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Sample records for sodium chloride media

  1. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  2. Effect of sodium chloride on the survival of Shigella flexneri in acidified laboratory media and cucumber puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J-H; Bae, Y-M; Oh, S-W; Lee, S-Y

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) and various acids, alone or in combination, on Shigella flexneri growth in laboratory medium and cucumber puree. Shigella flexneri was treated with various acids (acetic, citric, malic, tartaric, propionic, lactic and phosphoric acid) alone or with 3, 6 or 9% NaCl. Pronounced antagonistic effects were observed in Sh. flexneri treated with acetic or lactic acid in combination with 3% NaCl. Next, Sh. flexneri was pre-exposed to 3% NaCl and then treated with various acids; acid-stressed cells were then inoculated onto agar plates containing 3% NaCl. There was no significant difference in the reduction of Sh. flexneri, regardless of treatment (P > 0·05). Finally, Sh. flexneri was inoculated into cucumber puree to which various concentrations of acetic acid had been added with and without 3% NaCl. Antagonistic effects were observed with a treatment of either 0·5 or 1% acetic acid combined with 3% NaCl. Antagonistic effects were observed when Sh. flexneri was exposed to acetic or lactic acid with NaCl. This study shows that depending on the type of acid, the addition of NaCl can increase the resistance of Sh. flexneri to acid treatments. This may provide useful information for developing methods of preserving acidified foods. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  4. In vitro release studies on drugs suspended in non-polar media I. Release of sodium chloride from suspensions in liquid paraffin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.J.A.; Blaey, C.J. de

    The release of a readily water-soluble substance (sodium chloride) from a liquid paraffin phase to an underlying water phase was investigated as a function of particle size (10–50 μm) and concentration (up to 10% m/m). Transport of the suspended particles to the interface by sedimentation was the

  5. Sodium chloride damage to porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    This research studied sodium chloride (NaCl) damage to porous building materials with the aim of: i) gaining a better understanding of the damage process and ii) developing an effective crystallization test. It has been definitely proven that NaCl modifies the hygric dilation of a material

  6. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  7. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  8. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  9. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  11. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Keywords: Sodium chloride, concrete, compressive strength. Introduction. Sodium chloride or rock salt could be used as a deicing agent to melt ice at temperatures below 20oF; it has a characteristic sharp taste and is readily soluble in water. (encyclopedia.com, 2010). It has been known to be relatively benign on concrete.

  12. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  13. Evaluation of an alternative deicing chemical vs. conventional sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A research project was initiated to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a proprietary, pre-blended, : roadway-deicing chemical on New Hampshire highways. The evaluated material is a patented blend of sodium chloride, liquid : magnesium...

  14. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  15. Growth of Aeromonas species on increasing concentrations of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare, A P; Costa, S O; Da Silveira, M M; Echeverrigaray, S

    2000-01-01

    The growth of 16 strains of Aeromonas, representing 12 species of the genera, were examined at different salt levels (0-1.71 M NaCl). All the strains grew on media with 0.34 M NaCl, and nine on media with 0.68 M. Two strains, Aer. enteropelogenes and Aer. trota, were able to grow on media with 0.85 M and 1.02 M NaCl, respectively. Comparison of the growth curves of Aer. hydrophila ATCC7966 and Aer. trota ATCC 49657 on four concentrations of NaCl (0.08, 0.34, 0.68 and 1.02 M) confirm the high tolerance of Aer. trota, and indicate that high concentrations of salt increase the lag time and decrease the maximum growth rate. However, both strains were able to grow, slowly, in at least 0.68 M NaCl, a sodium chloride concentration currently used as food preservative.

  16. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  17. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests ...

  18. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manure

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas. mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  19. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  20. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  1. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  2. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetis, Stelios; Walker,Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride) on growth, viabi...

  4. Sodium chloride composition of commercial white bread in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Ali; El-Kardi, Younes; Derouiche, Abdelfettah

    2017-12-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the amount of salt provided by the consumption of bread in daily food intake and compare it to recommended salt intake. Chloride ion concentrations were measured using Mohr's Method to indirectly quantify added salt in bread samples from 80 professional bakeries in Casablanca, Morocco. Results showed that the average amount of added salt during the preparation of white bread is 17.42 ± 1.28 g / kg, which is the equivalent of a daily intake of 8 to 9 g of salt through bread alone, and exceeds all recommendations. The high salt content of white bread might be a contributing factor to the high sodium intake in Morocco, especially considering that bread is a staple food in the country. Any policies or initiatives to reduce sodium consumption should target bread as a strategic vehicle to reduce salt intake.

  5. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  6. Effects of sodium ascorbate, sodium saccharin and ammonium chloride on the male rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Garland, E M; Cano, M; St John, M K; Khachab, M; Wehner, J M; Arnold, L L

    1995-11-01

    Sodium saccharin administered at high doses to male rats beginning after 5 weeks of age produces mild urothelial hyperplasia but does not result in a significant increase in incidence of bladder cancer unless it is administered after an initiating agent. However, if it is administered in a two-generation bioassay, a significant incidence of bladder tumors is produced. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects are inhibited by co-administration with high doses of NH4Cl. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of another sodium salt, sodium ascorbate, administered through the neonatal time period. Sodium saccharin administered as 5% of the diet produced urothelial hyperplasia and increased labeling index, and this was inhibited by co-administration with 1.23% NH4Cl. Four doses of sodium ascorbate was evaluated. The lowest dose, 0.91%, was without effect on the urinary tract. A slight effect (not statistically significant) was observed at a dose of 2.73%, and a significant proliferative response was detected at 4.56 and 6.84%. Recent studies suggest that a calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate forms in the urine of rats fed high doses of sodium saccharin, producing cytotoxicity of the urothelium and consequent regenerative hyperplasia. This precipitate was observed in the present experiment in the rats administered the high dose of sodium saccharin or the higher doses of sodium ascorbate. Formation of this precipitate and induction of urothelial proliferation were inhibited by co-administration of NH4Cl, but somewhat higher doses of ammonium chloride were required for doses of sodium ascorbate compared to sodium saccharin. These results demonstrate that sodium ascorbate administered through the neonatal time period of the male rat produces urothelial hyperplasia in the dose responsive manner, with a no-effect level of 0.91% of the diet. The formation of the calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate and urothelial proliferation

  7. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  8. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  9. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  10. The genotoxicity of sodium saccharin and sodium chloride in relation to their cancer-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J

    1985-01-01

    The literature indicates that sodium saccharin is non-reactive to DNA and inactive as a gene mutagen in vitro. At elevated dose levels it is capable of producing structural disturbances in eukaryotic chromosomes in vitro, and it shows intermittent activity as a very weak germ-cell and somatic-cell mutagen in vivo. Its possible mode of action in these respects is speculated on and related to its ability to promote bladder tumours in rats at elevated dose levels. A review of the toxicology of sodium chloride reveals a profile of genotoxic activities almost identical to that of sodium saccharin. It is suggested that the recorded genotoxic and cancer-promoting activities of these chemicals will only become apparent at elevated dose levels that define them as significant contributors to the biological medium (solvent) rather than as trace xenobiotic toxins (solutes). The possible activity of acid saccharin, or of its potassium, calcium and ammonium salts, as ionic genotoxins requires urgent evaluation.

  11. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Polymer versus Monomer Action on the Growth and Habit Modification of Sodium Chloride Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsend, E.R.; Enckevort, W.J.P. van; Meijer, J.A.M.; Vlieg, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the use of polymers and monomers as habit modifiers and anticaking agents for sodium chloride. We show that amide functional groups cause the {111} faces to propagate on sodium chloride crystals and that polymer amides give a 1-2 orders of magnitude greater effect than the

  13. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  14. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  15. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  16. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  17. Water redispersible dried nanofibrillated cellulose by adding sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoum, Karim; Bras, Julien; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2012-12-10

    The present study reports for the first time a method to obtain water redispersible dried NFC using freeze-drying. No chemical surface modification was required to get this kind of product. Salt addition (sodium chloride: NaCl) strategy has been selected to block and then to regenerate hydrogen bonds during the drying and the redispersion steps, respectively. Several samples were produced at different pH (i.e., 4, 6, 8, and 10). All the redispersed NFC were characterized by different techniques (e.g., FE-SEM, XRD, EPMA-EDX) to check the effect of salt on NFC aggregation. The interactions between NFC and NaCl at different pH conditions have been discussed and the rheology of the redispersed NFC suspension has been performed. All the results prove a perfect water redispersion at pH 8 and exactly similar suspension is obtained after water dispersion of dried NFC following our procedure. These results are very promising for increasing application of NFC.

  18. Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative and Renal Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necib, Youcef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress. Sodium selenite as an exogenous source of selenium is used for endogenous selenoprotein synthesis to scavenge the free radicals. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was served as the control, the second group was given sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg b.w, while the third group was given mercuric chloride (0.25 mg/kg, finally, the fourth group was given combined treatment of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride for 3 weeks.Results: The effects of sodium selenite on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, billirubin levels and LDH activity, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px, GST and catalase activities and hematological parameters. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, GST, and catalase activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight and erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels. Sodium selenite treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin levels, and LDH activity and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers and hematological parameters and atteneuated histopathological changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney.Conclusion: Our results indicate that sodium selenite could have a beneficial role against mercuric

  19. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  1. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  4. Relationship between sweat chloride, sodium, and age in clinically obtained samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Nadav; Shi, Qiuhu; Dozor, Allen J

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between sweat electrolytes and age is uncertain, as is the value of measuring sodium or the chloride:sodium ratio. 13,785 sweat tests performed over 23 years at one center through the Macroduct collection in clinically obtained samples were analyzed. Sweat chloride tended to decrease over the first year of life, slowly increase until the fourth decade, then either level off or slightly decrease. In children, sweat sodium overlapped between those with positive and negative sweat tests, but not in adults. If the sweat test was positive, there was a higher likelihood of having a chloride:sodium ratio >1, but most subjects with a ratio >1 did not have CF. Sweat chloride and sodium vary with age. Measurement of sweat sodium did not add discriminatory value. The proportion of subjects with a chloride:sodium ratio >1, with or without CF, varied greatly between age ranges. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na(+)) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K(+)) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis...

  6. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  7. Sodium chloride vs. sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Theresia; Christ, Andreas; Marana, Ivana; Kalbermatter, Stefan; Uthoff, Heiko; Burri, Emanuel; Hartwiger, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Breidthardt, Tobias; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mueller, Christian

    2012-08-01

    The most effective regimen for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains uncertain. Our purpose was to compare two regimens of sodium bicarbonate with 24 h sodium chloride 0.9% infusion in the prevention of CIN. We performed a prospective, randomized trial between March 2005 and December 2009, including 258 consecutive patients with renal insufficiency undergoing intravascular contrast procedures. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous volume supplementation with either (A) sodium chloride 0.9% 1 mL/kg/h for at least 12h prior and after the procedure or (B) sodium bicarbonate (166 mEq/L) 3 mL/kg for 1 h before and 1 mL/kg/h for 6 h after the procedure or (C) sodium bicarbonate (166 mEq/L) 3 mL/kg over 20 min before the procedure plus sodium bicarbonate orally (500 mg per 10 kg). The primary endpoint was the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 48 h after contrast. Secondary endpoints included the development of CIN. The maximum change in eGFR was significantly greater in Group B compared with Group A {mean difference -3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -6.8 to -1] mL/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.009} and similar between groups C and B [mean difference 1.3 (95% CI, -1.7-4.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.39]. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in Group A (1%) vs. Group B (9%, P = 0.02) and similar between Groups B and C (10%, P = 0.9). Volume supplementation with 24 h sodium chloride 0.9% is superior to sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of CIN. A short-term regimen with sodium bicarbonate is non-inferior to a 7 h regimen. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00130598.

  8. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  10. Safety of Continuous Peripheral Infusion of 3% Sodium Chloride Solution in Neurocritical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G Morgan; Bode, Lauren; Riha, Heidi; Erdman, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Numerous drug information resources recommend that continuous intravenous 3% sodium chloride solution be administered via a central catheter. To evaluate the incidence of infusion-related reactions and electrolyte abnormalities in neurocritical care patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution via a peripheral catheter. Data on patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution at 2 academic medical centers were evaluated retrospectively to determine the administration site. Electronic notes on catheter status were reviewed to determine the occurrence of infusion-related reactions. Prespecified thresholds were used to assess electrolyte abnormalities. Of 213 patients who had peripheral continuous intravenous infusions of 3% sodium chloride solution, 15 (7%) had infusion-related reactions. Administration was changed to a central catheter in 56 patients (26.3%), but only 5 changes were due to an infusion-related reaction. Most (157 patients, 73.7%) received their entire treatment peripherally, for a median duration of 44 hours, 3 minutes. The most common electrolyte abnormalities were hyperchloremia in 49.3% and hypokalemia in 46.9% of patients. Current recommendations that a central catheter is required for continuous intravenous infusion of 3% sodium chloride solution should be reevaluated. Only a few patients who had peripheral infusions had infusion-related reactions. Electrolyte abnormalities occurred frequently with peripheral infusion, but the clinical importance of the abnormalities remains unclear. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  12. Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  14. Effect of sodium chloride on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neysens, Patricia; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-11-15

    A kinetic investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on cell growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 and amylovorin L471 production was carried out through in vitro experiments using a temperature and pH prevailing during sourdough fermentations. Sodium chloride interfered both with cell growth and bacteriocin production. Biomass formation and amylovorin L471 production decreased in the presence of increasing salt concentrations. Maximum bacteriocin activities were observed after the addition of 10 g l(-1) of NaCl, while the maximum specific growth rate reached an optimum at 5 g l(-1) of NaCl. High salt concentrations (20-40 g l(-1)) resulted in biphasic fermentation profiles. Based on these results, incorporation of 5-10 g l(-1) of sodium chloride in the water phase of type II sourdough preparations might be beneficial to enhance bacterial growth and amylovorin L471 production, and so contribute to the competitiveness of the strain in a sourdough environment.

  15. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.

  16. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  17. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  18. Taste properties of potassium chloride alone and in mixtures with sodium chloride using a check-all-that-apply method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoli, Dominique A; Lawless, Harry T

    2012-09-01

    As consumers try to reduce their sodium consumption for health purposes, the food industry seeks ways to reduce the sodium content in products while maintaining palatability. One potential solution for lowering sodium content is using potassium chloride (KCl) as a substitute. However, many people find KCl to have unpleasant off-tastes, which limits its effectiveness to replace sodium chloride (NaCl). This study examined the taste properties of KCl using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) ballot. The objectives were to see which terms people use to describe KCl and in what ways this changes in various combinations with NaCl. Panelists were served mixtures of varying NaCl and KCl concentrations, and evaluated them using a set of predetermined terms on a CATA ballot. Frequency counts were taken, and binomial and McNemar tests were performed to see which stimuli changed the most between samples. Results showed that adding KCl increased salt perception slightly, and salty was chosen more frequently when in combination with NaCl. Adding NaCl in a mixture with KCl decreases unpleasant side tastes associated with KCl, such as bitter, chemical, and metallic. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  1. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. The effect of sodium chloride on the two-step kinetics of the nitrifying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Omar; Aspé, Estrella; Martí, María C; Roeckel, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    Sodium chloride affects the transformation rate of several compounds in bioreactors. Most authors report a decrease in microorganism activity at increasing salt concentrations. In this work, a kinetic model that relates sodium chloride concentration with the rates of each step of the nitrification process is proposed; thus, the effect of sodium chloride concentration (0 to 60 g/L) on the nitritation and nitratation rates was separately studied. To carry out the independent study of each step, a combination of the respirometric method with sodium azide, an inhibitor of the nitratation step, was performed. The dot-blot hybridization technique with 16S rRNA-targeted probes was used to determine the ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial fraction, then it was possible to relate the culture's function with its biological composition. Rates of both steps were linearly reduced at increasing salt concentrations: the nitratation rate was more affected than the nitritation rate. Simulations carried out in a nitrifying sequencing batch reactor indicate that nitrite might accumulate at high salt concentrations. Sodium chloride exerts a reversible inhibition on ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation.

  3. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Claudia R. B.; Mazzafera, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils). Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium c...

  4. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  5. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  6. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ionic exchange process variables such as time and temperature. The results indicated that its exchange capacity is very high, even reach 41.3 mg/g. The Na/Li ion exchange reaction rate increased obviously with increasing temperature, ...

  7. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  8. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Astha; Jain, Amita

    2013-01-01

    All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic) and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose). All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  9. Partial replacement of sodium chloride in Italian salami and the influence on the sensory properties and texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cured meat products, such as Italian salami, exhibit high levels of sodium from NaCl, added to ensure flavor and texture. Studies indicates a close relationship between the consumption of these products and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride on the texture and sensory attributes of Italian salami and to quantify the levels of minerals in the finished product. Four formulations were prepared: without a starter culture (F1; with a starter culture (F2; partial replacement of 60% sodium chloride by  potassium chloride (F3; and partial replacement of sodium chloride by a mixture containing potassium chloride,  magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride (F4. Analyses of Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 contents, texture profile and sensory attributes (acceptance test were carried out. Formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4 presented levels of Na+ 0.53, 0.44, 0.36 and 0.30, respectively. The formulations presented a reduction in the sodium chloride content over 25%, thus complying with the requirements of the current legislation. The addition of these salts affected certain important sensory attributes, such as flavor and global impression, and increased hardness and chewiness values.

  10. [Effects of sodium chloride, acetic acid and citric acid on the dissolution of aluminum from aluminum cooking utensils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, F; Meshitsuka, S; Funakawa, K; Nose, T

    1990-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of sodium chloride and organic acids on aluminum elution from cooking utensils made of aluminum, the quantities of aluminum elution were measured in solutions with various concentrations of sodium chloride, acetic acid and citric acid by flameless atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. The increase of the aluminum elution rate from a pudding cup, an aluminum pan and an alumite pan could be clearly distinguished by the coexistence of acetic acid or citric acid and sodium chloride. The elution was low in the presence of sodium chloride at room temperature, but it was distinctly accelerated by heating. Although alumite treatment had the effect of protection against aluminum elution, such elution obviously increased, as shown by the existence of acid and sodium chloride at high temperatures. Aluminum elution rates from surface-untreated cooking utensils made of aluminum were increased by heating by a factor of several thousand.

  11. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  12. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  13. Salt microspheres and potassium chloride usage for sodium reduction: Case study with sushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Đani; Buchtová, Hana; Macharáčková, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate possibilities of salt substitutes usage in the preparation of two sushi types (nigiri and maki) prepared with different seafood (salmon: Salmo salar, tuna: Thunnus albacares, and shrimp: Pleoticus muelleri). Potassium chloride (Mary samples), Soda-Lo (hollowed microsphere of regular salt crystals), and regular salt (sodium chloride) were used in the experiment. Sushi samples (n = 1960) were evaluated by 40 trained panelists who noticed that maki shrimp samples prepared with Mary salt had higher bitterness (21.48 ± 28.01) in comparison with 2% sodium chloride (7.91 ± 8.80). The saltiness was lower in nigiri tuna prepared with Mary (49.59 ± 17.47) than 2% sodium chloride (61.11 ± 15.75). The study clearly showed the possibility of lowering sodium content in sushi meal with the usage of salt substitutes, with emphasis that Soda-Lo should be considered as a better option due to the retention of sensory properties in sushi samples prepared with this salt substitute.

  14. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl−) and sodium (Na...

  15. A comparative study of de-icing salts (sodium chloride and calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse study was conducted on four roadside plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Trifolium repens) to determine the effect of two de-icing salts {Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and calcium magnesium acetate, (CMA)} on their growth. Plants were grown in pots and supplied with solution of ...

  16. The thiazide sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter NCC is modulated by site-specific ubiquitylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; Wu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The renal sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, in the distal convoluted tubule is important for maintaining body Na+ and K+ homeostasis. Endogenous NCC is highly ubiquitylated, but the role of individual ubiquitylation sites is not established. Here, we assessed the role of 10 ubiquitylation sites...

  17. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  18. [Clinical experience of supplying sodium chloride for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-xia; Sun, Lu-lu; Yang, Yue-jin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-hui; Song, Wei-hua; Huang, Yan; Lü, Rong; Ji, Shi-ming

    2012-09-01

    To observe the effect and safety of supplying sodium chloride in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Consecutive 51 hospitalized patients with severe heart failure and cardiac edema were included in this study. Normal diet (6 g NaCl/d) was supplied to all patients. On the basis of controlling fluid intake and treating related etiological factors as well as standard medications including furosemide for severe heart failure, patients with mild hyponatremia (serum sodium level 130 - 134 mmol/L) ate additional salted vegetables, patients with moderate hyponatremia (serum sodium level 125 - 129 mmol/L) and severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level salted vegetables and were received additionally intravenous 3%NaCl hypertonic saline infusion (10 ml/h) until reaching normal serum sodium level. On admission, 37.25% (19/51) patients had hyponatremia. During the first two weeks hospitalization period, 88.24% (45/51) patients were treated with intravenous diuretics and total incidence of hyponatremia was 64.71% (33/51), mild hyponatremia was 50.98% (26/51), middle and severe hyponatremia was 13.73% (7/51); among them, hyponatremia lasted less than 3 d in 57.58% (19/33) patients and ≥ 3 d in 42.42% (14/33) patients. Heart failure exacerbation and hypernatremia were not observed in patients receiving additional sodium chloride therapy. Hospitalization time was similar among patients with different blood natrium levels [average (16 ± 12) d]. Fifty out of 51 (98%) patients discharged from the hospital with improved heart failure symptoms and signs. Supplying additional sodium chloride could rapid correct hyponatremia in heart failure patients with or without intravenous diuretics therapy which might contribute to a favorable prognosis in hospitalized heart failure patients.

  19. Thermally induced conformation change of succinoglycan in aqueous sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko; Norisuye, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Static and dynamic light scattering, viscosity, and optical rotation measurements have been made at eight different temperatures between 25 and 75 degrees C on two succinoglycan samples (sodium salt) with weight-average molecular weights M(w) of 7.14 x 10(5) and 3.54 x 10(5) (at 25 degrees C) in 0.01 M aqueous NaCl to investigate the thermally induced order-disorder conformation change of the polysaccharide. Additionally, viscometry and polarimetry have been performed for a sodium salt sample (M(w) = 4.55 x 10(5) at 25 degrees C) whose M(w), z-average radius of gyration (z)(1/2), and hydrodynamic radius R(H) in the aqueous salt had been determined previously. As the temperature increases, M(w), (z)(1/2), R(H), and the intrinsic viscosity for every sample sharply decrease around 55 degrees C where the specific rotation at 300 nm sigmoidally increases. In particular, M(w) at 25 degrees C (i.e., in the ordered helical state) is twice as large as that at 75 degrees C (i.e., in the disordered state). These findings substantiate that the ordered structure is composed of two chains and hence is a double helix. Data analysis shows that this helix at 25 degrees C is characterized by an unperturbed wormlike chain with a helix pitch of about 2 nm (per repeating unit) and a persistence length of about 50 nm and that upon heating, it dissociates directly (i.e., in all-or-none fashion) to disordered chains of a similar contour length but with a much smaller persistence length of about 10 nm. The temperature dependence of the light scattering second viral coefficient is discussed in relation to the association of disordered chains in the cooling process.

  20. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  1. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  2. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  3. Interrelationship between phosphorus, sodium, and chloride in the diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, O M; Miles, R D; Harms, R H

    1984-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with commercial egg production type hens to determine the effects of dietary phosphorus, sodium, and chloride levels as related to levels of plasma calcium and phosphorus, blood acid-base balance, and production characteristics. Sodium and chloride were supplied to the diet as sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid, respectively. In Experiment 1, five treatment groups were fed diets ad libitum containing .2, .6, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8% total phosphorus. The remaining treatment group was fed a diet containing .4% total phosphorus from 1400 to 2030 hr and 1.4% total phosphorus from 600 to 1100 hr. In Experiment 2, a 3 X 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used that consisted of three levels of total phosphorus (.2, .6, and 1.4%) and four levels of added sodium (0, .06, .22, and .45%) provided by sodium bicarbonate. Three other treatment groups were fed diets containing .36% supplemental chloride supplied by hydrochloric acid and either .2, .6, or 1.4% total phosphorus. Egg production was decreased in hens fed diets containing 1.8% total phosphorus. Egg specific gravity was decreased by both low and high phosphorus levels. Hens fed .4% total phosphorus in the afternoon produced eggs with higher specific gravity as compared with hens fed 1.4% total phosphorus during the entire experiment. At 1.4% dietary phosphorus, a significant increase in specific gravity was observed when .2 or .8% sodium bicarbonate was added to the diet. Increasing dietary phosphorus resulted in elevated plasma phosphorus and calcium concentration. Plasma phosphorus of hens fed .2 through 1.8% total phosphorus declined slowly from oviposition until 6 hr after oviposition and then reached a peak at 21 hr after oviposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  5. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana

    2016-01-01

    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions.

  6. Influence of benzotriazole derivatives on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, R.; Rajendran, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of new corrosion inhibitors namely N-[1-(benzotriazol-1-yl)ethyl]aniline (BTEA), and N, N-dibenzotriazol-1-ylmethylaminoethane (DBME) on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution was investigated using weight-loss measurements and electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results obtained revealed that these compounds were very good inhibitors and behaved better in NaCl solution. Polarization studies showed that the BTEA and DBME behave as a mixed-type of inhibitors for 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution. They decrease the anodic reaction rate more strongly than the cathodic reaction rate and renders the open circuit potential of brass more positive in NaCl solutions. Solution analysis revealed the decrease in dissolution of both copper and zinc in the presence of these inhibitors.

  7. Effect of Salinity Stress on Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorophyll and Soluble Sugars Content in Citrus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Golein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine salinity-tolerant genotypes among the citrus germplasm present in Kotra collection, a greenhouse experiment was carried out as factorial, completely randomized design with three replications, at four levels of NaCl (0, 2, 4 and 6 dS/m and 10 unknown genotypes, for 16 weeks. Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle Citromelo, as tolerant (control and sensitive cultivars, respectively, were used. After 6 months of seedlings growth in pots containing equal amounts of perlite, sand and garden soil, the irrigation water, containing different concentrations of sodium chloride was applied every 5 days (considering climatic conditions and plant requirements. At the end of the experiment, concentration of chloride and sodium in leaf and root, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll content and concentration of soluble sugars in leaves were measured. Results showed that salinity increased chloride and sodium concentration in root and leaf. The lowest level of accumulation of chloride in leaf was related to genotype g9 and Cleopatra mandarin. Potassium concentration and chlorophyll a and b content decreased with salinity, while the interaction of genotype and salinity did not show significant difference in these characteristics. Genotypes were different in content of soluble sugars, in response to salinity. Based on the results, genotype g9, because of the lowest increase in leaf chloride content and also the lower decrease in total chlorophyll content, in comparison with most of the studied genotypes, can be considered as a tolerant genotype to salinity stress, and could be utilized in breeding programs of rootstocks.

  8. VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150o C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, H.; Fair, J.A.; Phillips, S.L.

    1977-10-01

    A critical evaluation of data on the viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions is presented. The literature was screened through October 1977, and a databank of evaluated data was established. Viscosity values were converted when necessary to units of centigrade, centipoise and molal concentration. The data were correlated with the aid of an empirical equation to facilitate interpolation and computer calculations. The result of the evaluation includes a table containing smoothed values for the viscosity of NaCl solutions to 150 C.

  9. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculation after application of polyhexanide, chitosan and sodium chloride in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Hirsch, Tobias; Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Stricker, Ingo; Lehnhardt, Marcus; von der Lohe, Leon

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polyhexanide and a new developed chitin-based wound dressing on skin microcirculation, epithelialisation and angiogenesis. A full-thickness dermal layer extending to the underlying cartilage was excised on the dorsal side of hairless mice (n = 27; 2·3 ± 0·3 mm2 ). A polyhexanide ointment, a chitosan solution and a sodium chloride group as control were analysed using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculatory standard parameters were measured over a time period of 20 days. The non-perfused area is regarded as a parameter for angiogenesis and showed the following results: on days 12, 16 and 20, the sodium chloride group was significantly superior to chitosan solution (P polyhexanide group was superior to chitosan solution (P polyhexanide and control group on day 8 versus chitosan solution. Whereas polyhexanide and sodium chloride were nearly completely epithelialised, treatment with chitosan solution showed still an open wound of 11% of the initial wound size. Altogether, we could demonstrate the advantageous effects of a polyhexanide ointment on microcirculation, angiogenesis and epithelialisation. Chitosan solution appears to inhibit angiogenesis and delays epithelialisation. Further studies in different models would be worthwhile to confirm these results. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  12. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  13. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  14. Chloride:Sodium Ratio May Accurately Predict Corrected Chloride Disorders and the Presence of Unmeasured Anions in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Myers, Marc; De Rosa, Sage; Zager, Erik; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of chloride and mixed acid-base disturbances are common in veterinary emergency medicine. Rapid identification of these alterations and the presence of unmeasured anions aid prompt patient assessment and management. This study aimed to determine in dogs and cats if site-specific reference values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify corrected chloride abnormalities and to evaluate the predictive ability of the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio for the identification of unmeasured anions. A database containing 33,117 canine, and 7,604 feline blood gas and electrolyte profiles was generated. Institution reference intervals were used to calculate site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference. Contingency tables were used to assess the ability of these values to correctly identify corrected chloride disorders. Unmeasured anions were estimated by calculating strong ion gap (SIG). Continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between continuous variables were assessed using Spearman's rho (rs). In dogs, site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio correctly identified 94.6% of profiles as hyper-, normo-, or hypochloremic. For dogs with normal sodium concentrations, site-specific reference values for the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference correctly identified 97.0% of profiles. In dogs with metabolic acidosis (base deficit > 4.0), [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and SIG were moderately but significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.592, P SIG was significantly greater in dogs with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P SIG were moderately significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.730, P SIG was significantly greater in cats with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P < 0.0001). Site-specific values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify

  15. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  16. Mercuric chloride-induced testicular toxicity in rats and the protective role of sodium selenite and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Suna; Uzun, Fatma Gokce; Demir, Filiz; Uzunhisarcıklı, Meltem; Aslanturk, Ayse

    2013-05-01

    Mercury has been recognized as an environmental pollutant that adversely affects male reproductive systems of animals. This study examined the effects of mercuric chloride on the antioxidant system and histopathological changes and also evaluated the ameliorating effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E in the rat testis tissues. Sexually mature male Wistar rats (weighing 300-320g and each group six animals) were given mercuric chloride (1mg/kg bw) and/or sodium selenite (0.25mg/kg bw)+vitamin E (100mg/kg) daily via gavage for 4weeks. In the present study, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the TBARS level and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPx activities, with respect to the control. Further, light microscopic investigation revealed that mercury exposure induced histopathological alterations in the testis tissues. Supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercury-induced groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. While some histopathological changes were detected in mercuric chloride treated group, milder histopathological changes were observed in animal co-treated with sodium selenite and/or vitamin E supplementation to mercuric chloride-treated rats. As a result, mercuric chloride induced testicular toxicity is reduced by sodium selenite and/or vitamin E, but not ameliorate completely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, Mette; Pedersen, Nis Borbye

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......DAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion sputtering of the solutions of sodium and calcium chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, N. A.; Gurina, D. L.; Titov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The ionic sputtering of sodium chloride and calcium chloride solutions was studied by classical molecular dynamics method. It is shown that the ions of the solute transferred into the gas phase both in the form of hydrated ions and in the form of ion pairs in water clusters. The threshold character of the ions transfer process is established. The calculated transfer coefficients of water and anions are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The fraction of water molecules sputtered in the form of clusters increases with the energy inputted in the solution. The fraction of water clusters in the gas phase is 40% at the inputted energy is 45 kJ mol‑1.

  20. Partial substitution of sodium chloride in Toscana sausages and the effect on product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Seganfredo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High sodium intake has been linked with problems of hypertension and in Brazil, it still has above that recommended by the World Health Organization. Meat products contribute 20–30% of sodium intake in the diet, indicating the necessity of reducing the amount of sodium added. The aim of this study was to reduce the sodium content in Toscana sausages by partial replacement of sodium chloride with PuraQ Arome NA4 substitute, and to evaluate the effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters and sensory acceptability. Three formulations – one control (T1, and one with 20% (T2 and another with 30% (T3 sodium reduction compared with the control – were produced. For comparative purposes, the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters were determined. In the proposed formulations with 20% and 30% reduction, the sodium contents were 857.3 mg 100 g-1 (T2 and 790.3 mg 100 g-1 (T3, compared with 926.7 mg 100 g-1 in T1. The produced samples were in accordance with the physico-chemical (moisture, lipid, protein and calcium and microbiological (Salmonella, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and sulphite-reducing Clostridium and Coliforms at 45°C parameters stipulated by Brazilian law. The analysis of lightness and hue indicated that the sample T3 had a more intense red colour, while T1 had a less intense red colour. In the shear force evaluation, no difference was observed between the samples. The sample T2 was the most preferred in the ordering of preference test; however, in the hedonic scale, there was no difference between the means of sensory values for roast colour, aroma, texture, flavour and overall impression, indicating that all samples had adequate sensory acceptance. Acceptability levels were greater than 74.6% for all attributes evaluated in T1, T2 and T3.

  1. Long-term Sodium and Chloride Surface Water Exports from a Humid Subtropical Urban Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of sodium and chloride in surface water are strongly related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water and salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on these exports has been found to occur in warmer climates as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate long term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex in a humid subtropical climate and compare exports to common characteristics of urbanization: urban land use, impervious surface area, and wastewater discharges. Long term data (1980 to 2008) was obtained from five USGS gauges located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalizing for time and the watershed area. In addition, grab samples were collected from the period of June 2009 to May 2010 and analyzed for Na and Cl. Results show a very strong positive relationship between urban land use, water fluxes, and impervious surface and the fluxes of both sodium and chloride from each watershed for the decades available. Long-term increases in fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percent urban land use. Fluxes were not related to the estimates of wastewater discharge, nor could atmospheric deposition or deicing salts account for significant amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. Based on the results the most likely source of Na and Cl is impervious surface deposition and erosion from within the watershed. Estimates of urban fluxes were lower than but similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts and suggest that other mechanisms may contribute to the climbing salinity in northern states.

  2. Effect of dietary sodium chloride on gastro-oesophageal reflux: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Marissa C; Bredenoord, Albert J; Smout, André J P M

    2006-10-01

    It has been suggested that a high consumption of sodium chloride (NaCl) is associated with reflux symptoms. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased dietary NaCl intake on gastro-oesophageal reflux and reflux mechanisms. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study 10 healthy male subjects received 5 g NaCl or placebo in capsules per day for one week, after which concurrent manometric, pH and impedance monitoring was carried out for 4.5 h. Oesophageal acid exposure time (pH salt intake lowered LOS pressure overall and in the first postprandial hour (p<0.01). High dietary sodium intake does not increase gastro-oesophageal reflux in healthy volunteers, despite a decrease in LOS pressure.

  3. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Melting point equations for the ternary system water/sodium chloride/ethylene glycol revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, James D; Bagchi, Aniruddha; Han, Xu; Critser, John K; Woods, Erik J

    2010-12-01

    Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit our previous experiments by measuring melting points at five ethylene-glycol to sodium chloride ratios (R values; R=5, 10, 15, 30, and 45) and five levels of concentration for each ratio. Melting points were averaged from three measurements and plotted as a function of total solute concentration for each R value studied. The new measurements differed from our original experimental values and agreed with predicted values from both theoretical models. Additionally, the data were fit to the polynomial described in our previous report and the resulting equation was obtained: T(m) = (38.3-2.145 x 10⁻¹ R)w + (81.19 - 2.909×10⁻¹ R)w², where w is the total solute mass fraction. This new equation provided good fits to the experimental data as well as published values and relates the determined polynomial constants to the R value of the corresponding isopleths of the three dimensional phase diagram, allowing the liquids curve for any R value to be obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride was the m......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...

  6. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  7. Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluiters, E.C.; Schmal, D.; Veen, W.R. ter [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Posthumus, K.J.C.M. [Royal Netherlands Navy, The Haag (Netherlands). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    1999-07-01

    One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries was of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to power versus time taken from the battery. The results of the tests for application of the battery in naval ships are very promising. (orig.)

  8. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  9. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2009-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and salt (sodium chloride) on DMI, daily water intake (DWI), body temperature, and respiration rate (RR) in Bos taurus beef cattle. In Exp. 1 and 2, whole soybeans (SB) were used as the supplemental fat source. In Exp. 3, palm kernel meal and tallow were used. Experiment 1 (winter) and Exp. 2 (summer) were undertaken in an outside feedlot. Experiment 3 was conducted in a climate-controlled facility (mean ambient temperature = 29.9 degrees C). In Exp. 1, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 1% sodium chloride); and 3) salt-SB (control + 5% SB + 1% sodium chloride), were fed to 144 cattle (BW = 327.7 kg), using a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (BW = 334.1 kg) were used. In Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were used as in Exp. 1, and a 5% SB dietary treatment was included in an incomplete 3 x 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 3, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 0.92% NaCl); and 3) salt-fat (control + 3.2% added fat + 0.92% NaCl) were fed to 12 steers (BW = 602 kg) in a replicated Latin square design. In Exp. 1, cattle fed the salt-SB diet had elevated (P salt (38.50 degrees C) diet. In Exp. 2, cattle fed the salt and salt-SB diets had less (P salt-SB diet had the greatest (P salt diet or only the SB diet had the least (P salt and salt-fat diets declined by approximately 40% compared with only 24% for the control cattle. During hot conditions, DWI was greatest (P salt-fat diet. These steers also had the greatest (P diet was the least (P salt plus fat decreased DMI under hot conditions, these data suggest that switching to diets containing the combination of added salt and fat can elevate body temperature, which would be a detriment in the summer but a benefit to the animal during winter. Nevertheless, adding salt plus fat to diets resulted in increased DWI under hot conditions. Diet ingredients or the combination of ingredients that can be used to

  10. Serum chloride and sodium concentration as a predictor of acute kidney injury in premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Draženka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hyperchloremia is often registered in adults’ studies after administration with 0.9% sodium chloride, which contributes to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI as it leads to vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of sodium and chloride imbalance with the development of AKI, with consideration of other risk factors for this disorder. Methods. This retrospective study included 146 randomly selected preterm infants hospitalized at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2008 to 2015. Results. Among the patients registered for the study, 23.97% developed AKI, and they were of a significantly lower gestational age (26.3 ± 2.8 weeks vs. 31.7 ± 2.90 weeks, p < 0.05; birth weight (971.31 ± 412.1 g vs. 1,753.3 ± 750.3 g, p < 0.05; Apgar score in the first (3.2 ± 1.7 vs. 5.7 ± 2.4, p < 0.05 and fifth minute (5.3 ± 1.7 vs. 7.1 ± 1.8, p < 0.05 of life compared to those without AKI. The neonates with AKI had significantly higher maximum chloremia (Clmax: 114.1 ± 8.4 vs. 111.7 ± 4.6, p = 0.029 and maximum natremia (Namax: 147.9 ± 8.8 vs. 142.9 ± 4, p < 0.05. Each of these parameters is (independently a statistically significant risk factor for the development of AKI, and gestational age is the strongest (OR = 1 / 0.643 = 1.55; 95% CI 1.24–1.94. Mortality in neonates with AKI was higher than in neonates without AKI (19.4% vs. 92.7%, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Hyperchloremia and hypernatremia are more common in the premature newborns with AKI compared to the premature newborns without AKI. Higher maximum sodium and chloride values are independent risk factors for AKI.

  11. Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiters, Edwin C.; Schmal, Dick; ter Veen, Willem R.; Posthumus, Kees J. C. M.

    One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995 [R.A.A. Schillemans, C.E. Kluiters, Sodium/sulphur batteries for naval applications, in: A. Attewell, T. Keily (Eds.), Power Sources 15, International Power Sources Symposium Committee, Crowborough UK, 1995. p. 421.]. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to

  12. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  13. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  14. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  15. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of saccharides in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Mikihito; Kameoka, Takaharu; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl. The absorption intensities representing the interaction between a saccharide and water with NaCl were spectroscopically determined. Additionally, the applications of MIR spectroscopy to obtain information about saccharide-NaCl interactions in foods and biosystems were suggested.

  16. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  17. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS, on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (− charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete.

  19. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  20. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in...

  1. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  2. Development of Membraneless Sodium Perborate Fuel Cell for Media Flexible Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ponmani; Durga, S.; Arun, A.; S. Kiruthika; B. Muthukumaran

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the media flexibility of membraneless sodium perborate fuel cell (MLSPBFC) using acid/alkaline bipolar electrolyte in which the anode is in acidic media while the cathode is in alkaline media, or vice versa. Investigation of the cell operation is conducted by using formic acid as a fuel and sodium perborate as an oxidant for the first time under “acid-alkaline media” configurations. The MLSPBFC architecture enables interchangeable operation with different media combinations...

  3. Oxygen, water, and sodium chloride transport in soft contact lenses materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Rafael; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Oxygen permeability, diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions and water flux and permeability in different conventional hydrogel (Hy) and silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lenses have been measured experimentally. The results showed that oxygen permeability and transmissibility requirements of the lens have been addressed through the use of siloxane containing hydrogels. In general, oxygen and sodium chloride permeability values increased with the water content of the lens but there was a percolation phenomenon from a given value of water uptake mainly in the Si-Hy lenses which appeared to be related with the differences between free water and bound water contents. The increase of ion permeability with water content did not follow a unique trend indicating a possible dependence of the chemical structure of the polymer and character ionic and non-ionic of the lens. Indeed, the salt permeability values for silicone hydrogel contact lenses were one order of magnitude below those of conventional hydrogel contact lenses, which can be explained by a diffusion of sodium ions occurring only through the hydrophilic channels. The increase of the ionic permeability in Si-Hy materials may be due to the confinement of ions in nanoscale water channels involving possible decreased degrees of freedom for diffusion of both water and ions. In general, ionic lenses presented values of ionic permeability and diffusivity higher than most non-ionic lenses. The tortuosity of the ionic lenses is lower than the non-ionic Si-Hy lenses. Frequency 55 and PureVision exhibited the highest water permeability and flux values and, these parameters were greater for ionic Si-Hy lenses than for ionic conventional hydrogel lenses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2218-2231, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-09

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.

  5. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  6. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sodium chloride pica causing recurrent nephrolithiasis in a patient with iron deficiency anemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brittany; Kramer, Joshua; Smith, Stephanie; Bird, Vincent; Rosenberg, Eric I

    2017-11-18

    Iron deficiency anemia is a common finding in women of child-bearing age. Pica, or the ingestion of non-food or non-nutritive items, is a well-known manifestation of iron deficiency. A high sodium diet increases risk for nephrolithiasis. We describe the case of a 31-year-old woman with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and anemia who ate ice chips as well as spoons of salt daily. Treatment of pica may prove effective in preventing recurrent nephrolithiasis. A 31-year-old white woman with a past medical history of menorrhagia, anemia, and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis presented for preoperative evaluation prior to ureterolithotomy. She described a daily pattern of eating continually from a cup of ice chips accompanied by multiple spoons of salt directly out of a salt shaker. These cravings had been present for many years, were bothersome to her, and interfered with her daily life. Laboratory findings revealed hemoglobin of 10.9 g/dL with ferritin of 3 ng/mL. History, physical, and laboratory data were consistent with pica secondary to iron deficiency anemia. She was prescribed orally administered ferrous sulfate 325 mg three times a day with meals. She continues to struggle with the symptoms of pica and orally administered supplementation. It is important that clinicians consider the possible diagnosis of sodium chloride pica in patients with iron deficiency anemia and recurrent nephrolithiasis. Treatment of anemia and resolution of pica may prove effective in preventing future nephrolithiasis. Specific questioning about pica symptoms in patients with iron deficiency anemia and recurrent nephrolithiasis may be helpful diagnostically and therapeutically.

  8. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Cheng

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  9. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Pietro; Pettit, Donald; Cristoforetti, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0.2-0.7 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by a wire frame, thick liquid layers, 4-6 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by metal frame, and hemispherical sessile drops, 20-32 mm diameter, supported by a flat polycarbonate surface or an initially flat gelatin film, were carried out under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular [111]-oriented crystals, and dendrites. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops, 1-4 mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support (polycarbonate or gelatin) self-assembling into a shell. Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals 100 times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  12. Unusual electronic and mechanical properties of sodium chlorides at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Hongxia, E-mail: buhx666@163.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Qilu Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250200 (China); Zhao, Mingwen, E-mail: zmw@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics & State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Zhou, Hongcai [School of Physics & State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Du, Yanling [College of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong 250355 (China)

    2016-04-08

    Using first-principles calculations, we performed systematic investigation on the electronic and mechanical properties of sodium chlorides with different stoichiometries at high pressures. It was found that most of the phases are metallic except the Pnma-NaCl{sub 3} with a gap of 2.155 eV. The extended Cl (or Na) sublattice at Cl-rich (or Na-rich) conditions contributes to the metallization. Accompanied by metallization, the Na{sub m}Cl{sub n} crystals exhibit good ductility in contrast to the brittle NaCl crystal, due to the changes of binding features induced by high pressure. These results are expected to be useful for understanding the exotic properties of NaCl at high pressures. - Highlights: • We performed systematic investigation on the electronic and mechanical properties of Na{sub m}Cl{sub n}. • The extended Cl (or Na) sublattice at Cl-rich (or Na-rich) conditions contributes to the metallization at high pressures. • The Na{sub m}Cl{sub n} crystals exhibit good ductility in contrast to the brittle NaCl crystal. • The P4/mmm-Na{sub 3}Cl possesses the best ductility and the semiconducting Pnma-NaCl{sub 3} has the largest hardness.

  13. Physical and Chemical Stability of Urapidil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Elastomeric Infusion Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Cristina; Leggieri, Anna; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Baietto, Lorena; Fulcheri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; De Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Urapidil is an antihypertensive agent, usually administered through intravenous bolus injection, slow-intravenous infusion, or continuous-drug infusion by perfusor. Since to date no evidences are available on drug stability in elastomeric pumps, patients have to be hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate urapidil stability in an elastomeric infusion pump, in order to allow continuous infusion as home-care treatment. Analyses were conducted by diluting urapidil in an elastomeric pump. Two concentrations were evaluated: 1.6 mg/mL and 3.3 mg/mL. For the analyses, a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic- photodiode array detection instrument was used. Stressed degradation, pH changes, and visual clarity were used as stability indicators up to 10 days after urapidil solution preparation. The drug showed no more than 5% degradation during the test period at room temperature. No pH changes and no evidences of incompatibility were observed. Stress tests resulted in appreciable observation of degradation products. Considering the observed mean values, urapidil hydrochloride in sodium chloride 0.9% in elastomeric infusion pumps is stable for at least 10 days. These results indicate that this treatment could be administered at home for a prolonged duration (at least 7 days) with a satisfactory response. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. Stability of Pantoprazole Sodium in Glass Vials, Polyvinyl Chloride Minibags, and Polypropylene Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pantoprazole sodium, a proton-pump inhibitor, is approved for the short-term treatment of several types of ulcer, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Objective: To determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)–free pantoprazole in glass vials, polypropylene syringes, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) minibags, after storage at 2°C to 8°C with protection from light or at 20°C to 25°C with exposure to light. Methods: Solutions of pantoprazole 4 mg/mL reconstituted in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) were stored in glass vials at 20°C to 25°C. Similar solutions were transferred to polypropylene syringes and stored at 2°C to 8°C. Stock solution was further diluted, in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) or NS, to 0.4 or 0.8 mg/mL, and samples were then packaged in PVC minibags for storage at 2°C to 8°C or at 20°C to 25°C. Samples collected on days 0, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were analyzed in duplicate with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Results: Pantoprazole 4 mg/mL was stable (i.e., retained at least 90% of initial concentration) for 3 days when stored in glass vials at 20°C to 25°C or for 28 days when stored in polypropylene syringes at 2°C to 8°C. Pantoprazole 0.4 mg/mL diluted in D5W and stored in PVC minibags was stable for 2 days at 20°C to 25°C or for 14 days at 2°C to 8°C. At 0.8 mg/mL, pantoprazole in D5W was stable for 3 days at 20°C to 25°C or 28 days at 2°C to 8°C. Pantoprazole diluted to either 0.4 or 0.8 mg/mL in NS and stored in PVC minibags was stable for 3 days at 20°C to 25°C or 28 days at 2°C to 8°C. Conclusions: The present study confirmed or extended previously reported expiry dates for pantoprazole sodium packaged in glass vials, polypropylene syringes, and PVC minibags. PMID:22479054

  15. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchio MA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797.Methods: At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F], and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours.Results: The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL.Conclusion: Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours

  16. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  17. Stability study of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection with limit tests for impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus; Bogedal Jorgensen, Lene; Lindegaard Berg, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Results of an evaluation of the stability of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are presented. Methods. Methotrexate concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) was diluted to nominal concentrations of 0.2 and 20 mg/mL in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium...... chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The filled bags were stored for 28 days at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity and protected from light. Samples were withdrawn for analysis on the day of preparation and after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test program included visual inspections, measurements...... in amounts of known and unknown degradation products were detected. In 5% dextrose injection, methotrexate at the higher concentration was stable for 28 days, with minor formation of degradation products; in the 0.2-mg/mL solution, however, methotrexate was stable for only 3 days. At later time points...

  18. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cured ready-to-eat processed meat products by manipulation of sodium chloride, sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and product moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, D L; Borger, A C; Meyer, J D; Hall, P A; Milkowski, A L

    2002-04-01

    A central composite second-order response surface design was employed to determine the influences of added sodium chloride (0.8 to 3.6%), sodium diacetate (0 to 0.2%), potassium lactate syrup (0.25 to 9.25%), and finished-product moisture (45.5 to 83.5%) on the predicted growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in cured ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Increased amounts of both sodium diacetate (P meat products (wieners, smoked-cooked ham, light bologna, and cotto salami). The final model will be useful to food technologists in determining formulations that will result in finished cured RTE meat products in which L. monocytogenes is not likely to grow.

  19. The transport dynamics of chloride and sodium in a ladder fen during a continuous wastewater polishing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Colin P. R.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2017-06-01

    Ladder fen peatlands have excellent potential for wastewater polishing as they naturally contain both open water (pools) and subsurface (peat) treatment landforms; however, there is a poor understanding of solute transport in ladder fens with and without the increased hydrological load imposed by wastewater discharge. To better understand solute transport in ladder fens under wastewater polishing conditions a continuous solute (NaCl) tracer experiment (38 m3 day-1 of water, chloride - 47.2 mg L-1, and sodium - 25.3 mg L-1) was conducted during the summer of 2014 (day of year 192-243) in a small ladder fen in the James Bay Lowland. The transmissivity distribution and effective porosity (average 0.5) of the peat ribs were determined through repeated bail tests and the drainable porosity of 18 peat cores at -100 mb, respectively. Water samples were taken at least every 7 days to capture the solute (sodium and chloride) plumes. Both solute plumes never reached the site outflow (∼250 m downgradient) and displayed complex plume morphology, typically following the patterns of higher hydraulic conductivity within the upper 0.1 m of the saturated peat, rather than the microtopography. Based on the 50% breakthrough isotherms, sodium and chloride were transported at an average solute velocity of 1.9 and 1.1 m day-1, respectively (average linear groundwater velocity = 2.1 m day-1); thus, the solutes were retarded by a factor of 2.1 and 1.2 for sodium and chloride, respectively. Due to the inherent retardation of solutes into inactive pores and relatively high solute residence times, this study demonstrates the potential for wastewater polishing in ladder fens.

  20. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lou Ching-Wen; Lee Mong-Chuan; Chen Chih-Kuang; Wen Shih-Peng; Jian Bai-Chen; Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA) and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS) micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples...

  1. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  2. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  3. Evaluation of 2 Purification Methods for Isolation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Based on Red Blood Cell Lysis With Ammonium Chloride and Hypotonic Sodium Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Liao, Xuan; Zhou, Tian-En; Xiao, Li-Ling; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Wu, Fan; Wang, Jing-Ru; Cheng, Biao; Song, Jian-Xing; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare 2 purification methods for isolation of human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or stem cells (ADSCs) based on red blood cell (RBC) lysis with 155 mM ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hypotonic sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, and try to develop a safe, convenient, and cost-effective purification method for clinical applications. Adipose-derived stem cells and RBC were harvested from the fatty and fluid portions of liposuction aspirates, respectively. The suitable concentration of hypotonic NaCl solution on RBC lysis for purification of ADSCs was developed by RBC osmotic fragility test and flow cytometry analysis. The effects of 155 mM NH4Cl or 0.3% NaCl solution on ADSCs proliferation and RBC lysis efficiency were examined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and lysis efficiency test, respectively. In addition, the adipogenic and osteogenic capabilities, phenotype and genetic stability of ADSCs were evaluated by oil red staining, alkaline phosphatase activity measurement, flow cytometry, and karyotype analysis, respectively. Sodium chloride solution in 0.3% concentration effectively removed RBCs and did not influence the survival of ADSCs in the 10-minute incubation time. The lysis efficiency did not differ significantly between 0.3% NaCl and 155 mM NH4Cl. Moreover, the adipogenic and osteogenic capabilities, surface marker expression and karyotype of the ADSCs were not affected by lysis solutions or by lysis per se. However, the proliferation capacity in the 0.3% NaCl group was superior to that in 155 mM NH4Cl group. Our data suggest that 0.3% NaCl solution is useful for isolating ADSCs from liposuction aspirate for clinical applications with safety, convenience, and cost-effect.

  4. Effect of Sodium and Chloride Binding on a Lecithin Bilayer. A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Maria M; Kallies, Christopher; Knecht, Volker

    2017-01-25

    The effect of ion binding on the structural, mechanical, dynamic and electrostatic properties of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in a 0.5 M aqueous NaCl solution is investigated using classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation with different force-field descriptions for ion-ion and ion-lipid interactions. Most importantly, the repulsive Lennard-Jones parameters for the latter were modified, such that approximately similar binding of cations and anions to the lipid membrane is achieved. This was done to qualitatively improve the apparent ion-lipid binding constants obtained from simulations with the original force field (Berger lipids and GROMOS87 ions in combination with the SPC water model) in comparison to experimental data. Furthermore, various parameters characterizing membrane structure, elasticity, order and dynamics are analyzed. It is found that ion binding as observed in simulations involving the modified in comparison to the original force-field description leads to: (i) a smaller salt-induced change in the area per lipid, which is in closer agreement with the experiment; (ii) a decrease in the area compressibility and bilayer thickness to values comparable to a bilayer in pure water; (iii) lipid deuterium order parameters and lipid diffusion coefficients on nanosecond timescales that are very similar to the values for a membrane in pure water. In general, salt effects on the structural properties of a POPC bilayer in an aqueous sodium-chloride solution appear to be reproduced reasonably well by the new force-field description. An analysis of membrane-membrane disjoining pressure suggests that the smaller salt-induced change in area per lipid induced by the new force-field description is not due to the alteration of membrane-associated net charge, but must rather be understood as a consequence of ion-specific effects on the arrangement of lipid molecules.

  5. Effect of Sodium and Chloride Binding on a Lecithin Bilayer. A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Reif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ion binding on the structural, mechanical, dynamic and electrostatic properties of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC bilayer in a 0.5 M aqueous NaCl solution is investigated using classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation with different force-field descriptions for ion-ion and ion-lipid interactions. Most importantly, the repulsive Lennard–Jones parameters for the latter were modified, such that approximately similar binding of cations and anions to the lipid membrane is achieved. This was done to qualitatively improve the apparent ion-lipid binding constants obtained from simulations with the original force field (Berger lipids and GROMOS87 ions in combination with the SPC water model in comparison to experimental data. Furthermore, various parameters characterizing membrane structure, elasticity, order and dynamics are analyzed. It is found that ion binding as observed in simulations involving the modified in comparison to the original force-field description leads to: (i a smaller salt-induced change in the area per lipid, which is in closer agreement with the experiment; (ii a decrease in the area compressibility and bilayer thickness to values comparable to a bilayer in pure water; (iii lipid deuterium order parameters and lipid diffusion coefficients on nanosecond timescales that are very similar to the values for a membrane in pure water. In general, salt effects on the structural properties of a POPC bilayer in an aqueous sodium-chloride solution appear to be reproduced reasonably well by the new force-field description. An analysis of membrane-membrane disjoining pressure suggests that the smaller salt-induced change in area per lipid induced by the new force-field description is not due to the alteration of membrane-associated net charge, but must rather be understood as a consequence of ion-specific effects on the arrangement of lipid molecules.

  6. Effect of a Benzalkonium Chloride Surfactant-Sodium Hypochlorite Combination on Elimination of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Aleksandr; Lindsey, Kimberly; Sidow, Stephanie J; Dickinson, Douglas; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a sodium hypochlorite-surfactant combination on the removal of Enterococcus faecalis from infected teeth. Sixty-four extracted human single canal anterior teeth were prepared with rotary instrumentation and sterilized. Teeth were divided into 4 groups, N = 16. Three experimental groups were inoculated with E. faecalis and cultured for 21 days before use: positive control group, no irrigation; NaOCl group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl; and NaOCl/BAK group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl/0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The negative control group received medium only and no inoculate. Paper point sampling of the canals was obtained before irrigation (S1) for all 4 groups and for 2 groups after irrigation (S2) to determine remaining colony-forming units. After sampling, all teeth were split in half and evaluated for bacterial viability colony-forming units and penetration of dentinal tubules by using fluorescent vital dye staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Comparison of pre-irrigation and post-irrigation paper point samples from the 2 irrigated groups showed a significant reduction in bacterial canal load (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis), with a significantly lower load in the NaOCl/BAK group than in the NaOCl group (P = .001, Mann-Whitney U test); 68.8% of the NaOCl/BAK samples gave no recoverable counts. In contrast, no significant difference between these groups was found for counts recovered from dentin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed no differences in tubule penetration. The addition of BAK to NaOCl significantly reduced the number of remaining bacteria within the canal after irrigation compared with NaOCl alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sodium perbarate and benzalkonium chloride induce DNA damage in Chang conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huina; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Ye, Juan

    2017-12-01

    Content and objective: To investigate and compare the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and new type oxidative preservative sodium perborate (NaBO3) on DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell survival in immortalized human Chang conjunctival cells. Cells were exposed to BAC and NaBO3 in concentrations of 0.00001-0.001% for 30 min. Cell viability was measured by the MTT test. Alkaline comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell apoptosis, and ROS production were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Significant changes in the relative cell survival rate in cells were observed after exposure to 0.0005-0.001% BAC for 30 min (p < 0.001). DNA damage and intracellular ROS were observed in a dose-dependent manner with BAC exposure (p < 0.001). However, 0.001% BAC induced less ROS than 0.0005% BAC. A decrease in MMP was also recorded. NaBO3 did not induce the decrease in cell survival and MMP in low concentration but could induce DNA damage and ROS generation in a 0.001% concentration (p < 0.001). BAC can induce DNA damage in human conjunctival epithelial cells; this effect may be related to oxidative stress. Although NaBO3 did not induce a significant decrease in cell survival and MMP, DNA damage and ROS generation were still detected in high concentration. New type oxidative preservative has less toxicity than the old type, but it still has the tendency of producing genotoxic changes in an in vitro test system.

  8. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities.

  9. The Corrosion Behaviour of WC-Co-Ru Alloys in Aggressive Chloride Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Potgieter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardmetals possess excellent wear resistance, making them suitable alloys in several industrial applications. Mine waters with both dissolved chloride and sulphate salts can be severely corrosive and can limit the application of hardmetal tools in the mining industry. Ru additions to these alloys can refine and improve selected mechanical properties, but its influence on the corrosion resistance is unknown. A series of WC-Co-Ru alloys was evaluated in different chloride containing media to investigate their corrosion resistance. Standard electrochemical corrosion tests, chronoamperometric measurements, and surface analyses with Raman spectroscopy were conducted. An increasing amount of Ru improves the corrosion resistance of all the alloys. The effect is not as dramatic as that observed with stainless steels containing Ru in corrosive media. In both corrosive media Ru decreased the cathodic Tafel constant and has a retarding influence on the cathodic part of the corrosion reaction. Raman analyses indicated the presence of tungsten oxide, hydrated tungsten oxide compounds, and CoO and Co3O4 formed on the alloy surfaces during the corrosion process.

  10. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced stability performance of nickel nanowire with 3D conducting network for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian; Zhang, Sanpei; Ao, Xin; Wu, Xiangwei; Yang, Jianhua; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2017-08-01

    High temperature sodium batteries with inorganic electrolytes are attracting increasing attention due to their high thermal stability, reliability, long-cycle life and safety. Despite the intensive investigation of Na-NiCl2 batteries during last decades, designing a stable conducting network in the cathode is still challenging but desirable. In this work, a new cathode structure composed of Ni nanowires with an effective electron conducting network is proposed for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries. During the first stage of charge, Ni nanowires reacted with Cl ion to form NiCl2 on the surface and the excessive Ni nanowires inside can serve as conducting framework to facilitate the fast electron transport. As expected, the metal nanowires show a high specific capacity of 130 mA h g-1 (∼14 mAh cm-2) at 0.05 C after 100 cycles. Meanwhile, the batteries show stable cycling performance at 0.05 C with a high cut-off energy density of 360 W h kg-1, much higher than the traditional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (∼100 Wh kg-1). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the cathode after long cycling reveal the ultra-slow growth of Ni particles, confirming the excellent stability of the prepared nanowires cathode.

  12. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of water molecules on selected charged sodium-chloride clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, James A; Gordon, Sidney L; Leavitt, Andrew J; Whetten, Robert L

    2012-01-12

    The adsorption of water molecules (H(2)O) on sodium chloride cluster cations and anions was studied at 298 K over a mass range of 100-1200 amu using a custom-built laser desorption ionization reactor and mass spectrometer. Under the conditions used, the cations Na(3)Cl(2)(+) and Na(4)Cl(3)(+) bind up to three water molecules, whereas the larger cations, Na(5)Cl(4)(+) to Na(19)Cl(18)(+), formed hydrates with one or two only. The overall trend is a decrease in hydration with increasing cluster size, with an abrupt drop occurring at the closed-shell Na(14)Cl(13)(+). As compared to the cluster cations, the cluster anions showed almost no adsorption. Among smaller clusters, a weak adsorption of one water molecule was observed for the cluster anions Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-). In the higher mass region, a substantial adsorption of one water molecule was observed for Na(14)Cl(15)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out for the adsorption of one molecule of H(2)O on the cations Na(n)Cl(n-1)(+), for n = 2-8, and the anions Na(n)Cl(n+1)(-), for n = 1-7. For each ion, the structure of the hydrate, the hydration energy, and the standard-state enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of hydration at 298 K were computed. In addition, it was useful to compute the distortion energy, defined as the electronic energy lost due to weakening of the Na-Cl bonds upon adsorption of H(2)O. The results show that strong adsorption of a H(2)O molecule occurs for the linear cations only at an end Na ion and for the nonlinear cations only at a corner Na ion bonded to two Cl ions. An unexpected result of the theoretical investigation for the anions is that certain low-energy isomers of Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-) bind H(2)O strongly enough to produce the observed weak adsorption. The possible implications of these results for the initial hydration of extended NaCl surfaces are discussed.

  14. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Nozomu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al ions, cadmium (Cd ions, copper (Cu ions and sodium (NaCl chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization

  15. The possibility of using underground chloride sodium brines in the territory of the Central Federal District to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power equipment of TPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A. Y.; Burakov, I. A.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Nikitina, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term use of ground sodium chloride brine at power plants of “Mosenergo” for the purposes of regeneration Na-cation unit of water treatment plants chemical plants provides the preconditions for operation of underground brines and other power systems of our country. Underground sodium chloride brines used in “Mosenergo” since 1979, when the first wells for the extraction of brines in the territory of TPP-22 was drilled. Currently production brines are well in 13 TPP of PJSC “Mosenergo”. Underground sodium chloride brines can be used to regenerate the sodium cation filters under the following conditions: salinity brines should be not less than 100 g/dm3; the ratio of sodium ion content (in mg-Eq/dm3) to the total rigidity brine (in mg-Eq/dm3) should not be less than 3.5. Performed zoning district on the possibility of using underground brine for regeneration of the sodium-cation filters On the basis of these requirements. The analysis of the possibility of using underground brine directly to the location of CHP stations in the northern part of the Central Federal District on the basis of geological and hydrogeological data. Particular attention is drawn to the area of large cities, where the use of underground brines most effectively. The conclusion about the possibility of using sodium chloride brines underground in most parts of the Central Federal District for energy purposes.

  16. Corrosion Study of Stainless Steels in Peracetic Acid Bleach Media With and Without Chloride and Chelant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper industries are adopting non-chlorine containing chemicals e.g. peroxide, ozone, peracids etc. as alternate of chlorine based bleach chemicals e.g. chlorine and chlorine dioxide etc. with the aim of eco-friend atmospheres. Changeover to the new chemicals in the bleaching process is likely to affect the metallurgy of the existing bleach plants due to change in the corrosivity of the media. Accordingly, corrosion investigations were performed in a peracid namely peracetic acid to test the suitability of austenitic stainless steels 654SMO, 265SMO, 2205, 317L and 316L. The performance of above stainless steels was evaluated through long term immersion tests and Electrochemical polarization measurements in peracetic acid (PAA bleach media at pH value 4 maintaining concentration 0.2 % as active oxygen along with three chloride levels 0, 500 and 1000 ppm in pulp-free laboratory. To study the effect of corrosion inhibitors with extending limit of chloride in liquors, measurements were also made with two types of chelants- EDTA & MgSO4. The results showed that corrosivity of PAA reduced by addition of chelant while increased with concentration of Cl¯. The results also exhibited that EDTA is better inhibitor than MgSO4.

  17. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  18. Impact of trehalose on the activity of sodium and potassium chloride in aqueous solutions: Why trehalose is worth its salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplinger, Michal; Shumilin, Ilan; Harries, Daniel

    2017-12-15

    Trehalose is revered for its multiple unique impacts on solution properties, including the ability to modulate the salty and bitter tastes of sodium and potassium salts. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying trehalose's effect on taste perception are unknown. Here we focus on the physico-chemical effect of trehalose to alter the activity of monovalent salts in aqueous solution. Using a modified isopiestic methodology that relies on contemporary vapor pressure osmometry, we elucidate how trehalose modifies the thermodynamic chemical activity of sodium and potassium chloride, as well as the effect of the salts on the sugar's activity. We find that trehalose has a specific impact on potassium chloride that is unlike that of other sugars or polyols. Remarkably, especially at low salt concentrations, trehalose considerably elevates the activity (or chemical potential) of KCl, raising the salt activity coefficient as high as ∼1.5 its value in the absence of the sugar. Moreover, in contrast to their action on other known carbohydrates, both KCl and NaCl act as salting-out agents towards trehalose, as seen in the elevated activity coefficient compared with its value in pure water (up to ∼1.5 higher at low sugar and salt concentrations). We discuss the possible relevance of our findings to the mechanism of trehalose taste perception modification, and point to necessary future directed sensory experiments needed to resolve the possible link between our findings and the emerging biochemical or physiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement on the Sensory and Physico-Chemical Properties of Restructured Chicken Jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckose, Feby; Pandey, Mohan Chandra; Abhishek, Virat

    2015-10-05

    Replacement of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium lactate (KLact) in restructured chicken jerky was studied. The experiment was conducted considering three levels of each NaCl (1%, 1.5%, 2%), KCl (0%, 0.5%, 1%) and KLact (0%, 0.5%, 1%) resulting in six treatments with a total salt content of 2% in the product. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of the jerky containing salt replacers were examined and the most suitable NaCl replacement was to be identified. The jerky samples had moisture content below 25%, more than 60% protein and about 5-6% fat. All samples attained a water activity level below 0.8 after 5 hours of drying. Reduction of NaCl in jerky led to increased shrinkage and shear force values. Significant difference was also observed in the hunter color values especially in the case of L* values which increased as the NaCl content in the samples decreased. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that replacing NaCl reduced the structural density and compactness in jerky. Sensory panelists preferred treatments with only KCl. According to principal component analysis carried out and from sensory point of view, 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl was found to be most suitable strategy for developing low sodium jerky without compromising the product quality. (Key words: Restructured jerky, salt replacement, Sensory analysis, JAR profile, Microstructure, Dried meat).

  20. Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-12-06

    The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination.

  1. The thermodynamic properties of solutions and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryaeva, E. S.; Bogachev, A. G.; Shishin, D. I.; Voskov, A. L.; Igumnov, S. N.; Mamontov, M. N.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

    2012-06-01

    Fragments of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were studied experimentally at 298 and 313 K. The thermodynamic properties of sodium chloride in three-component solutions with ionic strengths up to 1.9 mol/kg and alcohol content in the solvent 4.97 and 10 wt % were measured at 298 and 323 K by the electromotive force method with ion-selective electrodes. The eNRTL (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquids) model parameters correctly describing the results of electrochemical measurements of the partial properties of NaCl and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride ternary system and binary subsystems constituting it were determined. The isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were calculated using the method of convex hulls implemented in the TernAPI package.

  2. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5′-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation

  3. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  4. An electrical impedance tomography-based approach to monitor in vitro sodium chloride dissolution from pharmaceutical tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpiläinen, Ville; Heikkinen, Lasse M.; Kuosmanen, Marko; Lehikoinen, Anssi; Voutilainen, Arto; Vauhkonen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2009-10-01

    An approach to monitor in vitro dissolution process from pharmaceutical tablets utilizing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is introduced. In the demonstration, a tablet containing sodium chloride (NaCl) was dissolution tested using tap water as a dissolution medium within an apparatus similar to the United States Pharmacopoeia dissolution apparatus II. During the process, the three-dimensional sodium chloride concentration distribution was monitored with EIT measurements as a function of time. For EIT measurements, an array of electrodes was attached on the boundary of the dissolution vessel, a set of alternating electric currents was injected through the electrodes, and the resulting voltages were measured. With these data and by applying mathematical algorithms, an approximation for the spatial/temporal concentration distribution inside the vessel was computed. It was found that the computed distributions were relatively homogeneous. A NaCl release curve was computed by integrating the concentration distribution over the vessel volume, and the final value of the curve matched well with the reference point based on the weight loss of the tablet. Finally, EIT monitoring is suggested to be used for research and product development purposes.

  5. Endogenous ligand of alpha(1) sodium pump, marinobufagenin, is a novel mediator of sodium chloride--dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V; Talan, Mark I; Agalakova, Natalia I; Lakatta, Edward G; Bagrov, Alexei Y

    2002-03-05

    Digitalis-like sodium pump ligands (SPLs) effect natriuresis via inhibition of renal tubular Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but may induce vasoconstriction. The present study investigated the potential roles of 2 putative endogenous SPLs, an ouabain-like compound (OLC) and an alpha(1) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), in regulating natriuresis and blood pressure (BP) responses to sustained and acute NaCl loading in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS). During 4 weeks of an 8% NaCl diet, DS exhibited a progressive increase in MBG renal excretion (66 +/-13 pmol/24 hours at week 4 versus 11 +/- 1 pmol/24 hours at baseline, n=48), which paralleled an increase in systolic BP (174 +/- 10 mm Hg at week 4 versus 110 +/- 2 mm Hg at baseline). By contrast, OLC excretion peaked at week 1 and returned to baseline levels. Administration of an anti-MBG, but not anti-ouabain antibody, to DS after 3 weeks of a high NaCl diet lowered BP (139 +/- 7 versus 175 +/- 5 mm Hg, Psodium and MBG but not that of OLC. An anti-ouabain antibody (n=5) reduced sodium excretion and both OLC and MBG. An initial transient stimulation of OLC induced by NaCl loading of DS precedes an MBG response. A sustained increase in MBG production in DS contributes to the chronic BP elevation induced by a sustained high NaCl intake.

  6. Biological Variation of Chloride and Sodium in Sweat Obtained by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis in Adults: How Sure are You About Sweat Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Philippe; Weekx, Steven; Meskal, Anissa; Schouwers, Sofie

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CV A ) and within-subject (CV I ) and between-subject (CV G ) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study. At least eight samples of sweat were collected from each individual by pilocarpine iontophoresis. Chloride and sodium concentrations were measured in duplicate for each sample using ion selective electrodes. After the removal of outliers, the CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride and sodium were determined, and their impact on measurement uncertainty and reference change value were calculated. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride in sweat samples were 6.5, 17.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of sodium sweat samples were 6.0, 17.5, and 42.6%, respectively. Our study indicates that sweat chloride and sodium concentration results must be interpreted with great care. Different components of variation, particularly the biological variations, have a considerable impact on the interpretation of these results. If no pre-analytical, analytical, or post-analytical errors are suspected, repeated sweat testing to confirm first-measurement results might not be desirable.

  7. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  8. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  9. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  10. THE EFFECT OF Fe-ENRICH PHASE ON THE PITTING CORROSION RESISTANCE OF Al ALLOY IN VARIOUS NEUTRAL SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of 5052 alloy was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using an electrochemical method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  The pitting corrosion of pure Al was also investigated under the same experimental condition for the comparison. The pitting potential obtained for 5052 alloy and pure Al decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The pitting potential of pure Al is higher than that of 5052 alloy where pitting resistance of pure Al is better than that 5052 alloy.  The linear equation implies that certain pitting potential becomes a relevant parameter for predicting certain chloride ion concentration.  The synergic role of chloride ion and a localized galvanic corrosion between aluminium metal and iron-containing constituent contribute the process of pitting for 5052 alloy.

  11. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence...... or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release...

  12. Paleohydrology on Mars constrained by mass balance and mineralogy of pre-Amazonian sodium chloride lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride-bearing deposits on Mars record high-elevation lakes during the waning stages of Mars' wet era (mid-Noachian to late Hesperian). The water source pathways, seasonality, salinity, depth, lifetime, and paleoclimatic drivers of these widespread lakes are all unknown. Here we combine reaction-transport modeling, orbital spectroscopy, and new volume estimates from high-resolution digital terrain models, in order to constrain the hydrologic boundary conditions for forming the chlorides. Considering a T = 0°C system, we find that (1) individual lakes were >100 m deep and lasted decades or longer; (2) if volcanic degassing was the source of chlorine, then the water-to-rock ratio or the total water volume were probably low, consistent with brief excursions above the melting point and/or arid climate; (3) if the chlorine source was igneous chlorapatite, then Cl-leaching events would require a (cumulative) time of >10 years at the melting point; and (4) Cl masses, divided by catchment area, give column densities 0.1-50 kg Cl/m2, and these column densities bracket the expected chlorapatite-Cl content for a seasonally warm active layer. Deep groundwater was not required. Taken together, our results are consistent with Mars having a usually cold, horizontally segregated hydrosphere by the time chlorides formed.

  13. Ternary mutual diffusion of isoniazid in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Ana C.G., E-mail: anacatarinasantos123@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Sobral, Abilio J.F.N., E-mail: asobral@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V., E-mail: acabral@ff.uc.p [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Ternary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by Taylor dispersion method (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) are reported for aqueous solutions containing isoniazid and different electrolytes (NaCl, NaOH, or HCl) at T = 298.15 K at different carrier concentrations. These diffusion coefficients have been measured having in mind a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of isoniazid in different media. For example, it is possible to make conclusions about the influence of these electrolytes in diffusion of isoniazid, and to obtain information concerning the number of moles of each component transported per mole of the other component driven by its own concentration gradient.

  14. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  15. Synthesis of nano onion-like fullerenes by chemical vapor deposition using an iron catalyst supported on sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongzhen; Liu Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn; Guo Xingmei; Wen Hairong; Xu Bingshe [Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (China)

    2011-05-15

    Nano-carbon materials were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene at 420 Degree-Sign C using iron supported on sodium chloride as catalyst. The catalysts contain about 0.3, 1.6, 3.3, and 5.2 wt% iron. The samples were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that nano onion-like fullerenes (NOLFs) surrounding an Fe{sub 3}C core were obtained using the catalyst containing 0.3 wt% iron. These had a structure of stacked graphitic fragments, with diameters in the range 15-50 nm. When the product was further heat treated under vacuum at 1,100 Degree-Sign C, NOLFs with a clear concentric graphitic layer structure were obtained. The growth mechanism of NOLFs encapsulating metallic cores is suggested to be in accordance with a vapor-solid growth model.

  16. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...... conductivity method and compared with current measurements using DC voltage. The effect of electrolyte concentration and potential bias on the probability of electrochemical migration was investigated using a water droplet method on chip capacitors. The results from leakage current and conductivity measurement...... showed a difference which is caused by polarization effects, and demonstrated existing issues when indexing contamination levels on printed circuit board assemblies using a standardised solvent extract method. The experimental results showed that dendrite growth was dependent on the type and amount...

  17. Structural properties of iron phases formed on low alloy steels immersed in sodium chloride-rich solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F.R., E-mail: fredy.perez@upb.edu.c [Grupo de Optica y Espectroscopia, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, A. A. 56006, Medellin (Colombia); Grupo de Estado Solido, Universidad de Antioquia, A. A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Barrero, C.A.; Arnache, O.; Sanchez, L.C.; Garcia, K.E. [Grupo de Estado Solido, Universidad de Antioquia, A. A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Hight Walker, A.R. [Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Products of corrosion were obtained from low alloy steels submitted to total immersion tests in solutions containing sodium chloride at different concentrations, during seven days. In order to properly characterize the adherent (AR) and the non-adherent rusts (NAR), a methodology including room temperature Moessbauer spectrometry, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction was addressed. The techniques showed that the AR samples were composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite, goethite, akaganeite and lepidocrocite. The composition of the NAR samples was the same, but with very small amounts of magnetite. Different cell parameters and mean crystallite sizes were found for all phases presented in AR and the NAR samples. The corrosion rates were higher than 580 mum/y. The ratio of the abundances of goethite to the sum of lepidocrocite, akaganeite and magnetite were less than one.

  18. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  19. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bread and cereals contribute 30% to the daily intake of sodium (Na) in the western human diet. Since the average Na intake is double the recommended intake, pressure has built up for the food industry to lower Na in their products. Especially replacing functionality of Na as a tastant remains very

  20. Stability of tacrolimus injection diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in Excel bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yanping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Shank, Brandon R; Deaver, Melissa A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-12-15

    The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). Chemical stability was assessed by measuring tacrolimus concentrations using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity, particle size, and drug content. All test solutions stored at 23 or 4 °C had a no greater than 6% loss of the initial tacrolimus concentration throughout the nine-day study period. All test samples of tacrolimus admixtures, under both storage conditions, were without precipitation and remained clear initially and throughout the nine-day observation period. Changes in turbidities were minor; measured particulates remained few in number in all samples throughout the study. Extemporaneously prepared infusion solutions of tacrolimus 2, 4, and 8 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in Excel bags were chemically and physically stable for at least nine days when stored at room temperature (23 °C) without protection from light and when stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) in the dark. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  2. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Sadia [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Mazharul Haq, M. [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Husain, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India)], E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2008-08-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor ({sigma}{sub 0}), activation energy ({delta}E) and T{sub 0} have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T{sub 0}. The calculated values of T{sub 0} show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain.

  3. The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeability and is regulated by chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagene......The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted...... mutagenesis to investigate the mechanistic relationship between DAT ion binding sites and transporter conductances. In Li(+), DAT displayed a cocaine-sensitive cation leak current ~10-fold larger than the substrate-induced current in Na(+). Mutation of Na(+)-coordinating residues in the first (Na1) and second...

  4. Involvement of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of Selective Excretion of Sodium or Chloride Ions by the Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A S; Kutina, A V; Shakhmatoba, E I; Natochin, Yu V

    2017-02-01

    An increase of total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentration in the plasma in rats was revealed 5 min after oral, but not intraperitoneal administration of NaCl or Trizma HCl solutions. The increase in GLP-1 level was similar to that after oral glucose administration. After intraperitoneal administration of 2.5% NaCl, GLP-1 mimetic exenatide accelerated natriuresis and urinary chloride excretion. Under conditions of normonatriemia and hyperchloremia induced by injection of 6.7% Trizma HCl, exenatide stimulated chloride excretion and reabsorption of sodium ions in the kidneys. These findings suggest that GLP-1 participates in selective regulation of the balance of sodium and chloride ions.

  5. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase change behaviour of some latent heat storage media based on calcium chloride hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Bo [School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, University of Kalmar, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    Phase change behaviour of pure and some chemically modified calcium chloride hexahydrate materials suggested in the literature as suitable heat storage media was studied in storage systems with a low degree of mixing in order to evaluate their long-term reversibility. The influence of gravitation on the phase change properties of the pure system was elaborated by determining local salt concentrations in the liquid phase and changes in the volume of the system during repeated melting and crystallization, whereby the amounts of the different phases being present could be assessed. It was found that thermo gravitational effects are of minor importance in generating salt concentration gradients in the liquid phase when compared to the concentration gradients resulting from the sedimentation of the formed tetrahydrate and the hexahydrate during the phase change reactions. Due to these effects it was not possible to prevent irreversible tetrahydrate formation and deterioration in heat storage capability by adding a surplus of water to the hexahydrate materials, if seeds for the tetrahydrate were present during repeated melting and crystallization. Upon addition of SrCl{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O a solid solution of the two hexahydrates is formed and as a result the formation of the tetrahydrate is suppressed. Due to irreversible formation of SrCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O a state of true congruent melting seems, however, not possible to reach. Phase segregation effects also in this case lead to irreversible calcium chloride tetrahydrate formation if seeds for the latter are added during repeated melting and crystallization. If Ca(OH){sub 2} is also added, the tetrahydrate formation can be further suppressed. But, even in this case, irreversible tetrahydrate formation can not be prevented if the composition of the liquid phase corresponds to the hexahydrate. On addition of 5 wt% KCl or 5 wt% KCl + 2 wt% SrCl{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O or 5 wt% KCl + 0.4 wt% NaCl, repeated melting and

  7. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  9. Effect of hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (crystal violet) on mild steel corrosion in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzie, E.E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, SOSC Building, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria)], E-mail: oguziemeka@yahoo.com; Njoku, V.O. [Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri (Nigeria); Enenebeaku, C.K.; Akalezi, C.O. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, SOSC Building, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria); Obi, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2008-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1 M HCl by hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (HMPC) was investigated using the gravimetric technique in the temperature range 303-333 K. The results indicate that HPMC inhibited the corrosion reaction in both acid media at all temperatures and inhibition efficiency increased with HMPC concentration. The inhibiting action is attributed to general adsorption of protonated and molecular HPMC species on the corroding metal surface. Adsorption followed a modified Langmuir isotherm and the Temkin isotherm, with very high negative values of the free energy of adsorption ({delta}G{sub ads}{sup 0}). An increase in temperature reduced the inhibition efficiency of HPMC in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} but increased efficiency in 1 M HCl. Activation parameters such as activation energy (E{sub a}), activation enthalpy ({delta}H*) and activation entropy ({delta}S*) as well as the adsorption heat (Q{sub ads}) were evaluated from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes.

  10. Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

    2014-03-01

    Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

  11. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  12. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  13. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  14. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  15. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preschoolers Infographic How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits Fruit and Veggie Toolkit for Kids Healthy Foods ...

  16. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  17. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hee Jung; Lu, Xiaochuan; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Son, Sori; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jung, Keeyoung; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Developing advanced and reliable electrical energy storage systems is critical to fulfill global energy demands and stimulate the growth of renewable energy resources. Sodium metal halide batteries have been under serious consideration as a low cost alternative energy storage device for stationary energy storage systems. Yet, there are number of challenges to overcome for the successful market penetration, such as high operating temperature and hermetic sealing of batteries that trigger an expensive manufacturing process. Here we demonstrate simple, economical and practical sealing technologies for Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C. Conventional polymers are implemented in planar Na-NiCl2 batteries after a prescreening test, and their excellent compatibilities and durability are demonstrated by a stable performance of Na-NiCl2 battery for more than 300 cycles. The sealing methods developed in this work will be highly beneficial and feasible for prolonging battery cycle life and reducing manufacturing cost for Na-based batteries at elevated temperatures (<200 °C).

  18. Sodium chloride 0.9% versus Lactated Ringer in the management of severely dehydrated patients with choleriform diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Javier Antonio; Hinostroza, Juana; Huapaya, Julio Arturo; León, Cristian Paul

    2013-07-15

    Although experience within Peru suggests clinical and physiological benefits of treating dehydration caused by diarrhoea with Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) over sodium chloride 0.9%, (NaCl) there is little documented scientific evidence supporting this view. It is important to clarify this issue and determine the best solution for use during epidemics. Forty patients suffering from dehydration due to choleriform diarrhoea were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients were treated using NaCl (Group A) and the other twenty with LR (Group B). After diuresis recovery was achieved, the patients were continued on a course of oral rehydration salts. Serum electrolytes, arterial pH, HCO3-, and pCO2 were measured at three stages: at admission, after diuresis recovery, and after 12 hours. Acidosis was corrected more quickly with LR that NaCl. The hyperosmolality and hypernatremic states were corrected with both solutions. LR use resulted in a better clinical response than NaCl, illustrated by more rapid physiological correction, showing that mixed metabolic acidosis was corrected more quickly and more appropriately with this treatment.

  19. Viscosities of the ternary solution dimethyl sulfoxide/water/sodium chloride at subzero temperatures and their application in cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Vitrification is considered as the most promising method for long-term storage of tissues and organs. An effective way to reduce the accompanied cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, during CPA addition/removal, is to operate at low temperatures. The permeation process of CPA into/out of biomaterials is affected by the viscosity of CPA solution, especially at low temperatures. The objective of the present study is to measure the viscosity of the ternary solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)/water/sodium chloride (NaCl), at low temperatures and in a wide range of concentrations. A rotary viscometer coupled with a low temperature thermostat bath was used. The measurement was carried out at temperatures from -10 to -50°C. The highest mass fraction of Me2SO was 75% (w/w) and the lowest mass fraction of Me2SO was the value that kept the solution unfrozen at the measurement temperature. The concentration of NaCl was kept as a constant [0.85% (w/w), the normal salt content of extracellular fluids]. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model was employed to fit the obtained viscosity data. As an example, the effect of solution viscosity on modeling the permeation of Me2SO into articular cartilage was qualitatively analyzed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  1. Simply modified indium tin oxides by ultrathin aluminum and sodium chloride composite interlayer for high performance inverted polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Wu, Zhenxuan; Zhang, Chuan; Liu, Huan; Yan, Minnan; Su, Xiaodan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Hongmei; Ma, Dongge

    2017-07-01

    We report the fabrication of high performance inverted polymer solar cells with simply modified indium tin oxide (ITO) by an ultrathin aluminum (Al) and sodium chloride (NaCl) composite layer. The device efficiency and stability were both improved. The optimized device with poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester as the acceptor under AM 1.5 (100 mw cm-2) radiation achieved a high power conversion efficiency of 3.88% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.60 V and a fill factor of 0.61, which is significantly higher than those of the inverted devices with only Al or NaCl as modification interlayer, respectively. Moreover, the stability is enhanced by about 70% more than that of the conventional device. The significant enhancement is attributed to the reduced work function of ITO electrode from 4.75 to 3.90 eV by modification as well as the improvement of the electrode interface.

  2. Sodium chloride as a reference substance for the three growth endpoints used in the Lemna minor L. (1753 test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Andrade Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemna sp. growth inhibition test standardized protocols suggest the use of compounds such as 3,5-dichlorophenol as reference substances for checking the test organism’s sensitivity routinely. However, this and other recommended chemicals present risks to human health and to the environment. Sodium chloride (NaCl appears as a less toxic alternative reference substance which has been successfully used in routine ecotoxicological tests. However, the evaluation of this compound in multiple growth endpoints used in the L. minor test, which is required for recommending it as a reference substance for this test organism, has not yet been reported. In the present study, NaCl was tested with L. minor for the growth endpoints frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. Results showed acceptable sensitivity and reproducibility (coefficient of variance < 15.0% for all three of the measured endpoints. Statistically significant differences were observed between the EC50 values calculated based on the three endpoints (p < 0.05. Total frond area was the most sensitive one, with average EC50 value of 2742.80 ± 245.7 mg L-1. It was anticipated that NaCl can be a suitable alternative reference substance and that total frond area should be the endpoint of choice for sensitivity toxicity tests using NaCl.

  3. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyu, Gaius Debi; Will, Geoffrey; Dekkers, Willem; MacLeod, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The effect of potassium iodide (KI) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3) as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode. PMID:28773991

  4. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident.

  5. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic tannery wastewater in chloride-free aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carla Regina [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Olivi, Paulo, E-mail: olivip@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The electrochemical treatment of a synthetic tannery wastewater, prepared with several compounds used by finishing tanneries, was studied in chloride-free media. Boron-doped diamond (Si/BDD), antimony-doped tin dioxide (Ti/SnO{sub 2}-Sb), and iridium-antimony-doped tin dioxide (Ti/SnO{sub 2}-Sb-Ir) were evaluated as anode. The influence of pH and current density on the treatment was assessed by means of the parameters used to measure the level of organic contaminants in the wastewater; i.e., total phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and absorbance. Results showed that faster decrease in these parameters occurred when the Si/BDD anode was used. Good results were obtained with the Ti/SnO{sub 2}-Sb anode, but its complete deactivation was reached after 4 h of electrolysis at 25 mA cm{sup -2}, indicating that the service life of this electrode is short. The Ti/SnO{sub 2}-Sb-Ir anode is chemically and electrochemically more stable than the Ti/SnO{sub 2}-Sb anode, but it is not suitable for the electrochemical treatment under the studied conditions. No significant changes were observed for electrolyses performed at different pH conditions with Si/BDD, and this electrode led to almost complete mineralization after 4 h of electrolysis at 100 mA cm{sup -2}. The increase in current density resulted in faster wastewater oxidation, with lower current efficiency and higher energy consumption. Si/BBD proved to be the best electrodic material for the direct electrooxidation of tannery wastewaters.

  7. Quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium (Na) and sweat chloride (Cl) as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis: are we on the right way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alethéa Guimarães; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Gomez, Carla Cristina de Souza; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Morais, Lucas Brioschi; Servidoni, Maria de Fátima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Sakano, Eulália; Goto, Maura; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Mônica Corso; Hessel, Gabriel; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Peixoto, Andressa Oliveira; Simões, Maria Cristina Ribeiro; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-10-26

    To assess the quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis (CF). A retrospective study of 5,721 sweat samples and subsequent descriptive analysis were carried out. The test was considered "of good quality" (correct) when: (i) sweat chloride was lower than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was higher than sweat chloride; (ii) sweat chloride was higher than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was lower than sweat chloride. The study included 5,692/5,721 sweat samples of ST which had been requested due to clinical presentations compatible with CF and/or neonatal screenings with altered immunoreactive trypsinogen values. Considering the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as ST quality parameter, the test was performed correctly in 5,023/5,692 (88.2 %) sweat samples. The sweat chloride test results were grouped into four reference ranges for chloride (i) chloride sweat weight (p = 0.416). However, there was a positive association with: (i) gender, (ii) results of ST (p sweat chloride/sodium ratio (p sweat chloride values (p = 0.047), (iii) subject's age at the time of the ST grouped by numerical order (p = 0.001). Considering that the quality of ST can be assessed by levels of sweat sodium and sweat chloride, an increasing number of low-quality tests could be observed in our sweat samples. The quality of the test was associated with important factors, such as gender, CF diagnosis, and subjects' age.

  8. Development of Membraneless Sodium Perborate Fuel Cell for Media Flexible Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ponmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the media flexibility of membraneless sodium perborate fuel cell (MLSPBFC using acid/alkaline bipolar electrolyte in which the anode is in acidic media while the cathode is in alkaline media, or vice versa. Investigation of the cell operation is conducted by using formic acid as a fuel and sodium perborate as an oxidant for the first time under “acid-alkaline media” configurations. The MLSPBFC architecture enables interchangeable operation with different media combinations. The experimental results indicate that operating under “acid-alkaline media” conditions significantly improves the fuel cell performance compared with all-acidic and all-alkaline conditions. The effects of flow rates and the concentrations of various species at both the anode and cathode on the cell performance are also investigated. It has been demonstrated that the laminar flow based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 28.2 mW cm−2 with a fuel mixture flow rate of 0.3 mL min−1 at room temperature.

  9. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  10. In vitro influence of D/L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite on the infectivity of feline calicivirus and of ECHO virus as potential surrogates for foodborne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, J; Albert, T; Manteufel, J; Heinze, J; Fehlhaber, K; Truyen, U

    2011-11-15

    The importance of foodborne viruses is increasingly recognized. Thus, the effect of commonly used food preservation methods on the infectivity of viruses is questioned. In this context, we investigated the antiviral properties of D,L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite by in vitro studies. Two model viruses, Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Enteric Cytophatic Human Orphan (ECHO) virus, were chosen for this study simulating important foodborne viruses (human noroviruses (NoV) and human enteroviruses, resp.). The model viruses were exposed to different solutions of D,L-lactic acid (0.1-0.4% w/w, pH 6.0-3.2), of sodium chloride (2-20%, w/v) and of sodium nitrite (100, 150 and 200 ppm) at 4 and 20 °C for a maximum of 7 days. Different results were obtained for the two viruses. ECHO virus was highly stable against D,L-lactic acid and sodium chloride when tested under all conditions. On the contrary, FCV showed less stability but was not effectively inactivated when exposed to low acid and high salt conditions at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C). FCV titers decreased more markedly at 20 °C than 4 °C in all experiments. Sodium nitrite did not show any effect on the inactivation of both viruses. The results indicate that acidification, salting or curing maybe insufficient for effective inactivation of foodborne viruses such as NoV or human enteroviruses during food processing. Thus, application of higher temperature during fermentation and ripening processes maybe more effective toward the inactivation kinetics of less stable viruses. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to examine the antiviral properties of these preserving agents on virus survival and inactivation kinetics in the complex food matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    OpenAIRE

    Hongliang Li; Yunliang Zhao; Tianxing Chen; Yuri Nahmad; Shaoxian Song

    2016-01-01

    The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831) through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 ...

  12. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    isolated from membranes tolerated exposure to high salt concentrations at pH range of 7-8. In addition, the overall findings of the study indicate that SWRO membranes can be operated in Gulf seawater at a recovery of 30 % without using any chemicals, such as coagulant, disinfectant and antiscalant, for an acceptable period of time without performing membrane cleaning. This is highly likely, if media filters are used in the pretreatment and SWRO membranes are operated at normal flux and recovery ratio.

  13. Curcumin Attenuates Gastric Cancer Induced by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea and Saturated Sodium Chloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawiya Sintara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO, control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC, MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W, and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W. To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  14. Calcium chloride and sodium phosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition containing TrophAmine: precipitation studies and aluminum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaki, Evelyn A; Melhart, Brian J; Dewar, Christina J; Huston, Robert K

    2012-07-01

    The objectives were to determine concentrations of calcium chloride (CaCl) and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) that can be safely added to TrophAmine-based parenteral nutrition (PN) and to measure aluminum (Al) concentrations in PN solutions containing CaCl and NaPhos vs those containing calcium gluconate (CaGlu) and potassium phosphate (KPhos). In study A, PN solutions containing varying amounts of TrophAmine, CaCl, and NaPhos were compounded and then evaluated visually for precipitation. In study B, Al concentrations were measured in PN solutions containing CaCl and NaPhos (S1), CaGlu and NaPhos (S2), or CaGlu and KPhos (S3). Study A showed that a maximum phosphorus concentration of 15 mmol/L could be added to a solution containing 12.5 mmol/L of calcium without evidence of precipitation when the amino acid (AA) concentration reached ≥3 g/dL (3%). In study B, the mean (range) Al concentrations were S1 = 2.2 (1.9-2.4), S2 = 8.5 (7.8-9.3), and S3 = 11.7 (10.8-12.2) µmol/L (means of 6.0, 22.9, and 31.5 micrograms/dL, respectively). The data can provide a guide for compounding neonatal PN solutions containing TrophAmine, CaCl, and NaPhos. More studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of substituting CaCl for CaGlu in PN solutions for neonates. Substituting CaCl and NaPhos for CaGlu and KPhos significantly decreases Al concentrations in PN and potential Al exposure of neonatal patients.

  15. Use of sodium-chloride difference and corrected anion gap as surrogates of Stewart variables in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Mallat

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether the difference between sodium and chloride ([Na(+] - [Cl(-] and anion gap corrected for albumin and lactate (AG(corr could be used as apparent strong ion difference (SID(app and strong ion gap (SIG surrogates (respectively in critically ill patients. METHODS: A total of 341 patients were prospectively observed; 161 were allocated to the modeling group, and 180 to the validation group. Simple regression analysis was used to construct a mathematical model between SID(app and [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and between SIG and AG(corr in the modeling group. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was also measured. The mathematical models were tested in the validation group. RESULTS: in the modeling group, SID(app and SIG were well predicted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and AG(corr (R(2 = 0.973 and 0.96, respectively. Accuracy values of [Na(+] - [Cl(-] for the identification of SID(app acidosis (47.5 mEq/L were 0.992 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.963-1 and 0.998 (95%CI, 0.972-1, respectively. The accuracy of AG(corr in revealing SIG acidosis (>8 mEq/L was 0.974 (95%CI: 0.936-0.993. These results were validated by showing excellent correlations and good agreements between predicted and measured SID(app and between predicted and measured SIG in the validation group (R(2 = 0.977; bias = 0±1.5 mEq/L and R(2 = 0.96; bias = -0.2±1.8 mEq/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SID(app and SIG can be substituted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and by AG(corr respectively in the diagnosis and management of acid-base disorders in critically ill patients.

  16. Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hajimohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite, belonging to the class Pentastomida. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl and heat on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. Materials & Methods: Thirty nymphs (10 in triplicate were separately transferred to plastic tubes, containing different concentrations of NaCl solution (2%, 5% and 10%. Meanwhile, 30 nymphs in tubes containing Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS were separately treated by +50°C, +60°C and +72°C. As control group, thirty nymphs were stored in PBS at +4°C. The effects of different conditions on survival time of the nymphs were evaluated by observing their motility in different periods of time. Results: The survival time of the nymphs stored in 10% NaCl solution was too short and all of them were dead after 3 hours. But the other ones maintained in 2% NaCl solution were significantly more resistant (p<0.05 and were survived for 2 days. All the nymphs pertaining to each +60°C and +72°C treatments were found dead after first 5-minute storage interval; the nymphs stored at +50°C died totally after 20 minutes. The nymphs maintained in PBS at +4°C (control group showed the longest survival time (p<0.05; all of them were alive until day 4 and the last ones died on day 34. Conclusion: It is concluded that salting and heating have significant parasiticidal effects on L. serrata nymphs and could be used as disinfecting methods in processing of meat products especially liver. However, refrigeration at +4°C increases the resistance of the nymphs in meat products and therefore might endanger the food safety.

  17. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of pH, sodium chloride, and curing salt on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, S; Koethe, M; Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Daugschies, A; Straubinger, R K; Fehlhaber, K; Ludewig, M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common zoonotic parasites in the world. The parasite causes no or mild symptoms in immunocompetent humans. However, a high potential hazard exists for seronegative pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The consumption of meat containing tissue cysts or oocyst-contaminated vegetables and fruits or the handling of cat feces poses a high risk of infection with T. gondii. It is known that raw minced meat, raw fresh sausages, and locally produced raw meat products are possible causes of T. gondii infection. The infectivity of T. gondii tissue cysts in meat products depends, among other factors, on the pH and the salt concentration. Therefore, the impact of these two factors on the tissue cysts was examined. For this purpose, dissected musculature and brain from experimentally infected mice (donor mice) were placed in a cell culture medium (RPMI 1640). The medium was adjusted to different pH values (pH 5, 6, and 7) with lactic acid and to different salt concentrations (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%) with sodium chloride (NaCl) or nitrite-enriched curing salt (NCS) for the various tests. After storage at 4°C for different time periods, the materials were fed to bioassay mice. Later, the brains were examined for presence of T. gondii to assess the infectivity. The data show that T. gondii tissue cysts have a high pH tolerance. Cysts were infectious in the muscle for up to 26 days (pH 5). In contrast to their tolerance to pH, cysts were very sensitive to salt. Muscle cysts survived at an NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% only, and for no longer than 8 days. At NaCl concentrations of 2.5 and 3.0%, the cysts lost their infectivity after 1 day. When NCS instead of NaCl was used under the same conditions, T. gondii muscle cysts retained infectivity for only 4 days at 2.0%. Consequently, NCS (NaCl plus 0.5% nitrite) has a stronger effect on T. gondii cysts than does common table salt. Sausages produced with low NaCl concentration and short

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Yu, Fen-Fen; Zhong, Yi-Min; Guo, Xin-Xing; Mao, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved drugs is often associated with ocular surface toxicity. Ocular surface symptoms had a substantial impact on the glaucoma patients’ quality of life and compliance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (SH) on ocular surface toxicity induced by BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. Methods: Fifty-eight patients (101 eyes), who received topical BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment and met the severe dry eye criteria, were included in the analysis. All patients were maintained the original topical anti-glaucoma treatment. In the SH-treated group (56 eyes), unpreserved 0.3% SH eye drops were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days. In the control group (55 eyes), phosphate-buffered saline were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, break-up time (BUT) test, corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, Schirmer test, and conjunctiva impression cytology were performed sequentially on days 0 and 91. Results: Compared with the control group, SH-treated group showed decrease in OSDI scores (Kruskal-Wallis test: H = 38.668, P < 0.001), fluorescein and rose Bengal scores (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test: z = −3.843, P < 0.001, and z = −3.508, P < 0.001, respectively), increase in tear film BUT (t-test: t = −10.994, P < 0.001) and aqueous tear production (t-test: t = −10.328, P < 0.001) on day 91. The goblet cell density was increased (t-test: t = −9.981, P < 0.001), and the morphology of the conjunctival epithelium were also improved after SH treatment. Conclusions: SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity, and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti

  1. Safety and efficacy of intravenous hypotonic 0.225% sodium chloride infusion for the treatment of hypernatremia in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Roland N; Maish, George O; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex O

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of central venous administration of a hypotonic 0.225% sodium chloride (one-quarter normal saline [¼ NS]) infusion for critically ill patients with hypernatremia. Critically ill, adult patients with traumatic injuries and hypernatremia (serum sodium [Na] >150 mEq/L) who were given ¼ NS were retrospectively studied. Serum sodium, fluid balance, free water intake, sodium intake, and plasma free hemoglobin concentration (fHgb) were assessed. Twenty patients (age, 50 ± 18 years; Injury Severity Score, 29 ± 12) were evaluated. The ¼ NS infusion was given at 1.5 ± 1.0 L/d for 4.6 ± 1.6 days. Serum sodium concentration decreased from 156 ± 4 to 143 ± 6 mEq/L (P < .001) over 3-7 days. Total sodium intake was decreased from 210 ± 153 to 156 ± 112 mEq/d (P < .05). Daily net fluid balance was not significantly increased. Plasma fHgb increased from 4.9 ± 5.4 mg/dL preinfusion to 8.9 ± 7.4 mg/dL after 2.6 ± 1.3 days of continuous intravenous (IV) ¼ NS in 10 patients (P = .055). An additional 10 patients had a plasma fHgb of 10.2 ± 9.0 mg/dL during the infusion. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased (26% ± 3% to 24% ± 2%, P < .001 and 9.1 ± 1.1 to 8.2 ± 0.8 g/dL, P < .001, respectively). Although IV ¼ NS was effective for decreasing serum sodium concentration, evidence for minor hemolysis warrants further research to establish its safety before its routine use can be recommended.

  2. Stability of fentanyl 5 microg/mL diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in polypropylene syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Graner, Kevin K; Kemp, Jesse; Aloumanis, Vasileios; Ben, Michel; Kupiec, Thomas; Vu, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    The stability of fentanyl 5 microg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride solution packaged in polypropylene syringes was studied. Samples of fentanyl 5 microg (as the citrate) per milliliter in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared and assessed for chemical stability using a validated, stability-indicating high- performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay. A total of 12 syringe samples were submitted for chemical stability testing by HPLC. The syringes were protected from light and stored in controlled ambient conditions (23-27 degrees C and 55-65% relative humidity) in an environmental chamber. Three samples were tested initially and at each 30-day interval. Each syringe sample was tested with two determinations, using the average of the determinations for the assay result. Samples were assessed for pH and inspected for color and visible particulate matter. Stability was defined as the retention of 90-110% of the initial drug concentration at 30, 60, and 90 days. Fentanyl citrate injection maintained the appearance of a clear, colorless solution, with mean +/- S.D. pH values ranging from 4.13 +/- 0.01 to 4.52 +/- 0.02 throughout the study period. Recovery of fentanyl ranged from 99.86% +/- 0.29% to 102.74% +/- 1.60% of the initial concentration, with no detectable changes in the chromatographic profiles of all tested samples. Fentanyl 5 microg (as the citrate) per milliliter in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored protected from light, was stable for at least 90 days in controlled ambient conditions.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride on the reaction of SO/sub 2//0/sub 2/ mixtures with limestones and dolomites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.A.; Johnson, I.; Turner, C.B.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed investigation of the interaction of sodium chloride with limestones and dolomites during calcination and sulfation has been performed. Results show that the presence of salt induces structural rearrangements in the stones, leading to an optimum pore distribution for reaction with SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ mixtures. The interaction involves the presence of a liquid film that increases the ionic diffusion and mobility of the system, enhancing decarbonation, enhancing crystallization of CaO and CaSO/sub 4/ and creating a structure permeable to gaseous diffusion.

  4. A miso (Japanese soybean paste) diet conferred greater protection against hypertension than a sodium chloride diet in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kashimoto, Naoki; Kajimura, Junko; Kamiya, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of miso and sodium chloride (NaCl) on blood pressure in both sexes of Dahl and SD rats. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) were measured at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with a miso diet including 2.3% NaCl, a high-sodium diet including 2.3% or 1.9% NaCl, or a normal diet including 0.3% NaCl (MF diet; Oriental Yeast Co., Tokyo, Japan). The rats were autopsied after 12 weeks on a diet. DBP in male Dahl rats was significantly increased by the 2.3% NaCl diet as compared with that in the MF group (p diet.

  5. Inadvertent injection of potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride during treatment of chronic low back ache with epidural injection leading to paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural injection of steroid is given for back pain resistant to other conservative management. Normal saline (NS is used as diluent in 80 mg methylprednisolone and a local anesthetic. Due to a similar looking ampoule of NS and potassium chloride (KCl, there is a probability of accidental use of KCl instead of NS. We present a case of a 50 year old male patient having low back ache refractory to other conservative treatments. Epidural injection of steroid was given, but accidently KCl was mixed with methylprednisolone instead of NS. He developed severe cramps in the lower limbs, pruritus, and sweating, and finally paraplegia. Electrocardiography and blood showed features suggestive of hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent along with supportive measures. The patient recovered within 8 h. It is concluded that calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent can be used if accidentally KCl is injected in epidural space.

  6. Heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride intermittent flushing for prevention of occlusion in central venous catheters in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Briz, Eduardo; Ruiz Garcia, Vicente; Cabello, Juan B; Bort-Marti, Sylvia; Carbonell Sanchis, Rafael; Burls, Amanda

    2014-10-08

    Heparin intermittent flushing is a standard practice in the maintenance of patency in central venous catheters. However, we could find no systematic review examining its effectiveness and safety. To assess the effectiveness of intermittent flushing with heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline) solution in adults with central venous catheters in terms of prevention of occlusion and overall benefits versus harms. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched December 2013) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 11). Searches were also carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and clinical trials databases (December 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults 18 years of age and older with a central venous catheter (CVC) in which intermittent flushing with heparin (any dose with or without other drugs) was compared with 0.9% normal saline were included. No restriction on language was applied. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Trial authors were contacted to retrieve additional information, when necessary. Six eligible studies with a total of 1433 participants were included. The heparin concentrations used in these studies were very different (10-5000 IU/mL), and follow-up varied from 20 days to 180 days. The overall risk of bias in the studies was low. The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate for the main outcomes (occlusion of CVC, duration of catheter patency, CVC-related sepsis, mortality and haemorrhage at any site).Combined findings from three trials in which the unit of analysis was the catheter suggest that heparin was associated with reduced CVC occlusion rates (risk ratio (RR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.94). However, no clear evidence of a similar effect was found when the results of two studies in which the unit of analysis was the

  7. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  8. Effects of concentration of sodium chloride solution on the pitting corrosion behavior of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaduzzaman M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion behavior of the austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride solution was investigated using electrochemical technique. Corrosion potential (Ecorr measurement, potentiodynamic experiments, potential-hold experiments in the passive range, and microscopic examination were used for the evaluation of corrosion characteristics. The experimental parameters were chloride ion concentration, immersion time and anodic-hold potential. Ecorr measurements along with microscopic examinations suggest that in or above 3.5 % NaCl at pH 2 pitting took place on the surface in absence of applied potential after 6 hour immersion. The potentiodynamic experiment reveals that Ecorr and pitting potential (Epit decreased and current density in the passive region increased with the increase of chloride ion concentrations. A linear relationship between Epit and chloride ion concentrations was found in this investigation. The analysis of the results suggests that six chloride ions are involved for the dissolution of iron ion in the pitting corrosion process of austenitic stainless steel.

  9. Role of ClC-K and barttin in low-potassium induced sodium-chloride cotransporter activation and hypertension in mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Naohiro; Shoda, Wakana; Wang, Yuanlong; Mandai, Shintaro; Furusho, Taisuke; Takahashi, Daiei; Zeniya, Moko; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2018-01-11

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) has been identified as a key molecule regulating potassium balance. The mechanisms of NCC regulation during low extracellular potassium concentrations have been studied in vitro. These studies have shown that hyperpolarization increased chloride efflux, leading to the activation of chloride-sensitive WNK kinases and their downstream molecules, including STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NCC. However, this mechanism was not studied in vivo Previously, we developed the barttin hypomorphic mouse ( Bsndneo/neo mice), expressing very low levels of barttin and ClC-K channels, because barttin is an essential ß-subunit of ClC-K. In contrast to Bsnd-/- mice, Bsndneo/neo mice survived to adulthood. In Bsndneo/neo mice, SPAK and NCC activation after consuming a low-potassium diet was clearly impaired compared to that in wild-type mice. In ex vivo kidney slice experiment, the increase in phosphorylated NCC and SPAK in low-potassium medium was also impaired in Bsndneo/neo mice. Furthermore, increased blood pressure was observed in wild-type mice fed a high-salt and low-potassium diet, which was not evident in Bsndneo/neo mice. Thus, our study provides in vivo evidence that, in response to a low-potassium diet, ClC-K and barttin play important roles in the activation of the WNK4-SPAK-NCC cascade and blood pressure regulation. ©2018 The Author(s).

  10. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells...

  11. Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Chloride for All-Cause Mortality After Coronary Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Robert James (Jim); Pearlman, D. M.; Marshall, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine the relation between sodium bicarbonate prophylaxis for contrast associated nephropathy (CAN) and mortality. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis from multiple randomized controlled trials. We obtained individual patient data sets for 7 of 10 eligible trials ...

  12. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  13. Friedel's salt profiles from thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic modelling of Portland cement-based mortars exposed to sodium chloride solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...

  14. Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Walker, E R; Farthing, M J

    1992-01-01

    Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol/kg; 200 kcal). The daily stomal output remained constant for each patient during the four test periods but varied between patients from 0.60 to 2.84 kg (daily intestinal fluid balance 0.74-2.61 kg). Without a salt supplement, three patients lost more sodium from the stoma than they took in by mouth (-25, -94, and -101 mmol/day) and the mean sodium balance for all six subjects was -16 mmol (range -101 to 79) daily. Extra salt was absorbed with each form of supplement (p less than 0.05); no patient with the glucose electrolyte solution (mean 96, range 0 to 226 mmol), but one patient with the glucose-polymer solution (mean 96, range -25 to 164 mmol) and two with the salt capsules (mean 66, range -8 to 145 mmol) were in negative balance. Two patients vomited with the salt capsules. There was only a small increase in energy absorption (mean 115 kcal) with the glucose polymer solution compared with the glucose electrolyte solution. A sipped glucose electrolyte solution seems to be the optimal mode of sodium replacement in patients with a high output jejunostomy. PMID:1624155

  15. The Effect of Tumbling, Sodium Chloride and Polyphosphates on the Microstructure and Appearance of Whole-Muscle Processed Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Velinov, P. D.; Zhikov, M. V.; Cassens, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of a whole-muscle processed meat were determined. The complex action of socium chloride, polyphosphates and mechanical agitation caused extraction of myofibrillar protein, swelling of fibers and loss of cross-strations. A new functional ability was found for the extracted proteins to form a fine cover or membrane on the surface of the whole muscle during cooking. These changes produced a product with improved cooking yield and color appearance.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  17. Low sodium diet, indomethacin, and contrast media; A comparison between renal effects of diatrizoate and iohexol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Hemmingsen, L.; Golman, K.; Skaarup, P.; Larsen, S. (Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Inst. of Pathology Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus (Sweden). Dept. of Experimental Research)

    1990-11-01

    Urine profiles were followed for 3 or 9 days after intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 30 adult Wistar rats, which received a low sodium diet for 14 days, and indomethacin intravenously 2 hours and immediately before contrast medium or saline injection. A control group of 10 rats, which also received low sodium diet, got saline alone and no indomethacin or contrast medium. Diatrizoate increased albuminuria during the first 22 hours after its injection whereas iohexol did not have any significant effect on albuminuria. Both contrast media caused tubular dysfunction, but there was significant difference between them during the first 2 hours after injection. Compared to the effect of saline, iohexol but not diatrizoate caused increased excretion of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase for 2 days. Iodine measurements showed delayed exretion of both media. Light microscopy showed focal location of dilated tubular profiles with hydrophia, which were only present in kidneys exposed to contrast media. It is concluded that in rats fed on a low sodium diet administration of indomethacin in relation to iohexol has a greater tubular cell effect than diatrizoate, which in turn has a greater effect on the glomerular permeability. The excretion of both media is delayed. (orig.).

  18. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate. Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  19. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium acrylate and (2-ethacryloyloxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride. Synthesis with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray and polymerization kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Xuewu; Sheng Minya; Ye Qiang; Xu Xiangling; Zhang Zhicheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    1999-12-01

    A new terpolymer of acrylamide with sodium acrylate and (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride initiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray was prepared in inverse emulsion. Polymerization conversion was studied dilatometrically and molecular weight was determined viscometrically. The effects of dose rate, monomer concentration, emulsifier content, temperature, etc. on the polymerization rate or conversion and the molecular weight of polymer were examined. The rate of polymerization (Rp) can be represented by Rp {proportional_to} D{sup 1.03}[M]{sup 0.69}[E]{sup -0.02}. The overall activation energy for the rate of polymerization is 12.90 kJ mol{sup -1} (33-56degC). Based on these experimental results, aspects of the polymerization mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  20. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  1. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.K. (Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh)); Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  2. A fluorescent sensor to detect sodium dodecyl sulfate based on the glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters/poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chun-Lan; Ji, Zhong-Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Shou-Nian

    2014-07-07

    A simple method for the detection of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was developed based on glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium)chloride (PDDA) enhanced fluorescent system. Fluorescent Au NCs were synthesized by a one-step approach employing GSH as reducing/protecting reagent. The electrostatic group repulsions between GSH-Au NCs and PDDA resulted in strong fluorescence enhancement from the GSH-Au NCs. Moreover, the addition of SDS was able to cause a significant fluorescence recovery due to the strong affinity of PDDA and SDS. Thus the SDS can be detected. Under optimized conditions, the linear response to detect SDS ranges from 0.2 to 12 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02 µg mL(-1).

  3. Effect of chromium, aluminum, and titanium on the corrosion resistance of nickel in molten sodium sulfate and chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryshich, I. V.

    1985-03-01

    On alloying nickel with chromium, resistance to sulfide corrosion increases, but with aluminum and titanium it is reduced. The maximum resistance in molten sodium sulfate is exhibited by nickel-chromium solid solutions containing more than 16-17% chromium, and the minimum is exhibited by intermetallics Ni3Al and Ni3Ti.

  4. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein A. Akhlaghi Amiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate behavior in porous media. One of the advantages of the Na-silicate system is its water-like injectivity during the placement stage. Mixing Na-silicate with saline water results in metal silicate precipitation as well as immediate gelation. This work demonstrated that low salinity water (LSW, sea water diluted 25 times could be used as a pre-flush in flooding operations. A water override phenomenon was observed during gel formation which is caused by gravity segregation. Dynamic adsorption tests in the sand-packed tubes showed inconsiderable adsorbed silicon density (about 8.5 × 10−10 kg/cm3 for a solution with 33 mg/L silicon content, which is less than the estimated mono-layer adsorption density of 1.4 × 10−8 kg/cm3. Na-silicate enhanced water sweep efficiency after application in a dual-permeability sand-pack system, without leak off into the oil-bearing low permeability (LP zone. Field-scale numerical sensitivity studies in a layered reservoir demonstrated that higher permeability and viscosity contrasts and lower vertical/horizontal permeability ratio result in lower Na-silicate leakoff into the matrix. The length of the mixing zone between reservoir water and the injected Na-silicate solution, which is formed by low salinity pre-flush, acts as a buffer zone.

  6. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  7. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  8. [Inhibition of growth of E. coli cells by anolites of sodium and potassium chloride after processing solutions in a diaphragmatic electrolyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride and potassium anolites, obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser, and the physicochemical parameters of solutions was compared with that between the inhibitory effect and physicochemical properties of hypochlorites obtained after treating the solutions in an electrolyser having no diaphragm was compared. The biological activity of solutions containing molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ions was determined by their effect on the growth of E. coli cells. After a 5-min incubation of cells with each of the oxidizers, the bacterial growth stopped and was not restored during one day. The conclusion is made that the oxidizers irreversibly disturb the barrier properties of cell membranes and, in some cases, destroy cells. In model solutions, as well as in solutions treated after heating on a water bath or after the addition of sodium thiosulfate, a delay in the start of E. coli growth occurs. After the lag-phase, the repair of cells sets on, and after a day the optical density of cells increases and approaches the control.

  9. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  10. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  11. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  12. Electrochemical conversion of solid Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb in sodium chloride melt as proof of oxygen ionisation mechanism of electrodeoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D., E-mail: smvd2@cam.ac.uk [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Presently with Materials Chemistry Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Sanil, N.; Mohandas, K.S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2016-08-25

    The direct electrochemical reduction of a solid metal oxide (MO{sub x}) to metal (M) in calcium chloride melt (FFC Cambridge process) has been proposed to take place via. oxygen ionisation mechanism, MO{sub x} + 2xe{sup −} → M + xO{sup 2−}. However, generation of calcium metal and reduction of the oxide with it too becomes possible under the applied potential condition (3.1 V) of an FFC cell. The unique chemistry of calcium chloride melt, upon cathodic polarisation, makes it difficult to distinguish between the reduction by electrons and calcium metal. Hence in order to confirm the oxygen ionisation theory of electro-deoxidation, electrochemical deoxidation experiments were carried out with sintered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} pellet electrodes in molten sodium chloride at 1173 K. The pellets were found reduced to Nb metal. Sodiothermic reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is thermodynamically not feasible (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10Na → 5Na{sub 2}O + 2Nb, ΔG°{sub 1173K} = 102.1 kJ) and hence the observed reduction of the oxide is attributed to electrons. This study, for the first time, gives reliable experimental evidence to the oxygen ionisation mechanism of electro-reduction of solid oxides in the FFC process. The experimental results also prove that the electro-reduction of oxides can occur in melts, which otherwise were considered unsuitable from thermodynamic considerations. - Highlights: • In NaCl melt: Negligible O{sup 2−} ion solubility & Na reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb – absent. • Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could be electrochemically reduced to spongy Nb in NaCl melt at 1173 K. • Mechanism: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} → Na−Nb−O compounds + suboxides of Nb → Na{sub x}NbO{sub y} → Nb. • Metallothermic reduction of oxide in melt - not mandatory for electrodeoxidation. • In FFC Cambridge process: Metallothermic reduction is not essential but desirable.

  13. Contact toxicity of metals in sewage sludge: Evaluation of alternatives to sodium chloride in the Microtox[reg sign] assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The presence of chloride ions in the Microtox[reg sign] test can cause problems when testing metal toxicity, both due to extraction of metals from solid samples and formation of chloro complexes of metals in the liquid phase. To investigate alternatives to NaCl in the Microtox test, the toxicity of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn to Photobacterium phosphoreum was tested in 28 osmotic surrogates for NaCl. It was found that Na[sup +] must be present to keep the blank luminescence stable for 30 min. The results point to NaClO[sub 4] as the most satisfactory surrogate solution as it has an inert behavior and does not form complexes with any metal of environmental interest. Raw, digested, and reference sewage sludges were tested in the osmotic surrogates. The EC50 values for sludges were lower in solutions of NaNO[sub 3], Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], and NaClO[sub 4], and higher in sucrose, mannitol, and KCl, compared to NaCl. NaClO[sub 4] can be recommended as an osmotic surrogate for sewage sludge testing. Another problem with the Microtox assay is the lack of pH control in the cuvette. Copper toxicity tests were carried out in Tris buffer and KH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] at two different concentrations and at pH 7 and 8. The results show that 1 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, can be recommended for solid samples. However, owing to formation of KClO[sub 4] a buffer containing potassium is not recommended in combination with NaClO[sub 4].

  14. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  15. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris and salt (sodium chloride on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on noneuryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l-1 than B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . The maximal population density (mean±standard error for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 X10 6 cells ml-1 (algal level was 80 ±5 ind. ml-1 , which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 ± 7 ind. ml-1 under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 ± 0.5 days for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 ±1 day. The highest rates of population increase (r values for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 ± 0.012 and 0.367 ± 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 X10(6 cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.La salinidad es una variable importante que tiene influencia sobre la densidad y la diversidad de los rotíferos. Los estudios de rotíferos sobre tolerancia a la sal que se tienen hasta ahora se han concentrado en especies eurihalinas, sin embargo, hay muy poca información sobre taxas no eurihalinos. En el presente trabajo, se evaluaron los efectos combinados de las concentraciones de Chlorella vulgaris y cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento

  16. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  17. Management of central venous catheters in pediatric onco-hematology using 0.9% sodium chloride and positive-pressure-valve needleless connector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchini, Sara; Scarsini, Sara; Montico, Marcella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Ronfani, Luca; Decorti, Cinzia

    2014-08-01

    To describe, in a sample of pediatric onco-hematological patients, the rate of occlusions in unused central venous catheters (CVC) flushed once a week with a 0.9% sodium chloride solution through a positive-pressure-valve needleless connector. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects aged 0-17 years were identified through a manual search in medical and nursing records and were observed for two years or until the occurrence of one of the following events: start or resume of continuous infusion; CVC removal; death. The primary study outcome was the frequency of CVC occlusion (partial or complete). Fifty-one patients were identified (median age 6 years). The median duration of follow-up was 169 days (IQR 111-305). During the follow up period, 14 patients (27%) had one CVC occlusion, in 2 cases (4%) the occlusion was complete, in 12 (23%) partial. All the occlusions were solved without the need for catheter removal. The lumen diameter ≤ 4.2 vs > 4.2 French showed a statistically significant association with occlusion at multivariate analysis (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.1-14.7). Our findings are reassuring with respect to the management of the CVC using the adopted protocol. The study provides useful information for patient care, by verifying the performance of the adopted CVC management protocol and by identifying critical areas for nursing care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 on ET, TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1α, and ANP of preeclampsia in caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Jiang, l H; Zhu, J B; Wei, X Y; Li, L; Liu, B

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a unique disease of pregnancy. Delivery via caesarean section is the most important way of terminating the pregnancy and treating preeclampsia. Perioperative fluid therapy is performed to maintain the circulatory volume and reduce tissue edema. This study evaluated the effects of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 (HSH40) as perioperative fluid therapy for preeclampsia patients. Forty preeclamptic women were randomly divided into two groups: the Ringer's solution group and the HSH40 group. Their ECG, HR, MAP, and SPO2 were monitored. Their MVP and HR were recorded at five, eight, and ten minutes after anesthesia induction and at the end of the caesarean section. The corresponding volume of infusion, blood loss, and urine output during the operation were also recorded. Venous samples were collected before HSH40 infusion and 30 min after infusion to measure the plasma concentrations of ET, TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1α, and ANP via a radioimmunoassay. HSH40 infusion significantly decreased the plasma ET levels (p ANP and TXB2 levels (p ANP, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1α did not significantly change in the control group. Compared with T1, MAP decreased significantly at T2, T3, T4, and T5 within groups (p ANP) during preeclampsia. It effectively maintains and stabilizes the circulating blood volume, increasing renal blood flow, which improves renal function and increases urine output.

  19. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-04

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p27 Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  1. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  2. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-17

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  3. Effects of methionine source, arginine: lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Montanhini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methionine sources (DL-methionine 99% powder (DLM or methionine hydroxy analog liquid 88% (HMTBA, arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio and sodium chloride (NaCl content in the diet of broilers on their performance, carcass yield, serum biochemistry, duodenal mucosal morphology, and immune response. Birds were kept under high temperature conditions during the grower phase and were inoculated or not with an antigen. The use of HMTBA promoted better live performance and carcass yield than the use of DLM. Diets with 1.05 Arg:Lys ratio resulted in better live performance, higher carcass and breast meat yields, longer villi, shallower crypts, and stronger immune response when broilers were challenged than the 1.40 ratio. The dietary supplementation of 6.0 g NaCl/kg promoted better growth performance and carcass weight than 2.0 g NaCl/kg. There was no influence of the different methionine sources or NaCl concentrations on any evaluated intestinal morphology parameter or immune response, nor of any interactions between these sources of variation.

  4. Effects of sodium sulphate and potassium chloride fertilizers on the nutritive value of timothy grown on different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Third harvest samples from a pot experiment were analysed to study the effects of sodium (Na (0, 200 and 400 mg dm-3 of soil in a single application as Na2SO4 . 10H2O and potassium (K application (0, 100 and 200 mg dm-3 applied at each harvest as KCl on the nutritive value of timothy grown on three different soil types (clay, loam and organogenic soil. The effects of fertilization on concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and non-structural carbohydrates, although statistically significant, were relatively minor in absolute terms. Na applications increased and K applications decreased sulphur and phosphorus concentrations, the magnitude of which was dependent on soil type. The increase in sulphur concentration can be attributed to sulphate in Na-fertilizer. The effects of fertilizers on in vitro organic matter digestibility and the potential extent of dry matter (DM and NDF digestibility were small. Digestion kinetic parameters estimated from fermentative gas production measured using a fully automated system were used in a rumen simulation model to estimate digestibility. Total gas volume and the rate of gas production from the rapidly digestible fraction were negatively correlated with timothy S and N concentrations. Na application had no effect, but K application increased true rumen DM digestibility, the effect being most profound on organogenic soil. The results suggest that Na application does not elicit substantial positive effects on the nutritive value of timothy which has often been reported for perennial ryegrass, but K application can improve the nutritive value of timothy grown on K deficient soil.;

  5. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  6. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intercomparison 9711. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report)

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.

    1997-01-01

    47 laboratories in 22 countries participated in intercomparison 9711. One sample set for the determination of major ions, organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of + 20%, 78% of the results were acceptable. More than 80% of the result pairs were acceptable for chloride, sulfate, calcium, mangnesium, sodium, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand. For pH only 43% of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target...

  8. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K; Determinacion de las constantes de hidrolisis del lutecio (III), en medio de fuerza ionica 1M de cloruro de sodio, a 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-07-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  9. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modelling the effect of water activity reduction by sodium chloride or glycerol on conidial germination and radial growth of filamentous fungi encountered in dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, Nicolas; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Dadure, Robin; Debaets, Stella; Mounier, Jérôme; Vasseur, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Water activity (aw) is one of the most influential abiotic factors affecting fungal development in foods. The effects of aw reduction on conidial germination and radial growth are generally studied by supplementing culture medium with the non-ionic solute glycerol despite food aw can also depend on the concentration of ionic solutes such as sodium chloride (NaCl). The present study aimed at modelling and comparing the effects of aw, either modified using NaCl or glycerol, on radial growth and/or conidial germination parameters for five fungal species occurring in the dairy environment. The estimated cardinal values were then used for growth prediction and compared to growth kinetics observed on commercial fresh cheese. Overall, as compared to glycerol, NaCl significantly increased the fungistatic effect resulting from aw reduction by extending latency and/or reducing radial growth rates of Paecilomyces niveus, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium roqueforti but not of Mucor lanceolatus. Besides, NaCl significantly reduced aw range for conidial germination and delayed median germination time of P. expansum but not of P. roqueforti. Despite these observations, cardinal aw values obtained on glycerol-medium yielded similar predictions of radial growth and germination time in commercial fresh cheese as those obtained with NaCl. Thus, it indicates that, for the studied species and aw range used for model validation, the use of NaCl instead of glycerol as a aw depressor had only limited impact for fungal behavior prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of sodium chlorite combined with calcium chloride, and calcium ascorbate on microbial population, browning, and quality of fresh-cut rose apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunthon Mola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial activity and browning were minimized and fresh-cut rose apple quality was maintained using sodium chlorite (SC combined with calcium chloride (CC and calcium ascorbate (CaAs and by investigating the optimal concentration and dipping time of SC for inhibiting microbial activity and browning. Fresh-cut rose apple samples were dipped in SC solution at 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L for 1 min and 3 min, with filtered water and non-dipped samples as controls. All samples were kept at 4 ± 2 °C for 9 d. The results showed that 200 mg/L SC for 3 min was the best treatment to inhibit microbial growth (total bacteria, yeast and molds, Escherichia coli and coliforms, delay browning and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity of fresh-cut rose apples, but could not maintain the fresh firmness. A firmness experiment was conducted by dipping fresh-cut rose apples in 200 mg/L SC and in 200 mg/L SC combined with 20 g/L CC and 20 g/L CaAs (SC + CC + CaAs for 3 min before storage at 4 ± 2 °C for 9 d. Samples immersed in filtered water were used as the control. The combined treatment delayed microbial contamination and browning by reducing the PPO activity and the accumulation of phenolic content, and maintained the fresh firmness of fresh-cut rose apples. Thus, the combination treatment of SC + CC + CaAs solution can protect fresh-cut rose apples against microbial contamination and delay browning and maintain firmness.

  13. Realgar- and cinnabar-containing an-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is much less acutely toxic than sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Yan, Jun-Wen; Wu, Qin; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-01-15

    An-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used for brain trauma, hemorrhage, and coma. AGNH contains 10% realgar (As₄S₄) and 10% cinnabar (HgS). Both As and Hg are well-known for their toxic effects, and the safety of AGNH is of concern. To address this question, the acute toxicity of AGNH, realgar and cinnabar were compared to sodium arsenite (NaAsO₂) and mercuric chloride (HgCl₂). Mice were administrated orally AGNH at 1, 3 and 6g/kg. AGNH at 3g/kg contains 2.8mmol As/kg as realgar and 1.18mmol Hg/kg as cinnabar. Realgar, cinnabar, arsenite (0.28 mmol/kg, 10% of realgar) and HgCl₂ (0.256 mmol/kg, 20% of cinnabar) were orally given to mice for comparison. Blood and tissues were collected 8h later for toxicity evaluation. Serum alanine aminotransferase was increased by arsenite and blood urea nitrogen was increased by HgCl₂. Total As accumulation after arsenite in liver (100-fold) and kidney (13-fold) was much higher than that after realgar. The accumulation of Hg after HgCl₂ in liver was 400-fold higher and kidney 30-fold higher than after cinnabar. Histopathology showed moderate liver and kidney injuries after arsenite and HgCl₂, but injuries were mild or absent after AGNH, realgar, and cinnabar. The expression of metallothionein-1, a biomarker of metal exposure, was increased 4-10-fold by arsenite and HgCl₂, but was unchanged by AGNH, realgar and cinnabar. Thus, AGNH, realgar and cinnabar are much less toxic acutely than arsenite and HgCl₂. The chemical forms of As and Hg are extremely important factors in determining their disposition and toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    potassium chloride and salty-congruent odor. The result showed that considering consumer acceptability during sodium reduction enabled to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Free energy changes in denaturation of ribonuclease A by mixed denaturants. Effects of combinations of guanidine hydrochloride and one of the denaturants lithium bromide, lithium chloride, and sodium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F

    1984-04-10

    The denaturation of ribonuclease A by guanidine hydrochloride, lithium bromide, and lithium chloride and by mixed denaturants consisting of guanidine hydrochloride and one of the denaturants lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and sodium bromide was followed by difference spectral measurements at pH 4.8 and 25 degrees C. Both components of mixed denaturant systems enhance each other's effect in unfolding the protein. The effect of lithium bromide on the midpoint of guanidine hydrochloride denaturation transition is approximately the sum of the effects of the constituent ions. For all the mixed denaturants tested, the dependence of the free energy change on denaturation is linear. The conformational free energy associated with the guanidine hydrochloride denaturation transition in water is 7.5 +/- 0.1 kcal mol-1, and it is unchanged in the presence of low concentrations of lithium bromide, lithium chloride, and sodium bromide which by themselves are not concentrated enough to unfold the protein. The conformational free energy associated with the lithium bromide denaturation transition in water is 11.7 +/- 0.3 kcal mol-1, and it is not affected by the presence of low concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride which by themselves do not disrupt the structure of native ribonuclease A.

  16. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Ph. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Noel, D.; Gras, J.M.; Prieux, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-10-01

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author) 21 refs.

  17. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  18. Cytotoxic effects of nanosilver are highly dependent on the chloride concentration and the presence of organic compounds in the cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Roesslein, Matthias; Diener, Liliane; Wichser, Adrian; Nowack, Bernd; Wick, Peter

    2017-01-06

    Nanosilver shows great promise for use in industrial, consumer or medical products because of its antimicrobial properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of the effects of silver nanoparticles on human cells are still controversial. Therefore, in the present study the influence of the chloride concentration and different serum content of culture media on the cytotoxic effects of nanosilver was systematically evaluated. Our results show that nanosilver toxicity was strongly affected by the composition of the culture media. The chloride concentration, as well as the carbon content affected the silver agglomeration and the complex formation. But also the dissolution of nanosilver and the availability of free silver ions (Ag + ) were severely affected by the compositions of the culture media. Cells, only exposed to silver particles in suspension and dissolved silver complexes, did not show any effects under all conditions. Nanosilver agglomerates and silver complexes were not very soluble. Thus, cells growing on the bottom of the culture dishes were exposed to sedimented nanosilver agglomerates and precipitated silver complexes. Locally, the concentration of silver on the cell surface was very high, much higher compared the silver concentration in the bulk solution. The cytotoxic effects of nanosilver are therefore a combination of precipitated silver complexes and organic silver compounds rather than free silver ions. Silver coatings are used in health care products due to their bacteriostatic or antibacterial properties. The assessment of the toxicity of a certain compound is mostly done using in vitro assays. Therefore, cytotoxicity studies of nanosilver using human cell cultures have to be undertaken under well controlled and understood cultivations conditions in order to improve the compatibility of different studies. Especially when eukaryotic versus prokaryotic systems are compared for the evaluation of the use of nanosilver as antibacterial coatings for

  19. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anna; Schliep, Anne; Jörg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A

    2017-09-12

    There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake indeed aggravates T helper (Th) cell responses and neuroinflammation. Naïve CD4+ T cells were treated with an excess of 40 mM NaCl and/or 250 μM lauric acid (LA) in vitro to analyze effects on Th cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, and gene expression. We employed ex vivo analyses of the model disease murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate whether salt and LCFA may affect disease severity and T cell activation in vivo. LCFA, like LA, together with NaCl enhance the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine and gene expression in vitro. In cell culture, we observed an additive effect of LA and hypertonic extracellular NaCl (NaCl + LA) in Th17 differentiation assays as well as on IL-17, GM-CSF, and IL-2 gene expression. In contrast, NaCl + LA reduced Th2 frequencies. We employed EAE as a model of Th1/Th17 cell-mediated autoimmunity and show that the combination of a NaCl- and LA-rich diet aggravated the disease course and increased T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) to the same extent as dietary NaCl. Our findings demonstrate a partially additive effect of NaCl and LA on Th cell polarization in vitro and on Th cell responses in autoimmune neuroinflammation. These data may help to better understand the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases such as MS.

  20. Lifetimes for some excited states of sodium; Vidas medias de niveles excitados del atomo del sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.

    1979-07-01

    The lifetimes of some s,p and d levels of sodium have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, using a single-photon counting technique. The results are compared with the calculated values of the present work, and with other results. The lifetimes of the ns, np, and levels up to n10; of the nf levels up to n-9;and of the ng, nh,n1 and nk levels up to n-8, have been calculated and the transition probabilities of lines with origin in these levels are given. (Author) 38 refs.

  1. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of unsaturated trifluoromethylated sodium carboxylates in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Christine; Carcenac, Yvan; Abarbri, Mohamed; Coudert, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Structural modifications of unsaturated sodium carboxylate surfactants in terms of trifluoromethylation associated with the hydrocarbon chain length have been studied, the synthesis is described, and aggregation properties have been examined by conductimetry and vapor pressure osmometry between 30°C and 45°C. No strong effect of adding a CF3 group was observed on the Critical Micellar Concentrations. However, the thermodynamic study shows the specific effect exerted by the CF3 group through the enhancement of the entropic contribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of docetaxel diluted to 0.3 or 0.9 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in polyolefin or glass containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroles, Ana Aragones; Bafalluy, Irene Mangues; Arnaiz, Joan Antoni Schoenenberger

    2009-09-01

    The stability of docetaxel diluted to 0.3 or 0.9 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in polyolefin or glass containers was studied. Vials of docetaxel injection concentrate were reconstituted with the entire contents of the solvent vial and carefully homogenized to avoid the formation of foam. Solutions were aseptically prepared with nominal docetaxel concentrations of 0.3 and 0.9 mg/mL by adding the appropriate quantities to polyolefin containers or glass bottles, to which had been added the appropriate volume of 0.9% sodium chloride injection, yielding a final volume of 50 mL. Three identical polyolefin containers and one control glass bottle for each concentration were prepared. All test solutions were stored at 19-21 degrees C and protected from light. Chemical stability was measured by using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with ultraviolet-light detection. Physical stability was determined by visual inspection. No evidence of precipitation was observed during the first 24 hours of the study. However, after a day of storage, the HPLC assay revealed large relative standard deviation values for diluted docetaxel solutions in some containers. These values were predictive for the formation of precipitates and compatible with the existence of microprecipitates at 24 hours. These results suggest that the diluted docetaxel infusions were not stable when stored at 19-21 degrees C. Docetaxel 0.3 and 0.9 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was not physically stable for more than one day when stored at 19-21 degrees C. Docetaxel stability in diluted solutions appears sensitive to slight changes in temperature and degree of agitation.

  3. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An investigation of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate interactions in acetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/surfactant association is a cooperative phenomenon where surfactant binds to the polymer in the form of aggregates, usually through electrostatic or hydrophobic forces. As already known, polyelectrolytes may interact with oppositely charged surfactants through electrostatic attraction that results in polymer/surfactant complex formation. This behavior could be desirable in wide range of application of polymer/surfactant mixtures, such as improving colloid stability, gelling, emulsification and microencapsulation. In the present study surface tension, turbidity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to investigate interactions of cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (Ch and oppositely charged anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, in buffered water. Obtained results show the presence of interactions that lead to Ch/SDS complexes formation at all investigated pH and for all investigated polymer concentrations. Mechanisms of interaction, as well as characteristics of formed Ch/SDS complexes, are highly dependent on their mass ratio in the mixtures, while pH has no significant influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. II46010

  5. Heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride intermittent flushing for the prevention of occlusion in long term central venous catheters in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Natalie K; Edwards, Rachel M; Chan, Raymond J

    2015-11-23

    Guidelines and clinical practice for the prevention of complications associated with central venous catheters (CVC) around the world vary greatly. Most institutions recommend the use of heparin to prevent occlusion, however there is debate regarding the need for heparin and evidence to suggest 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline) may be as effective. The use of heparin is not without risk, may be unnecessary and is also associated with increased cost. To assess the clinical effects (benefits and harms) of intermittent flushing of heparin versus normal saline to prevent occlusion in long term central venous catheters in infants and children. The Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched April 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (Issue 3, 2015). We also searched the reference lists of retrieved trials. Randomised controlled trials that compared the efficacy of normal saline with heparin to prevent occlusion of long term CVCs in infants and children aged up to 18 years of age were included. We excluded temporary CVCs and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). Two review authors independently assessed trial inclusion criteria, trial quality and extracted data. Rate ratios were calculated for two outcome measures - occlusion of the CVC and central line-associated blood stream infection. Other outcome measures included duration of catheter placement, inability to withdraw blood from the catheter, use of urokinase or recombinant tissue plasminogen, incidence of removal or re-insertion of the catheter, or both, and other CVC-related complications such as dislocation of CVCs, other CVC site infections and thrombosis. Three trials with a total of 245 participants were included in this review. The three trials directly compared the use of normal saline and heparin, however, between studies, all used different protocols for the standard and experimental arms with different concentrations of heparin and

  6. Quantification of toxin-encoding mRNA from Clostridium botulinum type E in media containing sorbic acid or sodium nitrite by competitive RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Freddie H; Markos, Spiros I; Haylock, Richard W

    2004-03-19

    Competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) was used to quantify the toxin-encoding mRNA production of a Clostridium botulinum type E strain in media containing either sorbic acid or sodium nitrite. A 10-fold reduction in toxin mRNA production and a 25-fold reduction in the proportion of toxin mRNA to total RNA, was estimated when either 1 mg ml(-1) sorbic acid or 100 microg ml(-1) sodium nitrite were added to the medium at pH 7.0.

  7. The effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine irrigants on the antibacterial activities of alkaline media against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinglei; Tong, Zhongchun; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Hongyan; Wei, Xi

    2015-07-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide are common intracanal medicaments. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of NaOCl and CHX on the antibacterial activities of alkaline media against Enterococcus faecalis. The survival rates of planktonic and biofilm E. faecalis were evaluated by plate counts after 1 min of pretreatment with NaOCl and CHX, and time-kill assays were then used to assess subsequent pH alkaline challenges. Dead and living cells in the E. faecalis biofilm were assessed with SYTO 9 and PI staining in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy following exposure to NaOCl or CHX and subsequent alkaline challenges by common root canal irrigation and dressing procedures. One minute of pretreatment with 2% CHX, 0.2% CHX, or 5.25% NaOCl in combination with a subsequent alkaline challenge significantly decreased planktonic E. faecalis survival rates, but pretreatment with 1% NaOCl did not. The E. faecalis biofilm survival rates were reduced in the subsequent alkaline challenge following CHX pretreatment but gradually increased following NaOCl pretreatment. Similarly, CLSM analysis revealed that the greatest proportions of dead E. faecalis cells in the biofilms were presented in the CHX and alkaline treatment group. CHX might be more effective in improving the antibacterial activities of alkaline root canal medicaments against E. faecalis than NaOCl during routine root canal therapy procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaching of copper concentrates with high arsenic content in chlorine-chloride media; Lixiviacion de concentrados de cobre con alto contenido de arsenico en medio cloro-cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreros, O.; Fuentes, G.; Quiroz, R.; Vinals, J.

    2003-07-01

    This work reports the results of copper concentrates leaching which have high arsenic concepts (up to 2.5%). The treatments were carried out using chlorine that forms from sodium hypochlorite and sulphuric acid. The aim of this work is to obtain a solution having high copper content 4 to 6 g/l and 5 to 7 g/l free acid in order to submit it directly to a solvent extraction stage. In addition, this solution should have minimum content of arsenic and chloride ions. To carry out this investigation, an acrylic reactor was constructed where the leaching tests were made at constant temperature in a thermostatic bath under atmospheric pressure. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Typical variables were studied, such as leaching agent concentration, leaching time, pulp density and temperature among others. Some of the residues were analyzed by XRD and EPS. On the other hand, the solutions were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results indicate solutions having the contents stated above can be obtained. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  10. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF ALUMINUM PHTHALOCYANINE CHLORIDE (AlPcCl IN HOMOGENEOUS AND MICRO-HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA CONSISTING OF P-123 AND F-127 POLYMERIC MICELLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H. Vilsinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl is a photoactive compound which has been used as a photosensitizer (PS in photodynamic therapy (PDT. Its spectroscopic properties have been studied in solvents of different polarities (ethanol, acetone, dimethylsulfoxide and chloroform. Its solubility has been found to decrease with increasing solvent polarity, together with full self-aggregation in aqueous solution. The binding of AlPcCl to the copolymer PluronicTM micellar class P-123 and F-127 used as solubilizer/carriers was studied. Greater interaction between the more hydrophobic copolymer P-123 and AlPcCl was observed, besides a complex interaction profile involving different AlPcCl forms (self-aggregate/monomeric form in the copolymers. Time- and temperature-dependent structural organization of AlPcCl in the copolymers was also observed. Thus, AlPcCl has a strong tendency to self-aggregate with increasing solvent polarity, an effect also observed in micellar media.

  11. Efeito da substituição de cloreto de sódio por cloreto de potássio em pão francês Effect of the substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in French rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karoline Ferreira Ignácio

    2013-03-01

    se produzir pão francês com até 30% de redução de sal (1,4% na formulação comercial, o que proporcionaria pães com a quantidade de sódio proposta para atender aos limites estabelecidos (234 mg.50 g-1, em relação a uma formulação padrão de 2% de sal (base farinha.There is a worldwide trend to reduce sodium in industrialized food products due to its relationship with high blood pressure. Since French rolls are one of the food products most contributing towards the ingestion of sodium by the Brazilian population, the objective of this research was to evaluate the substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl by potassium chloride (KCl in this product, as a way of complying with this tendency. Four formulations were evaluated, standard (FP with 2% NaCl, the substitution of 30% (F1 and 50% (F2 of this percentage by KCl, and F3 with no sodium chloride addition, equivalent to 307, 234, 176.5 and 4.5 mg sodium per French roll (50 g, respectively. All the reductions conformed with the recommendations made by ANVISA for 2014. The wheat flour used was characterized from its proximate composition, gluten content and index and the extensigraphic and farinographic analyses, being found adequate for breadmaking. The rheological characteristics of doughs prepared with saline solutions of the same concentrations as the formulations, were obtained using the extensigraph. The rolls were evaluated for specific volume and their sodium and potassium contents, and also submitted to an acceptance test with 53 bread consumers. The reduction in sodium content did not significantly alter their specific volumes. In the sensory analysis, it was not possible to differentiate up to 30% salt reduction in relation to the 2% salt standard, for all the attributes evaluated. However the formulation with 50% substitution was significantly less accepted for taste than the standard, its average acceptance score being equivalent to "I liked it slightly". The formulation with no added sodium chloride

  12. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  13. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  14. The effect of NaCl 0.9% and NaCl 0.45% on sodium, chloride, and acid-base balance in a PICU population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Helena Isabel; Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Loureiro, Helena Cristina; Abadesso, Clara S; Nunes, Pedro S; Moniz, Marta S; Machado, Maria Céu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na), and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24h of hospitalization. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A) NaCl 0.9% or (B) NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical). change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X(2) statistical significance level was set at α=0.05. Group A (n=130): serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9)mmol/L at 24h (p<0.01); 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8)mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24h. Group B (n=103): serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na<135 mmol/L at 24h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations. The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of NaCl 0.9% and NaCl 0.45% on sodium, chloride, and acid-base balance in a PICU population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Isabel Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na, and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24 h of hospitalization. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A NaCl 0.9% or (B NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical. Main outcome measured: change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X 2 statistical significance level was set at a = 0.05. RESULTS: Group A (n = 130: serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9 mmol/L at 24 h (p < 0.01; 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8 mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24 h. Group B (n = 103: serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na < 135 mmol/L at 24 h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations. CONCLUSIONS: The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances.

  16. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Wexler

    2010-01-01

    .... Tradigital allows us to use online behaviour to track the effectiveness of online and offline media, not simply the correlation of TV airings with search activity, but also by employing a bevy...

  18. A new Pu(III) coordination geometry in (C5H5NBr)2[PuCl3(H2O)5] · 2Cl · 2H2O as obtained via supramolecular assembly in aqueous, high chloride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surbella, Robert G.; Ducati, Lucas; Pellegrini, Kristi L.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Autschbach, J.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2017-10-07

    Crystals of a hydrated Pu(III) chloride, (C5H5NBr)2[PuCl3(H2O)5] · 2Cl · 2H2O, were grown via slow evaporation from acidic aqueous, high chloride media. X-ray diffraction data reveals the neutral [PuCl3(H2O)5] tecton is assembled via charge assisted hydrogen and halogen bonds donated by 4-bromopyridinium (4-BrPyH) cations and a series of inter-tecton hydrogen bonds. Negative regions of the electrostatic potential (ESP) at the Cl and positive ESP regions at the aquo ligands of [PuCl3(H2O)5] explain the simultaneous donor/acceptor ability of this species.

  19. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    Increased level of chloride indicates dehydration but can occur with other problems causing high blood sodium or hyperventilated. (Anderson and Scotti, 1980). Decreased levels of serum chloride also occur with disorders that result in low blood sodium, prolonged vomiting or gastric sunction, chronic diarrhea, with loss of ...

  20. Preliminary treatment of chlorinated streams containing fission products: mechanisms leading to crystalline phases in molten chloride media; Pretraitement pyrochimique de flux charges en produits de fission: mecanismes conduisant a l'obtention de phases cristallines en milieux chlorures fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudry, D

    2008-10-15

    The world of the nuclear power gets ready for profound modifications so that 'the atom' can aspire in conformance with long-lasting energy: it is what we call the development of generation IV nuclear systems. So, the new pyrochemical separation processes for the spent fuel reprocessing are currently being investigated. Techniques in molten chloride media generate an ultimate flow (with high chlorine content) which cannot be incorporated in conventional glass matrices. This flow is entirely water-soluble and must be conditioned in a chemical form which is compatible with a long-term disposal. This work of thesis consists in studying new ways for the management of the chlorinated streams loaded with fission products (FP). To do it, a strategy of selective FP extraction via the in situ formation of crystalline phases was retained. The possibility of extracting rare earths in the eutectic LiCl-KCl was demonstrated via the development of a new way of synthesis of rare earth phosphates (TRPO{sub 4}). As regards alkaline earths, the conversion of strontium and barium chlorides to the corresponding tungstates or molybdates was studied in different solvents. Mechanisms leading to the crystalline phases in molten chloride media were studied via the coupling of NMR and XRD techniques. First of all, it has been shown that these mechanisms are dependent on the stability of the used precursors. So in the case of the formation of rare earth phosphates the solvent is chemically active. On the other hand, in the case of the formation of alkaline earth tungstates it would seem that the solvent plays the role of structuring agent which can control the ability to react of chlorides. (author)

  1. Effects of sodium sulfate on the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii: implications for the optimization of algal culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    The study of the microalgal growth kinetics is an indispensable tool in all fields of phycology. Knowing the optimal nutrient concentration is an important issue that will help to develop efficient growth systems for these microorganisms. Although nitrogen and phosphorus are well studied for this purpose, sulfur seems to be less investigated. Sulfate is a primary sulfur source used by microalgae; moreover, the concentration of this compound is increasing in freshwater systems due to pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sodium sulfate concentrations in the culture medium on growth and growth kinetics of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Production of biomass, chl content, kinetic equations, and a mathematical model that describe the microalgal growth in relation with the concentration of sodium sulfate were obtained. The lowest concentration of sodium sulfate allowing optimal growth was 0.1 mM. Concentrations higher than 3 mM generated a toxic effect. This work demonstrates that this toxic effect was not directly due to the excess of sulfate ion but by the elevation of the ionic strength. An inhibition model was successfully used to simulate the relationship between specific growth rate and sodium sulfate in this microalga. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  3. Exothermic-Endothermic Transition in the Titration of Poly(allylamine chloride) with Sodium Hexametaphoshate Associated with a Change in the Proton Release Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, Clarisse; Ball, Vincent

    2016-05-26

    The formation of complexes (aggregates) between oppositely charged macromolecular species or between macromolecular species and multivalent ions is a fascinating fundamental research topic that allows one to understand fundamental processes in biology and in polymer science. In addition interpolyelectrolyte complexes hold by strong interactions and polyelectrolyte coacervates in which the stabilizing interactions are weaker find many applications in food and in colloidal science. The interactions between oppositely charged species are usually investigated as a function of intensive variables like the temperature, the pH, the ionic strength, and parameters related to the charged species themselves (molecular mass, charge density, charge distribution, and so forth). It appeared however in the past few years that the interaction kinetics is also of fundamental importance; a fast mixing of the interacting species can lead to the formation of frozen and out-of-equilibrium structures. The present investigation is aimed to study the interactions between a small polyphosphate (sodium hexametaphosphate) (HMP) and a linear polyamine (poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) (PAH) from both a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view as a function of the ionic strength (in NaCl solutions). It is found, unexpectedly, that the interaction is of biphasic nature with a first exothermic regime followed by an endothermic regime. The transition between both regimes is ionic strength independent between 10 and 2000 mM emphasizing the strong interactions between both species. It occurs at a charge ratio of about 0.4 between the number of negative and positive charges and is correlated with proton release in the exothermic regime and a proton uptake in the endothermic regime. When HMP solutions are titrated in PAH solutions the turbidity of the mixtures is not the same as that obtained during the reverse titration at a given charge ratio, emphasizing the difficulty to establish an "equilibrium

  4. Corrosion Inhibition of AISI 316L and Modified-AISI 630 Stainless Steel by the New Organic Inhibitor [(CH32N]3PSe in Chloride Media:Electrochemical and Physical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafa ZARGOUNI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the effect of the Tris-dimethylaminoselenophosphoramide (SeAPon the corrosion inhibition of modified-AISI 630 and AISI 316L stainless steel (SS in 3 wt. % NaCl. The electrochemical behaviors of tested SS samples are investigated before and after adding the Seep into the chloride media by potentiodynamic polarization technique. The adsorption of SeAP onto both SS surfaces is verified by global discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES.  SeAP is found to be a good inhibitor for SS corrosion, especially when added at a concentration of 0.5 wt. %.

  5. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  6. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  8. First cross-coupling reaction of potassium aryltrifluoroborates with organic chlorides in aqueous media catalyzed by an oxime-derived palladacycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacid, Emilio; Nájera, Carmen

    2008-11-06

    Potassium aryltrifluoroborates are cross-coupled with aryl and heteroaryl chlorides using a 4-hydroxyacetophenone oxime-derived palladacycle as precatalyst, K2CO3 as base, and TBAB as additive in refluxing water under conventional and microwave heating affording the corresponding biphenyls under phosphine-free conditions. For the arylation of allyl and benzyl chlorides, KOH is used as base in acetone-water (3:2) at rt or 50 degrees C using 0.1 mol % Pd loading providing allylbenzenes and diarylmethanes, respectively.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE-DE-SOL ELABORADA COM BAIXOS TEORES DE CLORETO DE SÓDIO MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUN DRIED MEAT WITH LOW SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    2001-08-01

    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  10. Media development for large scale Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, Ingrid K; McDonald, Karen A

    2017-09-01

    A chemically defined media was developed for growing Agrobacterium tumefaciens at large scale for commercial production of recombinant proteins by transient expression in plants. Design of experiments was used to identify major and secondary effects of ten media components: sucrose, ammonium sulfate ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ), magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO 4 *7H 2 O), calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl 2 *2H 2 O), iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO 4 *7H 2 O), manganese (II) sulfate monohydrate (MnSO 4 *H 2 O), zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO 4 *7H 2 O), sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and a sodium/potassium phosphate buffer (Na 2 HPO 4 /KH 2 PO 4 ). Calcium and zinc were found to have no detectable impact on biomass concentration or transient expression level, and concentrations of the other components that maximized final biomass concentration were determined. The maximum specific growth rate of Agrobacterium strain C58C1 pTFS40 in this media was 0.33 ± 0.01 h -1 and the final biomass concentration after 26 h of batch growth in shake flasks was 2.6 g dry cell weight/L. Transient expression levels of the reporter protein GUS following infiltration of a recombinant Agrobacterium strain C58C1 into N. benthamiana were comparable when the strain was grown in the defined media, Lysogeny Broth (LB) media, or yeast extract-peptone (YEP) media. In LB and YEP media, free amino acid concentration was measured at three points over the course of batch growth of Agrobacterium strain C58C1 pTFS40; results indicated that l-serine and l-asparagine were depleted from the media first, followed by l-alanine and l-glutamic acid. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1218-1225, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Familial Hyperkalemia and Hypertension (FHHt) and KLHL3: Description of a Family with a New Recessive Mutation (S553L) Compared to a Family with a Dominant Mutation, Q309R, with Analysis of Urinary Sodium Chloride Cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuk-Ben Bassat, Orit; Carmon, Vered; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Ganon, Liat; Massalha, Eias; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Farfel, Zvi; Mayan, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Familial hyperkalemia and hypertension (FHHt) is an inherited disorder manifested by hyperkalemia and hypertension. The following four causative genes were identified: WNK1, WNK4, CUL3, and KLHL3. For the first 3 genes, inheritance is autosomal dominant. For KLHL3, inheritance is mostly dominant. A few cases with autosomal recessive disease were described. The mechanism of these 2 modes of inheritance is not clear. In the recessive form, the phenotype of heterozygotes is not well described. Clinical and genetic investigation of members of 2 families was performed, one with recessive FHHt, and the other, an expansion of a family with Q309R KLHL3 dominant mutation, previously reported by us. Urinary exosomal sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) was measured. A family with recessive FHHt caused by a new KLHL3 mutation, S553L, is described. This consanguineous Jewish family of Yemenite extraction, included 2 homozygous and 7 heterozygous affected subjects. Increased urinary NCC was found in the affected members of the family with dominant Q309R KLHL3 mutation. In the recessive S553L family, homozygotes appeared to have increased urinary NCC abundance. Surprisingly, heterozygotes seemed to have also increased urinary NCC, though at an apparently lower degree. This was not accompanied by a clinical phenotype. A new recessive mutation in KLHL3 (S553L) was identified in FHHt. Increased urinary NCC was found in affected members (heterozygous) with dominant KLHL3 Q309R, and in affected members (homozygous) of the recessive form. Unexpectedly, in the recessive disease, heterozygotes seemed to have increased urinary NCC as well, apparently not sufficient quantitatively to produce a clinical phenotype. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  13. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conić Vesna T; Pešovski Branka D; Cvetkovski Vladimir B; Stanojević-Šimšić Zdenka S; Dragulović Suzana S; Simonović Danijela B; Dimitrijević Silvana B

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge...

  14. Mutation of neuronal channels of sodium and chloride associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (gefs+ Mutaciones de los canales neuronales de sodio y cloro asociadas a epilepsia generalizada con convulsiones febriles plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bedoya Berrío

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+ is a frequent entity characterized by generalized seizures with a wide phenotypic variety; the age of onset is 3 months and it persists beyond 6 years. Seizures may or may not be induced by fever. The disease has shown an autosomic dominant trait, incomplete penetrance and association with mutations on the genes that encode voltage-dependent sodium channels and the chloride neuronal channels on the central nervous system. The wide spectrum GEFS+ phenotype has been related with others entities such as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI and Intractable Childhood Epilepsy with Frequent Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures (ICEGTC; they have mutations in common with GEFS+ according to several recently published articles. This review compiles up to date information about EGCF+ with the aim of giving the reader a knowledge of this entity and of its association with mutations that participate in its pathogenesis. La Epilepsia Generalizada Con Convulsiones Febriles Plus (EGCF+, es una entidad relativamente común. Se caracteriza por convulsiones de tipo generalizado con una gran variabilidad fenotípica; se presenta desde los 3 meses de edad y persiste más allá de los 6 años; las convulsiones pueden ser precipitadas por fiebre pero se presentan también sin ella. La enfermedad se ha asociado a herencia autosómica dominante con penetrancia incompleta, en la que intervienen mutaciones de los genes que codifican los canales iónicos de sodio dependientes del voltaje y de los canales iónicos de cloro en las neuronas del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC. El amplio fenotipo de la EGCF+ se ha encontrado en asociación con otras entidades como la Epilepsia Mioclónica Severa del Lactante (EMSL y la Epilepsia Generalizada Tónico-Clónica Intratable de la Infancia (EGTCII, las cuales han presentado mutaciones comunes con las de la EGCF+, según informes recientemente publicados. Esta revisi

  15. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neat (undiluted) and mildly dilute anolyte removed the biofilm while the more dilute anolyte did not have any effect on the biofilm. Re-growth of the biofilm occurred after 24 h of biofilm treatment with anolyte and anolyte-catholyte combination, showed by the increase in colony forming units. Re-growth of planktonic bacteria ...

  16. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-16

    Sep 16, 2005 ... Scanning electron microscopy has been used by various researchers to show the presence of biofilms on different sur- faces and also to visually estimate biofilm removal from these surfaces by use of biocides (Marais and Brözel, 1999; Cloete and Jacobs, 2001; Gilbert et al., 2003; Pajkos et al., 2004; Vick-.

  17. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  18. cobalt chloride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samih Tamimi

    2015-08-12

    Aug 12, 2015 ... AgNO3, to culture media may be useful for improving in vitro growth performance of banana cultures. Key words: Ethylene ..... strawberry cv. Toyonokain vitro to silver nitrate (AgNO3).Hortscience. 40:747-751. Reddy BO, Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA (2001). In vitro rooting of. Decalepishamiltonii Wight and ...

  19. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  20. Greywater treatment by granular filtration system using volcanic tuff and gravel media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawneh, Abeer; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Alshawabkeh, Heba

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a granular filtration system (GFS) in greywater treatment under arid and semi-arid conditions. Six GFSs were designed, constructed, and monitored for approximately 13 months. Each GFS served a single rural Jordanian home by treating their greywater. Volcanic tuff media were used as the filtration media in three of the GFSs while the remaining three GFSs used gravel media. Results show that the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids of the effluent were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 73%, 65%, and 85%, respectively, when using volcanic tuff media. The removal efficiency was 49%, 51%, and 76%, respectively, when using gravel media. There was a significant increase in the electrical conductivity, pH, potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl-), sodium (Na+), sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), sodium adsorption ratio, and exchangeable sodium percentage in the effluents of the GFS that used volcanic tuff media. The study suggests that GFSs can adequately treat greywater under arid conditions. However, gravel media produce less concentrated effluent compared to the volcanic tuff media.

  1. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  2. Effect of the chloride ions on the hydrolysis of praseodymium in a 2M ion force media; Efecto de los iones cloruro sobre la hidrolisis del praseodimio en medio de fuerza ionica 2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, H.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The constants of the product of solubility and the first of hydrolysis were determined of the Praseodymium in media 2M of NaClO{sub 4} and 2M of NaCl, to 303 K and under conditions free of CO{sub 2}. The diagram of solubility was obtained (pPr{sub (ac)} - pC{sub H}), by means of a radiochemical method and with it was established the pC{sub H} that limit the saturation and non saturation areas; that diagram allowed, also, to calculate the constant of the product of solubility. Also, it was adjusted with the polynomial of solubility equation, that it allowed to determine and to check the values of the constants of the product of solubility and the first of hydrolysis. Independently, it was determined the first constant of hydrolysis of the element, by means of potentiometric titrations whose data were treated with the computer program named SUPERQUAD and with the adjustment of the equation of the average number of bonds. It was also calculates the log constant {beta}{sub Pr,Cl} of the specie PrCI{sup 2+} starting from the hydrolysis constants obtained in the perchlorate and chloride media. (Author)

  3. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodium chloride and solid lithium iodide + sodium iodide.

  4. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  5. Desarrollo tecnológico de una formulación de cloruro de sodio al 5 % para el tratamiento del edema corneal en Cuba Technological development of a 5 % sodium chloride formula for treatment of corneal edema in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelia Collado Coello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una formulación para uso oftálmico, que contenía cloruro de sodio al 5 %, estable desde el punto de vista físico, químico y microbiológico. Se realizaron los estudios de formulación correspondientes, seleccionándose la composición y procedimiento tecnológico más adecuados. Además, se estudió la efectividad antimicrobiana de los preservativos antimicrobianos empleados según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30 y se comprobó la seguridad del uso de este medicamento a través de los resultados del ensayo de irritabilidad oftálmica. Se elaboraron 3 lotes del medicamento y se envasaron en frascos plásticos de polietileno de baja densidad con tapa de polipropileno de alta densidad y se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente durante 24 meses; se estudió su estabilidad física y química por el método acelerado y de vida de estante. Se comprobó su estabilidad microbiológica a cada uno de los lotes elaborados, al inicio y final del estudio, según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios. Todos los resultados cumplieron con los límites de calidad establecidos en la literatura oficial para este tipo de forma farmacéutica, por lo que se concluyó que el medicamento desarrollado está correctamente formulado desde el punto de vista galénico con un tiempo de vida útil de 24 meses almacenado bajo las condiciones estudiadas, demostrado según el otorgamiento del certificado de registro por el organismo regulador (Centro Estatal para el Control de Medicamentos, CECMED. Finalmente el medicamento fue introducido al nivel industrial sin que se presentaran problemas tecnológicos.A formula for ophthalmic use was developed containing 5 % sodium chloride stable from the physical, chemical and microbiological point of view. Studies of corresponding formulae were conducted selecting the more suitable composition and technological procedure. Also, the

  6. Behaviour of nickel and nickel oxide thin films in chloride media; Comportamiento de peliculas delgadas de niquel y oxido de niquel en NaCl al 3%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magana, C. R.; Angeles, M. E.; Rodriguez, F. J.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the behaviour of both: a nickel thin film deposited on steel AISI 1018 (UNS G 10180) and a superior nickel oxide electrochemically obtained on the film; with the purpose of decreasing the corrosion rate of low carbon steel immersed in a solution of NaCl 3% wt, thus efficient anti corrosive protection could be obtained. Two film deposition techniques were used, electrochemical and magnetron DC sputtering; and the protective properties of deposited films exposed to the aggressive media, were evaluated. The characterization of different films was carried out by using electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and electrochemical impedance. (Author)

  7. Development of a new colorimetric assay for detection of bisphenol-A in aqueous media using green synthesized silver chloride nanoparticles: experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalililaghab, Shiva; Momeni, Safieh; Farrokhnia, Maryam; Nabipour, Iraj; Karimi, Sadegh

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, a cost-effective, green and simple synthesis method was applied for preparation of stable silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs). The method was done by forming AgCl-NPs from Ag+ ions using aqueous extract of brown algae (Sargassum boveanum) obtained from the Persian Gulf Sea. This extract served as capping agent during the formation of AgCl-NPs. Creation of AgCl-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, while the morphology and size analyses were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. After optimization of some experimental conditions, particularly pH, a simple and facile system was developed for the naked-eye detection of bisphenol-A. Moreover, a theoretical study of AgCl interaction with bisphenol-A was performed at the density functional level of theory in both gas and solvent phases. Theoretical results showed that electrostatic and van der Waal interactions play important roles in complexation of bisphenol-A with AgCl-NPs, which can lead to aggregation of the as-prepared AgCl-NPs and results in color change from specific yellow to dark purple, where a new aggregation band induced at 542 nm appears. The absorbance at 542 nm was found to be linearly dependent on the bisphenol-A concentration in the range of 1 × 10-6-1 × 10-4 M, with limit of detection of 45 nM. In conclusion, obtained results from the present study can open up an innovative application of the green synthesis of AgCl-NPs using brown algae extract as colorimetric sensors.

  8. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  9. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  10. Comparison Between the Inhibition Efficiencies of Two Modification Processes with PEG-Ceria Based Layers Against Corrosion of Mild Steel in Chloride and Sulfate Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudellioua, H.; Hamlaoui, Y.; Tifouti, L.; Pedraza, F.

    2017-09-01

    Cerium (III) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) combinations were employed to enhance the corrosion resistance of ASTM A915 mild steel in 0.1 M NaCl and in 0.1 M Na2SO4 media. One of the combinations consisted in dipping the steel in a bath mixture of PEG and cerium nitrate for 60 min. In the second combination, the steel was first immersed in the PEG solution for 30 min, then in cerium nitrate for 30 additional minutes. The corrosion protective capabilities of the superficially modified steels were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization resistance ( R p), polarization measurements (Tafel) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The composition and structure of the surface products were analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to chemical EDS analysis. The mixture of PEG and cerium nitrate hindered the development of corrosion products on the mild steel surface. However, the subsequent immersion of the steel first in PEG then in cerium nitrate was not efficient to slow down corrosion.

  11. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  12. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424 Section... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a...

  13. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L; Morris, R C; Sellmeyer, D E; Todd, K; Sebastian, A

    2001-10-01

    Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods. Deficiency of K-base in the diet increases the net systemic acid load imposed by the diet. We know that clinically-recognized chronic metabolic acidosis has deleterious effects on the body, including growth retardation in children, decreased muscle and bone mass in adults, and kidney stone formation, and that correction of acidosis can ameliorate those conditions. Is it possible that a lifetime of eating diets that deliver evolutionarily superphysiologic loads of acid to the body contribute to the decrease in bone and muscle mass, and growth hormone secretion, which occur normally with age? That is, are contemporary humans suffering from the consequences of chronic, diet-induced low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis? Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity. We also found that neutralization of the diet net acid load with dietary supplements of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) improved calcium and phosphorus balances

  14. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  15. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined ... RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established ...

  16. Wave propagation simulation in the upper core of sodium-cooled fast reactors using a spectral-element method for heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaso, Masaru; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Moysan, Joseph; Lhuillier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    ASTRID project, French sodium cooled nuclear reactor of 4th generation, is under development at the moment by Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). In this project, development of monitoring techniques for a nuclear reactor during operation are identified as a measure issue for enlarging the plant safety. Use of ultrasonic measurement techniques (e.g. thermometry, visualization of internal objects) are regarded as powerful inspection tools of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) including ASTRID due to opacity of liquid sodium. In side of a sodium cooling circuit, heterogeneity of medium occurs because of complex flow state especially in its operation and then the effects of this heterogeneity on an acoustic propagation is not negligible. Thus, it is necessary to carry out verification experiments for developments of component technologies, while such kind of experiments using liquid sodium may be relatively large-scale experiments. This is why numerical simulation methods are essential for preceding real experiments or filling up the limited number of experimental results. Though various numerical methods have been applied for a wave propagation in liquid sodium, we still do not have a method for verifying on three-dimensional heterogeneity. Moreover, in side of a reactor core being a complex acousto-elastic coupled region, it has also been difficult to simulate such problems with conventional methods. The objective of this study is to solve these 2 points by applying three-dimensional spectral element method. In this paper, our initial results on three-dimensional simulation study on heterogeneous medium (the first point) are shown. For heterogeneity of liquid sodium to be considered, four-dimensional temperature field (three spatial and one temporal dimension) calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with Large-Eddy Simulation was applied instead of using conventional method (i.e. Gaussian Random field). This three-dimensional numerical

  17. Is the second sodium pump electrogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L E; Rocafull, M A; Del Castillo, J R

    2013-01-01

    Transepithelial sodium transport is a process that involves active Na(+) transport at the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell. This process is mediated by the Na(+)/K(+) pump, which exchanges 3 internal Na(+) by 2 external K(+) inducing a net charge movement and the second Na(+) pump, which transports Na(+) accompanied by Cl(-) and water. It has been suggested that this pump could also be electrogenic. Herein, we evaluated, in MDCK cells, the short-circuit current (Isc) generated by these Na(+) pumps at the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells, using amphotericin B as an apical permeabilizing agent. In Cl(-)-containing media, Isc induced by amphotericin B is totally inhibited by ouabain, indicating that only the electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump is detectable in the presence of Cl(-). Electrogenicity of the second Na(+) pump can be demonstrated in Cl(-)-free media. The existence of a furosemide-sensitive component of Isc, in addition to an ouabain-sensitive one, was identified in absence of chloride. Passive Cl(-) movement associated with the function of the second Na(+) pump seems to be regulated by the pump itself. These results demonstrate that the second Na(+) pump is an electroneutral mechanism result from the stoichiometric movement of Na(+) and Cl(-) across the basolateral plasma membrane of the epithelial cell.

  18. Sodium Reduction and Its Effect on Food Safety, Food Quality, and Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Marjorie Ellin; Glass, Kathleen A

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations recommend that sodium intake be significantly decreased. Traditionally, salt (sodium chloride) has been used as a food preservative that kills or limits the growth of foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms by decreasing...

  19. Modification Of Carry-Blair Transport Media For Storage Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Supriatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine transport media modification as alternative media to replace Carry Blair. One type of transport media that often use to carry faeces specimens suspected to contain Salmonella typhi is Carry-Blair media. Studies have been conducted experimentally by storing Salmonella typhi on alternative transport media with Peptone composition, disodium Phosphate, Sodium chloride, Calcium chloride, which is made using a semi-solid and Carry-Blair as a control. Three variety of storage was done (0 hour,6 hours,9 hours at a temperature 4⁰-8⁰C and then Salmonella typhi was inoculated in Salmonella Shigella Agar using spread plate technique incubated during 24 hours at 37⁰C, counted the number of colonies by the plate count method using the colony counter. The results of ANOVA could be concluded that modification media could be use as alternative media replace Carry-Blair at 6 hours. Based on regression correlation test was assumed that the Salmonella typhi bacteria still life at less than 11 hours 54 minutes.

  20. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  1. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  2. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intercomparison 9812. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report 49/1998)

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.

    1998-01-01

    43 laboratories in 20 countries participated in intercomparison 9812. One sample set for the determination of major ions, organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of * 20 %, 74 % of the results were acceptable. More than 80 % of the result pairs were acceptable for conductivity, nitrate + nitrite, sulfate, sodium, and dissolved organic carbon. For pH only 55 % of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target accuracy of * 0....

  4. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complex formation between cloxacillin sodium and riboflavin in aqueous ethanol media of varying composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dalim Kumar; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2006-03-01

    Cloxacillin sodium has been shown to form a charge transfer complex of 2:1 stoichiometry with riboflavin (Vitamin B 2) in aqueous ethanol medium. The enthalpy and entropy of formation of this complex have been determined by estimating the formation constant spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures in pure water medium. Pronounced effect of dielectric constant of the medium on the magnitude of K has been observed by determining K in aqueous ethanol mixtures of varying composition. This has been rationalized in terms of ionic dissociation of the cloxacillin sodium (D -Na +), hydrolysis of the anion D - and complexation of the free acid, DH with riboflavin.

  5. The effect of media area on the dust holding capacity of deep pleat HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J. [AWE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Loughborough, D. [AEAT Harwell, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The high potential cost of storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes places a premium on the longevity of installed HEPA filters in situations in radioactive processing facilities where dust capacity is a life determining factor. Previous work investigated the dust holding capacity v pressure drop characteristics of different designs of HEPA filter and also the effect of using graded density papers. This paper records an investigation of the effect of media area variation on the dust holding capacity of the {open_quotes}deep-pleat{close_quotes} design of HEPA filter. As in the previously reported work two test dusts (carbon black and sub micron sodium chloride) in the range (0.15 - 0.4{mu}m) were used. Media area adjustment was effected by varying the number of separators within the range 60 - 90. Results with the coarser dust allowed an optimum media area to be identified. Media areas greater or smaller than this optimum retained less dust than the optimum for the same terminal pressure drop. Conversely with the finer sodium chloride aerosol the dust holding capacity continued to increase up to the maximum area investigated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Efficient and convenient oxidation of benzyl halides to carbonyl compounds with sodium nitrate and acetic acid by phase transfer catalysis in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin Hu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of benzyl halides were converted to the corresponding aldehydes/ketones in good to high yields by phase transfer catalysis combined with sodium nitrate and acetic acid at reflux. As a result, a simple and high yield procedure has been developed.

  7. Intercomparison 9610, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report)

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    36 laboratories in 21 countries participated in intercomparison 9610. Two sample sets, one for the major ions and one for organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of + 20%, 70% of the results were acceptable. More than 80% of the result pairs were acceptable for conductivity, nitrate+nitrite, calcium, sodium and dissolved organic carbon. For pH only 55% of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target accuracy of + 0.2 units...

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...

  9. A New Fluorescence Method for Determination of Ammonium Nitrogen in Aquatic Environment Using Derivatization with Benzyl Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Cao,Guiping; Su, Yang; Zhuang,Yafeng; Lu,Jilai

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach in simple and highly sensitive fluorometric determination of ammonium nitrogen. The proposed method is based on a fluorescence derivatization with benzyl chloride. The benzyl chloride was converted to a new fluorescent derivative by reaction with ammonium ion (NH4+) in the presence of sodium bicarbonate. The excitation and emission wavelengths were 258 and 284 nm, respectively. The effects of benzyl chloride concentration, sodium bicarbonate concentration, reacti...

  10. Diferença cátion-aniônica da dieta no balanço de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre em ovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820 Dietary cation-anion difference on sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur in sheep - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Marisa Azevedo Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças no balanço cátion-aniônico de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre da dieta (BCAD no balanço de minerais e na concentração sérica de sódio, potássio e cloro foram avaliados através de um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 16 carneiros machos, da raça Santa Inês, por um período de 26 dias, sendo 7 de adaptação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Para a manipulação do BCAD foram adicionados cloreto de cálcio e bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: -12; +30; +76 e +133 mEq/kg MS da ração. Verificou-se que a manipulação do BCAD interferiu no metabolismo de macrominerais em carneiros adultos.The dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB differences in the sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur mineral balance and serum concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride were evaluated of digestibility trial used in sixteen adult sheeps, from Santa Inês breed, during 26 days, being 7 days for adaptation. The design used was randomized complete blocks with four treatments. For DCAB manipulations were added calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in order to achieve the values: -12; + 30; +76 and +133 mEq/kg DM. The manipulation of DCAB interfered the metabolism of macrominerals in sheeps.

  11. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  12. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  13. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  14. Difusão do cloreto de sódio no processo de salga de queijos: modelagem matemática com o emprego do método de elementos finitos The sodium chlorid diffusion during cheese brining: matematical model applying the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio Ferreira SILVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A transferência de um soluto (cloreto de sódio, através de uma matriz sólida tridimensional (queijo foi estudada aplicando-se o método de elementos finitos. A formulação variacional (Galerkin do problema diferencial (modelo de difusão teve como base teórica a 2ª lei de Fick. Os procedimentos para integração no tempo foram o de Crank-Nicolson e o de Euler-modificado, que foram escolhidos por apresentarem estabilidade incondicional. O programa computacional desenvolvido mostrou-se versátil para resolver situações de amostragem em condições mais realistas e pode ser aplicado para geometrias complexas. O modelo proposto permitiu uma boa estimativa do ganho de sal no queijo, usando um coeficiente de difusão cujo valor pode ser obtido por extrapolação de dados experimentais. A aplicação do método numérico (MEF, com o esquema de Crank-Nicolson, na simulação da difusão do cloreto de sódio na salga de queijos, mostrou boa aproximação quando os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais encontrados na literatura especializada.Solute (sodium chloride transference through a three-dimensional matrix (cheese was studied applying the finite element method (MEF. The variational formulation (Galerkin of the differential problem (diffusion model had as the theoretical basis Fick’s second law. The methods for time integration were developed according to Crank-Nicolson (central difference, and modified Euler (backward difference, which presented unconditional stability. The computational program proved to be versatile in solving sampling situations in realistic condition and can be used in complex geometry. The proposed method gave good estimation of salt gain in the cheese when using a diffusion coefficient which value can be calculated by extrapolation of experimental data. The application of numeric method (MEF, with Crank-Nicolson scheme, in the simulation of diffusion of sodium chloride in the brining showed to be

  15. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  16. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  17. Changes of hypo- and hypertonic sodium chloride induced by the rat urinary bladder at various filling stages. Evidence for an increased transurothelial access of urine to detrusor nerve and muscle cells with distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlbrugger, G

    1987-01-01

    By means of a transaortal injection of a gelatine ink mixture, a manifold mucosa to muscularis blood flow ratio was proved. In addition, the treatment of hypo- and hypertonic NaCl by the rat urinary bladder has been studied at 0.3-, 0.6- and 0.9-ml filling levels in conjunction with continuous bladder pressure recording. With distension an increased permeability to NaCl (efflux) and/or water (influx) was found in hypertonic conditions. In order to demonstrate this, the decreasing surface to volume ratio with distension has to be considered. Final urea concentrations in hypertonic media significantly exceeded those in hypotonic probes. The phenomenon has been hypothetically attributed to the existence of an arteriovenous counter current exchange within mucosal vessels. In comparison to hypotonic bladder contents, hypertonic media increased basic bladder pressures and phasic pressure amplitudes preferably at the 0.9-ml level. Hence, in context with an increased permeability, distension favors access of the bladder content to detrusor nerve and muscle cells thereby facilitating their excitability.

  18. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    pattern in fish pathogenic bacteria. The American guideline from The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommends Mueller-Hinton Agar for susceptibility testing of human pathogens and this validated medium appears to be adequate for the rapidly growing fish pathogens. Following...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... bacteria, it is suggested that, if possible, a chemically defined well- known medium such as Mueller-Hinton Agar or modification of Mueller-Hinton Agar be used for further investigations. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. AH rights reserved....

  19. Effects of Thawing Methods on the Stability of Cloxacillin Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloxacillin sodium and benzathine benzylpenicllin powdered injection were reconstituted in three different injectable fluids: 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% dextrose and water for injection. These drug solutions were frozen using domestic refrigerator (0-4oC) and defrozen using microwave oven and room temperature thawing ...

  20. Sodium pump localization in epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystriansky, Jason S; Kaplan, Jack H

    2007-12-01

    In epithelial cells, the sodium pump, in coordination with several other ion transporting proteins and channels, acts to regulate directional water and ion flux across the epithelial barrier. This function is dependant on the polarized localization of the sodium pump to a single plasma membrane domain. In most epithelial cell types the sodium pump is found in an exclusively basolateral position. Despite the clear importance of maintaining a polarized distribution of the sodium pump, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for the targeting and trafficking of the sodium pump to the basolateral surface. We briefly discuss our current understanding of factors which may act to regulate the cellular distribution of the sodium pump, including the potential role of the sodium pump beta-subunit. Several previous, studies have suggested that the expression of the beta2 isoform (instead of beta1) may cause the apical localization of the sodium pump. This appeared to be confirmed by Wilson et al. Am J Pathol, 156: 253-268, 2000 who found that MDCK cells stably transfected with the beta2 subunit express the sodium pump at the apical surface. However, careful examination by Laughery et al.,Am J Physiol, 292: F1718-F1725, 2007, showed that the apical targeting of the pump was caused by the presence of butyrate in the cell growth media and was not due to the presence of the beta2 isoform. These findings are discussed below, along with potential explanations as to how butyrate may influence the polarity of the sodium pump in epithelial cells.

  1. Sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeka, W.J.; Oliva, R.M.; Horton, P.

    1973-12-01

    The objective of this program is to conduct friction screening tests in an environment of high-temperature, high-purity liquid sodium or sodium vapor to: (1) develop backup materials, processes, and vendors for core component wear pads, (2) investigate material treatments and coatings for improvement of wear behavior of common LMFBR structural materials, (3) evaluate weld-deposited hardfacings and/or prefabricated bearing materials for use in long-term, high-temperature, high-fluence regions, (4) evaluate bearing materials with a low potential for change in surface composition due to corrosion or mass transfer effects, and (5) develop statistical confidence in friction values for selected material combinations.

  2. Iopamidol as an oral contrast media for computed tomography: a taste comparison to iohexol, diatrizoate sodium, and barium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Douglas; Sheth, Chandni; Eisenmenger, Laura; Mignogna, Eugene; Winter, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the palatability of iopamidol and iohexol. This was a blinded and randomized trial in which fifty healthy subjects taste tested iopamidol (Isovue, Bracco Diagnostics), iohexol (Omnipaque, GE Healthcare), diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium solution (Gastrografin, Bracco Diagnostics), and barium sulfate suspension 2.1% w/v, 2.0% w/w (READI-CAT2, E-Z-EM). Participants scored palatability on a continuous scale from 0 to 40 (0 = intolerable, 10 = unpleasant but tolerable, 20 = neutral, 30 = kind of like, 40 = strongly like). Mean scores (SD/SEM) for the contrast agents (n = 50) were iopamidol = 21.0 (8.4/1.2); iohexol = 21.8 (7.1/1.0); Gastrografin = 16.8 (9.6/1.4); and barium = 23.7 (9.1/1.3). One-way ANOVA equality of means test shows rejection of the hypothesis that the means are equal (F* = 6.550, p = .000). Post hoc testing demonstrates Gastrografin to be significantly less preferred to barium (p = .000) and iohexol (p = .012). No difference was found between iopamidol and iohexol (p = .959). One-way ANOVA equality of means test of just iopamidol, iohexol, and barium does not reject the hypothesis that means are equal (F* = 1.778 and p = .174). There is no significant difference in palatability between iopamidol and iohexol, supporting the use of iopamidol as a viable alternative to iohexol as an oral contrast agent.

  3. A Green Approach for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonic Radiation’s Times in Sodium Alginate Media: Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftah Faried

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs was achieved by a simple green chemistry procedure using sodium alginate (Na-Alg under ultrasonic radiation as a stabilizer and physical reducing agent. The effect of radiation time on the synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out at room temperature until 720 min. The successful formation of Ag-NPs has been confirmed by UV-Vis, XRD, TEM, FESEM-EDX, zeta potential, and FT-IR analyses. The surface plasmon resonance band appeared at the range of 452–465 nm that is an evidence of formation of Ag-NPs. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline structure in nature, with a face-centered cubic (fcc structure. The TEM study showed the Ag-NPs have average diameters of around 20.16–22.38 nm with spherical shape. The FESEM-EDX analysis confirmed the spherical shape of Ag-NPs on the surface of Alg and the element of Ag with the high purity. The zeta potential showed high stability of Alg/Ag-NPs especially after 720 min irradiation with value of −67.56 mV. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed that the Ag-NPs have been capped by the Alg with van der Waals interaction. The Alg/Ag-NPs showed the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These suggest that Ag-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and can be applied in medical field.

  4. Second and first-derivative spectrophotometry for efficient simultaneous and individual determination of palladium and cobalt using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol in sodium dodecylsulfate micellar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Habibollah; Ghanbari Saghseloo, Ali

    2003-11-01

    1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) has been used for the simultaneous and individual determination of palladium and cobalt at trace levels. PAN complexes of palladium and cobalt at neutral pH form green-color neutral complexes, which are soluble in aqueous SDS micellar media. Under optimum conditions, calibration graphs for individual determinations by zero and first-derivative spectrophotometry, and also for simultaneous determinations by second-derivative spectrophotometry were obtained. A zero-crossing method using second-derivative spectrophotometry at 628 or 578 and 614 nm, respectively, for cobalt and palladium was used for simultaneous determinations. The method is able to determine the cobalt-to-palladium ratio, 5:1 to 1:10 (Wt/Wt), accurately. The accuracy and reproducibility of the determination method for various known amounts of cobalt and palladium in their binary mixtures were tested. The effects of diverse ions on the determination of cobalt and palladium to investigate the selectivity of the method were also studied. The recommended procedures were applied to a synthetic binary alloy, cobalt in vitamin B12 and B-complex ampoules, a Co2O3-Co3O4 laboratorial chemical mixture, some synthetic cobalt-alloy samples, a Pd-charcoal catalyst, and some synthetic palladium alloys.

  5. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the measuring device from its wrapper. Open the bottle by pushing down on the cap and turning the cap counterclockwise (to the left) ... Rinse the measuring device with water Replace the cap on the bottle of sodium oxybate and return the bottle and ...

  6. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potassium in your blood; a high level of sodium or phosphate in your blood; colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) or other conditions that irritate your intestine; slow moving bowels; heart failure (condition in which the heart cannot pump blood through the body as well as it ...

  7. Synthesis, structures, and luminescent properties of sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4} (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Dorofeev, Sergey G.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zitzer, Sabine; Greiner, Stefan; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Olenev, Andrei V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sine Theta Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-17

    Six sodium rare-earth metal(III) chloride oxotellurates(IV), Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, isostructural to Na{sub 2}Y{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 4}, were synthesized by flux techniques and characterized by single-crystal XRD. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice constants a = 23.967(1), b = 5.6342(3), c = 16.952(1) Aa, β = 134.456(5) for Ln = Sm, a = 23.932(2), b = 5.6044(5), c = 17.134(1) Aa, β = 135.151(6) for Ln = Eu, a = 23.928(1), b = 5.5928(1), c = 17.1133(8) Aa, β = 135.366(3) for Ln = Gd, a = 23.907(1), b = 5.569(3), c = 16.745(1) Aa, β = 134.205(3) for Ln = Tb, a = 23.870(1), b = 5.547(3), c = 16.665(1) Aa, β = 134.102(3) for Ln = Dy, and a = 23.814(1), b = 5.526(3), c = 16.626(1) Aa, β = 134.016(3) for Ln = Ho and Z = 4. Their crystal structure can be considered as a framework built of intergrowing Ln-O and Na-(O,Cl) slabs with channel walls decorated by tellurium atoms of [TeO{sub 3}]{sup 2-} groups. The luminescent properties of the new compounds due to the Ln{sup 3+} cations are described and discussed. We also discuss the crystal chemistry of various alkali-metal rare-earth metal(III) halide oxochalcogenates(IV). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Use of logistic regression with dummy variables for modeling the growth-no growth limits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGAL01 as a function of sodium chloride, acid type, and potassium sorbate concentration according to growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo López, F N; Durán Quintana, M C; Garrido Fernández, A

    2007-02-01

    A global logistic model was used to study the effects of both quantitative variables (NaCl, acid, and potassium sorbate concentrations) and dummy variables (laboratory medium or brine, and citric, lactic, or acetic acids) on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGAL01. The deduced equations, with the significant coefficients selected by a backward stepwise procedure, allowed estimations of the simultaneous comparison of behaviors of levels of the qualitative variables as a function of the quantitative variables and the development of the growth-no growth limits according to laboratory medium or brine and the different types of acidifying agents. The S. cerevisiae growth region in yeast malt glucose peptone broth was always wider than that in brine, in which this yeast was inhibited by 0.03% potassium sorbate and 6% NaCl, when the acid concentration (regardless of type) was 0.2 to 0.3%. These results demonstrate the applicability of such model designs to include qualitative variables in investigations related to the development of growth-no growth limits.

  9. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  10. Chloride - urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to: Body holding in too much salt (sodium retention) Cushing syndrome Decreased salt intake Fluid loss that ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  11. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xiang Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S-8-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxifloxacinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water molecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxifloxacinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3 and 0.118 (3 Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water molecule and chloride anions participate in O—H...O, O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding; weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure.

  12. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  13. STUDY OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM, AND CALCIUM SALTS INFLUENCE ON PROTEIN STABILITY BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study of protein stability depending on the various technological factors allows to directionally adjust the physicochemical properties of raw meat and the quality of finished meat products. The paper investigates the possibility of using the DSC to study the influence of monovalent and divalent salts on protein thermal stability. In order to determine the effect of sodium chloride and its substitutes, potassium and calcium salts, on the thermal stability of proteins, the studies were carried out with grinded pork longissimus muscle samples salted with sodium chloride at level of 2.0% and with salt compositions containing reduced by 50% level of sodium chloride (a mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides; a mixture of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides using the differential scanning calorimeter DSC Q 2000 in the temperature range of 5 °C to 100 °C and the temperature change rate of 1 K/min. It was found that the addition of potassium chloride instead of 50% of sodium chloride had no significant effect on actin and myosin resistance to thermal denaturation. Meat salting using the mixture of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides resulted in decrease of myofibrillar proteins stability indicating the destabilizing effect of calcium on actin and myosin. A negative correlation between the magnitude of the ionic strength and the temperature of myosin and actin denaturation has been found. The correlation coefficients were minus 0.99 and minus 0.95 for myosin and actin respectively. Reduction of denaturation temperature for myofibrillar proteins in the presence of calcium chloride opens perspectives to study the possibility of heat treatment at lower temperatures for meat products with reduced sodium content.

  14. Stability of oxaliplatin in chloride-containing carrier solutions used in hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, A M; Van den Hoven, J M; Rosing, H; Hillebrand, M J X; Nuijen, B; Huitema, A D R; Beijnen, J H; Verwaal, V J

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Oxaliplatin is increasingly becoming the chemotherapeutic drug of choice for the treatment of peritoneal malignancies using cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC). Oxaliplatin is unstable in chloride-containing media, resulting in the use of 5%

  15. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  16. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  17. Sodium reduction in margarine using NaCl substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA GONÇALVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sodium chloride is traditionally used as a food additive in food processing. However, because of its high sodium content, NaCl has been associated with chronic diseases. Margarine is a popular product that is used in several preparations, but it includes high sodium content; therefore, it is among the products whose sodium content should be reduced. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce margarines with reduced sodium content prepared using a salt mixture. The following 4 margarine formulations were prepared: Formulation A (control - 0% sodium reduction, Formulation B (20.8% less sodium, Formulation C (33.0% less sodium and Formulation D (47.4% less sodium. The low sodium formulations were produced using a salt mixture consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The margarines were evaluated using an acceptance test and descriptive tests: time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations. The mixture used is a good alternative for preparing low sodium margarine because the low sodium formulations feature equal salinity and do not produce a strange or bad taste. Furthermore, it may be possible to prepare margarines with up to 47.4% less sodium and that are acceptable to consumers.

  18. Bicarbonate secretion in vivo by rat distal tubules during alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction and alkali loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Harrison, V

    1991-05-01

    To examine in vivo the separate effects on distal tubule JtCO2, of dietary chloride restriction, bicarbonate loading, and changes in luminal chloride concentration, we microperfused distal tubules at a physiologic flow rate (8 nl/min) with solutions containing either 45 or 0 mM chloride (after gluconate substitution). Rats were fed a diet containing zero, minimal, or normal amounts of chloride, while drinking either water or a solution of 0.15 M sodium bicarbonate. Neither extracellular fluid volume contraction nor negative chloride balance ensued. Analysis of covariance with repeated measures demonstrated that dietary chloride, drinking sodium bicarbonate, and perfusion with either 45 mM or zero chloride, each have separate and significant modulating effects on distal tubule bicarbonate secretion. During mild alkalemia, there is modest bicarbonate secretion which is significantly different from zero (-9.9 +/- 3.2 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P less than 0.01), and which is suppressed after perfusion with zero chloride. In contrast, during more pronounced metabolic alkalosis after supplemental bicarbonate drinking, the bicarbonate secretory flux is brisk (-26 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1) and significantly different from zero and persists (-11 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1) even during perfusion with zero luminal chloride. Accordingly, in this two-day model of alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction, there is regulatory secretion of bicarbonate by distal tubules in vivo which is modulated by luminal chloride concentration.

  19. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  20. Effects of Sodium Chloride on Some Physiological Traits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    impaired nutrient balance in soil and plant photosynthesis and increased respiration deficiency noted that causes disturbances in plant growth (Joshi and Naik 1980). Table 2. Mean comparison of main and interaction effects of chemical composition and some physiological traits of two safflower cultivars. Proline (µ g/g).

  1. Effects of Corn Cob Treated with Sodium Chloride on Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four dietary treatments involving 50% cotton seed cake (CSC) and 50% corn cob treated with 0,5,10, and 15% were determined using a Completely Randomized Design in a 20-day trial. Treated corn cob and CSC (5%NaCl) increased the consumption of DM (317.88+54.65g/d) and CP (39.95±1.49g/d) ...

  2. Effects of sodium chloride concentrations on larvae and pupae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aedes aegypti is one of the commonest mosquitoes in the tropics and sub topics, feeding on human blood when exposed and is responsible for the transmission of urban yellow fever in Africa and out side Africa, it transmits dengue fever. Aedes aegypti are basically freshwater mosquito. The effect of different concentrations ...

  3. Effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... sulfonated oxime moiety, a β-D-thioglucose group and a variable side chain derived from methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or various branched chain amino acids. Based on their precursor amino acids, glucosinolates can be categorized into three classes: aliphatic, indole and aromatic glucosinolates ...

  4. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  5. Electro-osmotic pumping of sodium chloride solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, JJ

    1997-08-20

    Full Text Available was made of Eq. (5)) Cb = \\[/(At e + Ata)/2\\]/\\[FI(A~At c +/3~At a) + 2FRT(gbCb -- gfcf)(crCLp + ?raLp)\\] (24) = \\[(At e + Ata)/z\\]/\\[r(~lAt c +/3~At a) + 2FRT(gbCb - gfcf)(~rCLp + craLp)/I\\] (25) Eq. (25) is justified...

  6. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  7. Solubility of sodium chloride in superionic water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jean-Alexis; Caracas, Razvan

    2017-04-01

    In icy planets, complex interactions are expected to occur at the interface between the rocky core and the icy mantle composed of mixtures based on water, methane, and ammonia [1, 2]. The hydration of the silicate layer produces salts (MgSO4, NaCl, KCl) that could mix with the ice, and change considerably its properties [3]. Here, we used first-principles molecular dynamics to investigate the stability and the properties of the binary system NaCl-H2O at the relevant thermodynamic conditions for planetary interiors up to ice giants. In these conditions, pure water ice undergoes several transitions that affect considerably its ionic conductivity and its elastic properties [4]. We calculated the Gibbs free energy of mixing along the NaCl-H2O binary by applying Boltzmann statistics to account for energy differences between configurations. We evaluated vibrational entropy from the vibrational spectra of the nuclei motion using the recently developed two phases thermodynamic memory function (2PT-MF) model for multicomponent systems [5, 6]. We show that the solubility of NaCl in water ice at 1600 K is less than 0.78 mol%. We find that salty ices present an extended superionic domain toward high pressures in comparison to pure water ice. Finally, we predict that the complete symmetrization of the hydrogen bonds (i.e. transition to ice X) occurs at higher pressure than in pure water ice, as observed in LiCl doped water ice at ambient temperature [7]. References: [1] M. R. Frank, C. E. Runge, H. P. Scott, S. J. Maglio, J. Olson, V. B. Prakapenka, G. Shen, PEPI 155 (2006) 152-162 [2] B. Journaux, I. Daniel, R. Caracas, G. Montagnac, H. Cardon, Icarus 226 (2013) 355-363 [3] S. Klotz, L. E. Bove, T. Strässle, T. C. Hansen, A. M. Saitta, Nature Materials 8 (2009) 405-409 [4] J. -A. Hernandez, R. Caracas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 (2016) 135503 [5] M. P. Desjarlais, Phys. Rev. E 88 (2013) 062145 [6] M. French, M. P. Desjarlais, R. Redmer, Phys. Rev. E 93 (2016) 022140 [7] L. E. Bove, R. Gaal, Z. Raza, A. -A. Lüdl, S. Klotz, A. M. Saitta, A. F. Goncharov, P. Gillet, PNAS 112 (2015) 8216-8220

  8. Effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) is one of the most important Brassica vegetables in China, and the consumption of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of cancer occurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the contents and composition of glucosinolates in pakchoi shoots exposed to ...

  9. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the functional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing safe, nutritious, and wholesome food for poor and undernourished populations has been a major challenge for developing countries. This has led to the necessity of assembling complete food composition tables, yielding information about the traditional foods and on the functional properties of the plant foods that ...

  10. The Aldosterone Paradox: differential regulation of the sodium chloride cotransporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Lubbe (Nils)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Maintaining total body Na+ and K+ balance is essential to the survival of most species. Hypovolemia (Na+ deficit) and hyperkalemia (K+ surplus) elicit different constellations of responses to maintain homeostasis. During hypovolemia, the extracellular fluid

  11. Post Harvest Application of Calcium and Sodium Chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation was conducted on post harvest treatment formulations (CaCl2 and NaCl), rate and duration of applications, in a 3X3 factorial experiment, on the Days to Ripeness (D-to-R) and ... ANOVA assumptions were checked, cubic transformation was carried on firmness and TA, while others conformed to assumptions.

  12. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  13. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  14. Sodium Taste During Sodium Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    Sodium appetite appears to be an excellent model to study the neural mechanisms of motivation. In this issue of Chemical Senses, experiments by St John (2016) challenge 2 hypotheses for how a systemic sodium deficit guides an animal to find and ingest more Na ions in the environment. Both hypotheses deal with modifications of the sensory neural code produced by Na(+) ions on the tongue. One envisions a change in the Na(+) signal amplitude. A reduction could make the strong Na(+) signals less aversive; an increase, weak signals more noticeable. The other hypothesis requires no changes in the identity or amplitude of the Na(+) signal, but a shift in its hedonic tone toward sweetness or reward. The results of the 3 behavioral experiments render both explanations unlikely but fail to suggest alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Effect of sodium chloride on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sal (NaCl sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Para isso, juvenis de tambaqui (42,38 ± 0,47 g; 13,90 ± 0,06 cm foram transferidos para tanques de 350L e aclimatados por um período de 24 horas. Os ensaios foram conduzidos utilizando as concentrações de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 g de sal comum L-1 de água, nos tempos de exposição de 30, 60 e 120 minutos, com três repetições por tratamento. A tolerância dos tambaquis ao sal e a eficácia deste sobre os helmintos monogenóides foi avaliada mediante análise dos indicadores fisiológicos (glicose, cloretos, sódio e potássio plasmático e parasitológicos (número total de parasitas e prevalência. Tambaquis expostos a 4 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos, 6 e 8 g NaCl L-1 por 60 e 120 minutos apresentaram maior elevação da glicose plasmática e na concentração de 8 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos maiores níveis de cloreto plasmático. A prevalência de monogenóides nas brânquias foi de 100% e todas as concentrações de sal avaliadas neste estudo não foram eficazes na redução dos helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of salt (NaCl on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Juveniles of tambaqui (42.38 ± 0.47 g; 13.90 ± 0.06 cm were transferred to 350L tanks and acclimated for a period of 24 hours. The assays were conducted using the concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of NaCl L-1 of water, exposed to 30, 60 and 120 minutes, with three replicates in each treatment. The tambaqui tolerance to salt and the efficacy against monogenean were evaluated by physiological analysis (glucose, chloride, sodium and potassium plasmatic concentrations and parasitic indices (total number of parasites and prevalence. Tambaquis exposed to 4 g NaCl L-1 for 120 minutes, 6 and 8 g NaCl L-1 for 60 and 120

  16. Chloride-associated adaptive response in aerobic methylotrophic dichloromethane-utilising bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgonskaya, Maria L; Doronina, Nina V; Hourcade, Edith; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-06-01

    Aerobic methylotrophic bacteria able to grow with dichloromethane (DCM) as the sole carbon and energy source possess a specific glutathione S-transferase, DCM dehalogenase, which transforms DCM to formaldehyde, used for biomass and energy production, and hydrochloric acid, which is excreted. Evidence is presented for chloride-specific responses for three DCM-degrading bacteria, Methylobacterium extorquens DM4, Methylopila helvetica DM6 and Albibacter methylovorans DM10. Chloride release into the medium was inhibited by sodium azide and m -chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting an energy-dependent process. In contrast, only nigericin affected chloride excretion in Mb. extorquens DM4 and Mp. helvetica DM6, while valinomycin had the same effect in A. methylovorans DM10 only. Chloride ions stimulated DCM-dependent induction of DCM dehalogenase expression for Mp. helvetica DM6 and A. methylovorans DM10, and shortened the time for onset of chloride release into the medium. Striking chloride-containing structures were observed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis on the cell surface of Mp. helvetica DM6 and A. methylovorans DM10 during growth with DCM, and with methanol in medium supplemented with sodium chloride. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of both general and specific chloride-associated adaptations in aerobic DCM-degrading bacteria. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  18. Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himelbloom, B.; Nilsson, Lilian; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produced...... fluid of a stationary-phase culture. Increasing concentrations of NaCl (2-7%) reduced bacteriocin production and maximum cell density of C. piscicola A9b when grown in cooked fish juice at VC. Conclusions: Media composition, inoculum level and sodium chloride concentration affected production...

  19. Inhibition effect of belzalkonium chloride treatment on growth of common food contaminating fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Pervin

    2011-08-01

    The improvement of disinfection applications for hard contact surfaces in food processing is critical for the control and prevention of disease-causing and food spoilage microorganisms. The objective in this study was to determine the efficiency of the antifungal agent benzalkonium chloride on growth and/or spore germination of postharvest fruit pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus spp., Penicillum spp., and Alternae alternate) in vitro. The benzalkonium chloride was found to be active against all fungal species but to a different extent. Addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and its sodium salt increased the sensitivity of fungi to benzalkonium chloride. Thus, integrated washing and sanitizing with benzalkonium chloride or homologous surface active compounds combined with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and its sodium salt is promising fungicide candidates for reducing fungal contamination of storage.

  20. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  1. Reducing sodium intake from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero

    2005-07-01

    Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt

  2. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Lou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1 is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5, sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3, sodium-chloride symporter (NCC, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2; as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A. Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure.

  3. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management.

  4. Studies of extractive removal of silver(I from chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wejman-Gibas Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient recovery of silver(I from chloride solutions, amine extractants were used. The effect of the type of diluent, extractant and chloride concentration, contact time and reextraction were studied. It was found that the best diluent for this process was xylene. Extraction of silver depended on concentration of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and extractant and additionally on the contact time. Reextraction of Ag(I ions from the loaded organic phase showed that it can be removed only little using NH3·H2O, NaOH, NH4NO3, and NaNO3 as the stripping agents.

  5. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  6. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  7. Influência da salinidade sobre o crescimento, absorção e distribuição de sódio, cloro e macronutrientes em plântulas de maracujazeiro-amarelo Influence of NaCl salinity on uptake and distribution of sodium, chloride and macronutrients in yellow passion fruit seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de sódio (Na e de cloro (Cl no substrato tem ocasionado redução no crescimento dos vegetais, em virtude desses íons causarem, entre outros efeitos negativos, mudanças na capacidade das plantas em absorver, transportar e utilizar alguns dos nutrientes. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar a influência da salinidade sobre o crescimento e a absorção e distribuição do Na e Cl e dos macronutrientes em plântulas de Maracujazeiro-amarelo, durante 50 dias de crescimento sob condições salinas, em vasos com capacidade para 2,2 dm³. Foram utilizados três níveis de NaCl (0, 50 e 100 m mol L-1. Observou-se que a altura, o número de folhas, a área foliar e a massa seca de todas as partes da planta foram significativamente reduzidas pela salinidade. A concentração dos íons Na e Cl aumentaram com o acréscimo da salinidade no meio de cultivo, porém, foram parcialmente retidos na raiz, no caso do Cl, e nas folhas mais velhas, no caso do Na. As concentrações de nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e cálcio (Ca não foram afetadas pela salinidade. As concentrações de potássio (K, ao contrário, decresceram em todas as partes da planta, enquanto as do enxofre (S foi reduzida apenas nas raízes. Dada a pequena redução nas características de crescimento conclui-se que o Maracujazeiro-amarelo é uma espécie moderadamente tolerante ao estresse salino.The presence of sodium (Na and chloride (Cl in growth medium have leaded to crop growth due to because of negative effects of these ions such as changes in plant capacity of uptake, transport and use of essential nutrients. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of salinity on growth, uptake and transport of Na, Cl and macronutrients in yellow passion fruit plants. Three levels of NaCl (0, 50 and 100 m mol L-1 were tested. Experiment was finished after 50 days of growing in 2.2 dm³ pots. It was noticed that height, leaf number, leaf area and dry mass

  8. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section. (a...

  9. Influence of pH and Chloride Concentration on the Corrosion Behavior of Unalloyed Copper in NaCl Solution: A Comparative Study Between the Micro and Macro Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Adriaens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pH and chloride concentration on the electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl media were studied at the micro scale using a microcapillary droplet cell and at the macro scale using a conventional large scale cell. Using an experimental design strategy, electrochemical response surface models of copper versus pH and NaCl concentration were constructed with the minimum number of experiments required. Results show that the electrochemical behavior of copper under corrosive media shows significant differences between the micro and macro scale experiments. At the micro scale, the pit initiation of copper occurs at more negative potentials for high NaCl concentrations and alkaline pH values. Also, the micro scale potentiostatic measurements indicate higher stabilised passive currents at high NaCl concentrations and low (acidic pH values. At the macro scale, the pH is shown to have a greater influence on the corrosion potential. The chloride concentration is the most significant factor in the passive current case while at the micro scale the effect of these two factors on the passive current was found to be the same. The surface morphology of the formed patina on the corroded copper in both micro and macro systems reveal a more significant role of the chloride concentration on the structure and the grain size of the patinas. Finally, micro and macro electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of copper at various NaCl concentrations and pH values demonstrates a different behavior of copper after several potentiodynamic polarization cycles.

  10. Efeitos da solução salina hipertônica a 7,5% em glicose a 5% nas concentrações séricas de sódio, cloreto e potássio de eqüinos com hipovolemia induzida Effects of 7,5% hypertonic saline in 5% glucose on serum levels of sodium, chloride and potassium in induced hypovolemic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bordin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de soluções salinas isotônica e hipertônica em eqüinos hipovolêmicos sobre as concentrações séricas de sódio, cloreto e potássio e freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR. Quinze eqüinos machos com peso entre 390 e 475kg e idades entre quatro e 18 anos foram submetidos à retirada de sangue correspondente a 2% do peso corporal e distribuídos em três grupos de igual número: o grupo GSH recebeu solução hipertônica de NaCl a 7,5% em glicose a 5%; o GSI, solução isotônica de NaCl a 0,9%; e o GC não foi tratado. Os eletrólitos séricos foram avaliados antes (T0, após a retirada de sangue (T1 e após a infusão das soluções, entre 20 e 30 minutos (T2, entre 60 e 70 minutos (T3 e entre 120 e 130 minutos (T4. Após T0, houve elevação da FC e da FR, e as concentrações séricas de Na, Cl, K permaneceram inalteradas. Após a infusão, houve melhora das variáveis clínicas em GSI e GSH, em relação ao GC. Quanto a T3 e T4, os valores de Na em T2 do GSH foram maiores, e os de Cl e de K não se alteraram. As soluções hipertônica e isotônica são seguras na correção da hipovolemia induzida e não produzem alteração eletrolítica significativa.The effect of isotonic and hypertonic solutions on serum levels of sodium, chloride and potassium and cardiac (CR and respiratory rates (RR of hypovolemic horses were studied. Fifteen horses weighting from 390 to 475kg, aging from four to 18-years-old were submitted to bleeding of 2% of body weight and divided in three groups: 7.5% NaCl hypertonic saline in 5% glucose (GSH, 0.9% NaCl isotonic saline and control group (GC. Serum electrolytes were evaluated before (T0 and after bleeding (T1 and after the administration of the solutions between 20 and 30 minutes (T2, 60 and 70 minutes (T3 and 120 and 130 minutes (T4. After T0, CR and RR increased while serum sodium, chloride, potassium were not affected. After the treatment, the clinical variables

  11. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  12. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Peterson, Adam J; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m(-1) of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0.29 g P, 0.29 g K per pot) and high (3 g N, 0.85 g P, 0.86 g K per pot) fertilizer treatments. Seed protein content differed across soil salinity treatments, varieties, and fertilization levels. Protein content of quinoa grown under salinized soil ranged from 13.0 to 16.7%, comparable to that from non-saline conditions. NaCl and Na2SO4 exhibited different impacts on protein content. Whereas the different concentrations of NaCl did not show differential effects on protein content, the seed from 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 contained the highest protein content. Seed hardness differed among varieties, and was moderately influenced by salinity level (P = 0.09). Seed density was affected significantly by variety and Na2SO4 concentration, but was unaffected by NaCl concentration. The samples from 8 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 soil had lower density (0.66 g/cm(3)) than those from 16 dS m(-1) and 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4, 0.74 and 0.72g/cm(3), respectively. This paper identifies changes in critical seed quality traits of quinoa as influenced by soil salinity and fertility, and offers insights into variety response and choice across different abiotic stresses in the field environment.

  13. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyang eWu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m-1 of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0.29 g P, 0.29 g K per pot and high (3 g N, 0.85 g P, 0.86 g K per pot fertilizer treatments. Seed protein content differed across soil salinity treatments, varieties, and fertilization levels. Protein content of quinoa grown under salinized soil ranged from 13.0% to 16.7%, comparable to that from non-saline conditions. NaCl and Na2SO4 exhibited different impacts on protein content. Whereas the different concentrations of NaCl did not show differential effects on protein content, the seed from 32 dS m-1 Na2SO4 contained the highest protein content. Seed hardness differed among varieties, and was moderately influenced by salinity level (P = 0.09. Seed density was affected significantly by variety and Na2SO4 concentration, but was unaffected by NaCl concentration. The samples from 8 dS m-1 Na2SO4 soil had lower density (0.66 g/cm3 than those from 16 dS m-1 and 32 dS m-1 Na2SO4, 0.74 and 0.72g/cm3, respectively. This paper identifies changes in critical seed quality traits of quinoa as influenced by soil salinity and fertility, and offers insights into variety response and choice across different abiotic stresses in the field environment.

  14. Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Minofar, B; Desyaterik, Y; Dames, E; Zhu, Z; Cain, J P; Hopkins, R J; Gilles, M K; Wang, H; Jungwirth, P; Laskin, A

    2011-07-07

    Internal structures, hygroscopic properties and heterogeneous reactivity of mixed CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles were investigated using a combination of computer modeling and experimental approaches. Surfactant properties of CH(3)SO(3)(-) ions and their surface accumulation in wet, deliquesced particles were assessed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and surface tension measurements. Internal structures of dry CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assisted with X-ray microanalysis mapping, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The combination of these techniques shows that dry CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles are composed of a NaCl core surrounded by a CH(3)SO(3)Na shell. Hygroscopic growth, deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of mixed CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl particles were determined and compared to those of pure NaCl particles. These results indicate that particles undergo a two step deliquescence transition: first at ∼69% relative humidity (RH) the CH(3)SO(3)Na shell takes up water, and then at ∼75% RH the NaCl core deliquesces. Reactive uptake coefficients for the particle-HNO(3) heterogeneous reaction were determined at different CH(3)SO(3)Na/NaCl mixing ratios and RH. The net reaction probability decreased notably with increasing CH(3)SO(3)Na and at lower RH. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  15. Contrasting effects of chloride on growth, reproduction, and toxicant sensitivity in two genetically distinct strains of Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Mount, David R; Dickinson, Amy; Hockett, J Russell; McEwen, Abigail R

    2015-10-01

    The strain of Hyalella azteca (Saussure: Amphipoda) commonly used for aquatic toxicity testing in the United States has been shown to perform poorly in some standardized reconstituted waters frequently used for other test species. In 10-d and 42-d experiments, the growth and reproduction of the US laboratory strain of H. azteca was shown to vary strongly with chloride concentration in the test water, with declining performance observed below 15 mg/L to 20 mg/L. In contrast to the chloride-dependent performance of the US laboratory strain of H. azteca, growth of a genetically distinct strain of H. azteca obtained from an Environment Canada laboratory in Burlington, Ontario, Canada, was not influenced by chloride concentration. In acute toxicity tests with the US laboratory strain of H. azteca, the acute toxicity of sodium nitrate increased with decreasing chloride in a pattern similar not only to that observed for control growth, but also to previous acute toxicity testing with sodium sulfate. Subsequent testing with the Burlington strain showed no significant relationship between chloride concentration and the acute toxicity of sodium nitrate or sodium sulfate. These findings suggest that the chloride-dependent toxicity shown for the US laboratory strain may be an unusual feature of that strain and perhaps not broadly representative of aquatic organisms as a whole. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Evaluation of Phenylephrine Stability in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldland, Alan R.; Kiser, Tyree H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Phenylephrine hydrochloride (HCl) is commonly used to maintain adequate blood pressure during shock and shocklike states. Phenylephrine is prepared in concentrated stock vials that require further dilution prior to administration. This study evaluated the physical and chemical stability of phenylephrine in extemporaneously prepared polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Methods: Phenylephrine HCl 10 mg/mL solution was diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection to final concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) exposed to fluorescent light. Stability of phenylephrine HCl was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60. Results: Phenylephrine HCl 200 and 400 µg/mL solutions in PVC bags were physically stable during the entire 60-day study period. Phenylephrine HCl retained > 95% of the original concentration. Conclusion: Phenylephrine HCl diluted to 200 or 400 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection is both physically and chemically stable for a period of 60 days with ≤5% degradation when stored at room temperature and exposed to fluorescent lighting. PMID:24958958

  17. Physical properties of NaCl-free cucumber fermentation cover brine containing calcium chloride and glycerin, and apparent freezing injury of the brined fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of glycerin (2-20%) as a food-grade antifreeze agent and calcium chloride (1.1-20%), to reduce the freezing point and improve quality of cold-stored fermented cucumbers brined without sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored. Temperature and cover brine composition did not significantly affect th...

  18. A light-driven sodium ion pump in marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Keiichi; Ono, Hikaru; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Ito, Hiroyasu; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Kandori, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Light-driven proton-pumping rhodopsins are widely distributed in many microorganisms. They convert sunlight energy into proton gradients that serve as energy source of the cell. Here we report a new functional class of a microbial rhodopsin, a light-driven sodium ion pump. We discover that the marine flavobacterium Krokinobacter eikastus possesses two rhodopsins, the first, KR1, being a prototypical proton pump, while the second, KR2, pumps sodium ions outward. Rhodopsin KR2 can also pump lithium ions, but converts to a proton pump when presented with potassium chloride or salts of larger cations. These data indicate that KR2 is a compatible sodium ion-proton pump, and spectroscopic analysis showed it binds sodium ions in its extracellular domain. These findings suggest that light-driven sodium pumps may be as important in situ as their proton-pumping counterparts.

  19. Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Emission Control Technologies at Anniston Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The types of alternative blasting media reviewed for this project are sodium bicarbonate, plastic , wheat starch , walnut hulls, carbon dioxide (CO2... biodegradable material that is derived from renewable agricultural resources (Oberg et al. 2003). In wheat starch blasting, particles of wheat starch are...blasting is done with glass beads, walnut hulls, garnets, sodium bicarbonate, and aluminum oxide. The Depot is also investigating setting up plastic media

  20. Effect of Host Media on Microbial Influenced Corrosion due to Desulfotomaculum nigrificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay K.

    2013-04-01

    This article reports about the tests carried to investigate microbial-induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria sp. Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in different host media. Stainless steel 304L, 316L, and 2205 were selected for the test. Modified Baar's media (BM), sodium chloride solution, and artificial sea water (SW) were used as test solutions in anaerobic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and immersion test were performed to estimate the extent of corrosion rate and pitting on stainless steels. SEM/EDS were used to study the details inside/outside pits formed on the corroded samples. Biofilm formed on corroded coupons was analyzed for its components by UV/Visible spectroscopy. Corrosion attack on the test samples was observed maximum in case of exposure to SW followed by NaCl solution, both having sulfide and chloride whereas stainless steel exposed to BM, having sulfide, showed minimum attack. Tendency of extracellular polymeric substances to bind metal ions is observed to be responsible for governing the extent of corrosion attack.

  1. Chloride transport and chloride thresholdvalues-Studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement

    OpenAIRE

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration of concrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of t...

  2. External control of anodic dissolution mechanisms of 100Cr6 in nitrate/chloride mixed electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS LESCH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of 100Cr6 steel in neutral electrolytes containing sodium chloride and sodium nitrate was investigated potentiodynamically and galvanodynamically with a rotating disc electrode at room temperature. The total concentration of the mixed electrolyte was 3 mol L-1 with variation of chloride/nitrate mole ratios. The potentiodynamic linear sweep voltammograms (LSVs in mixed electrolytes are similar to the LSVs in pure chloride electrolyte at lower current densities and switch to behaviour observed in pure nitrate electrolytes at higher current densities. Provided that both anions are present, it seems that the dissolution reactions at the steel anode are determined by the interface layer only. The effect of these layers on surface quality and current efficiency was also investigated in a flow channel applying galvanostatic pulses. An evidence for different dissolution mechanisms can be seen with an important influence of duty cycle and flow conditions. This allows external control of the desired dissolution mechanism in mixed electrolytes.

  3. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. A.; Trunov, V. I.; Leshchenko, V. E.; Pestryakov, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    Supercontinuum generation from the near to far IR during radiation filamentation in solid-state media in an anomalous dispersion region is theoretically investigated. The initial search for appropriate media with the use of an interference model showed that the widest IR spectrum is generated in media with high values of zero group velocity dispersion wavelength with the pump wavelength located not far from it. Halides belong to one of such media groups. The possibility of generation of a very wide supercontinuum in calcium fluoride (0.52-3.35 μm, which corresponds to 2.7 octaves), sodium chloride (0.7-7.6 μm, 3.5 octaves), and potassium iodide (0.66-22 μm, 5.1 octaves) is demonstrated by numerical simulation. Also, pulse self-compression down to 13 fs at the 5-μm central wavelength (about single period) has been observed in potassium iodide. The mechanisms of multi-octave supercontinuum generation are discussed.

  4. Replacement of ammonium chloride when processing Scholven coals. (Tests conducted in rotating autoclave at 350 atmosheres. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, G.; Schiffmann, F.

    1944-01-03

    Hydrogenation tests were conducted on coal from Scholven in view of difficulties in delivery of ammonium chloride to the Scholven works. The results were, that of the materials containing chlorine, ferrous chloride and water-soluble chlorine-bearing alumina appeared to be first and second choices as replacements for ammonium chloride. Ferrous chloride, used for an equivalent amount of chlorine, gave, other than a bit higher volatilization, the same results as ammonium chloride. Water-soluble chlorine-bearing alumina was found to be just as favorable as the ammonium chloride. But, there was a disadvantage. Since the alumina carried a lesser amount of chloride, a relatively larger amount (5.9%) of the material had to be used. This caused another problem. The increased residual material caused an overload on the reprocessing system. Water-soluble alumina at 1.9% was found to be unsuitable, because volatilization rose considerably with higher temperatures. Hydrated aluminum chloride (AlCl/sub 3/ . 6H/sub 2/O) was significantly more unsuitable than ammonium chloride. It was found that at .3 mV higher temperature, significant improvement could be noted, but certainly at the cost of volatilization, which rose sharply. Two tests of aluminum oxychloride, which contained more chlorine than the water-soluble alumina, showed suitable cracking properties, but figures as good as those obtained with ammonium chloride were not reached in treating asphalt and volatilization. Attempts to activate the chlorine in sodium chloride through ion exchange with ammonium sulfate did not succeed. The resulting substance gave worse results than did aluminum chlorohydrate. 1 table

  5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  6. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  7. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  8. Compressive Strength, Chloride Permeability, and Freeze-Thaw Resistance of MWNT Concretes under Different Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated compressive strength, chloride penetration, and freeze-thaw resistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT concrete. More than 100 cylindrical specimens were used to assess test variables during sensitivity observations, including water-cement ratios (0.75, 0.5, and 0.4 and exposure to chemical agents (including gum arabic, propanol, ethanol, sodium polyacrylate, methylcellulose, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and silane. To determine the adequate sonication time for MWNT dispersal in water, the compressive strengths of MWNT concrete cylinders were measured after sonication times ranging from 2 to 24 minutes. The results demonstrated that the addition of MWNT can increase the compressive strength of concrete by up to 108%. However, without chemical treatment, MWNT concretes tend to have poor freeze-thaw resistance. Among the different chemical treatments, MWNT concrete treated with sodium polyacrylate has the best compressive strength, chloride resistance, and freeze-thaw durability.

  9. Compressive strength, chloride permeability, and freeze-thaw resistance of MWNT concretes under different chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Rhee, Inkyu; Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated compressive strength, chloride penetration, and freeze-thaw resistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) concrete. More than 100 cylindrical specimens were used to assess test variables during sensitivity observations, including water-cement ratios (0.75, 0.5, and 0.4) and exposure to chemical agents (including gum arabic, propanol, ethanol, sodium polyacrylate, methylcellulose, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and silane). To determine the adequate sonication time for MWNT dispersal in water, the compressive strengths of MWNT concrete cylinders were measured after sonication times ranging from 2 to 24 minutes. The results demonstrated that the addition of MWNT can increase the compressive strength of concrete by up to 108%. However, without chemical treatment, MWNT concretes tend to have poor freeze-thaw resistance. Among the different chemical treatments, MWNT concrete treated with sodium polyacrylate has the best compressive strength, chloride resistance, and freeze-thaw durability.

  10. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Effective Surrogate Tracer Technique for S. aureus Bioaerosols in a Mechanically Ventilated Hospital Room Replica Using Dilute Aqueous Lithium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco-Felipe King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding a non-pathogenic surrogate aerosol that represents the deposition of typical bioaerosols in healthcare settings is beneficial from the perspective of hospital facility testing, general infection control and outbreak analysis. This study considers aerosolization of dilute aqueous lithium chloride (LiCl and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions as surrogate tracers capable of representing Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosol deposition on surfaces in mechanically ventilated rooms. Tests were conducted in a biological test chamber set up as a replica hospital single patient room. Petri dishes on surfaces were used to collect the Li, Na and S. aureus aerosols separately after release. Biological samples were analyzed using cultivation techniques on solid media, and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure Li and Na atom concentrations. Spatial deposition distribution of Li tracer correlated well with S. aureus aerosols (96% of pairs within a 95% confidence interval. In the patient hospital room replica, results show that the most contaminated areas were on surfaces 2 m away from the source. This indicates that the room’s airflow patterns play a significant role in bioaerosol transport. NaCl proved not to be sensitive to spatial deposition patterns. LiCl as a surrogate tracer for bioaerosol deposition was most reliable as it was robust to outliers, sensitive to spatial heterogeneity and found to require less replicates than the S. aureus counterpart to be in good spatial agreement with biological results.

  12. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  15. Respuesta fisiológica y bioquímica de Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT-184 y Centrosema molle al estrés por cloruro de sodio Physiological and biochemical response of Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT-184 and Centrosema molle to sodium chloride stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Fuentes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en plántulas de Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT-184 y Centrosema molle, cultivadas en tierra vegetal. A los 15 días posteriores al tratamiento se determinaron la masa fresca, la masa seca, la relación raíz-brote y la distribución de la biomasa, así como la concentración de fenoles solubles, ligados a la pared y totales, además de la clorofila a, b y total. En ambos cultivares las raíces fueron los órganos más afectados con relación a la masa fresca y hubo un decrecimiento de la masa seca a elevadas concentraciones de NaCl. La relación raíz-brote mostró un aumento a 200 mM de NaCl en S. guianensis, mientras que no se observaron cambios significativos en C. molle. En la medida que la concentración de NaCl se elevó, la concentración de fenoles solubles aumentó sensiblemente en las raíces de ambas especies, así como los fenoles totales; mientras que en las hojas sólo se observaron aumentos en los niveles de fenoles solubles en S. guianensis. La concentración de clorofila a y total disminuyó significativamente a 200 mM de NaCl en ambos cultivares con relación al control. Los niveles de clorofila b disminuyeron en C. molle a 200 mM y se mantuvieron constantes en S. guianensis. El índice de estabilidad clorofílica mostró diferencias altamente significativas en C. molle (-8,154 y 269,1 para 100 y 200 mM de NaCl, a diferencia de S. guianensis que presentó una mayor estabilidad (20,47 y 31,37. La relación clorofila a/b decreció en Centrosema y no se observaron diferencias entre los tratamientos en Stylosanthes.A study was conducted on the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl on seedlings of Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT-184 and Centrosema molle, cultivated on topsoil. Fifteen days after the treatment fresh mass, dry mass, root/shoot ratio and biomass distribution were determined, as well as the

  16. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... alloy. Anodic polarization behavior of the electrode materials was investigated using a microelectrochemical setup. Material makeup of the chip resistor was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy and focused-ion-beam SEM. Results showed that the dissolution...

  17. Pathway of a damaging mechanism - Analyzing chloride attack by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, M. C.; Stroh, J.; Malaga, K.; Meng, B.; Panne, U.; Emmerling, F.

    2015-06-01

    Typically, the changes of the phase compositions due to the chemical attack are studied in-situ only by chemical analysis or microscopy. In this study, the chloride transport and binding in the cement matrix in different cementitious materials was analyzed by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Sample materials consisting of cement paste were embedded in high concentrated sodium chloride solution over different time spans. Afterwards, the phase and chemical compositions were determined. The high spatial resolution and the information about the chloride distribution offer a detailed view of chloride binding in the cement matrix and allow the conclusions about the degradation mechanisms. The results are discussed related to the influence of different supplementary cementitious materials on the damaging mechanism.

  18. Pitting corrosion OF Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel in presence of MoO42- chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Zatkalíková, Viera; Markovičová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The submitted manuscript focuses on the pitting corrosion of AISI 316Ti steel in very aggressive chloride solution with added sodium molybdate, which is considered the effective inhibitor of the local corrosion of stainless steels. The effect of molybdate on resistance of AISI 316Ti steel to pitting was tested in 5% ferric chloride solution by 24-hour exposition immersion tests. The tests were carried out at room temperature in the absence and presence of various molybdate concentrations (0.0...

  19. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, H.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  20. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  1. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  2. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamat Jinap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG, as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl (0–1.2% and MSG (0–1.2%. They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG.

  3. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina; Norliana, Sarian; Yibadatihan, Simayi; Abdul-Kadir, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-1.2%) and MSG (0-1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG.

  4. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  5. Working with grocers to reduce dietary sodium: lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Yvonne A; McFadden, Mary; Lamphere, Marissa; Buch, Karen; Stark, Beth; Salton, Judith Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe implementation of and lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities grocery store initiative. This pilot project was conducted in collaboration with a regional supermarket chain and endeavored to develop population-based strategies for reducing sodium intake. Key interventions included marketing strategies, taste test demonstrations, and a public media campaign. Project staff worked closely with corporate registered dietitian nutritionists, a nutrition specialist, and an advertising agency in its development and implementation. A social marketing approach was used to educate consumers about the hidden sources of dietary sodium, to raise awareness of the adverse health effects of excess sodium intake, to encourage consumers to read food labels, and to urge them to purchase food items lower in sodium. The lessons learned from this experience may be of assistance to other communities that seek to implement similar sodium-reduction strategies in the grocery store environment.

  6. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial activity of manganese(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of the polyether ionophore antibiotic Sodium Monensin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkov, Petar; Pantcheva, Ivayla N; Sheldrick, William S; Mayer-Figge, Heike; Petrova, Rositza; Mitewa, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Mononuclear neutral manganese(II) and cobalt(II) complexes with the antibiotic Sodium Monensin A (Mon-Na, 1b) were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structures of M(Mon-Na)2Cl2.H2O (M=Mn, 2; M=Co, 3) were determined by X-ray crystallography. The complexes crystallize in monoclinic space group C2 with a tetrahedrally coordinated transition metal attached to oxygen atoms of deprotonated carboxyl groups of two Sodium Monensin molecules and two chloride ions. The sodium ion remains in the cavity of the ligand and cannot be replaced by Mn(II) or Co(II). The complexes were additionally characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (UV-Visible, EPR, FAB-MS). A preferable octahedral environment around the transition metal centers is observed in polar solvents while the complexes retain their tetrahedral structure in non-polar media. The antimicrobial activity of 1b, 2 and 3 was tested against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria.

  7. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  9. Respiration and sodium transport in rabbit urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, S U; Eaton, D C

    1982-07-28

    Respiration of rabbit urinary bladder was measured in free-floating pieces and in short-circuited pieces mounted in an Ussing chamber. Ouabain, amiloride, and potassium-free saline inhibited respiration approx. 20%; sodium-free saline depressed respiration approx. 40-50%. The coupling ratio between respiration and transport in short-circuited tissues was about two sodium ions per molecule O2. Chloride-free saline depressed mean oxygen consumption 21% in free-floating tissue pieces; 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and furosemide had no effect. The effect of chloride-free saline in short-circuited tissues was variable; in tissues with low transport rates, respiration was stimulated about 21% while in tissue with high transport rates respiration was reduced about 24%. Nystatin and monensin, both of which markedly increase the conductance of cell membranes with a concomitant increase in sodium entry, stimulated respiration. These data indicate that 50-60% of the total oxygen consumption is not influenced by sodium, 20-25% is linked to (Na+ +K+)-ATPase transport, while the remaining 25-30% is sodium-dependent but not ouabain-inhibitable.

  10. Improving the Quality of Sardine Fish Oil by Degumming Using Sodium Cholride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Prima Christiani Hulu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish oil is determined by some parameters such as primary and secondary grade oxidation, fatty acid profile and physical qualities which include viscosity, density, color and clarity. Sardine fish oil by-products of fish meal processing can be a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, particularlyeicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Degumming is one of steps that can be carried out to improve the quality of sardine fish oil. The processing will help to reduce oxidation and eliminate the impurity of the oil that influence the quality of fish oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium chloride solution degumming on the quality of sardine fish oil to fulfill International Fish Oil Standard (IFOS. Fish oil purification was done by degumming of 5% H2O,  followedby sodium chloride solution with ratio of fish oil and sodium chloride solution were 1:1; 1:3, and 1:5. The sodium chloride solution concentrations of 5% and 8% for 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The next steps after degumming process were followed by alkali neutralization and bleached by absorbent. The best treatmentwas at  concentration of 5%  sodium chloride solution, ratio fish oil with sodium chloride solution 1:1 on a long time degumming processed 20 minutes. The best quality of fish oil, according to IFOS, was resulted from the treatments combination of free fatty acid 0.21±0.00%, peroxide value 0.43±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidin value 2.22±0.04 mEq/kg and total oxidation 3.11±0.14  mEq/kg.

  11. Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil quality in trangenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong-Xia Zhang; Joanna N Hodson; John P Williams; Eduardo Blumwald

    2001-01-01

      Transgenic Brassica napus plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vaculor Na+/H+ antiport form Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to grow, flower, and produce seeds in the presence of 200 mM sodium chloride...

  12. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  13. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  14. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  15. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  16. Impact of type of salt and ambient conditions on saline water evaporation from porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri-Kuehni, Salomé M. S.; Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Webb, Colin; Shokri, Nima

    2017-07-01

    Saline water evaporation from porous media is important in many processes such as soil salinization, CO2 sequestration, crop production and water management. This process is influenced by the transport properties of porous media, properties of the evaporating solution and external conditions. In this work, we investigated the effects of external conditions and type of salt on the drying behaviour of sandy media and on the dynamics of surface salt precipitation. To do so, a comprehensive series of evaporation experiments were conducted using 33 columns packed with sand saturated with salt solutions. The evaporation experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber to investigate the effects of relative humidity, ambient temperature and type of salt on the evaporation process. Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride and Potassium Iodide with a wide range of concentration were used to saturate the sand columns mounted on digital balances. A digital camera was fixed at the surface of the sand packs to record the dynamics of salt precipitation at the surface. The results provide further confirmation that ambient conditions are the controlling factors during stage-1 evaporation of pure water. Additionally, the minor impact of the presence of precipitated salt at the surface on the saline water evaporation during the early stages of the process is discussed. Strong correlations between the cumulative water losses and the precipitation at the surface were found under different ambient conditions. The results obtained from different types of salt highlight the significant influence of the relationship between the saturated vapour pressure and salt concentration on the general dynamics of the process.

  17. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  18. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de

  19. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. First, using a cement hydration model, degree of hydration and phase volume fractions of hardening concrete are determined. Second, the dependences of chloride diffusivity and chloride binding capacity on age of concrete are clarified. Third, chloride profiles in hardening concrete are calculated. The proposed numerical procedure is verified by using chloride submerged penetration test results of concrete with different mixing proportions.

  20. The influence of sodium on pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zostawa, Jacek; Adamczyk, Jowita; Sowa, Paweł; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and is an important cause of disability in young adults. In genetically susceptible individuals, several environmental factors may play a partial role in the pathogenesis of MS. Some studies suggests that high-salt diet (>5 g/day) may contribute to the MS and other autoimmune disease development through the induction of pathogenic Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines in both humans and mice. However, the precise mechanisms of pro-inflammatory effect of sodium chloride intake are not yet explained. The purpose of this review was to discuss the present state of knowledge on the potential role of environmental and dietary factors, particularly sodium chloride on the development and course of MS.

  1. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions; Constantes de estabilidad de los complejos del europio con los iones cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  2. Lubiprostone activates non-CFTR-dependent respiratory epithelial chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kelvin D; McKenzie, Karen R; Henderson, Mark J; Hawkins, Charles E; Vij, Neeraj; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2008-11-01

    Periciliary fluid balance is maintained by the coordination of sodium and chloride channels in the apical membranes of the airways. In the absence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), chloride secretion is diminished and sodium reabsorption exaggerated. ClC-2, a pH- and voltage-dependent chloride channel, is present on the apical membranes of airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that ClC-2 agonists would provide a parallel pathway for chloride secretion. Using nasal potential difference (NPD) measurements, we quantified lubiprostone-mediated Cl(-) transport in sedated cystic fibrosis null (gut-corrected), C57Bl/6, and A/J mice during nasal perfusion of lubiprostone (a putative ClC-2 agonist). Baseline, amiloride-inhibited, chloride-free gluconate-substituted Ringer with amiloride and low-chloride Ringer plus lubiprostone (at increasing concentrations of lubiprostone) were perfused, and the NPD was continuously recorded. A clear dose-response relationship was detected in all murine strains. The magnitude of the NPD response to 20 muM lubiprostone was -5.8 +/- 2.1 mV (CF, n = 12), -8.1 +/- 2.6 mV (C57Bl/6 wild-type, n = 12), and -5.3 +/- 1.2 mV (AJ wild-type, n = 8). A cohort of ClC-2 knockout mice did not respond to 20 muM lubiprostone (n = 6, P = 0.27). In C57Bl/6 mice, inhibition of CFTR with topical application of CFTR inhibitor-172 did not abolish the lubiprostone response, thus confirming the response seen is independent of CFTR regulation. RT-PCR confirmed expression of ClC-2 mRNA in murine lung homogenate. The direct application of lubiprostone in the CF murine nasal airway restores nearly normal levels of chloride secretion in nasal epithelia.

  3. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  4. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  5. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  6. Partial substitution of sodium with potassium in white bread: feasibility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschi, Alessandro; Gill, Lakhwinder; Naismith, Donald J

    2009-09-01

    A high sodium intake, to which bread makes a major contribution, and a low potassium intake are believed to be important factors in the promotion of cardiovascular disease. Our aims was to determine to what extent salts of potassium could substitute sodium chloride and potassium-rich soya flour could replace wheat flour without detrimental effect on acceptability, and to measure the bioavailability of a potassium salt added to bread. A single-blind organoleptic evaluation was carried out on eight different potassium-enriched breads by 41 panellists. Thereafter, six volunteers consumed standard or potassium-chloride-fortified bread in an 11-day single-blind cross-over feeding trial to determine the bioavailability of the supplemental potassium. Two breads in which 30% of the sodium was replaced by potassium salts, and bread in which 10% of wheat flour was replaced with soy flour, had acceptability scores similar to the standard bread. In the metabolic study a supplement of 22 mmol/day potassium chloride incorporated into the bread was found to be wholly bioavailable. A substantial reduction in sodium and an increase in potassium intake could be achieved by substituting potassium salts for sodium chloride in bread.

  7. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  10. Effects of ethylene inhibitors, silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant increase in shoot regeneration, leaf chlorophyll content and rooting occurred when silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were added to banana culture medium. The highest numbers of shoots per explants shoot length and leaf surface area was obtained when media were ...

  11. Pitting corrosion of inconel 600 in chloride and sulfate solutions at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Yu; Yu, Ge-Ping

    1993-06-01

    Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 was examined in chloride and sulfate solutions through usage of potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The effects of chloride and sulfate concentration were investigated in the range of 0.0001 to 0.1M. Increasing chloride concentrations resulted in active shifts of the pit nucleation potential. Immunity to pitting corrosion was evident at a chloride level below 0.005M. Increasing sulfate concentrations resulted in improved pitting resistance of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions. Detrimental effects associated with pitting were evident with low-level sulfate being added to dilute chloride media. The density of pits increased with increasing chloride concentrations or temperature between room temperature and 70°C. Systematic trends for the depth of pits were not evident. The observations of pitting corrosion in open immersion were consistent with those in polarization methods. Corrosion products contained in the pits were enriched in nickel, chromium and iron with a small amount of titanium and silicon. The enrichment of chlorine or sulfur was still, however, not found.

  12. Calcium chloride in neonatal parenteral nutrition: compatibility studies using laser methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Huston

    Full Text Available We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods.Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source.Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5-3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L.Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5-10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine.

  13. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride +

  14. Development and characterisation of a low-concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate decellularised porcine dermis

    OpenAIRE

    Helliwell, Jack A; Thomas, Daniel S; Papathanasiou, Vaia; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N; Ingham, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1?M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using ...

  15. Influence of the incubation conditions on culture media to optimize primary isolation of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis is critical to a surveillance system for bovine tuberculosis based on detection of lesions in abattoirs. Thus, four solid culture media and three incubation conditions were investigated to elucidate which combination overcomes the others by assessing growth, time to the first appearance of colonies and their number. Ninety-seven samples of granulomatous lesions were submitted to the decontamination procedure by 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride at 0.75% w/v, and inoculated on two egg-based media, Stonebrink’s (ST and Löwenstein-Jensen’s with sodium pyruvate (LJp, and two agar-based media, tuberculosis blood agar (B83 and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (7H11. Each medium was incubated at 37°C for 90 days in three incubation conditions: in air, in air containing 10% carbon dioxide (CO2, and in air in slopes closed with burned hydrophobic cotton and subsequently plugged with a cork to create a microaerophilic atmosphere. The colonies appeared faster and in higher number when incubated in air containing 10% CO2 (p < 0.01, independent of media. B83 showed a faster growth and detected more isolates at 30 days of incubation, when compared to ST (0.0178, LJp (p < 0.0001 and 7H11 (p < 0.0001, though there was no difference between B83, ST and LJp at 60 and 90 days of incubation. 7H11 presented the lowest number of isolates (p < 0.0001 and a longer period for the appearance of the first colony (p < 0.001. According to our findings, the concomitant use of ST and B83 media incubated in air containing 10% CO2 increases the isolation of M. bovis in a shorter period of time, which improves bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

  16. Media Komunitas dan Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawito .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This essay deals with community media in relation to media literacy. After a short discussion on a number of community media characters is made the essay goes further with somewhat detail theoretical presumptions of the roles of media community with respect primarily to the development as Amartya Sen mentioned about. The author suggests that community media may play some significant roles in the development including (a disseminating information (from varieties of perspective, (b facilitating public discussion, (c helping to reach solutions of problems, (d encouraging participations, and (e encouraging the development of media literacy. Regarding the last point the author remarks that media community may have a dual-roles i.e facilitating community’s member in media participation and facilitating community’s member in media education.

  17. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R A; Wong, N L; Dirks, J H

    1979-05-01

    Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubule, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis (induced by feeding ammonium chloride) showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increased delivery of calcium relative to sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine. The infusion of sodium bicarbonate to correct chronic metabolic acidosis, both in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs, reduced proximal fluid reabsorption and caused a selective enhancement of calcium reabsorption relative to sodium in the more distal nephron, resulting in a reversal of the dissociation observed in acidosis, both at the distal tubule and in the final urine. By contrastin fusion of sodium chloride in parathyroid-intact acidotic dogs did not reduce proximal fluid reabsorption or enhance tubular calcium reabsorption. In nonacidotic dogs, both intact and TPTX, infusion of sodium bicarconate to induce acute alkalosis resulted in selhese data demonstrate the presence of a component of tubular calcium reabsorption situated beyond the proximal tubule, which is inhibited by chronic (but not acute) metabolic acidosis and enhanced by metabolic alkalosis (or bicarbonate infusion) independently of parathyroid hormone.

  18. Media, Gadgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes papers presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference on Chemical Education describing new media and gadgets, particularly models, computers, and other media. A bibliography of 15 presented papers on these topics is attached. (CS)

  19. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  20. Localized corrosion of molybdenum-bearing nickel alloys in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postlethwaite, J.; Scoular, R.J.; Dobbin, M.H.

    1988-04-01

    Electrochemical and immersion tests have been applied to a study of the localized corrosion resistance of two molybdenum-bearing nickel alloys. Alloys C-276 and 6y25, in neutral chloride solutions in the temperature range of 25 to 200 C as part of the container materials evaluation screening tests for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Cyclic polarization studies show that the passivation breakdown potentials move rapidly to more active values with increasing temperatures, indicating a reduced resistance to localized corrosion. The results of immersion tests show that both alloys do suffer crevice corrosion in neutral aerated sodium chloride solutions at elevated temperatures, but that in both cases there is a limiting temperature > 100C, below which, the alloys are not attacked, regardless of the chloride concentration.

  1. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti intermetallic compound was investigated as function of chloride concentration by using electrochemical method and scanning electron microscope in sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of type C276 alloy was also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the intermetallic compound decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti were lower than those of C276 alloy, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of C276 alloy was higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.

  2. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of nicotinic acid in a sodium dodecyl sulphate micellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Romero, J S; Monferrer-Pons, L; Ramis-Ramos, G; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    1995-05-01

    The spectrophotometric determination of pyridine and pyridine derivatives by means of the König reaction was studied in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), N-cetylpyridinium chloride and Triton X-100. The sensitivity was largely increased in SDS micellar medium. The attack of the pyridine ring with cyanogen bromide to produce a glutaconic aldehyde was not affected by the presence of SDS, but the yield of the coupling reaction with an arylamine to produce a polymethine dye was largely increased. In the SDS micellar medium, aniline was superior to other coupling reagents. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6 x 10(-7), 1 x 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-7)M for pyridine, pyrrol-ylmethylpyridine and nicotinic acid, respectively, and the reproducibility for 2 x 10(-5)M solutions was ca. 2%. In the absence of SDS, the LODs were 3 x 10(-6), 3 x 10(-6) and 9 x 10(-6)M, respectively, and the reproducibility was ca. 3.5%. Application was made to the determination of nicotinic acid in pharmaceuticals.

  3. The Influence of Salt Water on Chloride Penetration in Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Like Novia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of chloride ion penetration in geopolymer concrete. Fly ash as based material for geopolymer concrete was used in this mixture. Fly ash was mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH 8 M and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 as the alkali solution. The sizes of cylindrical specimens were prepared with a diameter of 100 mm and 200 mm high. Some specimens were immersed in salt water at a concentration of 3.5%, and other control specimens were cured in tap water for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. The mechanical properties were determined with compressive test which was conducted at 28, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Some durability tests were performed for porosity, chloride penetration, and pH measurement. It was found that geopolymer concrete has higher compressive strength than concrete made with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, chloride penetration in geopolymer concrete is higher than OPC. The pH measurement showed that geopolymer concrete has less pH than OPC concrete. The porosity of concrete has been found to influence chloride penetration and pH of concrete.

  4. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  5. Media Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed...... entrepreneurship....

  6. Media Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern colleges are faced with the dual pressures of university reform and international competition, how to overcome difficulties, to play the role of modern English teaching in colleges and colleges to enhance the core competitiveness of colleges, colleges and colleges modern English teaching problems to be solved. Based on the current situation of modern colleges in the premise of the Modern media platform fully demonstrated the characteristics and viability of the Modern media English teaching, the necessity of modern English teaching of college Modern media. Discusses the Modern media targeting English teaching and important role is in the English teaching to guide the development of modern colleges modern media.

  7. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  8. SODIUM DI-N-DODECYLPHOSPHATE VESICLES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION - EFFECTS OF ADDED ETHANOL, AND CA2+ AND NA+ IONS ON THE GEL LIQUID-PHASE TRANSITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLANDAMER, MJ; BRIGGS, B; CULLIS, PM; ENGBERTS, JBFN; HOEKSTRA, D

    1994-01-01

    For aqueous solutions containing vesicles formed by sodium di-n-dodecylphosphate, the gel-liquid-crystal transition occurs near 35-degrees-C at the temperature T(m). When ethanol is added, T(m) decreases. When sodium chloride is added, T(m) shifts to higher temperatures whereas very complex scans

  9. 4-(Methylsulfonylpiperazin-1-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C5H13N2O2S+·Cl−, the complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with both N atoms, the S atom and one C atom lying on the reflecting plane. The chloride ion also lies on the mirror plane. The piperazinium ring adopts a chair conformation and the N—S bond adopts an equatorial orientation. In the crystal structure, the component ions are linked into a three-dimensional framework by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate is found in: Automatic dishwashing soaps Clinitest (diabetes testing) tablets Glass products Pulp and paper products Some bleaches Some bubble bath solutions Some steam iron cleaners Note: This list is not all-inclusive.

  11. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consider the benefits of treating constipation symptoms during pregnancy. Your health care provider may also want to confirm diagnosis of constipation and see how dietary and other lifestyle therapies may help. Can use of docusate sodium ...

  12. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your body's sodium level in a healthy range. Alternative Names Hyponatremia; Dilutional hyponatremia; Euvolemic hyponatremia; Hypervolemic hyponatremia; ...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  15. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Fan; Xiao-Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simult...

  16. USE OF DIFFERENT SODIUM SOURCES ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND LITTER HUMIDITY USO DE DIFERENTES FONTES DE SÓDIO NA DIETA DE FRANGOS DE CORTE DE 22 A 42 DIAS DE IDADE SOBRE O DESEMPENHO E UMIDADE DA CAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Cristina Nichelle Lopes; Fabiane Pereira Gentilini; Marcos Antonio Anciuti; João Carlos Maier; Rita Albernaz Gonçalves da Silva; Éverton Luis Krabbe

    2009-01-01

    A total of 552 female Ross broiler chicks were fed diets containing  3  different sodium sources (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and sodium formiate, with or without addition of ammonium chloride) from 22 to 42 days of age. Performance and litter moisture content were evaluated. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. A complete  experimental block design was used. Birds were distributed into 4 treatments with 6 replicates each. Each one of the replicates contained 23 birds. Each body w...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  18. Accelerated action of external sulfate and chloride to study corrosion of tensile steel in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. G. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of the reinforcing steel may cause significant loss of strength of reinforced concrete structures. The study focuses on accelerating such corrosion and examining the degradation of (i the compressive strength of concrete due to sodium sulfate in a wet atmosphere; and (ii the flexural strength by a solution of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride. Three types of concrete were used and different beam specimens were reinforced by steel rebars of different diameters (6, 8 and 10mm, part of the beams being pre-cracked. The concrete with least strength allowed higher sulfate penetration along the entire process and the compressive strength increased slightly, possibly due to lower porosity of concrete after contamination. The results of the flexural tests showed decrease of strength in all cases. Pre-cracked beams exhibited smaller influence of porosity of concrete. Beams with 6mm rebars showed the largest loss of strength due to the contamination and corrosion process

  19. Media stylistics

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrou, Marina; Durant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we review the concept of ‘media stylistics’. In particular, we disentangle the polysemy of these two terms which, when combined, describe but can also obscure work in this area; and we discuss key themes and concerns which emerge. Through analysis of two short extracts of media discourse in English, we elaborate a distinction between two alternative emphases: study of media language as concerned with the capabilities associated with changing technologies for conveying linguist...

  20. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....