity/severity of IMDs.

  10. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure.

    Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather S; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Cornman, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2352-2366. © Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  12. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  13. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  14. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volume, isentropic compressibility and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    Romero, Carmen M.; Rodríguez, Diana M.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent volumes, apparent compressibilities, viscosities of DL-2-aminobutyric acid. • Effect of temperature on the values for these properties. • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions and the effect of sodium chloride. - Abstract: Density, sound velocity and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been measured at temperatures of (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K. The experimental results were used to determine the apparent molar volume and the apparent molar compressibility as a function of composition at these temperatures. The limiting values of both the partial molar volume and the partial molar adiabatic compressibility at infinite dilution of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions were determined at each temperature. The experimental viscosity values were adjusted by a least-squares method to a second order equation as proposed by Tsangaris-Martin to obtain the viscosity B coefficient which depends on the size, shape and charge of the solute molecule. The influence of the temperature on the behaviour of the selected properties is discussed in terms of both the solute hydration and the balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the acids and water, and the effect of the sodium chloride concentration.

  15. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Stability of Dexmedetomidine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Intravenous Infusion Bags.

    Marquis, Kathleen; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Szumita, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a frequently used sedative in the critical care setting. It is commercially available as a 4-mg/mL premixed compound or as 200-mcg/2-mL vials that must be further diluted prior to administration. However, limited data exist regarding the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures compounded from the 200-mcg/2-mL vials, particularly for durations greater than 48 hours. Therefore, we performed stability testing on compounded dexmedetomidine prepared in two types of intravenous infusion bags for 14 days. Dexmedetomidine is available as 200-mcg/2-mL vials for dilution, 80-mcg/20-mL single-dose vials, and as 200-mcg/50-mL and 400-mcg/100-mL glass bottles. The stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures has previously been tested for 48 hours. The purpose of this analysis was to test the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures for 14 days. Six dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were compounded in polyvinyl chloride and non-polyvinyl chloride bags, three of which were stored under refrigeration and three of which were kept at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography testing was performed to determine the concentration at Days 1 through 14. Stability was determined by taking the mean concentration of samples taken from each bag. All samples were tested in duplicate. A sample was considered stable if the concentration was greater than 90% of the original concentration. All samples retained over 90% of the drug under their respective storage conditions for the duration of the study. At time 0, the concentration of dexmedetomidine was between 3.99 mcg/mL and 4.01 mcg/mL. On Day 14, the mean concentration was between 95.8% and 98.9%, depending on the bag type and storage condition. The pH remained between 4.7 and 5.8 during the study period as has previously been reported in the literature. Dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were stable in both polyvinyl chloride bags and non-polyvinyl chloride bags for 14 days under refrigeration

  17. High-temperature corrosion of lanthanum in equimole mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    Kochergin, V.P.; Obozhina, R.N.; Dragoshanskaya, T.I.; Startsev, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigation into the process of lanthanum corrosion in the molted equimole NaCl-KCl mixture after the change of test time, temperature and lanthanum trichloride were summarized. It was shown that polarization of lanthanum anode in equimole NaCl-KCl melt is controlled by La 3+ diffusion from near-electrode layer to electrolyte depth, which results in decrease of corrosion rate in time. The established electrochemical properties of metallic lanthanum in equimole NaCl-KCl mixture must be considered when improving the technology of electrochemical production of lanthanum or its alloys of molten chlorides of lanthanum and alkaline metals

  18. The crystal structure of the regulatory domain of the human sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger.

    Alvadia, Carolina M; Sommer, Theis; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Montrasio, Michele; Aalkjaer, Christian; Morth, J Preben

    2017-09-21

    The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE) is essential for maintaining homeostatic pH in neurons. The crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution of the regulatory N-terminal domain of human NDCBE represents the first crystal structure of an electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. The crystal structure forms an equivalent dimeric interface as observed for the cytoplasmic domain of Band 3, and thus establishes that the consensus motif VTVLP is the key minimal dimerization motif. The VTVLP motif is highly conserved and likely to be the physiologically relevant interface for all other members of the SLC4 family. A novel conserved Zn 2+ -binding motif present in the N-terminal domain of NDCBE is identified and characterized in vitro. Cellular studies confirm the Zn 2+ dependent transport of two electroneutral bicarbonate transporters, NCBE and NBCn1. The Zn 2+ site is mapped to a cluster of histidines close to the conserved ETARWLKFEE motif and likely plays a role in the regulation of this important motif. The combined structural and bioinformatics analysis provides a model that predicts with additional confidence the physiologically relevant interface between the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane domain.

  19. A study of sodium alginate and calcium chloride interaction through films for intervertebral disc regeneration uses

    Laia, Andreia Grossi Santos de; Costa Junior, Ezequiel de Souza; Costa, Hermes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The injured intervertebral disc (IVD) requires some measures in order to promote its regeneration. The sodium alginate in conjunction with CaCl_2 forms a net, potentiating its mechanical properties so it may be an alternative for IVD treatment. In this work, the viability of films of sodium alginate crosslinked with CaCl_2 and submitted to variations in their solutions' preparations is verified, comparing the effects of the addition of CaCl_2 through their immersions, before and after drying the films. The films had their physicochemical properties analyzed by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The results indicated that films with a greater proportion of CaCl_2 were more stable in the DSC analysis when compared to films with smaller proportions of CaCl_2. These results indicate alginate's modulation capacity which may be useful for IVD regeneration. (author)

  20. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  1. Stability of polymyxin B sulfate diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 4 or 25 degrees C.

    He, Jie; Figueroa, Deborah A; Lim, Tze-Peng; Chow, Diana S; Tam, Vincent H

    2010-07-15

    The stability of polymyxin B sulfate in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4 and 25 degrees C was studied. Seven manufacturing batches of polymyxin B from different sources were tested. The products were reconstituted in sterile water for injection, diluted in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) or under refrigeration (4 degrees C). Samples were withdrawn at the same time on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7. A modified microbiological assay was used to determine the concentrations, as indicated by zones of inhibition, of polymyxin B. Bordetella bronchiseptica served as the reference organism. Stability was defined as retention of >90% of the initial concentration. The decomposition kinetics of polymyxin B in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were evaluated by plotting the polymyxin B concentration remaining versus time. On average, the samples retained over 90% of their initial concentration for up to two days at both storage temperatures. All samples retained over 90% of their initial concentration at 24 hours. The decomposition kinetics of polymyxin B in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.024-0.075 day(-1) at 25 degrees C and 0.022-0.043 day(-1) at 4 degrees C (p > 0.05). Polymyxin B was stable for at least one day when stored at 4 or 25 degrees C in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Stability did not differ significantly between the two storage temperatures.

  2. Insights into metabolism and sodium chloride adaptability of carbaryl degrading halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain C7.

    Trivedi, Vikas D; Bharadwaj, Anahita; Varunjikar, Madhushri S; Singha, Arminder K; Upadhyay, Priya; Gautam, Kamini; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C7 isolated from sediment of Thane creek near Mumbai, India, showed the ability to grow on glucose and carbaryl in the presence of 7.5 and 3.5% of NaCl, respectively. It also showed good growth in the absence of NaCl indicating the strain to be halotolerant. Increasing salt concentration impacted the growth on carbaryl; however, the specific activity of various enzymes involved in the metabolism remained unaffected. Among various enzymes, 1-naphthol 2-hydroxylase was found to be sensitive to chloride as compared to carbaryl hydrolase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The intracellular concentration of Cl - ions remained constant (6-8 mM) for cells grown on carbaryl either in the presence or absence of NaCl. Thus the ability to adapt to the increasing concentration of NaCl is probably by employing chloride efflux pump and/or increase in the concentration of osmolytes as mechanism for halotolerance. The halotolerant nature of the strain will be beneficial to remediate carbaryl from saline agriculture fields, ecosystems and wastewaters.

  3. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Green synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanodots using sodium chloride template

    Yuan, Bo [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China); Zou, Xianshuai; Yan, Tingnan; Fei, Junjie [Xiangtan University, College of Chemistry (China); Chu, Zengyong, E-mail: chuzy@nudt.edu.cn [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanodots are simply prepared by a thermal treatment of dicyandiamide (DCDA) confined within NaCl templates. Cyano groups are introduced to the nanodots due to the catalytic effect of NaCl. NaCl could facilitate the polymerization of DCDA at lower temperatures, but will promote the decomposition when the temperature is above 550 °C. Thermal treatment at 600 °C for 30 min is the optimal condition for the scalable synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots with an average diameter of ~9 nm. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots have a higher band gap of 3.1 eV, which can emit bright blue light due to the decreased diameter, the introduction of cyano groups, and the incorporation of some sodium ions. The residue sodium ions and the cyano groups might lead to the local distortion of the graphitic crystals, or act as recombination centers for the enhanced photoluminescence.Graphical Abstract.

  5. Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil

    Rasa, Kimmo [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kimmo.rasa@helsinki.fi; Peltovuori, Tommi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hartikainen, Helinae [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-01

    Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg{sup -1}. After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments.

  6. Fatigue behavior of alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution at room temperature

    Ho, J.-T.; Yu, G.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCI solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R=Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R=0.1, f=1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCI (0.6 M, 0.1 M, and 0.001 M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCI solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz-3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens. (author)

  7. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  8. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  9. Laminar iridium coating produced by pulse current electrodeposition from chloride molten salt

    Zhu, Li’an, E-mail: mr_zla@163.com; Bai, Shuxin; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Yicong

    2013-10-01

    Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, Iridium (Ir) is one of the most promising oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory materials above 1800 °C in aerospace field. However, the Ir coatings prepared by traditional methods are composed of columnar grains throughout the coating thickness. The columnar structure of the coating is considered to do harm to its oxidation resistance. The laminar Ir coating is expected to have a better high-temperature oxidation resistance than the columnar Ir coating does. The pulse current electrodeposition, with three independent parameters: average current density (J{sub m}), duty cycle (R) and pulse frequency (f), is considered to be a promising method to fabricate layered Ir coating. In this study, laminar Ir coatings were prepared by pulse current electrodeposition in chloride molten salt. The morphology, roughness and texture of the coatings were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), profilometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the laminar Ir coatings were composed of a nucleation layer with columnar structure and a growth layer with laminar structure. The top surfaces of the laminar Ir coatings consisted of cauliflower-like aggregates containing many fine grains, which were separated by deep grooves. The laminar Ir coating produced at the deposition condition of 20 mA/cm{sup 2} (J{sub m}), 10% (R) and 6 Hz (f) was quite smooth (R{sub a} 1.01 ± 0.09 μm) with extremely high degree of preferred orientation of 〈1 1 1〉, and its laminar structure was well developed with clear boundaries and uniform thickness of sub-layers.

  10. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  11. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  12. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Gaius Debi Eyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  13. Thermo-sensitive and swelling properties of cellouronic acid sodium/poly (acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) semi-IPN.

    Zhang, Heng; Gao, Xin; Chen, Keli; Li, Hui; Peng, Lincai

    2018-02-01

    In current study, cellouronic acid sodium (CAS), obtained from bagasse pith, has been introduced into poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (poly(AM-co-DAC)) network to form novel thermo-sensitive semi-IPNs. The structure and morphology of the hydrogels were proved by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of CAS content, initiator charge, cross-linker dosage and swelling-medium property on the thermo-responsive water absorptivity were investigated in detail. The results elucidated that the prepared gels exhibited a thermo-sensibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and a high water-absorbency. And the values of UCST and equilibrium swelling ratio largely depended on the inner structure of the semi-IPNs and the external solvent property. It was also revealed that the swelling process conformed to the Schott's pseudo second order model and diffusion type was non-Fickian diffusion. The value of activation energy for this polyelectrolyte was found to be 8.74kJ/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  15. Sodium chloride as a reference substance for the three growth endpoints used in the Lemna minor L. (1753 test

    Aline Andrade Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemna sp. growth inhibition test standardized protocols suggest the use of compounds such as 3,5-dichlorophenol as reference substances for checking the test organism’s sensitivity routinely. However, this and other recommended chemicals present risks to human health and to the environment. Sodium chloride (NaCl appears as a less toxic alternative reference substance which has been successfully used in routine ecotoxicological tests. However, the evaluation of this compound in multiple growth endpoints used in the L. minor test, which is required for recommending it as a reference substance for this test organism, has not yet been reported. In the present study, NaCl was tested with L. minor for the growth endpoints frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. Results showed acceptable sensitivity and reproducibility (coefficient of variance < 15.0% for all three of the measured endpoints. Statistically significant differences were observed between the EC50 values calculated based on the three endpoints (p < 0.05. Total frond area was the most sensitive one, with average EC50 value of 2742.80 ± 245.7 mg L-1. It was anticipated that NaCl can be a suitable alternative reference substance and that total frond area should be the endpoint of choice for sensitivity toxicity tests using NaCl.

  16. Salt taste adaptation: the psychophysical effects of adapting solutions and residual stimuli from prior tastings on the taste of sodium chloride.

    O'Mahony, M

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews how adaptation to sodium chloride, changing in concentration as a result of various experimental procedures, affects measurements of the sensitivity, intensity, and quality of the salt taste. The development of and evidence for the current model that the salt taste depends on an adaptation level (taste zero) determined by the sodium cation concentration is examined and found to be generally supported, despite great methodological complications. It would seem that lower adaptation levels elicit lower thresholds, higher intensity estimates, and altered quality descriptions with predictable effects on psychophysical measures.

  17. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  18. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  19. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing: Insight from molecular dynamics simulations

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin

    2018-06-01

    To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of 365 K and 275 bar, and we represent the clay pores as pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) slits. We employ the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) model for water, Joung-Cheatham model for ions, and CLAYFF for the slit walls. We impose the pressure in the normal direction and the resulting slit width varies from about 20 to 25 Å when the salt concentration in the surrounding solution increased from zero to an oversaturated value. By varying the salt concentration, we observe two scenarios. First, the crystal dissolves and its dissolution time increases with increasing salt concentration. We describe the dissolution process in terms of the number of ions in the crystal, and the crystal size and shape. Second, when the salt concentration reaches a system solubility limit, the crystal grows and attains a new equilibrium size; the crystal comes into equilibrium with the surrounding saturated solution. After crystal dissolution, we carry out canonical MD simulations for the concentrated solution. We evaluate the hydration energy, density profiles, orientation distributions, hydrogen-bond network, radial distribution functions, and in-plane diffusion of water and ions to provide insight into the microscopic behaviour of the concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in interlayer galleries of the slightly hydrophobic pyrophyllite and hydrophilic Na-MMT pores.

  20. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study

    B. Hajimohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite, belonging to the class Pentastomida. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl and heat on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. Materials & Methods: Thirty nymphs (10 in triplicate were separately transferred to plastic tubes, containing different concentrations of NaCl solution (2%, 5% and 10%. Meanwhile, 30 nymphs in tubes containing Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS were separately treated by +50°C, +60°C and +72°C. As control group, thirty nymphs were stored in PBS at +4°C. The effects of different conditions on survival time of the nymphs were evaluated by observing their motility in different periods of time. Results: The survival time of the nymphs stored in 10% NaCl solution was too short and all of them were dead after 3 hours. But the other ones maintained in 2% NaCl solution were significantly more resistant (p<0.05 and were survived for 2 days. All the nymphs pertaining to each +60°C and +72°C treatments were found dead after first 5-minute storage interval; the nymphs stored at +50°C died totally after 20 minutes. The nymphs maintained in PBS at +4°C (control group showed the longest survival time (p<0.05; all of them were alive until day 4 and the last ones died on day 34. Conclusion: It is concluded that salting and heating have significant parasiticidal effects on L. serrata nymphs and could be used as disinfecting methods in processing of meat products especially liver. However, refrigeration at +4°C increases the resistance of the nymphs in meat products and therefore might endanger the food safety.

  2. Compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride for injection.

    Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

    2013-05-01

    Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 μg/mL and naloxone 4 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22°C for up to 72 h or at 4°C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  4. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  5. Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH on Enterotoxin C Production

    Genigeorgis, Constantin; Foda, Mohamed S.; Mantis, Antony; Sadler, Walter W.

    1971-01-01

    Growth and production of enterotoxin C by Staphylococcus aureus strain 137 in 3% + 3% protein hydrolysate powder N-Z Amine NAK broths with 0 to 12% NaCl and an initial pH of 4.00 to 9.83 were studied during an 8-day incubation period at 37 C. Growth was initiated at pH values as low as 4.00 and as high as 9.83 at 0% salt level as long as the inoculum contained at least 108 cells per ml. Rate of growth decreased as the NaCl concentration was increased gradually to 12%. Enterotoxin C was produced in broths inoculated with 108 cells per ml and above and having initial pH ranges of 4.00 to 9.83, 4.40 to 9.43, 4.50 to 8.55 and respective NaCl concentrations of 0, 4, and 8%. In the presence of 10% NaCl, the pH range supporting enterotoxin C production was 5.45 to 7.30 for an inoculum level of 108 cells per ml and 6.38 to 7.30 for 3.6 × 106 cells per ml. In repeated experiments in which the inoculum contained 108 cells per ml, we failed to demonstrate enterotoxin C production in broths with 12% NaCl and a pH range of 4.50 to 8.55 and concentrated up to 14 times. The effect of NaCl on enterotoxin C production followed the same pattern as its effect on enterotoxin B production. As the concentration of NaCl increased from 0 to 10%, yields of enterotoxin B and C decreased to undetectable amounts. PMID:5574320

  6. A potential model for sodium chloride solutions based on the TIP4P/2005 water model

    Benavides, A. L.; Portillo, M. A.; Chamorro, V. C.; Espinosa, J. R.; Abascal, J. L. F.; Vega, C.

    2017-09-01

    Despite considerable efforts over more than two decades, our knowledge of the interactions in electrolyte solutions is not yet satisfactory. Not even one of the most simple and important aqueous solutions, NaCl(aq), escapes this assertion. A requisite for the development of a force field for any water solution is the availability of a good model for water. Despite the fact that TIP4P/2005 seems to fulfill the requirement, little work has been devoted to build a force field based on TIP4P/2005. In this work, we try to fill this gap for NaCl(aq). After unsuccessful attempts to produce accurate predictions for a wide range of properties using unity ionic charges, we decided to follow recent suggestions indicating that the charges should be scaled in the ionic solution. In this way, we have been able to develop a satisfactory non-polarizable force field for NaCl(aq). We evaluate a number of thermodynamic properties of the solution (equation of state, maximum in density, enthalpies of solution, activity coefficients, radial distribution functions, solubility, surface tension, diffusion coefficients, and viscosity). Overall the results for the solution are very good. An important achievement of our model is that it also accounts for the dynamical properties of the solution, a test for which the force fields so far proposed failed. The same is true for the solubility and for the maximum in density where the model describes the experimental results almost quantitatively. The price to pay is that the model is not so good at describing NaCl in the solid phase, although the results for several properties (density and melting temperature) are still acceptable. We conclude that the scaling of the charges improves the overall description of NaCl aqueous solutions when the polarization is not included.

  7. Intradermal administration of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride produces hypesthesia to mechanical but hyperalgesia to heat stimuli in humans

    Ikemoto Tatsunori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although magnesium ions (Mg2+ are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. However, the role of Mg2+ in the neural transmission system has not been studied as sufficiently as calcium ions (Ca2+. To clarify the sensory effects of Mg2+ in peripheral nervous systems, sensory changes after intradermal injection of Mg2+ were studied in humans. Methods Magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and saline were injected into the skin of the anterior region of forearms in healthy volunteers and injection-induced irritating pain ("irritating pain", for short, tactile sensation, tactile pressure thresholds, pinch-pain changes and intolerable heat pain thresholds of the lesion were monitored. Results Flare formation was observed immediately after magnesium sulphate or magnesium chloride injection. We found that intradermal injections of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride transiently caused irritating pain, hypesthesia to noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulations, whereas secondary hyperalgesia due to mechanical stimuli was not observed. In contrast to mechanical stimuli, intolerable heat pain-evoking temperature was significantly decreased at the injection site. In addition to these results, spontaneous pain was immediately attenuated by local cooling. Conclusion Membrane-stabilizing effect and peripheral NMDA-blocking effect possibly produced magnesium-induced mechanical hypesthesia, and extracellular cation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 channels was thought to be the primary mechanism of magnesium-induced heat hyperalgesia.

  8. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III) chloride as a food additive

    2015-01-01

    The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III) chloride (Fe mTA) is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III) and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid we...

  10. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure.

  11. Paracervical block as pain treatment during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy: an RCT with bupivacaine versus sodium chloride.

    Andersson, I-M; Benson, L; Christensson, K; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2016-01-01

    Can paracervical block (PCB) administered before the onset of pain decrease women's pain experience during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MToP)? There were no clinically significant differences between groups receiving PCB with bupivacaine or saline with regard to the highest and lowest pain intensity, morphine consumption or induction-to abortion interval. The most common side effect of misoprostol is pain; nevertheless, there are sparse studies in pain and pain treatment during MToP, especially in second-trimester abortion. Pain reported in second-trimester medical abortion is often intense, and peaks when the fetal expulsion occurs. A double-blinded RCT was carried out from May 2012 until April 2015. A power calculation was based on a previous pilot study showing that the proportion of women with severe pain [visual analogue scale (VAS) ≥7] was 63%. A clinically significant reduction was considered to yield 35% with severe pain, and with a power of 80% and significance level of 5% (two-sided) 112 women were needed. Accounting for a 20% drop-out rate, a total of 140 women were needed. The primary outcome, pain intensity measured as any VAS ≥7, was analysed using a generalized estimating equations model. The level of significance was set to P sodium chloride 1 h after the first dose of misoprostol. The full analysis set (FAS) population was defined as all randomized women that had at least one value for any of the outcomes (n = 102). The per-protocol (PP) population was defined as a subset of the FAS excluding patients with major protocol deviations or without a value for the primary outcome (n = 99). Pain was measured by VAS at misoprostol initiation (baseline) and repeated every 30 min until fetal expulsion. The primary outcome was the highest VAS pain intensity at any time point. The highest pain intensity, did not show any differences at a cut-off of VAS ≥7 [risk ratio (RR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-1.5; P = 0.0.292]. In

  12. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium abs...

  13. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  14. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer.

  15. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  16. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Annette Zeyner

    Full Text Available The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0, 50 (NaCl-50 or 100 (NaCl-100 g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50 at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05. This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  17. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells......BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...

  18. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Removal of chloride from fly ash produced in hazardous waste incineration by leaching and displacement washing in a vertical filter press.

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Huhtanen, Mikko; Penttilä, Mika; Häkkinen, Antti

    2013-02-01

    Fly ash is generated in large quantities by waste incineration processes. Chloride is commonly present in the fly ash produced by the incineration of hazardous materials, such as polyvinylchloride plastic. Major difficulties related to the disposal and handling of fly ash include the high concentration of easily leachable chlorides, heavy metals and toxic compounds. In order to avoid adverse environmental effects from the disposal of fly ash, the content of soluble chlorides must be reduced. One of the most effective options for chloride removal is leaching and displacement washing in a filter press. The primary aim of this study was to obtain efficient removal of chloride from fly ash by utilizing a leaching and displacement washing process, carried out in a filter press. The secondary objective was to obtain high filtration capacities and low filter cake moisture contents. The slurry was prepared by mixing fly ash with water at an ash:water ratio of 1:2 and filtered to separate the solids from the liquid. After solid-liquid separation, most of the dissolved residual chloride was removed from the filter cake by washing the cake with fresh water in the second stage of separation. It was possible to remove up to 98% of the total chloride and to obtain sufficient filtration capacities. The residual moisture content of the filter cakes varied from 22 to 35 wt%, which meant that the cakes could be disposed of in landfill, or possibly utilized as a construction material.

  20. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  1. Friedel's salt profiles from thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic modelling of Portland cement-based mortars exposed to sodium chloride solution

    Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...

  2. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. sodium

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  4. Prediction of metal wastage produced by sodium-water reaction jets

    Payne, J.F.B.

    1979-01-01

    When a leak occurs in a sodium heated boiler, a sodium-water reaction jet is formed which causes further damage to the boiler, ie wastage. A correlation is developed which predicts wastage of ferritic steel boiler tubes for the range of leak sizes, sodium temperatures and leak to target spacing for which data available. (author)

  5. Maintenance fluid therapy and fluid creep impose more significant fluid, sodium, and chloride burdens than resuscitation fluids in critically ill patients: a retrospective study in a tertiary mixed ICU population.

    Van Regenmortel, Niels; Verbrugghe, Walter; Roelant, Ella; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Jorens, Philippe G

    2018-04-01

    Research on intravenous fluid therapy and its side effects, volume, sodium, and chloride overload, has focused almost exclusively on the resuscitation setting. We aimed to quantify all fluid sources in the ICU and assess fluid creep, the hidden and unintentional volume administered as a vehicle for medication or electrolytes. We precisely recorded the volume, sodium, and chloride burdens imposed by every fluid source administered to 14,654 patients during the cumulative 103,098 days they resided in our 45-bed tertiary ICU and simulated the impact of important strategic fluid choices on patients' chloride burdens. In septic patients, we assessed the impact of the different fluid sources on cumulative fluid balance, an established marker of morbidity. Maintenance and replacement fluids accounted for 24.7% of the mean daily total fluid volume, thereby far exceeding resuscitation fluids (6.5%) and were the most important sources of sodium and chloride. Fluid creep represented a striking 32.6% of the mean daily total fluid volume [median 645 mL (IQR 308-1039 mL)]. Chloride levels can be more effectively reduced by adopting a hypotonic maintenance strategy [a daily difference in chloride burden of 30.8 mmol (95% CI 30.5-31.1)] than a balanced resuscitation strategy [daily difference 3.0 mmol (95% CI 2.9-3.1)]. In septic patients, non-resuscitation fluids had a larger absolute impact on cumulative fluid balance than did resuscitation fluids. Inadvertent daily volume, sodium, and chloride loading should be avoided when prescribing maintenance fluids in view of the vast amounts of fluid creep. This is especially important when adopting an isotonic maintenance strategy.

  6. Correlations between ANP concentrations in atria, plasma and cerebral structures and sodium chloride preference in Wistar rats

    Glass H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the ANPergic cerebral regions involved in regulation of sodium intake and excretion and pituitary gland correlated with differences in sodium preference among 40 Wistar male rats (180-220 g. Sodium preference was measured as mean spontaneous ingestion of 1.5% NaCl solution during a test period of 12 days. The relevant tissues included the olfactory bulb (OB, the posterior and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland (PP and AP, respectively, the median eminence (ME, the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH, and the region anteroventral to the third ventricle (AV3V. We also measured ANP content in the right (RA and left atrium (LA and plasma. The concentrations of ANP in the OB and the AP were correlated with sodium ingestion during the preceding 24 h, since an increase of ANP in these structures was associated with a reduced ingestion and vice-versa (OB: r = -0.3649, P<0.05; AP: r = -0.3291, P<0.05. Moreover, the AP exhibited a correlation between ANP concentration and mean NaCl intake (r = -0.4165, P<0.05, but this was not the case for the OB (r = 0.2422. This suggests that differences in sodium preference among individual male rats can be related to variations of AP ANP level. Earlier studies indicated that the OB is involved in the control of NaCl ingestion. Our data suggest that the OB ANP level may play a role mainly in day-to-day variations of sodium ingestion in the individual rat

  7. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  8. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO 2 -rich and CeO 2 -lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO 2 content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl 3 , LaCl 3 , NdCl 3 , and PrCl 3 are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 μm

  9. Immobilization of chloride-rich radioactive wastes produced by pyrochemical operations

    McDaniel, E.W.; Terry, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    A a result of its former role as a producer of nuclear weapons components, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Golden, Colorado accumulated a variety of plutonium-contaminated materials. When the level of contamination exceeded a predetermined level (the economic discard limit), the materials were classified as residues rather than waste and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. Although large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, remain in storage at the site. It is planned for the residues with lower concentrations of plutonium to be disposed of as wastes at an appropriate disposal facility, probably the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because the plutonium concentration is too high or because the physical or chemical form would be difficult to get into a form acceptable to WIPP, it may not be possible to dispose of a portion of the residues at WIPP. The pyrochemical salts are among the residues that are difficult to dispose of. For a large percentage of the pyrochemical salts, safeguards controls are required, but WIPP was not designed to accommodate safeguards controls. A potential solution would be to immobilize the salts. These immobilized salts would contain substantially higher plutonium concentrations than is currently permissible but would be suitable for disposal at WIPP. This document presents the results of a review of three immobilization technologies to determine if mature technologies exist that would be suitable to immobilize pyrochemical salts: cement-based stabilization, low-temperature vitrification, and polymer encapsulation. The authors recommend that flow sheets and life-cycle costs be developed for cement-based and low-temperature glass immobilization

  10. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Siddiqui, A K [Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh); Ando, Y; Karashimada, T; Kameyama, K

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  11. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  12. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-01-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10 2 and 10 4 /g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ν-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30 0 , 10 0 and 5 0 C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay. (author)

  13. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  14. Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters.

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A

    2009-01-01

    1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.

  15. Investigation of the possibility of producing sodium alginate from the product of processing fucus algae

    N. I. Sokolan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of making sodium alginate from a by-product (fucus semifinished product, obtained by producing an extract from brown algae of the Fucus family – fucus bubbly (F.vesiculosus, has been studied. It has been found that up to 80% of the alginic acids contained in the feedstock remain in the fucus semi-finished product, which can also be isolated and used. The principal technology of sodium alginate from the fucus semifinished product is developed, consisting of the following main stages: preparation of raw materials, reduction, pretreatment, extraction of alginates, isolation of alginic acid, production of sodium alginate, drying. The parameters of the technological scheme close to optimal parameters were determined (the duration of extraction of alginates by sodium carbonate solution is 3 hours, the active acidity value for the isolation of alginic acids is 6M hydrochloric acid: pH = 3. As a result of optimization of the technological scheme, it was possible to increase the yield and improve the quality of the product: the yield of sodium alginate was 4.5% (which is 20% higher than the original, the content of alginic acids increased by 7% and was 92% in terms of dry matter, kinematic the viscosity increased almost twofold - its value reached a value of 500 cSt. Investigations carried out by the Fourier method of IR spectroscopy on the Shimadzu IR Tracer-100 (Japan showed that the sodium alginate obtained from the fucus semifinished by optimized technology is not inferior in quality to sodium alginate produced from laminaria (Sigma Aldrich (USA. Sodium alginate, made from the fucus semi-finished product, can be used as one of the components of gelling fillings for the production of canned fish in jellies. A technological scheme for processing algae is proposed.

  16. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  18. Study of interactions between anionic exopolysaccharides produced by newly isolated probiotic bacteria and sodium caseinate.

    Abid, Yousra; Joulak, Ichrak; Ben Amara, Chedia; Casillo, Angela; Attia, Hamadi; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Azabou, Samia

    2018-07-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the interactions between four exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by probiotic bacteria and sodium caseinate (Cas) in order to simulate their behavior in dairy products. Complexation between the produced EPS samples and Cas was investigated as a function of polysaccharide to protein ratio. The highest turbidity and average size of complexes were formed at an EPS/Cas ratio of 3 (corresponding to 1 g/L of EPS and 0.33 g/L of Cas) as a result of the combination of individual complexes to form aggregates. Zeta potential measurements and Cas surface hydrophobicity results suggested that complex formation occurred essentially through electrostatic attractions with a possible contribution of hydrophobic interaction for EPS-GM which was produced by Bacillus tequilensis-GM. Afterwards, the effect of pH on the complexation between biopolymers was studied when EPS and Cas concentrations were maintained constant at 1 and 0.33 g/L, respectively. pH was adjusted to 3.0 and 3.5, respectively. Results showed that the highest amount and sizes of EPS/Cas complexes were formed at pH 3.5 and that EPS-GM enabled to obtain the biggest and highest amount of aggregates. Therefore, the obtained results support the fact that the simultaneous presence of EPS and Cas in dairy products results in complexes formation via electrostatic interactions depending on EPS/Cas ratio and pH of the medium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  20. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  1. Emulsifying properties of maillard conjugates produced from sodium caseinate and locust bean gum

    F. A. Perrechil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifying properties of sodium caseinate -locust bean gum Maillard conjugates produced at different temperatures (54 - 96 ºC, protein/polysaccharide ratios (0.3 - 1.0 and reaction times (1 - 24 hours were evaluated. Conjugate formation was confirmed by formation of color and high molecular weight fractions and the decrease of the αs- and β-casein bands. The emulsions stabilized by Maillard conjugates showed good stability. The mean droplet diameter (d32 tended to decrease with the increase of incubation time and temperature, except at extreme conditions (24 hours and 90 ºC or 96 ºC when the partial degradation of the conjugates was probably favored, resulting in phase separation of emulsions. The emulsion viscosity decreased with the increase in the protein/polysaccharide ratio and with the degradation of the conjugates. The conditions used in the experimental design made the optimization of the conjugate production viable, which showed greater emulsifier properties than the pure protein under acid conditions.

  2. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    Casie Lindsly

    Full Text Available Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs. We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  3. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum(VI) with sodium 2-bromo-4, 5-dihydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonate in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu

    1977-01-01

    Sodium 2-bromo-4,5-dihydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonate (abbreviated as BDAS) reacts with molybdenum(VI) in the presence of excessive cetyltrimethylammonium chloride(CTMAC) to form a water-soluble ternary complex. The combining ratio of molybdenum(VI) and BDAS in the ternary complex was shown to be 1 : 2. The ternary complex having its absorption maximum at 525 nm is quantitatively formed between pH 1.0 and 2.0. A constant absorbance was obtained when the concentrations of BDAS and CTMAC were more than 1.8 x 10 -4 M and (1.2 -- 1.6) x 10 -3 M, respectively. The procedure for the determination of molybdenum(VI) is as follows: Transfer the sample solution containing up to 28 μg of molybdenum(VI) to a 25 ml volumetric flask. Add 3 ml of 2.0 x 10 -3 M BDAS solution and an appropriate amount of a masking agent such as ascorbic acid, EDTA or sodium fluoride. Adjust the pH to about 1.6 with hydrochloric acid and sodium acetate. Add 3.5 ml of 0.01 M CTMAC solution and dilute the solution to the mark with water. Measure the absorbance at 525 nm against the reagent blank. A linear calibration curve was obtained over the concentration range 0 -- 28 μg of molybdenum(VI). The apparent molar absorptivity is 6.1 x 10 4 l cm -1 mol -1 at 525 nm, and the sensitivity of the reaction is 1.5 x 10 -3 μg cm -2 . The interference from metal ions such as iron(III), titanium(IV), zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) could be eliminated by the addition of ascorbic acid, EDTA, sodium fluoride, or a mixture of these reagents. Tungsten(VI), however, interfered with the determination of molybdenum(VI) even when present at microgram levels. The present method was applied to the determination of molybdenum in three standard steel samples. Analytical results were satisfactory. (auth.)

  5. Investigation on pretreatment of centrifugal mother liquid produced in the production of polyvinyl chloride by air-Fenton technique.

    Sun, Yingying; Hua, Xiuyi; Ge, Rui; Guo, Aitong; Guo, Zhiyong; Dong, Deming; Sun, Wentian

    2013-08-01

    Centrifugal mother liquid (CML) is one of the main sources of wastewater produced during the production of polyvinyl chloride in chlor-alkali industry. CML is a typical poorly biodegradable organic wastewater, containing many kinds of refractory pollutants. Specifically, it contains dissolved refractory polymers, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which can pass though the biotreatment processes and clog the membranes used for further treatment. In this study, to ensure the CML applicable to biotreatment and membrane treatment, a novel efficient and mild technique, air-Fenton treatment, was employed as a pretreatment technique to improve biodegradability of the CML and to break down the polymers in the CML. Firstly, the technique was optimized for the CML treatment by optimizing the main parameters, including the dosage of ferrous sulfate, initial pH of the wastewater, [H2O2]/[Fe(2+)], aeration rate, reaction time, and temperature, based on removal efficiency of COD and PVA from the CML. Then, the optimized technique was tested and evaluated. The results indicated that under the optimized conditions, the air-Fenton treatment could remove 66, 98, and 55 % of the COD, PVA, and TOC, respectively, from the CML. After the treatment, biodegradability of the wastewater increased significantly (BOD/COD increased from 0.31 to 0.68), and almost all of the PVA polymers were removed or broken down. Meanwhile, concentration of the remaining iron ions, which were added during the treatment, was also quite low (only 2.9 mg/L). Furthermore, most of the suspended materials and ammonia nitrogen, and some of the phosphorus in the wastewater were removed simultaneously.

  6. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  7. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie, E-mail: wangtj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Nano silica particle was modified to produce hydrophobic surface with contact angle of 107° using the water soluble SDS as a modifier through a new route. The grafted density reached 1.82–2 nm. Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation, forming a Si–O–C structure. - Highlights: • Silica was modified to produce hydrophobic surface using SDS as modifier. • The route is free of organic solvent and gets perfect contact of SDS and silica. • Contact angle of modified silica particles reached 107°. • Grafted density on the silica surface reached 1.82 SDS nm{sup −2}. • Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation. - Abstract: Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm{sup −2}, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO{sub 2} ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO{sub 2} particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO{sub 2} reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si–O–C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a

  8. Electrochemical conversion of solid Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb in sodium chloride melt as proof of oxygen ionisation mechanism of electrodeoxidation

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D., E-mail: smvd2@cam.ac.uk [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Presently with Materials Chemistry Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Sanil, N.; Mohandas, K.S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2016-08-25

    The direct electrochemical reduction of a solid metal oxide (MO{sub x}) to metal (M) in calcium chloride melt (FFC Cambridge process) has been proposed to take place via. oxygen ionisation mechanism, MO{sub x} + 2xe{sup −} → M + xO{sup 2−}. However, generation of calcium metal and reduction of the oxide with it too becomes possible under the applied potential condition (3.1 V) of an FFC cell. The unique chemistry of calcium chloride melt, upon cathodic polarisation, makes it difficult to distinguish between the reduction by electrons and calcium metal. Hence in order to confirm the oxygen ionisation theory of electro-deoxidation, electrochemical deoxidation experiments were carried out with sintered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} pellet electrodes in molten sodium chloride at 1173 K. The pellets were found reduced to Nb metal. Sodiothermic reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is thermodynamically not feasible (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10Na → 5Na{sub 2}O + 2Nb, ΔG°{sub 1173K} = 102.1 kJ) and hence the observed reduction of the oxide is attributed to electrons. This study, for the first time, gives reliable experimental evidence to the oxygen ionisation mechanism of electro-reduction of solid oxides in the FFC process. The experimental results also prove that the electro-reduction of oxides can occur in melts, which otherwise were considered unsuitable from thermodynamic considerations. - Highlights: • In NaCl melt: Negligible O{sup 2−} ion solubility & Na reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb – absent. • Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could be electrochemically reduced to spongy Nb in NaCl melt at 1173 K. • Mechanism: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} → Na−Nb−O compounds + suboxides of Nb → Na{sub x}NbO{sub y} → Nb. • Metallothermic reduction of oxide in melt - not mandatory for electrodeoxidation. • In FFC Cambridge process: Metallothermic reduction is not essential but desirable.

  9. Atmospheric diffusion and fallout and alkaline materials produced by sodium fires

    Benfenati, I.

    1982-01-01

    The present works deals with a theoretic approach of the diffusion in air of colloidal Na 2 O coming out of sodium fires, consequent to sodium losses from the cooling circuit of a fast breeder reactor, in case of accident. The theoretical pattern has subsequently been applied to a numerical assessment of the Na 2 O concentration in air and on the ground (due to fallout), either inside or outside the sodium hall of the Cpv-1 facility at the Brasimone site. The assessment refers to the maximum credible accident 'pool burning', in the most unfavourable meteorological conditions. Protectionistic recomendations are given, and emergency procedures are described, in that concerns boot people professionally employed within the reactor site and the external population

  10. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  11. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application

    Godwin, K.S.; Hafner, S.D.; Buff, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium and chloride have increased in the last 50 years in this river ecosystem. - Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km 2 ) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations of Na + and Cl - have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km -2 day -1 , appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km -2 day -1 over the 47-year period. Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na + and Cl - still increased during the 1990s

  12. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  13. Effects of methionine source, arginine: lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions

    R Montanhini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methionine sources (DL-methionine 99% powder (DLM or methionine hydroxy analog liquid 88% (HMTBA, arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio and sodium chloride (NaCl content in the diet of broilers on their performance, carcass yield, serum biochemistry, duodenal mucosal morphology, and immune response. Birds were kept under high temperature conditions during the grower phase and were inoculated or not with an antigen. The use of HMTBA promoted better live performance and carcass yield than the use of DLM. Diets with 1.05 Arg:Lys ratio resulted in better live performance, higher carcass and breast meat yields, longer villi, shallower crypts, and stronger immune response when broilers were challenged than the 1.40 ratio. The dietary supplementation of 6.0 g NaCl/kg promoted better growth performance and carcass weight than 2.0 g NaCl/kg. There was no influence of the different methionine sources or NaCl concentrations on any evaluated intestinal morphology parameter or immune response, nor of any interactions between these sources of variation.

  14. Effects of bulk colloidal stability on adsorption layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface studied by neutron reflectometry.

    Campbell, Richard A; Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Angus-Smyth, Anna; Nylander, Tommy; Varga, Imre

    2011-12-29

    We show for the oppositely charged system poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate that the cliff edge peak in its surface tension isotherm results from the comprehensive precipitation of bulk complexes into sediment, leaving a supernatant that is virtually transparent and a depleted adsorption layer at the air/water interface. The aggregation and settling processes take about 3 days to reach completion and occur at bulk compositions around charge neutrality of the complexes which lack long-term colloidal stability. We demonstrate excellent quantitative agreement between the measured surface tension values and a peak calculated from the surface excess of surfactant in the precipitation region measured by neutron reflectometry, using the approximation that there is no polymer left in the liquid phase. The nonequilibrium nature of the system is emphasized by the production of very different interfacial properties from equivalent aged samples that are handled differently. We go on to outline our perspective on the "true equilibrium" state of this intriguing system and conclude with a comment on its practical relevance given that the interfacial properties can be so readily influenced by the handling of kinetically trapped bulk aggregates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in an alkaline NaCl solution with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and lanthanum chloride inhibitors

    Zhou, Biner; Wang, Yishan; Zuo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition effect of LaCl 3 and SDBS for AA 2024 in NaCl solution (pH 10) was studied. • At the beginning the active polarization behavior of the alloy changed to passivation. • The passive behavior gradually disappeared with time and pitting happened at S-phases. • The compounded inhibitors showed good inhibition but cannot totally inhibit pitting. • The adsorption of SDBS played the key role for inhibition to the corrosion process. - Abstract: The evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in 0.58 g L −1 NaCl solution (pH 10) with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and lanthanum chloride inhibitors was studied with electrochemical and surface analysis methods. With the addition of the compounded LaCl 3 and SDBS inhibitors, in the early stage the polarization behavior of AA 2024-T3 changed from active corrosion to passivation, and both the general corrosion and pitting corrosion were inhibited. However, with the immersion time extended, the passive behavior gradually disappeared and pitting happened at the Cu-rich phases. After 24 h immersion, the compounded inhibitors still showed good inhibition for general corrosion, but the polarization curve again presented the characteristic similar to active polarization. The compounded inhibitors also inhibited the pitting corrosion to some extent. The acting mechanism of the inhibitors SDBS and La 3 Cl on the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in the test solution was discussed.

  16. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    Sabbaghzadeh, Behnam; Parvizi, Reza; Davoodi, Ali; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  17. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach.

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-17

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  18. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p27 Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  19. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  20. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  1. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  2. Long-term stability of temocillin in dextrose 5% and in sodium chloride 0.9% polyolefin bags at 5 ± 3°C after freeze-thaw treatment.

    Rolin, C; Hecq, J-D; Tulkens, P; Vanbeckbergen, D; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of a mixture of temocillin 20mg/ml in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride polyolefin bags after freezing, microwave thawing and long-term storage at 5±3°C. The stability of ten polyolefin bags containing 20mg/ml of temocillin, five bags in 5% dextrose and five bags in 0.9% sodium chloride, prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20°C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5±3°C. Over 30 days, temocillin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Visual inspections, microscope observation, spectrophotometric measurements and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but minor colour change was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance. Based on a shelf life of 95% residual potency, temocillin infusions were stable at least 11 days in 5% dextrose and 14 days in 0.9% sodium chloride after freezing and microwave thawing (corresponding at the period where 95% lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 95% of the initial concentration). During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, temocillin in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service then thawed before use in clinical units. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress corrosion crack growth studies on nitrogen added AISI type 316 stainless steel and its weld metal in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Shaikh, H.; George, G.; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe

    2000-10-01

    Compact tension specimens of nitrogen-added AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel and its weld metal were subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing in a boiling solution containing 5 M sodium chloride + 0.15 M sodium sulphate + 2.5 ml/l hydrochloric acid solution using the constant extension rate testing (CERT) technique. The extension rate of testing was 10 microns per hour. The threshold values of stress intensify factor (K{sub ISCC}) and J-integral (J{sub ISCC}) were taken as those values of K{sub I} and J{sub I} at which about 25 microns of SCC crack growth was observed. These threshold values were about four times higher and plateau crack growth rates (PCGR) were nearly one order of magnitude lower for the base metal vis-a-vis the weld metal. Fractographic observations indicated failure by transgranular SCC (TGSCC) of austenite in both the base and weld metal. No stress-assisted dissolution of delta-ferrite or its interface with austenite, was observed. (orig.) [German] CT-Proben von Grund- und Schweissnahtwerkstoff des stickstoffhaltigen Stahles AISI 316 LN wurden Spannungsrisskorrosionstests in siedender chloridhaltiger Loesung (5 M Natriumchlorid/0,15 M Natriumsulfat/0,03 M Salzsaeure) unterzogen. Die Tests erfolgten bei konstanter Dehnrate (CERT-Test) von 10 {mu}m/h. Als Schwellwerte der Initiierung von Spannungsrisskorrosion K{sub ISCC} und I{sub ISCC} wurden die Werte des Spannungsintensitaetsfaktors K{sub I} und des J-Integrals J{sub I} ermittelt, bei denen ein Risswachstum von 25 {mu}m auftrat. Dabei wies der Grundwerkstoff 4-fach hoehere Schwellwerte K{sub ISCC} und J{sub ISCC} auf als der Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Auch die Risswachstumsraten im Plateaubereich der Risswachstumsrate-Spannungsintensitaetskruven waren am Grundwerkstoff um eine Groessenordnung geringer als am Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Die fraktorgrahischen Untersuchungen zeigten an beiden Materialien Schaedigung durch transkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion. Eine

  4. Effects of sodium chloride salinity on ecophysiological and biochemical parameters of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L.) from use of de-icing salts for winter road maintenance.

    Laffray, Xavier; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Bourioug, Mohamed; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2018-04-04

    Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips. Seedlings growing in a quartz sand/vermiculite mixture were subjected to NaCl concentrations of 0, 50, or 100 mM for 5 weeks. The results showed that high NaCl concentrations caused a marked reduction in total leaf biomass 55 and 75% for 50 and 100 mM treatments, respectively, in dry weight of stems (84%) and roots (175%) for 100 mM treatment and modified root architecture, whereas no changes appeared in leaf number. A non-significant decrease in relative water content, with changes in ion balance was recorded. Comparison of stressed to control plants show an increase in sodium (3.5-8-fold), potassium (0.6-fold), and chloride (9.5-14-fold) concentrations in the root tips while the K + /Na + ratio decreased. In taproots, no significant biochemical differences were observed between the salt-treated and the control plants for acid invertase activity, reducing sugars, sucrose, or soluble protein contents. The significance of ion and sugar accumulations in relation to osmotic adjustment and the ability of oak seedlings to cope with salt stress are discussed.

  5. The Effects of Stereotactic Cerebroventricular Administration of Albumin, Mannitol, Hypertonic Sodium Chloride, Glycerin and Dextran in Rats with Experimental Brain Edema.

    Ates, Tuncay; Gezercan, Yurdal; Menekse, Guner; Turkoz, Yusuf; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Akyuva, Yener; Onal, Selami Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous brain tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200 and 250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 µl of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl), glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed 48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere. Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p < 0.001). Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels. Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provides substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema.

  6. Stem Cuttings as a Quick In Vitro Screening Method of Sodium Chloride Tolerance in Potato (Solanum) Genotypes

    Elhag, A. Z.; Mix-Wagnar, G.; Elbassam, N.; Horst, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to find how far in vitro explants stem cuttings technique could be suitable for quick screening of NaCl tolerance solanum genotypes and to identify some aspects of their NaCl tolerance. Fifteen solanum genotypes were tested on four NaCl concentrations both in vitro and in vivo, two-node stem cuttings of in vitro produced explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts supplemented with four NaCl concentrations (0,40,80 and 120 mM) for six weeks in vitro. The other part of the in vitro grown explants were transplanted in Kick- Brauck- Manns pots containing sandy loam soil supplemented also with four NaCl concentration (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 NaCl, w/w) and grown further either for eight weeks or till harvest in a green house. Both experiments were in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The main stem length, shoot dry matter and tuber yield as well as mineral element (Na''+, K + , Ca''2''+ and Cl''-) were measured. The growth of all genotypes was affected by increasing of NaCl. There was a close correlation between growth response (length of explant main stem) in vitro and shoot dry matter and tuber yield in vivo (r=0.81** for dry matter and 0.72** for tuber yield. Na''+ and Cl''- concentrations in shoots wee inversely correlated with the vegetative growth (r=-0.73** for both in vitro and r=-0.89** and r=-0.88** in vivo, respectively). The genotypes showed varied ability to reduce the transport of Na''+ and Cl''- to the shoots, where by NaCl tolerant genotypes showed lower content of both elements than the sensitive ones. K''+ and Ca''2''+ concentrations were decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The responses for mineral element (Na''+ and Cl - ) accumulation or restriction of explants in vitro and intact plants in vivo were also closely correlated (r=0.79** and 0.71**, respectively) especially at the medium NaCl concentrations (80 mM and 0.2% NaCl). The similar response of the explant and the intact plant

  7. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  8. Evaluation of chitosan microparticles containing curcumin and crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate produced by spray drying

    Alexandre Luis Parize

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to encapsulate curcumin into chitosan, using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP as an ionic crosslinker by the spray drying method. The influence of TPP on the properties of the final product, such as solubility, morphology, loading efficiency, thermal behavior, swelling degree and release profiles, was evaluated. The microparticles had a spherical morphology (0.5-20 µm with no apparent porosity or cracks. Results indicated the formation of a polymeric network, which ensures effective protection for curcumin. Controlled-release studies were carried out at pH 1.2 and 6.8, to observe the influence of pH on curcumin release while the mechanism was analyzed using the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

  9. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    potassium chloride and salty-congruent odor. The result showed that considering consumer acceptability during sodium reduction enabled to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. X-ray diffraction phase analysis of crystalline copper corrosion products after treatment in different chloride solutions

    Chmielova, M.; Seidlerova, J.; Weiss, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion products Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl, Cu 2 O, and CuCl 2 were identified on the surface of copper plates after their four days treating in three different sodium chloride, sodium/magnesium, and sodium/calcium chloride solutions using X-ray diffraction powder analysis. However, the quantitative proportions of individual corrosion products differ and depend on the type of chloride solution used. Treating of copper plates only in the sodium chloride solution produced the mixture of corrosion products where Cu 2 O is prevailing over the Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl and CuCl 2 was not identified. The sample developed after treating of the cooper surface in the sodium/magnesium chloride solution contains Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl and CuCl 2 prevailing over the Cu 2 O, while the sample developed after treatment of copper in sodium/calcium chloride solution contains Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl prevailing over CuCl 2 and Cu 2 O was not identified

  12. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    Sigrit Suástegui-Domínguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks.

  13. Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride

    Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hélio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

    The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95°C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 ±0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94±0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08±0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80°C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65±0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80°C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

  14. Examination of dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation in experimentally produced cerebral edema. With special reference to their combination

    Kanaya, H; Onodera, H; Watanabe, M; Kamata, K [Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-06-01

    Dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation were used for experimentally produced cerebral edema for the examination of the water content of the brain and cerebrovascular permeability using /sup 203/Hg as the tracer. Although dexamethasone starts lowering vascular permeability of the edematous brain at one hour after the intravenous injection, a lapse of 24 hours is required until the water content returns to normal. Although hyperbaric oxygenation dose not reduce cerebrovascular permeability, it brings back the water content of the brain to normal immediately after pressurization. Since the combination of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygenation maintains the water content of the brain almost normal throughout the entire process, it is ideal for the treatment of cerebral edema.

  15. Chloride Test

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  16. A method for producing electrolyte and heat resistant drilling muds from bentonite clays

    Koyev, K; Bedelcheva, A; Uzunova, I

    1979-01-01

    A method is developed for producing clay suspensions, which are resistant to electrolytes, high temperature and pressure, on the basis of bentonite clays with a high content of montmorillonite. The method is based on the subsequent introduction into the suspension of magnesium chloride (calcium chloride) and sodium chloride with intense mixing and maintenance of the high viscosity of the clay mass. The electrolytes are added in a specific order and volume: the magnesium chloride or calcium chloride at 1-3% and the sodium chloride at approximately 30%. The clay suspensions are characterized by high SNS and filtration (40 cm/sup 3/ in 30 min). The operational indicators may be regulated so that they remain in accordance with the required standards.

  17. Role of additives; sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles and their photoluminescence properties

    Pandey, Gajanan, E-mail: pandeygajanan@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Dixit, Supriya; Shrivastava, A.K. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised in aqueous solution phase at mild reaction temperature 100 °C in moderate alkaline medium (pH = 9.5), and the role of external additives; like sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on the morphology and size of the products has been explored on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses data. ZnO hexagonal nano-plates, core–shell like spherical/ellipsoidal Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O structures and thin sheets, thorn/needle mixed shaped Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O structures have been observed in TEM and SEM images. Zn(OH){sub 2} formed in moderate alkaline medium, converted to Zn(II) hydroxo complex ions on dissolution, which further recrystallizes to produce wurtzite ZnO at 100 °C. From XRD and EDX analysis, successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions at the Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO host has been proved. In the photoluminescence spectra, the observed blue shifts in NBE peaks and decrease of emissions intensity on Mn doping have thoroughly been discussed in the present investigation. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs have been prepared in aqueous solution at mild temperature 100 °C. • Shifts in XRD lines and NBE peaks in PL spectra proved doping of Mn{sup 2+} in the ZnO. • ZnO is formed via dissolution–recrystallization of ε-Zn(OH){sub 2}–ZnO. • Additives SDS and MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O play important role on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs. • Mn contents increased extrinsic defects, which decreased intensity of PL spectra.

  18. Extraction of silver by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid. Application: elimination of chloride anions; Extraction de l'argent par des gels d'acide polyacrylique-polyacrylate de sodium. Application a l'elimination des ions chlorures

    Rifi, E.H. [Universite Ibn-Tofail, Lab. de Synthese Organique et Pocedes d' Extraction, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Lakkis, D.; Leroy, J.F.M. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Minerale, Ecole Europeenne de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2005-05-01

    The extraction of silver from diluted aqueous solutions by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid was studied. The study of pH variations shows that the extraction is done by cation-cation exchange process. The highest loading of the gel by silver is obtained at R(moles of Ag{sup +} fixed by the gel/moles of -COO(H, Na))=0.75. The silver gel loaded allows the recovery of ions chlorides from the aqueous solutions. (authors)

  19. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  20. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris and salt (sodium chloride on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on noneuryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l-1 than B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . The maximal population density (mean±standard error for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 X10 6 cells ml-1 (algal level was 80 ±5 ind. ml-1 , which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 ± 7 ind. ml-1 under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 ± 0.5 days for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 ±1 day. The highest rates of population increase (r values for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 ± 0.012 and 0.367 ± 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 X10(6 cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.La salinidad es una variable importante que tiene influencia sobre la densidad y la diversidad de los rotíferos. Los estudios de rotíferos sobre tolerancia a la sal que se tienen hasta ahora se han concentrado en especies eurihalinas, sin embargo, hay muy poca información sobre taxas no eurihalinos. En el presente trabajo, se evaluaron los efectos combinados de las concentraciones de Chlorella vulgaris y cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento

  1. Approach to corrosion mechanisms for a carbon steel in a solution of sodium chloride at 3 pc and its inhibition by means of organic molecules. Compared benefit of the use of stationary and transient electrochemical methods

    Duprat, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Within the context of an increased use of seawater as coolant in various industrial installations, this research thesis had two main objectives: the search for inhibitor organic compounds with optimal efficiency, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of corrosion inhibition by the best compounds within the considered organic compounds. After having reported a bibliographical study on carbon steel corrosion in seawater or in a sodium chloride solution at 3 pc, and on the inhibition of this corrosion, the author presents the experimental conditions (materials and methods). He reports the use of stationary and un-stationary electrochemical methods for the study of the steel-solution interface without inhibitor in order to get a better knowledge of corrosion electrochemical processes and to determine more precisely the corrosion rate. The last part addresses the study of the same interface but in presence of various inhibitors

  2. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  3. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The natural scorpion peptide, BmK NT1 activates voltage-gated sodium channels and produces neurotoxicity in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    Zou, Xiaohan; He, Yuwei; Qiao, Jinping; Zhang, Chunlei; Cao, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat neuronal diseases such as neuropathic pain, paralysis and epilepsy for thousands of years. Studies have demonstrated that scorpion venom is the primary active component. Although scorpion venom can effectively attenuate pain in the clinic, it also produces neurotoxic response. In this study, toxicity guided purification led to identify a mammalian toxin termed BmK NT1 comprising of 65 amino acid residues and an amidated C-terminus, a mature peptide encoded by the nucleotide sequence (GenBank No. AF464898). In contract to the recombinant product of the same nucleotide sequence, BmK AGAP, which displayed analgesic and anti-tumor effect, intravenous injection (i.v.) of BmK NT1 produced acute toxicity in mice with an LD50 value of 1.36 mg/kg. In primary cultured cerebellar granule cells, BmK NT1 produced a concentration-dependent cell death with an IC50 value of 0.65 μM (0.41-1.03 μM, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI) which was abolished by TTX, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker. We also demonstrated that BmK NT1 produced modest sodium influx in cerebellar granule cell cultures with an EC50 value of 2.19 μM (0.76-6.40 μM, 95% CI), an effect similar to VGSC agonist, veratridine. The sodium influx response was abolished by TTX suggesting that BmK NT1-induced sodium influx is solely through activation of VGSC. Considered these data together, we demonstrated that BmK NT1 activated VGSC and produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cell cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  6. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  7. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  8. Comparison of sodium carbonate pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf to produce fermentable sugars.

    Jin, Yongcan; Huang, Ting; Geng, Wenhui; Yang, Linfeng

    2013-06-01

    The specific characteristics of biomass structure and chemical composition of straw stem and leaf may result in different behavior of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, sodium carbonate (SC) was employed as a pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw. The chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw stem and leaf (sheath included) were investigated comparatively. Most of the polysaccharides are kept in the solid fractions after SC pretreatment, while the stem has better delignification selectivity than leaf at high temperature. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat straw leaf is significantly higher than that of stem. The maximum total sugar yield from SC pretreated leaf was about 16% higher than stem. The results show that sodium carbonate is of great potential to be used as a pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from straw handling waste in a straw pulp mill with a low feedstock cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  10. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Ingham, B. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ko, M., E-mail: m.ko@questintegrity.com [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand); Laycock, N. [Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Burnell, J. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086 (Australia); Kimpton, J.A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Williams, D.E. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated brine at 80 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protective scales were formed in all tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only FeCO{sub 3} formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} detected with presence of MgCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgCl{sub 2} accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) at 80 Degree-Sign C. Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also detected when MgCl{sub 2} was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl{sub 2} addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  11. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-08

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  12. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  13. Investigation of Methods to Produce Sodium Perchlorate without the Use of Platinum. Part 1 - Literature Review; Part 2 - Laboratory Work

    1951-08-31

    8217 radioactive sod~iwn salt. _orrcrystallizations from a~ reduced the amount of sodium to a very ow vaius; ten extraction$ of th& evaorated salt with...German Fot./1919,,, ICIO., Polutions 27cC. Villiams/1920 Ma~OM, 600 to 700 R.!1. Ft. Fe 1n’-tin’ily ý1out 101C. (146) (Oev~lewltg *(Frrpdue1 ly risee to

  14. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, phosphates, and vitamins C, E, or C+E on meat display-color stability.

    Yancey, E J; Hunt, M C; Dikeman, M E; Addis, P B; Katsanidis, E

    2001-10-01

    Grain-finished, high-percentage Charolais steers (n = 36) were selected for uniformity. Immediately after jugular vein exsanguination, 27 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C; n = 9), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E; n = 9), or 500 ppm vitamin C + 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E; n = 9). Uninfused controls (CON) were exsanguinated conventionally. Carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, steaks 2.54 cm thick were sliced from the three muscles, placed on foam trays, and overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Ground beef (GB) was formulated from the quadriceps femoris to contain 20% fat, mounded into 0.45-kg portions, placed on styrofoam trays, and wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Steaks were visually evaluated for uniformity and initial color on display d 0. Instrumental color measurements of L*, a*, b* and trained sensory panel color evaluations were obtained daily for 4 d (PM and GB) or 5 d (LT and SM) of display. No display time x treatment interaction existed for L*, a*, or b* values. The LT from CON cattle had more uniform color (P cherry red than that from all infused cattle on d 0. Visual scores indicated that GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from MPSC+C infused cattle throughout display, and GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from CON cattle for the last 3 d of display. The vascular infusion solutions generally did not improve color or display-color stability of steaks, but the infusion solution with vitamin E did improve display-color stability of GB.

  15. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  16. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  18. Determination of nitrite, nitrate, bromide, and iodide in seawater by ion chromatography with UV detection using dilauryldimethylammonium-coated monolithic ODS columns and sodium chloride as an eluent.

    Ito, Kazuaki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Fujii, Takuya; Tanaka, Masahito; Tsumura, Tomoaki; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    A method was developed for determination of inorganic anions, including nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), bromide (Br(-)), and iodide (I(-)), in seawater by ion chromatography (IC). The IC system used two dilauryldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)-coated monolithic ODS columns (50 × 4.6 mm i.d. and 100 × 4.6 mm i.d.) connected in series for separation of the ions. Aqueous NaCl (0.5 mol/L; flow rate, 3 mL/min) containing 5 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 5) was used as the eluent, and detection was with a UV detector at 225 nm. The monolithic ODS columns were coated and equilibrated with a 1-mmol/L DDAB solution (in H(2)O/methanol, 90:10 v/v). The hydrophilic ions (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and Br(-)) were separated within 3 min and the retention time of I(-) was 16 min. No interferences from matrix ions, such as chloride and sulfate ions, were observed in 35 ‰ artificial seawater. The detection limits were 0.6 μg/L for NO(2)(-), 1.1 μg/L for NO(3)(-), 70 μg/L for Br(-), and 1.6 μg/L for I(-) with a 200-μL sample injection. The performance of the coated columns was maintained without addition of DDAB in the eluent. The IC system was successfully applied to real seawater samples with recovery rates of 94-108 % for all ions.

  19. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. VI. Effect of sodium chloride and abscisic acid on amino-acid and protein metabolism in leaves of Phaseolus aconitifolius

    Huber, W.; Kreutmeier, F.; Sankhla, N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) on protein synthesis, protein hydrolysis, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase and amino-acid composition was investigated in the leaves of four days old Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings. Both NaCl and ABA inhibited protein synthesis, but promoted the activities of leucine arylamidase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase. The results of the amino-acid analysis indicated following treatment with NaCl the amounts of proline, arginine, serine and glutamic acid increased significantly in the leaves. An increase of the proline concentration could be observed only up to a salt concentration of 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M. Increasing concentrations of ABA also brought a corresponding rise in proline, serine and glutamic acid content. Interestingly the decrease of proline concentration by a salt concentration of more than 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M is correlated with a decrease in endogenous ABA-content. The possible significance of the similarites between the action of abscisic acid and salinity in influencing the amino-acid and protein metabolism in Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings during stress is discussed. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  1. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    Alvaro A. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276 and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600 to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2 and stainless steel 316L.

  2. Thermal annealing of gamma irradiated ammonium chloride (Preprint no. RC-37)

    Kalkar, C.D.; Lala, Neeta

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium chloride produces N 2 H 4 + and Cl 2 as the main radiolytic products on gamma irradiation. Thermal annealing has a marked effect on the stability of N 2 H 4 + and Cl 2 . During the thermal annealing the chemical yield of nitrite and iodine was studied by dissolving irradiated ammonium chloride in aqueous sodium nitrate and potassium iodide respectively. The yield of iodine in isochronal annealing showed an exponential behaviour with temperature while that of nitrite showed a decrease and then increases at higher temperatures. The results are explained on the basis of dissociation and recombination of N 2 H 4 + with temperature. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  3. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  4. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE CLORURO DE SODIO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DE UNA SALCHICHA TIPO SELECCIONADA EFFECT OF REDUCTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAUSAGE TYPE SELECTED

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Una propuesta para reducir los niveles de sodio en productos cárnicos, y desarrollar productos más saludables, es disminuir la cantidad de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en las formulaciones. En este estudio fue evaluado el efecto de disminuir y sustituir NaCl por KCl modificado, sobre los niveles de sodio y las características sensoriales y microbiológicas en una salchicha tipo Seleccionada. El porcentaje de reducción y sustitución de NaCl por KCl modificado con relación a un control fue de 50 y 75%, respectivamente. La reducción de NaCl en estos niveles, causó efectos significativos (P≤0,05 sobre el contenido de sodio en el producto final en relación al control, lo que implicaría beneficios nutricionales. De otro lado, diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las propiedades de textura, tanto a nivel instrumental como sensorial, fueron detectadas en la formulación con reducción del 75% de NaCl. En cuanto a la estabilidad microbiológica, y demás atributos sensoriales, no se detectaron diferencias entre los tratamientos y el control. Este estudio sugiere que es posible reducir la concentración de NaCl en un 50% en salchichas tipo Seleccionada mediante el uso de KCl modificado, sin cambios desfavorables en las características sensoriales y microbiológicas. Esta reducción permitiría una disminución en los niveles de sodio del 24% en el producto final.Abstract. A proposal to reduce the sodium levels in meat products to develop healthier products is to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl in the formulations. In this study, the effect of reducing NaCl and its substituting by modified KCl on sodium levels, sensory and microbiological characteristics in a selected type sausage was evaluated. The percentage of reduction and substitution of NaCl by modified KCl compared to control was 50 and 75%, respectively. The reduction of NaCl caused significant effects (P≤0.05 on the sodium content in the end product relative to the

  5. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.

    Frassetto, L; Morris, R C; Sellmeyer, D E; Todd, K; Sebastian, A

    2001-10-01

    Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods. Deficiency of K-base in the diet increases the net systemic acid load imposed by the diet. We know that clinically-recognized chronic metabolic acidosis has deleterious effects on the body, including growth retardation in children, decreased muscle and bone mass in adults, and kidney stone formation, and that correction of acidosis can ameliorate those conditions. Is it possible that a lifetime of eating diets that deliver evolutionarily superphysiologic loads of acid to the body contribute to the decrease in bone and muscle mass, and growth hormone secretion, which occur normally with age? That is, are contemporary humans suffering from the consequences of chronic, diet-induced low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis? Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity. We also found that neutralization of the diet net acid load with dietary supplements of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) improved calcium and phosphorus balances

  6. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  7. Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report

    Brunet, J.P.; Campon, J.L.

    1987-07-01

    The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na 24 was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few μm width

  8. Effects of curing sodium nitrite additive and natural meat fat on growth control of Listeria monocytogenes by the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus curvatus strain CWBI-B28.

    Kouakou, P; Ghalfi, H; Destain, J; Dubois-Dauphin, R; Evrard, P; Thonart, P

    2009-09-01

    In realistic model meat systems, the separate and combined effects of fat content and sodium nitrite on the antilisterial activity of the bacteriocin of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 were studied. In laboratory fermentations where Listeria monocytogenes was co-cultured at 4 degrees C with bacteriocin-producing CWBI-B28 in lean pork meat (fat content: 13%) without added nitrite, a strong antilisterial effect was observed after one week. The effect was maintained for an additional week, after which a slight and very gradual rebound was observed. Both added nitrite (20 ppm) and a high-fat content (43%) were found to antagonise this antilisterial effect, the Listeria cfu count reached after six weeks being 200 times as high in high-fat meat with added nitrite than in lean meat without nitrite. This antagonism could not be attributed to slower growth of the bacteriocin-producing strain, since CWBI-B28 grew optimally in fat-rich meat with 20 ppm sodium nitrite. Bacteriocin activity was also measured in the samples. The observed activity levels are discussed in relation to the degree of antilisterial protection conferred.

  9. Excess maternal salt intake produces sex-specific hypertension in offspring: putative roles for kidney and gastrointestinal sodium handling.

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Hypertension is common and contributes, via cardiovascular disease, towards a large proportion of adult deaths in the Western World. High salt intake leads to high blood pressure, even when occurring prior to birth - a mechanism purported to reside in altered kidney development and later function. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we tested whether increased maternal salt intake influences fetal kidney development to render the adult individual more susceptible to salt retention and hypertension. We found that salt-loaded pregnant rat dams were hypernatraemic at day 20 gestation (147±5 vs. 128±5 mmoles/L. Increased extracellular salt impeded murine kidney development in vitro, but had little effect in vivo. Kidneys of the adult offspring had few structural or functional abnormalities, but male and female offspring were hypernatraemic (166±4 vs. 149±2 mmoles/L, with a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (e.g. male offspring; 11.9 [9.3-14.8] vs. 2.8 [2.0-8.3] nmol/L median [IQR]. Furthermore, adult male, but not female, offspring had higher mean arterial blood pressure (effect size, +16 [9-21] mm Hg; mean [95% C.I.]. With no clear indication that the kidneys of salt-exposed offspring retained more sodium per se, we conducted a preliminary investigation of their gastrointestinal electrolyte handling and found increased expression of proximal colon solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger, member 3 (SLC9A3 together with altered faecal characteristics and electrolyte handling, relative to control offspring. On the basis of these data we suggest that excess salt exposure, via maternal diet, at a vulnerable period of brain and gut development in the rat neonate lays the foundation for sustained increases in blood pressure later in life. Hence, our evidence further supports the argument that excess dietary salt should be avoided per se, particularly in the range of foods consumed by physiologically immature young.

  10. Structural and surface functionality changes in reticulated vitreous carbon produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with sodium hydroxide additions

    Oishi, Silvia Sizuka, E-mail: silviaoishi@uol.com.br [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Botelho, Edson Cocchieri [Departamento de Materiais e Tecnologia, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. Doutor Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Guaratinguetá, SP 12516-410 (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Talim 330, São José dos Campos, SP 12231-280 (Brazil); Ferreira, Neidenêi Gomes [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) was processed from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with different amounts of NaOH. • A correlation between microstructure and surface functionalities was proposed. • The structural ordering was mainly influenced by the cured PFA polymerization degree and carboxylic acid content on RVC surface. - Abstract: The use of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the acid catalyst increases the storage life of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin avoiding its continuous polymerization. In this work, a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) was added directly to the PFA resin in order to minimize the production of wastes generated when PFA is washed with diluted basic solution. Thus, different amounts of this concentrated basic solution were added to the resin up to reaching pH values of around 3, 5, 7, and 9. From these four types of modified PFA two sample sets of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) were processed and heat treated at two different temperatures (1000 and 1700 °C). A correlation among cross-link density of PFA and RVC morphology, structural ordering and surface functionalities was systematically studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The PFA neutralization (pH 7) led to its higher polymerization degree, promoting a crystallinity decrease on RVC treated at 1000 °C as well as its highest percentages of carboxylic groups on surface. A NaOH excess (pH 9) substantially increased the RVC oxygen content, but its crystallinity remained similar to those for samples from pH 3 and 5 treated at 1000 °C, probably due to the reduced presence of carboxylic group and the lower polymerization degree of its cured resin. Samples with pH 3 and 5 heat treated at 1000 and 1700 °C can be considered the most ordered which indicated that small quantities of NaOH may be advantageous to minimize continuous

  11. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  12. The preparation and certification of zirconyl chloride CRM-inhouse from process result of zircon mineral

    Samin; Sajimo; Supriyanto; Isman Mulyadi T

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and certification of the zirconyl chloride certified reference material (CRM) has been carried out from the row material of the zircon mineral. The zircon mineral was processing in the Feeder with the velocity of 17 kg/hour and produced the zircon concentrate. The zircon concentrate was mixed with NaOH, NaF, Na 2 CO 3 and H 2 O. The mixture was melted in the Furnace at 750°C for 2 hours. The results of molten was pressed with aquadest and then was participated for 24 hours. The solid was separated from the filtrate, and then it was dried in the Oven at 105°C for 3 hours, those result was called sodium zirconate. Sodium zirconate was leaching with HCl, it was found the zirconyl chloride solution and then was evaporated it was found the zirconyl chloride concentrated solution. This solution was crystallized, then obtained the zirconyl chloride crystal. It was washed with ethanol, so retrieved the crystal white zirconyl chloride. The crystal white zirconyl chloride was dried in the Oven at 90°C, it was crushed with stainless steel powder and sieved to 200 mesh of the particle size. The crystal white zirconyl chloride was stirred up to homogenous in the Homogenizer. Next was treated the homogenization and the stabilisation testing with statistically method. Zirconyl chloride crystals was standardized by using standard ZrOCl 2 8 H 2 O made in E. Merck, were include the chemical compounds test with XRD Spectrometry, the composition the content of crystals and the specific gravity. From the evaluation of the homogenization and stabilisation testing, the crystal zirconyl chloride was homogeneous, stable and it was fulfil to physically behavior as CRM. Compared with the standard zirconyl chloride, ZrOCl 2 8 H 2 O, the XRD spectra and chemical composition (96,263%), the content of crystals (98,625%). and specific gravity (97,190%) of the zirconyl chloride crystal were nearly same respectively. Certificate of the parameters testing results in the CRM the

  13. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  14. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using {sup 125}I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of {sup 131}I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by {sup 125}I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to {sup 131}I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system.

  16. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, June Key

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using 125 I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of 131 I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by 125 I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to 131 I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system

  17. First-Principles Calculations for Chemical Reaction between Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate and Transition-Metal (Cr) atom to Produce Cr(DDC)3 and Cr(DDC)2ODDC

    Setiyanto, Henry; Muhida, Rifki; Kishi, Tomoya; Rempillo, Ofelia; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno; Di\\ {n}o, Wilson Agerico; Matsumoto, Shigeno; Kasai, Hideaki

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the chemical reaction between a Cr transition-metal atom and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC), a complexing agent used to detect and extract Cr in human blood samples. Using density-functional-theory-based calculations, we determine their stable structures of Cr(DDC)2ODDC and Cr(DDC)3 complexes and obtain their dissociation energies. We found dissociation energies of -10.66 and -3.24 eV for Cr(DDC)2ODDC and Cr(DDC)3 complexes, respectively. Hence, on the basis of dissociation energies, we have verified that the reaction of NaDDC with Cr produces Cr(DDC)2ODDC as a major product.

  18. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  19. Activation of sodium channels by α-scorpion toxin, BmK NT1, produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells: an association with intracellular Ca2+ overloading.

    He, Yuwei; Zou, Xiaohan; Li, Xichun; Chen, Juan; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu

    2017-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the action potential generation in excitable cells including neurons and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Scorpion toxins are invaluable tools to explore the structure and function of ion channels. BmK NT1, a scorpion toxin from Buthus martensii Karsch, stimulates sodium influx in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). In this study, we characterized the mode of action of BmK NT1 on the VGSCs and explored the cellular response in CGC cultures. BmK NT1 delayed the fast inactivation of VGSCs, increased the Na + currents, and shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation to more hyperpolarized membrane potential, which was similar to the mode of action of α-scorpion toxins. BmK NT1 stimulated neuron death (EC 50  = 0.68 µM) and produced massive intracellular Ca 2+ overloading (EC 50  = 0.98 µM). TTX abrogated these responses, suggesting that both responses were subsequent to the activation of VGSCs. The Ca 2+ response of BmK NT1 was primary through extracellular Ca 2+ influx since reducing the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration suppressed the Ca 2+ response. Further pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that BmK NT1-induced Ca 2+ influx and neurotoxicity were partially blocked either by MK-801, an NMDA receptor blocker, or by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers. Nifedipine, an L-type Ca 2+ channel inhibitor, slightly suppressed both Ca 2+ response and neurotoxicity. A combination of these three inhibitors abrogated both responses. Considered together, these data ambiguously demonstrated that activation of VGSCs by an α-scorpion toxin was sufficient to produce neurotoxicity which was associated with intracellular Ca 2+ overloading through both NMDA receptor- and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ influx.

  20. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina

    Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan

    1988-01-01

    The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

  2. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  3. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  4. High pressure liquid chromatographic assay of technetium in solutions of sodium pertechnetate produced at the AAEC Research Establishment

    Farrington, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used for the assay of nanogram quantities of technetium and to determine technetium in decayed pharmaceutical products, derived from three methods of manufacture. These methods of manufacture give comparably low levels of technetium-99, at the time of collection of the solution. However, when the solutions are used to produce ready-to-inject technetium-99m, high levels of technetium-99 are present at the time of calibration, which is the day after the collection date. Where sensitive reagent kits are to be labelled, freshly collected solutions of technetium-99m should be used. The HPLC assay is a valuable technique for the quality control of technetium-based radiopharmaceuticals, and for investigation of methods of manufacture of technetium-99m. Experimental studies confirmed the findings of previous workers

  5. Integrated combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium under low nutrient food-related conditions.

    Iliadis, Ioannis; Daskalopoulou, Aikaterini; Simões, Manuel; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne bacterial pathogen. This forms biofilms on surfaces and persists, depending on the strain and the environment. The integrative interaction of temperature (T; 13-39 °C), pH (5-8) and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (0.5-8.5%) on biofilm formation by two S. enterica strains (ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium) was here evaluated under low nutrient conditions. This was achieved using response surface methodology to model the combined effect of each factor on the response, through mathematical quadratic fitting of the outcomes of a sequence of designed experiments. These last were executed by incubating stainless steel coupons carrying sessile bacteria, for 24 h, in 1:10 diluted tryptone soya broth, under 15 different combinations of three independent factors (T, pH and NaCl). For each strain, a second order polynomial model, describing the relationship between biofilm formation (log CFU/cm 2 ) and the factors (T, pH and NaCl), was developed using least square regression analysis. Both derived models predicted the combined influences of these factors on biofilm formation, with agreement between predictions and experimental observations (R 2  ≥ 0.96, P ≤ 0.0001). For both strains, the increase of NaCl content restricted their sessile growth, while under low salinity conditions (NaCl formation was favored as pH increased, regardless of T. Interestingly, under low salt content, and depending on the strain, biofilm formation was either favored or hindered by increasing T. Thus, 34.5 and 13 °C were the T predicted to maximize biofilm formation by strains Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively, something which was also experimentally verified. To sum, these models can predict the interactive influences of crucial food-related factors on biofilm growth of a significant foodborne pathogen towards the efforts to limit its persistence in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  7. Inactivation of Biological Agents Using Neutral Oxone-Chloride Solutions

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ... to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach...

  8. Self diffusion of sodium ion in sodium chloride

    Haridasan, T.M.; Lawrence, N.

    1985-09-01

    The problem of cation self diffusion in NaCl for a single vacancy mechanism is attempted using a reaction coordinate approach employing the phonons in the system. The vacancy is given an active role by estimating the displacements of its nearest neighbour Cl - ions in the environment of the vacancy through the lattice Green's functions and the t matrix formalism. The jump frequency, the isotope effect and diffusion coefficients estimated by this approach agree well with the experimentally deduced values. These results support the experimental conclusion of about 30% of vacancy pairs in the cation diffusion in NaCl. (author)

  9. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  10. Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation in Tank 43H Simulants

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Walker, D.D.; Fink, S.D.

    1997-11-01

    This work studied the formation of a sodium aluminosilicate, Na 8 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 (NO 3 ) 2?4 H 2 O, at 40 degree 110 degree C in simulated waste solutions with varied amounts of silicon and aluminum. The data agree well with literature solubility data for sodalite, the analogous chloride salt. The following conclusions result from this work: (1) The study shows, by calculation and experiments, that evaporation of the September 1997 Tank 43H inventory will only form minor quantities of the aluminosilicate. (2) The data indicate that the rate of formation of the nitrate enclathrated sodalite solid at these temperatures falls within the residence time (<; 4 h) of liquid in the evaporator. (3) The silicon in entrained Frit 200 transferred to the evaporator with the Tank 43H salt solution will quantitatively convert to the sodium aluminosilicate. One kilogram of Frit 200 produces 2.1 kg of the sodium aluminosilicate

  11. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside attenuates recognition memory deficits and social withdrawal produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in rats.

    Trevlopoulou, Aikaterini; Touzlatzi, Ntilara; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intracellular messenger in the brain, and its abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. The ability of SNP to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits and social withdrawal were assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, since anxiety disorders are noted to occur commonly in schizophrenics, the effects of SNP on anxiety-like behaviour were examined using the light/dark test. Locomotor activity was also assessed as an independent measure of the potential motoric effects of this NO donor. SNP (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg)-induced short-term recognition memory deficits. SNP (1 mg/kg) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. The anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark test of SNP (1 mg/kg) cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings illustrate a functional interaction between the nitrergic and glutamatergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. The data also suggest a role of NO in anxiety.

  12. Docking Simulation of the Binding Interactions of Saxitoxin Analogs Produced by the Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum to the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.4

    Lorena M. Durán-Riveroll

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav, impeding passage of Na+ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1.4 to find a relationship between the binding properties and the known mammalian toxicity of selected STX analogs. We inferred hypothetical toxicities for the benzoyl analogs from the modeled values. We demonstrate that these toxins exhibit different binding modes with similar free binding energies and that these alternative binding modes are equally probable. We propose that the principal binding that governs ligand recognition is mediated by electrostatic interactions. Our simulation constitutes the first in silico modeling study on benzoyl-type paralytic toxins and provides an approach towards a better understanding of the mode of action of STX and its analogs.

  13. Docking Simulation of the Binding Interactions of Saxitoxin Analogs Produced by the Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum to the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.4.

    Durán-Riveroll, Lorena M; Cembella, Allan D; Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Correa-Basurto, José

    2016-05-06

    Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav), impeding passage of Na⁺ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1.4 to find a relationship between the binding properties and the known mammalian toxicity of selected STX analogs. We inferred hypothetical toxicities for the benzoyl analogs from the modeled values. We demonstrate that these toxins exhibit different binding modes with similar free binding energies and that these alternative binding modes are equally probable. We propose that the principal binding that governs ligand recognition is mediated by electrostatic interactions. Our simulation constitutes the first in silico modeling study on benzoyl-type paralytic toxins and provides an approach towards a better understanding of the mode of action of STX and its analogs.

  14. A Comparison of Fluoride Uptake by Sound Enamel Following Application of Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinses and APF Gels Produced in Iran with Standardized Foreign Samples

    A Kowsari

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation is to compare the extent of fluoride uptake by sound enamel following application of two commercial mouthrinses containing sodium fluoride (0.2% and a topical gel containing APF (1.23% produced in Iran with those of foreign standardized ones. Sixty extracted premolars were used. Each tooth was divided into two lingual and buccal halves, one half as control, the other one as experimental. Enamel biopsy technique (two- step acid etching was used to determine the concentration of fluoride and calcium in each sample. For data comparison and fluoride uptake estimation, the depths of layers with the use of linear regression analysis were standardized to 25 and 50um. The analysis showed that in Iranian mouthrinse no. 1, there is linear correlation between fluoride concentration and enamel depth, in both control and experimental group at the first and second layers, while, in other groups, this correlation was observed just at the first layer (superficial enamel layer. The greatest fluoride uptake was seen at Iranian mouthrinse no.2 and the least was seen at foreign mouthrinse no. 3. From among two APF gels, the greatest uptake was observed at gel no. 1 (Iranian. The results showed that all three Iranian products increase fluoride content of enamel, moreover the level of fluoride uptake, while applying Iranian products, in comparison with foreign ones, shows considerable increase.

  15. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  16. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  17. Desarrollo tecnológico de una formulación de cloruro de sodio al 5 % para el tratamiento del edema corneal en Cuba Technological development of a 5 % sodium chloride formula for treatment of corneal edema in Cuba

    Anna Karelia Collado Coello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una formulación para uso oftálmico, que contenía cloruro de sodio al 5 %, estable desde el punto de vista físico, químico y microbiológico. Se realizaron los estudios de formulación correspondientes, seleccionándose la composición y procedimiento tecnológico más adecuados. Además, se estudió la efectividad antimicrobiana de los preservativos antimicrobianos empleados según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30 y se comprobó la seguridad del uso de este medicamento a través de los resultados del ensayo de irritabilidad oftálmica. Se elaboraron 3 lotes del medicamento y se envasaron en frascos plásticos de polietileno de baja densidad con tapa de polipropileno de alta densidad y se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente durante 24 meses; se estudió su estabilidad física y química por el método acelerado y de vida de estante. Se comprobó su estabilidad microbiológica a cada uno de los lotes elaborados, al inicio y final del estudio, según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios. Todos los resultados cumplieron con los límites de calidad establecidos en la literatura oficial para este tipo de forma farmacéutica, por lo que se concluyó que el medicamento desarrollado está correctamente formulado desde el punto de vista galénico con un tiempo de vida útil de 24 meses almacenado bajo las condiciones estudiadas, demostrado según el otorgamiento del certificado de registro por el organismo regulador (Centro Estatal para el Control de Medicamentos, CECMED. Finalmente el medicamento fue introducido al nivel industrial sin que se presentaran problemas tecnológicos.A formula for ophthalmic use was developed containing 5 % sodium chloride stable from the physical, chemical and microbiological point of view. Studies of corresponding formulae were conducted selecting the more suitable composition and technological procedure. Also, the

  18. Synthesis, quality control and dosimetry of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-sodium fluoride produced at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - CDTN

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Valente, Eduardo Sarmento; Waquil, Samira Soares; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Silva, Juliana Batista da, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serv. de Aplicacao das Radiacoes na Saude; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serv. de Reator e Irradiacoes

    2010-07-15

    {sup 18}F-Sodium fluoride (Na{sup 18}F) is a radiopharmaceutical used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Bone scintigraphy is normally performed using {sup 99m}Tc- MDP. However, {sup 18}F PET scans promise high quality imaging with increased resolution and improved sensitivity and specificity. In order to make available a tool for more specific studies of tumors and non oncological diseases of bone tissue, the UPPR/CDTN team undertook the production and quality control of Na{sup 18}F injectable solution with the physical-chemical, microbiological and biological characteristics recommended in the U.S. Pharmacopeia. Na{sup 18}F radiochemical purity was 96.7 {+-} 1.3 %, with Rf= 0.026 {+-} 0.006. The product presented a pH of 5.3 {+-} 0.6, half life of 109.0 {+-} 0.8 minutes, endotoxin limit < 5.0 EU.mL{sup -1} and no microbial contaminants. The biodistribution of Na{sup 18}F was similar to that described in the literature, with a clearance of 0.19 mL.min{sup -1} and distribution volume of 18.76 mL. The highest bone concentration (5.0 {+-} 0.5 %ID.g{sup -1}) was observed 20 minutes after injection. Na{sup 18}F produced at the UPPR presented all the quality assurance requirements of the U.S. Pharmacopeia and can be safely used for clinical bone imaging. (author)

  19. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  20. Solid thermoluminescent dosemeter of sodium tetraborate and brazilian fluoride sensitive to thermal neutrons

    Fratin, L.

    1988-01-01

    The techniques of compacting sodium tetraborate and natural fluoride mixtures were studied in this work, with the aim of producing a solid dosimeter sensitive to thermal neutrons. The production procedure involves the vitrification of the sodium tetraborate, the grinding, mixture, cold pressing and the sinterization of the pellets. A special arrangement was built for irradiation where paraffin was used as moderator for neutrons from a 241 Am-Be source. Two different mass ratios of sodium tetraborate and flourite showed a linear thermoluminescent response to the neutron fluence in the range of 1.0 to 7.0 x 10 8 n (sub)tcm -2 . Solid dosimeters, manufactured from natural fluorite and sodium chloride, showed a response to gamma radiation similar to the response of the dosimeters sensitive to neutrons. These dosimeters are need to identify the proportion of thermoluminescent response due to gamma radiation present in a neutron field. (author) [pt

  1. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  2. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  3. Chloride test - blood

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  4. Chloride in diet

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  5. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  6. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  7. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  8. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  9. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  10. Single-step electrochemical method for producing very sharp Au scanning tunneling microscopy tips

    Gingery, David; Buehlmann, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    A single-step electrochemical method for making sharp gold scanning tunneling microscopy tips is described. 3.0M NaCl in 1% perchloric acid is compared to several previously reported etchants. The addition of perchloric acid to sodium chloride solutions drastically shortens etching times and is shown by transmission electron microscopy to produce very sharp tips with a mean radius of curvature of 15 nm

  11. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  12. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to ∼700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ((micro)m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''

  13. Chitosan-Sodium Phytate Films with a Strong Water Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties Produced via One-Step-Consecutive-Stripping and Layer-by-Layer-Casting Technologies.

    Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-06-20

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires the development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Here, we first fabricated chitosan-sodium phytate films via one-step-stripping and layer-by-layer-casting technologies. The proposed film-fabrication methods are general, facile, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale up. The resultant one-step-stripped film was thin (9 ± 1 μm), soft, transparent, and strong, whereas the thickness of the layer-by-layer-cast film was 70 ± 3 μm. FTIR analysis of the films indicated the formation of interactions between the phosphoric groups in sodium phytate and the amino groups in chitosan. More importantly, the water-vapor-permeability values of the one-step-stripped and cast films were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than chitosan films reported before. Layer-by-layer-cast films in particular exhibited high tensile strength (49.21 ± 1.12 MPa) and were more than three times stronger than other polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Both types of films remained stable in an acidic environment. Furthermore, the layer-by-layer-assembled films presented greater antimicrobial activity than the stripped films. The developed chitosan-sodium phytate films can enhance several biomedical and environmental applications, such as packaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, microfluidics, and biosensing.

  14. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environmen...

  15. Synthesis and thermolysis of sodium hexachloromolybdate

    Kushakbaev, A.; Terishkhanova, I.G.; Parpiev, N.A.; Adylova, Sh.N.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of Na 3 MoCl 6 and the process of its thermal decomposition are described. Sodium hexachloromolybdate is synthesized by means of molybdenum chloride compolunds (MoCl 5 ; MoCl 5 +Mo, MoCl 3 ) interaction with sodium chloride at moderate temperatures in nitrogen atmosphere. It is shown, that Na 3 MoCl 6 thermolysis in conventional conditions takes place in two stages: the first one (570-600 K) corresponds to the formation of mixture MoO 2 +NaMoCl 4 +5NaCl, the second one (930 K) - to MoO 3 +3NaCl formation. In an inert atmosphere at 920 K a mixture of metal molybdenum and sodium chloride is observed

  16. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... rate of the Sn and stability of Sn ions in the solution layer play a significant role in the formation of dendrites, which is controlled by chloride concentration and potential bias. Morphology, composition, and resistance of the dendrites were dependent on chloride concentration and potential....

  17. Diferença cátion-aniônica da dieta no balanço de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre em ovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820 Dietary cation-anion difference on sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur in sheep - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820

    Neli Marisa Azevedo Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças no balanço cátion-aniônico de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre da dieta (BCAD no balanço de minerais e na concentração sérica de sódio, potássio e cloro foram avaliados através de um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 16 carneiros machos, da raça Santa Inês, por um período de 26 dias, sendo 7 de adaptação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Para a manipulação do BCAD foram adicionados cloreto de cálcio e bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: -12; +30; +76 e +133 mEq/kg MS da ração. Verificou-se que a manipulação do BCAD interferiu no metabolismo de macrominerais em carneiros adultos.The dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB differences in the sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur mineral balance and serum concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride were evaluated of digestibility trial used in sixteen adult sheeps, from Santa Inês breed, during 26 days, being 7 days for adaptation. The design used was randomized complete blocks with four treatments. For DCAB manipulations were added calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in order to achieve the values: -12; + 30; +76 and +133 mEq/kg DM. The manipulation of DCAB interfered the metabolism of macrominerals in sheeps.

  18. The Curing Agent Sodium Nitrite, Used in the Production of Fermented Sausages, Is Less Inhibiting to the Bacteriocin-Producing Meat Starter Culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under Anaerobic Conditions

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions. PMID:12839751

  19. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions.

  20. Evaporative processes for desalination of produced water; Processos evaporativos para dessalinizacao de agua produzida a fins de reuso

    Andrade, Vivian T.; Dezotti, Marcia W. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Schuhli, Juliana B.; Gomes, Marcia T.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    During the productive life of an oil well, it gets the moment when a big quantity of produced water comes together with the oil. It can achieve 99% in the end of its economical life. The thermal desalination of the formation water is one of the most common technologies for achieving its reuse. This way, it was constructed one 'Robert' evaporator. The tests used different sodium chloride concentrations from 2,000 mg/L to 80,000 mg/L simulating concentrations found in the produced water from PETROBRAS wells. The tests were conducted in three different vacuum pressures. It was observed, increasing the vacuum applied to the system, results in reduction of solution boiling point. The salt concentrations of the brine blowdown were influenced by the sodium chloride concentration at the feed flow, by the vacuum applied to the system and, consequently, by the solution boiling point and flow rates. The produced distillate water presented sodium chloride concentration lower than 2 mg/L, indicating that this system can produce water to reuse in irrigation. (author)

  1. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  2. Developable images produced by x-rays using the nickel-hypophosphite system. 2: Exposure and development parameters for sodium hypophosphite

    May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    Crystalline sodium hypophosphite was X-irradiated and then treated with an ammoniacal nickel hypophosphite solution. Treatment resulted in the precipitation of nickel metal. The yield of nickel metal varied directly with particle size, sample weight, X-ray voltage, target current, exposure time, and development time. These findings show the process to be potentially useful in X-ray type photography. The half-life for the latent image species was found to be relatively short; but this is not critical in most X-ray photography applications. Furthermore, the work can be interpreted on the basis that a hydrogen atom is involved in the mechanism and indicates that the autocatalytic development step may be self-poisoning.

  3. A green and efficient method to produce graphene for electrochemical capacitors from graphene oxide using sodium carbonate as a reducing agent

    Jin, Yuhong; Huang, Shuo; Zhang, Mei; Jia, Mengqiu; Hu, Dong

    2013-03-01

    The green and efficient synthesis of graphene using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as a chemical reducing agent was studied. Extensive characterization confirmed the formation of graphene from graphene oxide using a Na2CO3 solution. The C/O atomic ratio of the as-prepared graphene has increased from 2.48 to 8.15 after reduction as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conductivity of as-prepared graphene sheets is as high as 10 S m-1. After electrochemical measurements, gravimetric capacitances of 228 and 166 F g-1 at current densities of 5 and 25 mA cm-2, respectively, were obtained with KOH electrolyte.

  4. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-01-01

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  5. Low sodium diet (image)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  6. Difusão do cloreto de sódio no processo de salga de queijos: modelagem matemática com o emprego do método de elementos finitos The sodium chlorid diffusion during cheese brining: matematical model applying the finite element method

    Rui Sérgio Ferreira SILVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A transferência de um soluto (cloreto de sódio, através de uma matriz sólida tridimensional (queijo foi estudada aplicando-se o método de elementos finitos. A formulação variacional (Galerkin do problema diferencial (modelo de difusão teve como base teórica a 2ª lei de Fick. Os procedimentos para integração no tempo foram o de Crank-Nicolson e o de Euler-modificado, que foram escolhidos por apresentarem estabilidade incondicional. O programa computacional desenvolvido mostrou-se versátil para resolver situações de amostragem em condições mais realistas e pode ser aplicado para geometrias complexas. O modelo proposto permitiu uma boa estimativa do ganho de sal no queijo, usando um coeficiente de difusão cujo valor pode ser obtido por extrapolação de dados experimentais. A aplicação do método numérico (MEF, com o esquema de Crank-Nicolson, na simulação da difusão do cloreto de sódio na salga de queijos, mostrou boa aproximação quando os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais encontrados na literatura especializada.Solute (sodium chloride transference through a three-dimensional matrix (cheese was studied applying the finite element method (MEF. The variational formulation (Galerkin of the differential problem (diffusion model had as the theoretical basis Fick’s second law. The methods for time integration were developed according to Crank-Nicolson (central difference, and modified Euler (backward difference, which presented unconditional stability. The computational program proved to be versatile in solving sampling situations in realistic condition and can be used in complex geometry. The proposed method gave good estimation of salt gain in the cheese when using a diffusion coefficient which value can be calculated by extrapolation of experimental data. The application of numeric method (MEF, with Crank-Nicolson scheme, in the simulation of diffusion of sodium chloride in the brining showed to be

  7. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  8. Electrolytic production of light lanthanides from molten chloride alloys on a large laboratory scale

    Szklarski, W.; Bogacz, A.; Strzyzewska, M.

    1979-01-01

    Literature data relating to electrolytic production of rare earth metals are presented. Conditions and results are given of own investigations into the electrolytic process of light lanthanide chloride solutions (LA-Nd) in molten potassium and sodium chlorides conducted on a large laboratory scale using molybdenic, iron, cobaltic and zinc cathodes. Design schemes of employed electrolysers are enclosed. (author)

  9. Titanocene(III) chloride mediated radical induced addition ...

    Reduction of the aldehyde 10 with sodium boro- hydride in the presence of CeCl3.7H2O furnished the alcohol 11 which was finally brominated using PBr3 to yield the dibromo compound 12.13. Thus, a series of bromoepoxides were prepared and subjected to radical cyclization using titanocene(III) chloride and the results ...

  10. Hidden Sodium

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  11. Dietary sodium

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  12. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  13. Novel pre-treatment of zeolite materials for the removal of sodium ions: potential materials for coal seam gas co-produced wastewater.

    Santiago, Oscar; Walsh, Kerry; Kele, Ben; Gardner, Edward; Chapman, James

    2016-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is the extraction of methane gas that is desorbed from the coal seam and brought to the surface using a dewatering and depressurisation process within the saturated coalbed. The extracted water is often referred to as co-produced CSG water. In this study, co-produced water from the coal seam of the Bowen Basin (QLD, Australia) was characterised by high concentration levels of Na(+) (1156 mg/L), low concentrations of Ca(2+) (28.3 mg/L) and Mg(2+) (5.6 mg/L), high levels of salinity, which are expected to cause various environmental problems if released to land or waters. The potential treatment of co-produced water using locally sourced natural ion exchange (zeolite) material was assessed. The zeolite material was characterized for elemental composition and crystal structure. Natural, untreated zeolite demonstrated a capacity to adsorb Na(+) ions of 16.16 mEq/100 g, while a treated zeolite using NH4 (+) using a 1.0 M ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) solution demonstrated an improved 136 % Na(+) capacity value of 38.28 mEq/100 g after 720 min of adsorption time. The theoretical exchange capacity of the natural zeolite was found to be 154 mEq/100 g. Reaction kinetics and diffusion models were used to determine the kinetic and diffusion parameters. Treated zeolite using a NH4 (+) pre-treatment represents an effective treatment to reduce Na(+) concentration in coal seam gas co-produced waters, supported by the measured and modelled kinetic rates and capacity.

  14. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  15. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  16. Sodium Oxybate

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  17. Sodium Azide

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  18. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  19. Ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolites from sodium salt solutions

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Tozo.

    1978-01-01

    The ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution has been studied in zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, mordenite and clinoptilolite. The distribution of cesium into mordenite from about 1 -- 2 M sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions is considerably larger than that into zeolite A. The distribution coefficient for 2 M solution of sodium salts was about 300. Therefore, the separation of cesium from sodium salt solution is possible by using mordenite. The distribution of strontium into zeolites form 1 -- 2 M solutions of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate were in the order of zeolite A>zeolite X>zeolite Y asymptoticaly equals mordenite. The distribution coefficient of 230 was obtained for 1 M solutions of sodium salts. The anion in solutions had no effect on the distribution of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution. (author)

  20. Synthesis, quality control and dosimetry of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-sodium fluoride produced at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - CDTN

    Marina Bicalho Silveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 18F-Sodium fluoride (Na18F is a radiopharmaceutical used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine by positron emission tomography (PET imaging. Bone scintigraphy is normally performed using 99mTc-MDP. However, 18F PET scans promise high quality imaging with increased resolution and improved sensitivity and specificity. In order to make available a tool for more specific studies of tumors and non-oncological diseases of bone tissue, the UPPR/CDTN team undertook the production and quality control of Na18F injectable solution with the physical-chemical, microbiological and biological characteristics recommended in the U.S. Pharmacopeia. Na18F radiochemical purity was 96.7 ± 1.3 %, with Rf= 0.026 ± 0.006. The product presented a pH of 5.3 ± 0.6, half life of 109.0 ± 0.8 minutes, endotoxin limit O Fluoreto de sódio 18F (Na18F é um radiofármaco empregado para diagnóstico através da Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons (PET. Cintilografias ósseas são normalmente obtidas utilizando-se 99mTc-MDP. Entretanto, o interesse pelo Na18F é crescente, principalmente devido à obtanção de imagens de elevada resolução. Com o objetivo de tornar disponível uma ferramenta mais específica para estudos de tumores e doenças não-oncológicas do tecido ósseo, o grupo da UPPR/CDTN implementou a produção e o controle de qualidade da solução injetável de Na18F com as características físico-química, microbiológica e biológica preconizadas pela farmacopéia. Sua pureza radioquímica foi de 96,7 ± 1,3 %, com Rf= 0,026 ± 0,006. O produto apresentou pH igual a 5,3 ± 0,6, tempo de meia-vida de 109,0 ± 0,8 minutos, limite de endotoxinas < 5,0 EU.mL-1 e ausência de microrganismos. O perfil de biodistribuição em camundongos foi semelhante ao disponível na literatura, com depuração igual a 0,19 mL.min-1 e volume de distribuição igual a 18,76 mL. A concentração máxima (5,0 ± 0,5 % DI.g-1 foi observada no osso 20 minutos após a injeção. O Na18

  1. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  2. The role of sodium in the body

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  3. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  4. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  5. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  6. Development of sodium technology

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  7. Development of sodium technology

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  8. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  9. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  10. Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica gel composites.

    Kierys, Agnieszka; Krasucka, Patrycja; Grochowicz, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS). The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM) and poly(HEMA- co -TRIM) produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM)-IBS and/or poly(HEMA- co -TRIM)-IBS) with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

  11. Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica gel composites

    Agnieszka Kierys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS. The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM and poly(HEMA-co-TRIM produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM-IBS and/or poly(HEMA-co-TRIM-IBS with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

  12. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  13. Synthesis, structures, and luminescent properties of sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4} (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Dorofeev, Sergey G.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zitzer, Sabine; Greiner, Stefan; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Olenev, Andrei V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sine Theta Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-17

    Six sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, isostructural to Na{sub 2}Y{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, were synthesized by flux techniques and characterized by single-crystal XRD. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice constants a = 23.967(1), b = 5.6342(3), c = 16.952(1) Aa, β = 134.456(5) for Ln = Sm, a = 23.932(2), b = 5.6044(5), c = 17.134(1) Aa, β = 135.151(6) for Ln = Eu, a = 23.928(1), b = 5.5928(1), c = 17.1133(8) Aa, β = 135.366(3) for Ln = Gd, a = 23.907(1), b = 5.569(3), c = 16.745(1) Aa, β = 134.205(3) for Ln = Tb, a = 23.870(1), b = 5.547(3), c = 16.665(1) Aa, β = 134.102(3) for Ln = Dy, and a = 23.814(1), b = 5.526(3), c = 16.626(1) Aa, β = 134.016(3) for Ln = Ho and Z = 4. Their crystal structure can be considered as a framework built of intergrowing Ln-O and Na-(O,Cl) slabs with channel walls decorated by tellurium atoms of [TeO{sub 3}]{sup 2-} groups. The luminescent properties of the new compounds due to the Ln{sup 3+} cations are described and discussed. We also discuss the crystal chemistry of various alkali-metal rare-earth metal(III) halide oxochalcogenates(IV). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Thermodynamics of proton dissociations from aqueous glycine at temperatures from 278.15 to 393.15 K, molalities from 0 to 1.0 mol . kg-1, and at the pressure 0.35 MPa: Apparent molar heat capacities and apparent molar volumes of glycine, glycinium chloride, and sodium glycinate

    Ziemer, S.P.; Niederhauser, T.L.; Merkley, E.D.; Price, J.L.; Sorenson, E.C.; McRae, B.R.; Patterson, B.A.; Origlia-Luster, M.L.; Woolley, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the densities of aqueous solutions of glycine, glycine plus equimolal HCl, and glycine plus equimolal NaOH at temperatures 278.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 368.15, molalities 0.01 ≤ m/mol . kg -1 ≤ 1.0, and at p = 0.35 MPa, using a vibrating tube densimeter. We have also measured the heat capacities of these solutions at 278.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 393.15 and at the same m and p using a fixed-cell differential scanning calorimeter. We used the densities to calculate apparent molar volumes V φ and the heat capacities to calculate apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ for these solutions. We used our results and values of V φ (T, m) and C p,φ (T, m) for HCl(aq), NaOH(aq), NaCl(aq) from the literature to calculate parameters for Δ r C p,m (T, m) for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous cationic glycine. We then integrated this value of Δ r C p,m (T, m) in an iterative algorithm, using Young's Rule to account for the effects of speciation and chemical relaxation on the observed V φ and C p,φ of the solutions. This procedure yielded parameters for V φ (T, m) and C p,φ (T, m) for glycinium chloride {H 2 Gly + Cl - (aq)} and sodium glycinate {Na + Gly - (aq)} which successfully modeled our observed results. We have then calculated values of Δ r C p,m , Δ r H m , Δ r V m , and pQ a for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous glycine as functions of T and m

  15. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  16. Nickel Chloride Promoted Glaser Coupling Reaction in Hot Water

    Pin Hua LI; Lei WANG; Min WANG; Jin Can YAN

    2004-01-01

    A Glaser coupling reaction of terminal alkynes in the presence of nickel chloride without any organics and bases in hot water has been developed, which produces the corresponding homo-coupling products in good yields.

  17. Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane

    Villaluenga, J.P.G.; Barragan, V.M.; Seoane, B.; Ruiz-Bauza, C.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs + ion

  18. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits.

  19. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  20. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  1. Detection of colloidal silver chloride near solubility limit

    Putri, K. Y.; Adawiah, R.

    2018-03-01

    Detection of nanoparticles in solution has been made possible by several means; one of them is laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD). LIBD is able to distinguish colloids of various sizes and concentrations. This technique has been used in several solubility studies. In this study, the formation of colloids in a mixed system of silver nitrate and sodium chloride was observed by acoustic LIBD. Silver chloride has low solubility limit, therefore LIBD measurement is appropriate. Silver and chloride solutions with equal concentrations, set at below and above the solubility of silver chloride as the expected solid product, were mixed and the resulting colloids were observed. The result of LIBD measurement showed that larger particles were present as more silver and chloride introduced. However, once the concentrations exceeded the solubility limit of silver chloride, the detected particle size seemed to be decreasing, hence suggested the occurrence of coprecipitation process. This phenomenon indicated that the ability of LIBD to detect even small changes in colloid amounts might be a useful tool in study on formation and stability of colloids, i.e. to confirm whether nanoparticles synthesis has been successfully performed and whether the system is stable or not.

  2. Effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on plant growth ...

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... their water balance in plant (Sairam and Tyagi, 2004). It has been ... There is limited information about the effect of salinity on the ... mixture of peat and vermiculite (7:3, v : v) in greenhouse. ... v/v) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission ... For internal ..... URR+SCI+INDIA 86: 407-421.

  3. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  4. Effects of sodium chloride concentrations on larvae and pupae of ...

    Aedes aegypti is one of the commonest mosquitoes in the tropics and sub topics, feeding on human blood when exposed and is responsible for the transmission of urban yellow fever in Africa and out side Africa, it transmits dengue fever. Aedes aegypti are basically freshwater mosquito. The effect of different concentrations ...

  5. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  6. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  7. Sodium and chloride channelopathies with myositis: coincidence or connection?

    Matthews, E.; Miller, J.A.L.; Macleod, M.R.; Ironside, J.; Ambler, G.; Labrum, R.; Sud, R.; Holton, J.L.; Hanna, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A proximal myopathy develops in some patients with muscle channelopathies, but the causative molecular mechanisms are unknown. Methods We reviewed retrospectively all clinical and muscle biopsy findings of three patients with channelopathy and additional myositis. Direct DNA sequencing was performed. Results Pathogenic mutations were identified in each case. Biopsies illustrated inflammatory infiltrates. Conclusions Clinicians should consider muscle biopsy in channelopathy patients with severe myalgia and/or subacute weakness and accompanying elevated CK. Chance association of myositis and channelopathy is statistically unlikely. An alternative hypothesis suggests that inflammatory insults could contribute to myopathy in some patients. PMID:21698652

  8. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  9. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  10. Behavior of sodium chloride during the combustion of carbon

    Brinsmead, K H; Kear, R W

    1956-01-01

    The effects of combustion time, temperature, atmosphere, and the presence of other minerals on the release of Na and Cl from carbon that contained varying amounts of NaCl were examined. Initial testing consisted of adding 0.25, 12.7 and 2.54% NaCl to carbon, and pelletizing and burning the carbon for an hour at the following temperatures: 700, 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C. Pellets containing 1.27% NaCl were also burned at 400, 500, and 600/sup 0/C. Additional testing involved the combustion of pellets in dry nitrogen, dry air, moist nitrogen, moist air, and adding various amounts of kaolin to the carbon prior to pelletizing. The testing program demonstrated the following: in all tests the percentage of Na and Cl released increased as the temperature and the salt content increased; generally more Cl was released than Na, particularly at temperatures between 600 to 900 degrees; the release of Na and Cl was significantly less in an atmosphere of N, particularly at lower temperatures; the water vapor present in the moist air seemed to hinder the release of Na but increased the amount of Cl released; a reduction in the amount of Na but not the amount of Cl released was noticed when kaolin was added. The following was concluded from the test results: since Na and Cl were released at different rates there seems to be more than a physical volatization involved; water vapor in the air could affect the amount of Na and Clreleased by lowering the combustion temperature of the carbon, thereby allowing the Na and Cl to react with the water present to form NaOH and HC1; and the reduction in the amount of Na released when kaolin was added was a result of Na reacting with kaolin to form an insoluble silicate.

  11. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    Manure

    strongly suggested that the inhibitory effects of growth, fermentation performance and morphology changes of Z. ... Cell growth was measured by monitoring the optical density of the ... The electronic conductivity was measured by the electrical.

  12. Electro-osmotic pumping of sodium chloride solutions

    Schoeman, JJ

    1997-08-20

    Full Text Available : J = IAt/2cbF (35) 2.2.1. Current efficiency The amount of salt transferred per Faraday of current passed through a symmetric unit cell is given from Eq. (35) by \\[1\\]: 2JCb _ A~ (36) Cp -- I/F The overall... the volume of the solution that enters the bag per unit area (7.55cm 2) in t seconds (V/t=2J), I the applied current density (mA/cm z) and F the Faraday constant. The maximum brine concentration, c~ ax, was deter- mined...

  13. Electrochemistry of metal chloride cathodes in sodium batteries

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental electrochemical studies on three candidate materials, i.e., FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, were carried out using various techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization, potentiodynamic polarization, and ac impedance. These studies were aimed at identifying various rate processes in the reduction, elucidating the reaction mechanisms, and determining the kinetic parameters for the reduction. The limitations in the performance of these cathode materials in high power density applications were also examined. Finally, recommendations were made from these studies for the selection of a candidate system among these materials for future NASA applications.

  14. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  15. Ecosystem effects from produced water and potash mine disposal activities

    Roy, R.; Davis, D.; Hopkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine the chemical, physical, and ecosystem effects of produced water and potash mine disposal practices upon naturally occurring-hypersaline playas in southeast New Mexico, Several playas that receive discharges were compared to several nearby reference playas. Results revealed that the treatment playas had been significantly altered when compared to the reference playas. For example, the salinity of treatment playas were greater than 300 per-thousand and those of reference playas were less than 200 per-thousand. The dominant ions in water and sediments of treatment playas were sodium and chloride. The major ions in reference playa water and sediments were sodium, calcium, chloride, and sulfate. In some instances aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations exceeded 13,000 ng/g in sediments from treatment playas. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 100 ng/g in sediments from reference playas. Surveys revealed that treatment playas supported few, if any, invertebrates. On the other hand, reference playas supported dense populations of brine shrimp Artemis and brine fly Hydropyrus larvae. Surveys also indicated that reference playas were used by shorebirds for nesting and feeding, whereas treatment playas were used as loafing areas by waterfowl. Unfortunately, dead waterfowl were found along the shores of several treatment playas. Necropsies revealed that the most likely cause of death was salt toxicosis

  16. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  17. Chloride channels in myotonia congenita assessed by velocity recovery cycles.

    Tan, S Veronica; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Boërio, Delphine; Rayan, Dipa Raja; Norwood, Fiona; Ruddy, Deborah; Howard, R; Hanna, Michael G; Bostock, Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Myotonia congenita (MC) is caused by congenital defects in the muscle chloride channel CLC-1. This study used muscle velocity recovery cycles (MVRCs) to investigate how membrane function is affected. MVRCs and responses to repetitive stimulation were compared between 18 patients with genetically confirmed MC (13 recessive, 7 dominant) and 30 age-matched, normal controls. MC patients exhibited increased early supernormality, but this was prevented by treatment with sodium channel blockers. After multiple conditioning stimuli, late supernormality was enhanced in all MC patients, indicating delayed repolarization. These abnormalities were similar between the MC subtypes, but recessive patients showed a greater drop in amplitude during repetitive stimulation. MVRCs indicate that chloride conductance only becomes important when muscle fibers are depolarized. The differential responses to repetitive stimulation suggest that, in dominant MC, the affected chloride channels are activated by strong depolarization, consistent with a positive shift of the CLC-1 activation curve. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Modified chloride diffusion model for concrete under the coupling effect of mechanical load and chloride salt environment

    Lei, Mingfeng; Lin, Dayong; Liu, Jianwen; Shi, Chenghua; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Weichao; Yu, Xiaoniu

    2018-03-01

    For the purpose of investigating lining concrete durability, this study derives a modified chloride diffusion model for concrete based on the odd continuation of boundary conditions and Fourier transform. In order to achieve this, the linear stress distribution on a sectional structure is considered, detailed procedures and methods are presented for model verification and parametric analysis. Simulation results show that the chloride diffusion model can reflect the effects of linear stress distribution of the sectional structure on the chloride diffusivity with reliable accuracy. Along with the natural environmental characteristics of practical engineering structures, reference value ranges of model parameters are provided. Furthermore, a chloride diffusion model is extended for the consideration of multi-factor coupling of linear stress distribution, chloride concentration and diffusion time. Comparison between model simulation and typical current research results shows that the presented model can produce better considerations with a greater universality.

  19. Efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Effect of sodium chloride on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sal (NaCl sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Para isso, juvenis de tambaqui (42,38 ± 0,47 g; 13,90 ± 0,06 cm foram transferidos para tanques de 350L e aclimatados por um período de 24 horas. Os ensaios foram conduzidos utilizando as concentrações de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 g de sal comum L-1 de água, nos tempos de exposição de 30, 60 e 120 minutos, com três repetições por tratamento. A tolerância dos tambaquis ao sal e a eficácia deste sobre os helmintos monogenóides foi avaliada mediante análise dos indicadores fisiológicos (glicose, cloretos, sódio e potássio plasmático e parasitológicos (número total de parasitas e prevalência. Tambaquis expostos a 4 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos, 6 e 8 g NaCl L-1 por 60 e 120 minutos apresentaram maior elevação da glicose plasmática e na concentração de 8 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos maiores níveis de cloreto plasmático. A prevalência de monogenóides nas brânquias foi de 100% e todas as concentrações de sal avaliadas neste estudo não foram eficazes na redução dos helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of salt (NaCl on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Juveniles of tambaqui (42.38 ± 0.47 g; 13.90 ± 0.06 cm were transferred to 350L tanks and acclimated for a period of 24 hours. The assays were conducted using the concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of NaCl L-1 of water, exposed to 30, 60 and 120 minutes, with three replicates in each treatment. The tambaqui tolerance to salt and the efficacy against monogenean were evaluated by physiological analysis (glucose, chloride, sodium and potassium plasmatic concentrations and parasitic indices (total number of parasites and prevalence. Tambaquis exposed to 4 g NaCl L-1 for 120 minutes, 6 and 8 g NaCl L-1 for 60 and 120

  20. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil

  1. Inhibition of Inactive States of Tetrodotoxin-Sensitive Sodium Channels Reduces Spontaneous Firing of C-Fiber Nociceptors and Produces Analgesia in Formalin and Complete Freund's Adjuvant Models of Pain.

    David J Matson

    Full Text Available While genetic evidence shows that the Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium ion channel is a key regulator of pain, it is unclear exactly how Nav1.7 governs neuronal firing and what biophysical, physiological, and distribution properties of a pharmacological Nav1.7 inhibitor are required to produce analgesia. Here we characterize a series of aminotriazine inhibitors of Nav1.7 in vitro and in rodent models of pain and test the effects of the previously reported "compound 52" aminotriazine inhibitor on the spiking properties of nociceptors in vivo. Multiple aminotriazines, including some with low terminal brain to plasma concentration ratios, showed analgesic efficacy in the formalin model of pain. Effective concentrations were consistent with the in vitro potency as measured on partially-inactivated Nav1.7 but were far below concentrations required to inhibit non-inactivated Nav1.7. Compound 52 also reversed thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA model of pain. To study neuronal mechanisms, electrophysiological recordings were made in vivo from single nociceptive fibers from the rat tibial nerve one day after CFA injection. Compound 52 reduced the spontaneous firing of C-fiber nociceptors from approximately 0.7 Hz to 0.2 Hz and decreased the number of action potentials evoked by suprathreshold tactile and heat stimuli. It did not, however, appreciably alter the C-fiber thresholds for response to tactile or thermal stimuli. Surprisingly, compound 52 did not affect spontaneous activity or evoked responses of Aδ-fiber nociceptors. Results suggest that inhibition of inactivated states of TTX-S channels, mostly likely Nav1.7, in the peripheral nervous system produces analgesia by regulating the spontaneous discharge of C-fiber nociceptors.

  2. A study on chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride

    Eun, H.C.; Kim, T.J.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, G.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Hur, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was conducted to derive an easy and simple uranium chloride production method without impurities. In thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, it was predicted that only uranium chlorides can be produced by the reactions between uranium metal and NH 4 Cl. Experimental conditions for the chlorination of uranium metal were determined using a chlorination test of cerium metal using NH 4 Cl. It was confirmed that UCl 3 and UCl 4 in the form of particles as uranium chlorination products can be obtained from the chlorination method using NH 4 Cl. (author)

  3. Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.

    Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.

  4. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  5. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  6. [Influence of non-sodium restricted diet with diuretics on plasma rennin, renal blood flow and in patients with cirrhotic ascites].

    Zhu, Yin-fang; Gu, Xi-bing; Zhu, Hong-ying; Yang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Dong; Yu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    To explore influence of sodium restricted diet and non-sodium restricted diet on plasma rennin (PRA), angiotensin II (All), ALD, renal blood flow (RBF) and subside of ascites in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Eighty cases of hepatitis B with cirrhotic ascites were randomly divided into sodium restricted diet group and non-sodium restricted diet group. 39 cases were in non-sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 6500-8000 mg daily; 41 cases were in sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 5000 mg daily. Both groups received diuretics furosemide and spironolactone. Blood sodium, urine sodium, PRA, AII, ALD, RBF ascites subsiding were compared after treatment. In non-sodium restricted diet group, blood sodium and urine sodium increased 10 days after treatment compared with those before treatment, and compared with those of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P Renal damage induced by low blood sodium after treatment was less in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P blood sodium, thus increasing excretion of urine sodium and diuretic effect. It can also decrease levels of PRA, AII and ALD, increase renal blood flow and prevent renal damage induced by low blood sodium and facilitate subsiding of ascites.

  7. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  8. The use of immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole in the treatment of purulent wounds

    Anastasia S. Gorohova; Arsen Yu. Grigoryan; Alexander I. Bezhin; Tatyana A. Pankrusheva; Boris S. Sukovatykh; Ludmila V. Zhilyaeva; Ekaterina S. Mishina; Elena V. Kobzareva

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the wound-healing effect of the immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole based on the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) or polyethylene oxide (PEO) in the treatment of an experimental purulent wound.Materials and methods. The following compositions were studied, %. Combination 1: benzalkonium chloride – 0.02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) – 4,0; Purified water – up to 100,0. Combination 2: ...

  9. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  10. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  11. Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy With N-Acetylcysteine or Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients With ST-Segment-Myocardial Infarction

    Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2014-01-01

    (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion...... not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC...

  12. Efficacy of a Blend of Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Surface Tissue.

    Scott-Bullard, Britteny R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Bred; Belk, Keith E

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca. 6 log CFU/cm 2 ) on the adipose side in a laboratory-scale spray cabinet with multistrain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 (5 strains), non-O157 STEC (12 strains), Salmonella (6 strains), or E. coli biotype I (5 strains). Treatment parameters evaluated were two SSS pH values (1.5 and 1.0) and two spray application pressures (13 and 22 lb/in 2 ). Untreated inoculated beef tissue samples served as controls for initial bacterial populations. Overall, the SSS treatments lowered inoculated (6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/cm 2 ) bacterial populations by 0.6 to 1.5 log CFU/cm 2 (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with any of the tested E. coli inocula; however, solution pH did have a significant effect (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with Salmonella. Results indicated that the response of the nonpathogenic E. coli inoculum to the SSS treatments was similar (P ≥ 0.05) to that of the pathogenic inocula tested, making the E. coli biotype I strains viable surrogate organisms for in-plant validation of SSS efficacy on beef. The application of SSS at the tested parameters to prerigor beef surface tissue may be an effective intervention for controlling pathogens in a commercial beef harvest process.

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets

    ... information to make healthier, lower sodium choices. Use social media outlets to share your challenges and successes for reducing sodium in your child's diet. Places that produce, sell, or serve food ...

  14. Sodium in diet

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  15. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    Berge, Ph.; Noel, D.; Gras, J.M.; Prieux, B.

    1997-10-01

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  17. Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) are chloride-sensitive: Is this dogma valid?

    Hütsch, Birgit W; Keipp, Katrin; Glaser, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K 2 SO 4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K 2 SO 4 or KCl). After exposure to salt stress in hydroponics (100 mmol L -1 NaCl, 50 mmol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 , 50 mmol L -1 CaCl 2 ) for 5 days, 3-week-old potato plants had significantly reduced shoot dry mass after NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 application. However, CaCl 2 treatment did not significantly affect shoot growth, although the chloride concentration reached 65 to 74 mg Cl - mg -1 dry matter, similar to the NaCl treatment. In contrast, growth reductions were closely related to sodium concentrations, thus plants suffered sodium toxicity and not chloride toxicity. Both potato cultivars are chloride-resistant and can be fertilised with KCl instead of K 2 SO 4 without the risk of depression in tuber yield or tuber quality. The statement that potatoes are chloride-sensitive and that chloride has negative effects on yield performance needs reconsideration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  19. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  20. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.