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Sample records for soda lime borate

  1. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  2. In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Marzouk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550–680 cm-1 after immersion confirms the formation of hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction studies and scanning electron microscope analysis supported the obtained infrared spectroscopy results. The solubility test (measurements of the weight loss in aqueous sodium phosphate solution was conducted for measuring the dissolution of both glassy and crystalline derivatives to find out the role of SrO. The corrosion behaviour of the glasses and glass-ceramics indicate the increase of weight loss with the increase of SrO content. Different suggested proposals were introduced to explain this abnormal behaviour.

  3. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  4. Characterization of cutting soda-lime glass sludge for the formulation of red ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filogonio, P.H.C.; Reis, A.S.; Louzada, D.M.; Della, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Considering previous works that have demonstrated the feasibility of soda-lime glass incorporation into red ceramics, this paper aims to determine the potential for incorporation of cutting soda-lime glass sludge in red ceramic manufacturing. Therefore, the waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal behavior. The results confirm the chemical and mineralogical similarity between waste and soda-lime glass. Because of this similarity, it is concluded that the soda-lime glass waste has the capability to be used in the manufacturing of red ceramics. (author)

  5. Development of soda-lime glasses from ornamental rock wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, Michelle Pereira

    2009-01-01

    During the ornamental rocks production, among other steps, one saw the rock blocks in order to transform them into semi-finished plates. In this step, expressive amounts of residues are generated, which are not properly discharged in nature, without any programmed utilization. The residues of silicide rocks present, in their compositions, oxides which are raw materials employed to fabricate soda-lime type glasses (containing SiO_2, Al_2O_3, CaO, Na_2O and K_2O). On the other hand the residues of carbonatic rocks are constituted of glass net modifier oxides, like CaO and MgO. In this work it was developed four types of soda-lime glasses using ornamental rock residues, where the glasses compositions were adjusted by adding sand, as silica source, as well as sodium and calcium carbonates as sources of Na_2O and CaO, respectively. The obtained glasses were characterized by means of Archimed's method for densities measurements, microstructure by using optical and electronic microscopy, phases by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness by Vickers indentation, spectroscopy (UV/VIS), and hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719. The XRD analyses confirmed the compositions total vitrification, where the greened aspect of the samples was due to the presence of the iron oxides. The produced glasses properties were compared with those of commercial glasses aiming their industrial employment. The main difference between the produced glasses and those commercials varied primarily regarding the amount of carbonates incorporated. The results showed that the ornamental rocks residues may be used as raw materials for glasses fabrication, and they found a useful economic destination rather than discharge which promotes undesirable environmental impact. (author)

  6. Internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S; Müller, R; Deubener, J; Behrens, H

    2013-11-07

    The internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silica glasses with total water content (C(W)) up to 1.9 wt. % was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using temperature-frequency sweeps from 723 K to 273 K and from 1 s(-1) to 50 s(-1). Total water content and concentrations of H2O molecules (C(H2O)) and OH groups (C(OH)) in the DMA specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. For low water contents (C(W) ≈ C(OH) friction peaks below the glass transition (α relaxation) were assigned to the low-temperature motion of alkali ions (γ relaxation) and cooperative movements of dissimilar mobile species under participation of OH at higher temperature (β(OH) relaxation). For large water contents (C(W) > 1 wt. %), where significant amounts of molecular water are evident (C(H2O) > 0.15 wt. %), however, internal friction spectra change unexpectedly: the β(OH) peak heights saturate and a low temperature shoulder appears on the β-relaxation peak. This emerging relaxation mode (β(H2O) relaxation) was assigned to the motions of H2O molecules. β(H2O) relaxation was found to be faster than β(OH) but slower than γ relaxation. Activation energy of the different relaxation modes increased in the order γ < β(H2O) < β(OH) < α.

  7. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwasi?ska, Agnieszka; Felf?ldi, Tam?s; Szab?, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemys?aw; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth...

  8. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R.; Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system ( 2 lixiviation followed a Jander model (α 2 /4 ≈ Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 μm with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  9. Nanosecond (ns) laser transfer of silver nanoparticles from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to transparent soda-lime glass and shock waves formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sow, Mohamed Chérif; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Sagot, Nadine; Ollier, Nadège; Tite, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles growth by nanosecond laser irradiation of silver exchanged soda-lime glasses. • Silver nanoparticles transfer. • Nanosecond laser induced shock waves formation on glass. - Abstract: In this contribution, we showed for the first time in our knowledge a single-step process for silver clusters and nanoparticles growth and transfer from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to un-exchanged soda-lime glass (transparent glass in visible and NIR domain) by nanosecond (ns) laser irradiation. The transferred silver nanoparticles in transparent glass are strongly linked to the glass surface. In addition, we point out the formation of shock waves, with selective silver clustering on the top wave. This technique provides an alternative and simple way to obtain metallic nanoparticles in different media which can be traversed by laser wavelength used. Moreover, this experiment is made at room temperature and air environment. It is worth noting that our technique requires a glass previously doped with the corresponding silver ions

  10. Surface morphology study in high speed milling of soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Bagum, Mst. Nasima; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Amin, A. K. M. Nurul

    2018-05-01

    Soda lime glass has a wide range of applications in optical, bio-medical and semi-conductor industries. It is undeniably a challenging task to produce micro finish surface on an amorphous brittle solid like soda lime glass due to its low fracture toughness. In order to obtain such a finish surface, ductile machining has been exploited, as this usually cause's plastic flow which control crack propagation. At sub-micro scale cutting parameters, researchers achieved nano finish surface in micro milling operation using coated tool. However it is possible to enhance the rate of material removal (RMR) of soda lime glass at flexible cutting condition. High speed cutting at micro meter level, extend of thermal softening might be prominent than the strain gradient strengthening. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high cutting speed end milling parameters on the surface texture of soda lime glass using uncoated carbide tool. The spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate were varied from 20,000 to 40,000 rpm, 10 to 30 mm/min and 30 to 50 µm respectively. Mathematical model of roughness has been developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental verification confirmed that surface roughness (Ra) 0.38 µm is possible to achieve at increased RMR, 4.71 mm3/min.

  11. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  12. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams

  13. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, F.H.; Yim, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al 2 O 3 to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition

  14. Formation of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan, Md. Shamim, E-mail: shamim@kaist.ac.kr [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Electronics and Communication Engineering Discipline, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Khulna University, Khulna-9208 (Bangladesh); Dewanda, Fadia, E-mail: fdewanda@kaist.ac.kr [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Seop, E-mail: leems1502@kaist.ac.kr [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sekita, Hitoshi, E-mail: sekita@cyber-laser.com [Cyber Laser Inc., 7-7 Sinkawasaki, KBIC 101 205, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-0032 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi, E-mail: sumiy@cyber-laser.com [Cyber Laser Inc., 7-7 Sinkawasaki, KBIC 101 205, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We formed superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by femtosecond laser pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Periodic microstructures are printed on the glass surface for superhydrophobicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contact angle of water droplet on the microstructured glass surface is 155 Degree-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transparency of superhydrophobic glass is higher than 77% in visible spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain the formation mechanism of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the fabrication of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by engineering periodic microgratings with self-formed periodic micro-ripples inside the microgratings using a single beam femtosecond laser. The wetting property of the microstructured surface is improved from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic, presenting a water droplet contact angle ranges from 152 Degree-Sign to 155 Degree-Sign . The microstructured glass surface shows excellent transparency, which is higher than 77% in the visible spectrum. We strongly believe that our proposed technology can achieve superhydrophobic glass surfaces over a large area for applications in diverse fields.

  15. Formation of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Dewanda, Fadia; Lee, Man Seop; Sekita, Hitoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We formed superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by femtosecond laser pulses. ► Periodic microstructures are printed on the glass surface for superhydrophobicity. ► The contact angle of water droplet on the microstructured glass surface is 155°. ► The transparency of superhydrophobic glass is higher than 77% in visible spectrum. ► We explain the formation mechanism of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the fabrication of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by engineering periodic microgratings with self-formed periodic micro-ripples inside the microgratings using a single beam femtosecond laser. The wetting property of the microstructured surface is improved from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic, presenting a water droplet contact angle ranges from 152° to 155°. The microstructured glass surface shows excellent transparency, which is higher than 77% in the visible spectrum. We strongly believe that our proposed technology can achieve superhydrophobic glass surfaces over a large area for applications in diverse fields.

  16. Establishing Relationship between Process Parameters and Temperature during High Speed End Milling of Soda Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasima Bagum, Mst.; Konneh, Mohamed; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In glass machining crack free surface is required in biomedical and optical industry. Ductile mode machining allows materials removal from brittle materials in a ductile manner rather than by brittle fracture. Although end milling is a versatile process, it has not been applied frequently for machining soda lime glass. Soda lime glass is a strain rate and temperature sensitive material; especially around glass transition temperature Tg, ductility increased and strength decreased. Hence, it is envisaged that the generated temperature by high-speed end milling (HSEM) could be brought close to the glass transition temperature, which promote ductile machining. In this research, the objective is to investigate the effect of high speed machining parameters on generated temperature. The cutting parameters were optimized to generate temperature around glass transition temperature of soda lime using response surface methodology (RSM). Result showed that the most influencing process parameter is feed rate followed by spindle speed and depth of cut to generate temperature. Confirmation test showed that combination of spindle speed 30,173 rpm, feed rate 13.2 mm/min and depth of cut 37.68 µm generate 635°C, hence ductile chip removal with machined surface Ra 0.358 µm was possible to achieve.

  17. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Felföldi, Tamás; Szabó, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemysław; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth of 2 m (both having pH ~11 and EC e up to 423 dS m -1 ) were investigated using culture-based (culturing on alkaline medium) and culture-independent microbiological approaches (microscopic analyses and pyrosequencing). A surprisingly diverse bacterial community was discovered in this highly saline, alkaline and nutrient-poor environment, with the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (representing 52.8% of the total bacterial community) and Firmicutes (16.6%) showing dominance. Compared to the surface layer, higher bacterial abundance and diversity values were detected in the deep zone, where more stable environmental conditions may occur. The surface layer was dominated by members of the genera Phenylobacterium, Chelativorans and Skermanella, while in the interior layer the genus Fictibacillus was dominant. The culturable aerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains isolated in this study belonged mostly to the genus Bacillus and were closely related to the species Bacillus pseudofirmus, B. cereus, B. plakortidis, B. thuringensis and B. pumilus.

  18. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  19. Effect of embedded silver nanoparticles on refractive index of soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonal, Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2018-05-01

    Silver glass nanocomposites were prepared by exposing silver doped soda lime glass slides obtained via ion-exchange reaction to a beam of 200 keV Argon ions (Ar+) at an off normal angle of 400 with doses of 5x1015 ions cm-2 and 1x1016 ions cm-2. These nanocomposites were further characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer so as to study their transmission and reflection behavior and compute their refractive index and real and imaginary parts of dielectric function.

  20. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  1. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of silver colloids on ion exchanged soda lime silicate glasses by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, E.M.; Okuno, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation (gamma rays, X-rays and electrons) on soda lime silicate glasses, in which part of the Na + was substituted by Ag + by means of an ionic exchange process, was studied. The techniques of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to follow the formation of silver colloids by irradiation. Also the thermoluminescence (TL) of the samples was measured and three peaks between room temperature and 450 C were observed. The TEM and TSDC results agree that, as expected, ionizing radiation promotes the formation of silver colloids on the ion exchanged surface of soda lime glasses. Soft X-rays are much more efficient in the process than gamma rays and electrons. The correlation with thermoluminescence glow curves indicates that the intensity of a TL peak at 230 C can provide a rapid means of evaluating the presence of silver colloids. TL sensitivities, measured as area under the glow curve per unit mass and unit dose, are very similar for ion exchanged and not exchanged samples submitted to X-ray irradiation, although the peak temperatures differ in about 40 C in the two cases. For both electron and gamma irradiated samples, the TL sensitivity drops about an order of magnitude when compared to the X-ray irradiated ones. (orig.)

  3. PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE X COATINGS ON SODA-LIME TYPE GLASS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatlier

    Full Text Available Abstract The dissolution of glass in highly alkaline reaction mixtures and the impact of this phenomenon on zeolite coating formation were investigated. Coating samples were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and thermogravimetry (TG. It was demonstrated that zeolite X coatings might be prepared on soda-lime glass. Glass dissolved to some degree, up to 2% of its original mass, in the reaction mixtures for the conditions investigated. This dissolution affected the zeolite synthesis taking place on the glass surface, resulting in phases different from those obtained on inert metal surfaces in some cases, especially for the use of reaction mixtures with relatively high Si/Al ratios. The percentage of dissolution of glass plates increased with their decreasing thickness, indicating a surface phenomenon for the dissolution. The stabilities of the coatings, which varied with the synthesis conditions, benefited from the addition of extra thin layers of polyacrylic acid.

  4. A study on the plasticity of soda-lime silica glass via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shingo; Sato, Yosuke

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied to construct a plasticity model, which enables one to simulate deformations of soda-lime silica glass (SLSG) by using continuum methods. To model the plasticity, stress induced by uniaxial and a variety of biaxial deformations was measured by MD simulations. We found that the surfaces of yield and maximum stresses, which are evaluated from the equivalent stress-strain curves, are reasonably represented by the Mohr-Coulomb ellipsoid. Comparing a finite element model using the constructed plasticity model to a large scale atomistic model on a nanoindentation simulation of SLSG reveals that the empirical method is accurate enough to evaluate the SLSG mechanical responses. Furthermore, the effect of ion-exchange on the SLSG plasticity was examined by using MD simulations. As a result, it was demonstrated that the effects of the initial compressive stress on the yield and maximum stresses are anisotropic contrary to our expectations.

  5. OD bands in the IR spectra of a deuterated soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuker, C.; Brzezinka, K.W.; Gaber, M.; Kohl, A.; Geissler, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    IR spectra of a deuterated glass of the composition (in mol%) 16 Na{sub 2}O . 10 CaO . 74 SiO{sub 2} complete earlier spectroscopic studies on water-poor soda-lime-silica glasses. The approved IR spectroscopic method of the deuterium exchange allows a reliable assignment of the hydroxyl bands also in the case of glasses. By spectra comparison the assignment of the IR bands at 3500 and 2800 cm{sup -1} to hydroxyl groups with different hydrogen bonding is verified. The IR band at about 4500 cm{sup -1} is interpreted as both a combination of the stretching vibrations {nu}O-H and {nu}Si-OH and a combination of the stretching vibration {nu}O-H and the deformation vibration {delta}SiOH. The bands at 1763 and 1602 cm{sup -1} are attributed to combination vibrations of the glass network. (orig.)

  6. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  8. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Yong-Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, PO Box 111, Kiheung 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Gyu-Chul, E-mail: joonie.choi@samsung.com, E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Initiative Center for Semiconductor Nanorods, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  9. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Yong-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee; Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Jong Min; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2011-05-20

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  10. Effects of ion implantation on the hardness and friction behaviour of soda-lime silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, S.J.; Page, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Ion implantation-induced changes in the near-surface mechanical properties of soda-lime silica glass have been investigated by indentation and scratch testing and have been found to be more complicated than changes in the corresponding properties of crystalline ceramic materials. Argon, nitrogen, carbon and potassium ions were used with energies in the range 45-300 keV. Hardness and scratch friction tests were performed under ambient laboratory conditions. At low doses, a decrease in hardness and an increase in both friction and surface stress are observed which are attributed to the electronic damage produced by ion implantation. At higher doses, the hardness increases again and a maximum is produced similar to the behaviour observed for crystalline materials. Similarly there is found to be a second stress and friction peak at this dose. This behaviour is shown to be due to the build-up of displacement damage produced by ion implantation and is thus very similar to the radiation hardening (and eventual amorphization) behaviour of ion-implanted crystalline ceramics. For glass, ''amorphization'' probably corresponds to some change in the existing amorphous state which, in turn, is responsible for the reduction in hardness, stress and friction at the highest doses. (author)

  11. Effect of sintering on crystallization and structural properties of soda lime silica glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Mohd Hafiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sintering temperatures on crystallization and structural of the soda lime silica (SLS glass was reported. Elemental weight composition of the SLS glass powder was identified through Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF analysis while the thermal behavior of the glass was determined using Differential thermal analysis (DTA technique. Archimedes’ method and direct geometric measurement were respectively used to determine bulk density and linear shrinkage of the glass samples. Crystallisation behavior of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and chemical bonds present in the samples were measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Results showed an increase in the density and linear shrinkage of the samples as a function of the sintering temperature. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of α-quartz (SiO2 and a minor amount of devitrite phases in the samples and these were further verified through the detection of chemical bonds by FTIR after sintering at 800ºC. The properties of the glass-ceramics can be explained on the basis of crystal chemistry which indicated that the alkali ions formed as carriers in the random network structure and can be recommended for the manufacture of glass fiber or toughened glass-ceramic insulators.

  12. Iron oxide coating films in soda-lime glass by triboadhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J. O.; Arjona, M. J. [Boulevard Bahia s/n esq. Ignacio Comonfort, Chetumal (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, J. M. [Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    In the triboadhesion process the coating material is passed through a rotating cotton mop and the substrate to be coated. The cotton mop rotates at high velocity and exerts pressure on the surface of the substrate. The combined effect of pressure and velocity of the coating mop on the substrate increases its temperature close to the melting point, allowing deposition and diffusion of the coating material within the substrate. After it is deposited, its particles are embedded within the base material forming a thin film composite. The amount of the coating material deposited on the substrate has its maximum at the surface and then decreases as a function of the local temperature within the base material. Bearing this in mind, in the present work, triboadhesion is employed to deposit iron oxide in a substrate of soda-lime glass, with the purpose of determining the feasibility of using this technique for solar control coatings. It was found, through electronic scan microscopy, that a composite material film is formed following the coating direction. Reflectance and transmittance tests were carried out on the glass samples. A 20% difference was found in the visible spectral region (VIS), and a reduction between 10 and 20% in the Near Infrared Region (NIR). These results showed that the triboadhesion is a promising technique for the application of thin films for solar control or solar cells

  13. Iron oxide coating films in soda-lime glass by triboadhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J. O.; Arjona, M. J.; Rodriguez-Lelis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the triboadhesion process the coating material is passed through a rotating cotton mop and the substrate to be coated. The cotton mop rotates at high velocity and exerts pressure on the surface of the substrate. The combined effect of pressure and velocity of the coating mop on the substrate increases its temperature close to the melting point, allowing deposition and diffusion of the coating material within the substrate. After it is deposited, its particles are embedded within the base material forming a thin film composite. The amount of the coating material deposited on the substrate has its maximum at the surface and then decreases as a function of the local temperature within the base material. Bearing this in mind, in the present work, triboadhesion is employed to deposit iron oxide in a substrate of soda-lime glass, with the purpose of determining the feasibility of using this technique for solar control coatings. It was found, through electronic scan microscopy, that a composite material film is formed following the coating direction. Reflectance and transmittance tests were carried out on the glass samples. A 20% difference was found in the visible spectral region (VIS), and a reduction between 10 and 20% in the Near Infrared Region (NIR). These results showed that the triboadhesion is a promising technique for the application of thin films for solar control or solar cells

  14. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  15. Encapsulation of TRISO particle fuel in durable soda-lime-silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Paul G.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hand, Russell J.; Meyer, Willem C.H.M.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2013-01-01

    Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) coated particle-fuel is a key component in designs for future high temperature nuclear reactors. This study investigated the suitability of three soda lime silicate glass compositions, for the encapsulation of simulant TRISO particle fuel. A cold press and sinter (CPS) methodology was employed to produce TRISO particle–glass composites. Composites produced were determined to have an aqueous durability, fracture toughness and Vickers’ hardness comparable to glasses currently employed for the disposal of high level nuclear wastes. Sintering at 700 °C for 30 min was found to remove all interconnected porosity from the composite bodies and oxidation of the outer pyrolytic carbon layer during sintering was prevented by processing under a 5% H 2 /N 2 atmosphere. However, the outer pyrolytic carbon layer was not effectively wetted by the encapsulating glass matrix. The aqueous durability of the TRISO particle–glass composites was investigated using PCT and MCC-1 tests combined with geochemical modelling. It was found that durability was dependent on silicate and calcium solution saturation. This study provides significant advancements in the preparation of TRISO particle encapsulant waste forms. The potential for the use of non-borosilicate sintered glass composites for TRISO particle encapsulation has been confirmed, although further refinements are required

  16. Encapsulation of TRISO particle fuel in durable soda-lime-silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Paul G.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hand, Russell J. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert Hadfield Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Meyer, Willem C.H.M. [Necsa, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, PO Box 582, Pretoria, Gauteng (South Africa); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert Hadfield Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) coated particle-fuel is a key component in designs for future high temperature nuclear reactors. This study investigated the suitability of three soda lime silicate glass compositions, for the encapsulation of simulant TRISO particle fuel. A cold press and sinter (CPS) methodology was employed to produce TRISO particle–glass composites. Composites produced were determined to have an aqueous durability, fracture toughness and Vickers’ hardness comparable to glasses currently employed for the disposal of high level nuclear wastes. Sintering at 700 °C for 30 min was found to remove all interconnected porosity from the composite bodies and oxidation of the outer pyrolytic carbon layer during sintering was prevented by processing under a 5% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmosphere. However, the outer pyrolytic carbon layer was not effectively wetted by the encapsulating glass matrix. The aqueous durability of the TRISO particle–glass composites was investigated using PCT and MCC-1 tests combined with geochemical modelling. It was found that durability was dependent on silicate and calcium solution saturation. This study provides significant advancements in the preparation of TRISO particle encapsulant waste forms. The potential for the use of non-borosilicate sintered glass composites for TRISO particle encapsulation has been confirmed, although further refinements are required.

  17. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. W. Francis Thoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Soda lime silica glasses (SLS, mainly composed of silica (SiO2, have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2 and GWX 2 (replacing SiO2 with waste SLS, were synthesized and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Synthesized glasses were then used to produce GIC, in which the properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and compressive test (from 1 to 28 days. XRD results showed that amorphous glass was produced by using SLS waste glass (GWX 2, which is similar to glass produced using analytical grade SiO2 (GWX 1. Results from FT-IR showed that the setting reaction of GWX 2 cements is slower compared to cement GWX 1. Compressive strengths for GWX 1 cements reached up to 76 MPa at 28 days, whereas GWX 2 cements showed a slightly higher value, which is 80 MPa.

  18. Characterization of waste soda-lime glass from the process lapping; Caracterizacao do rejeito de vidro sodo-calcico proveniente do processo de lapidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, A.C.P.; Farias, A.C.M. de; Mendes, J.U.L., E-mail: galvao_alvaro@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The beneficiation process of plates by stoning of soda-lime glass in glass industry generates, by itself, a residue not used (waste). The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing environmental impacts. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of stoning of soda-lime glass (GP). After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and subsequently characterized through the chemical analysis (XRF, XRD, EDS), morphology by SEM, particle size by laser diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DSC). It was observed that the particles of GP are micrometer and irregular with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca, which are the characteristic elements of an amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric characteristics of GP allowed to suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulators. (author)

  19. Characterization of waste of soda-lime glass generated from lapping process to reuse as filler in composite materials as thermal insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. P. Galvão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe beneficiation plate process by soda-lime glass lapping in the glass industry generates, an untapped residue (waste. The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing impact on the environment. This work aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of soda-lime glass (GP lapping. After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and further characterized by the chemical/mineralogical analysis (XRF, EDS and XRD, SEM morphology, particle size by laser diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA and DSC and thermophysical analyses. It was observed that the GP particles are irregular and micrometric with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca elements characteristic of amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical/mineralogical, morphological, thermophysical and thermal gravimetric characteristics of GP suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulation.

  20. Development of dense glass-ceramic from recycled soda-lime-silicate glass and fly ash for tiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffar, Mohd Idham; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza; Hassan, Mahadi Abu

    2017-12-01

    Dense glass-ceramics were prepared by sinter-crystallization process from a combination of soda-lime-silicate glass waste and fly ash. Bentonite clay that acted as a binder was also added in a prepared formulation. The powder mixture of soda-lime glass, fly ash and bentonite clay were compacted by using uniaxial hydraulic press machine and sintered at six (6) various temperatures namely 750, 800, 850, 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The heating rate and sintering time were set at 5 °C/min and 30 minutes respectively. The results revealed that modulus of rupture (MOR), density and linear shrinkage increase first from 750 to 800 °C but decrease later after 800 to 1000 °C. In the meantime, water absorption was showing completely an opposite trend. The glass-ceramic sintered at 800 °C was found to have the best combination of physical-mechanical properties and has the potential to be applied in the construction industry particularly as floor and wall tiles because of the simple manufacturing process at low temperature.

  1. Integrated treatment of acid mine drainage using BOF slag, lime/soda ash and reverse osmosis (RO): Implication for the production of drinking water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available -up with environmental friendly and zeroliquid-discharge technologies. The purpose of this novel study was to produce drinking water and recover valuable minerals from acid mine drainage using an integration of Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) slag, lime, soda ash and Reverse...

  2. Preparation of soda-lime glass using rock wool waste; Preparacao de vidros sodo-calcicos utilizando residuo de la de rocha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, F.C.; Della, V.P. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ballmann, T.J.S.; Folgueras, M.V. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Junkes, J.A., E-mail: janajunkes@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Tiradentes, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Discarded by the mining industry during the maintenance stoppages of pelletizing furnaces, rock wool has in its composition SiO{sub 2} (56%), Na{sub 2} O (12%) and CaO (7%) propitious for obtaining soda-lime glasses. Under this focus, this work developed soda-lime glasses formulations, using as main raw-material rock wool waste in proportions from 50 to 100% by adjusting the chemical composition of the formulations with sand, sodium and calcium carbonates, as silica, soda and lime sources, respectively. In some formulations the sodium carbonate was replaced by sodium sulfate, which acts as a refining agent, improving homogenization and reducing the bubble formation during the melting. Initially, the raw-materials were evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The tests showed that the rock wool waste has potential to be used in soda-lime glasses production, however, the chemical composition must be corrected. After knowing the waste potential, seven mixtures were prepared and molten at 1550 °C for 1 to 2 h. It has been found that the maximum rock wool waste percentage that can be used is between 60 and 80%, and that the 2 h melting time resulted in more homogeneous glasses and fewer bubbles according to the addition of sodium sulfate which is efficient for bubbles removal. (author)

  3. Effect of barrier layers on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films on soda lime glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Min; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung; An, Yong-Tae; Park, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical, structural and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on soda lime glass (SLG) haven been investigated, along with high strain point glass (HSPG) substrate, through radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a ceramic target (In 2 O 3 :SnO 2 , 90:10 wt.%). The ITO films deposited on the SLG show a high electrical resistivity and structural defects compared with those deposited on HSPG due to the Na ions from the SLG diffusing to the ITO film by annealing. However, these properties can be improved by intercalating a barrier layer of SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 between the ITO film and the SLG substrate. SIMS analysis has confirmed that the barrier layer inhibits the Na ion's diffusion from the SLG. In particular, the ITO films deposited on the Al 2 O 3 barrier layer, show better properties than those deposited on the SiO 2 barrier layer.

  4. Use of wasted foundry sand (WFS) as a partial substitute for silica in a soda lime glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.C.; Ueno, O.K.; Folgueras, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    The waste foundry sand (WFS) is the main waste generates in foundry industries. Studies in the literature suggest the use of WFS in different materials, such as concrete, brick or asphalt. This work aims to partially replace the silica of a soda-lime glass by the WFS. The waste foundry sand has in its composition elements such as iron and aluminum that can affect the glass quality, which justifies the residue processing to reduce the impurity content. The treatments, that included mechanical agitation and thermal treatment, resulted in a slight decrease in the percent of iron with consequent increase of the silica content. After treatment, some sands were incorporated into the glass, that showed green color but with lower absorption intensity for the sand with less iron content. It was observed that it's possible to obtain glasses using WFS, however, there is difficulty in color controlling. (author

  5. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased. PMID:22837711

  6. A laser-based technology for fabricating a soda-lime glass based microfluidic device for circulating tumour cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Couceiro, Ramiro; Aymerich, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-10-01

    We developed a laser-based technique for fabricating microfluidic microchips on soda-lime glass substrates. The proposed methodology combines a laser direct writing, as a manufacturing tool for the fabrication of the microfluidics structures, followed by a post-thermal treatment with a CO2 laser. This treatment will allow reshaping and improving the morphological (roughness) and optical qualities (transparency) of the generated microfluidics structures. The use of lasers commonly implemented for material processing makes this technique highly competitive when compared with other glass microstructuring approaches. The manufactured chips were tested with tumour cells (Hec 1A) after being functionalized with an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody coating. Cells were successfully arrested on the pillars after being flown through the device giving our technology a translational application in the field of cancer research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  8. Modeling and evaluating of surface roughness prediction in micro-grinding on soda-lime glass considering tool characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Gong, Yadong; Wang, Jinsheng

    2013-11-01

    The current research of micro-grinding mainly focuses on the optimal processing technology for different materials. However, the material removal mechanism in micro-grinding is the base of achieving high quality processing surface. Therefore, a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion topography is proposed in this paper. The differences of material removal mechanism between convention grinding process and micro-grinding process are analyzed. Topography characterization has been done on micro-grinding tools which are fabricated by electroplating. Models of grain density generation and grain interval are built, and new predicting model of micro-grinding surface roughness is developed. In order to verify the precision and application effect of the surface roughness prediction model proposed, a micro-grinding orthogonally experiment on soda-lime glass is designed and conducted. A series of micro-machining surfaces which are 78 nm to 0.98 μm roughness of brittle material is achieved. It is found that experimental roughness results and the predicting roughness data have an evident coincidence, and the component variable of describing the size effects in predicting model is calculated to be 1.5×107 by reverse method based on the experimental results. The proposed model builds a set of distribution to consider grains distribution densities in different protrusion heights. Finally, the characterization of micro-grinding tools which are used in the experiment has been done based on the distribution set. It is concluded that there is a significant coincidence between surface prediction data from the proposed model and measurements from experiment results. Therefore, the effectiveness of the model is demonstrated. This paper proposes a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion

  9. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  10. Use of rice rusk ash and spent catalyst as a source of raw material for the production and characterization of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.S.; Martinelli, J.R.; Genova, L.A.; Prado, U.S. do

    2016-01-01

    Study on the use of rice husk ash (RHA) and waste catalyst (ECAT), two industrial solid waste generated in large quantities in Brazil, getting soda-lime glass for the production of packaging. Both the waste may be classified as class II waste according to NBR 10,004. Samples were produced adding Na_2CO_3 and CaO to obtain a composition within the range of commercial soda-lime glasses. The results showed that both can be used as received (without any previous treatment) replacing important raw materials, source of Al_2O_3 and SiO2, necessary for glass formation. The produced samples were amber due to the presence of nickel (Ni2+ ions) from the ECAT and optical transmittance of 18%. These also showed good homogeneity, i.e., absence of bubbles and striae and dissolution rate higher than a commercial soda-lime glass. In general, the samples are presented suitable for applications that require low transmittance such as colored glass containers, which does not require perfect visibility and transparency. Finally, the waste level of incorporation was approximately 78 mass%. (author)

  11. Effect of γ-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elalaily, N.A.; Khalil, Magda M.I.; Ahmed, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

  12. A dynamic fatigue study of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses using small scale indentation flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, T.P.; Lawn, B.R.; Kelly, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic fatigue characteristics of two glasses, soda-lime silicate and borosilicate, in water have been studied using a controlled indentation flaw technique. It is argued that the indentation approach offers several advantages over more conventional fatigue testing procedures: (i) the reproducibility of data is relatively high, eliminating statistics as a basis of analysis: (ii) the flaw ultimately responsible for failure is well defined and may be conveniently characterised before and after (and during, if necessary) the strength test; (iii) via adjustment of the indentation load, the size of the flaw can be suitably predetermined. Particular attention is devoted to the third point because of the facility it provides for systematic investigation of the range of flaw sizes over which macroscopic crack behaviour remains applicable. The first part of the paper summarises the essential fracture mechanics theory of the extension of an indentation flaw to failure. In the next part of the paper the results of dynamic fatigue tests on glass rods in distilled water are described. Data are obtained for Vickers indentation loads in the range 0.05 to 100 N, corresponding to contact dimensions of 2 to 100 μm. Finally, the implications of the results in relation to the response of 'natural' flaws are discussed. (author)

  13. Impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiscoul, D.; Bruguier, F.; Gin, S.; Magnin, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition and particularly the effect of charge compensators such Ca and Na and, of network formers such Si and Zr, on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration were investigated. Two non-destructive techniques were combined: the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection geometry to precise the predominant alteration mechanisms and assess the water structure in altered zone and the grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry to determine the thickness of the altered glass zone allowing to calculate the water diffusion coefficients through the glasses. The results of glass alteration at pH = 3 and 30 degrees C have shown that hydrolysis was the predominant mechanism after few seconds for glass having a high amount of non-binding oxygen. For the other glasses, which for the diffusion was the limiting reaction, the calculated water diffusion coefficients were comprised between 10 -21 and 10 -19 m 2 .s -1 and vary as a function of glass composition. An activation energy of 76.9 kJ.mol -1 was calculated and appears to be higher than inert gas diffusion through the glass highlighting that water molecules strongly interact with the glass matrix. (authors)

  14. Lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, US lime production was 20 Mt with a value of $1.5 billion. Production was unchanged compared with 2004. Captive production was 1.4 Mt. US consumption was 20.2 Mt. Most of the US lime trade was with Canada and Mexico. Despite some disruptions due to hurricanes Katrina and Rita, normal sales activities remained healthy.

  15. Visible light activated catalytic effect of iron containing soda-lime silicate glass characterized by 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiro Kubuki; Jun Iwanuma; Yusuke Takahashi; Kazuhiko Akiyama; Ernoe Kuzmann; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; Tetsuaki Nishida

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between local structure and visible light activated catalytic effect of iron containing soda lime silicate glass with the composition of 15Na 2 O·15CaO·xFe 2 O 3 ·(70-x)SiO 2 , x = 5-50 mass %, abbreviated as NCFSx was investigated by means of 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Moessbauer spectra of NCFSx glass with 'x' being equal to or larger than 30 after isothermal annealing at 1,000 deg C for 100 min consisted of a paramagnetic doublet and a magnetic sextet. The former had isomer shift (δ) of 0.24 mm s -1 and quadrupole splitting (Δ) of 0.99 mm s -1 due to distorted Fe III O 4 tetrahedra, and the latter had δ of 0.36 mm s -1 and internal magnetic field (H int ) of 51.8 T due to hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). The absorption area (A) of α-Fe 2 O 3 varied from 47.2 to 75.9, 93.1, 64.8 and 47.9 % with 'x' from 30 to 35, 40, 45 and 50, indicating that the amount of precipitated α-Fe 2 O 3 varied with the Fe 2 O 3 content of NCFSx glass. The precipitation of α-Fe 2 O 3 was also confirmed by XRD study of annealed NCFS glass with 'x' larger than 30. A relaxed sexted with δ, H int and Γ of 0.34 mm s -1 and 37.9 T and 1.32 mm s -1 was observed from the Moessbauer spectra of annealed NCFSx glass with 'x' of 45 and 50, implying that the precipitation of non-stoichiometric iron hydroxide oxide with the composition of Fe 1.833 (OH) 0.5 O 2.5 having the similar structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and α-FeOOH. A remarkable decrease in the concentration of methylene blue (MB) from 10 to 0.0 μmol L -1 with the first-order rate constant (k) of 2.87 × 10 -2 h -1 was observed for 10-day leaching test using annealed NCFS50 glass under visible light irradiation. ESI-MS study indicated that existence of fragments with m/z value of 129, 117 and 207 etc. originating from MB having m/z of 284. This

  16. The effects of gamma irradiation on the elastic properties of soda lime glass doped with cerium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laopaiboon, R.; Laopaiboon, J.; Pencharee, S. [Glass Technology Excellent Center (GTEC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand); Nontachat, S. [Department of Radiotherapy, Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Centre, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand); Bootjomchai, C., E-mail: cherdsak_per@hotmail.co.th [Glass Technology Excellent Center (GTEC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand)

    2016-05-05

    Soda lime glass doped with cerium oxide was prepared using a conventional melt quenching technique. The density and molar volume of the glass samples were measured. Ultrasonic wave velocities of the glass samples were carried out using a pulse echo technique. The density and ultrasonic velocities were used for determining elastic moduli of the glass samples, both before and after irradiation with gamma rays at 1 kGy. The results revealed that the influence of gamma irradiation caused the matrix structure of the glass samples to be damaged by creating displacements, electronic defects and/or breaks in the network bonds, leading to the formation of non-bridging oxygens (NBOs). Elastic properties were investigated under the influence of gamma irradiation. The results also revealed that the structures of the glass samples were distorted by irradiation. Damage by irradiation created the NBOs and/or the transformation of main glass network structures from Q{sub 4} to Q{sub 3}. Evidence of these results was acquired from FTIR spectra. The results of FTIR supported the results and were obtained from ultrasonic velocities. In addition, the elastic properties obtained from experiments were compared with theoretical values calculated from the Makishima and Mackenzie model (M–M model). - Highlights: • Results show good agreement between experimental and theoretical of elastic moduli. • Influence of irradiation created a distorted network structure. • Transformation of network structure from Ref. Q{sub 4} to Q{sub 3} after irradiation. • FTIR result is good evidence of the result is obtained from ultrasonic technique.

  17. A simulation approach to material removal in microwave drilling of soda lime glass at 2.45 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautre, Nitin Kumar; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar; Pradeep, Kumar; Das, Shantanu

    2015-09-01

    Material removal during microwave drilling is basically due to thermal ablation of the material in the vicinity of the drilling tool. The microtip of the tool, also termed as concentrator, absorbs microwaves and ionizes the dielectric in its proximity creating a zone of plasma. The plasma takes the shape of a sphere owing to the atmospheric sphere, which acts as the source of thermal energy to be used for processing a material. This mechanism of heating, also called localized microwave heating, was used in the present study to drill holes in 1.2-mm-thick soda lime glass. The mechanism of material removal had been analyzed through simulation of the hot spot region, and the results were attempted to explain through experiment observations. It was realized that the glass being a poor conductor of heat, a low power (90 W in this case) yields better drilling results owing to more localized heat corresponding to a low-volume plasma sphere. The low application time prevents further heat transfer, and a localized concentration of heat becomes possible that primarily causes the material ablation. The plasma sphere appears sustain while the tool moves through the bulk of the glass thickness although its volume gets further shrunk. The process needs careful selection of the parameters. The simulation results show relatively low temperature in the top half (opposite to the tool tip) of the plasma sphere which eventually causes the semimolten viscous glass to collapse into the drill cavity as the tool advances into the bulk and stops the movement of the tool. The continued plasma sphere raises the tip temperature, which makes the tip to melt and gets blunt. The plasma formation ceases owing to larger diameter of the tool, and the tool gets stuck which could be verified through experimental results.

  18. Microstructure characterization of the soda-lime-glass/copper-indium-gallium-selenium interface in Cu-poor Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjustb@gmail.com; Qiao, Yi; Zhu, Jie, E-mail: jiezhu@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-05-29

    The microstructure characteristics of the soda-lime-glass/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (SLG/CIGS) interface in Cu-poor CIGS films are investigated by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns show very sharp and strong spots, indicating the main structure of CIGS chalcopyrite. Small dispersed crystals with size distribution from 2 to 5 nm seem to be embedded in amorphous matrix, and additional spots indicate the presence of an ordered vacancy compound (OVC). This observation is consistent with the Raman results, and the OVC phase with the nanoclusters exists in the CIGS matrix, instead of layer structure. Lattice distortion results in local changes in contrast. Some pseudo-disordered structure is observed, however, the structure is actually the chalcopyrite CIGS structure. 180° rotation twins are also observed at the SLG/CIGS interface. Lattice distortion is widely observed at the interface of the Cu-poor CIGS films, and the extra spots could be caused by different lattice orientations. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) were prepared on bare soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. • Microstructure of the SLG/CIGS interface was investigated. • An ordered vacancy compound (OVC) phase was observed. • The OVC phase with nanoclusters exists in the CIGS matrix, instead of layer structure. • 180° rotation twins were observed at the SLG/CIGS interface.

  19. Bone Loss at Implant with Titanium Abutments Coated by Soda Lime Glass Containing Silver Nanoparticles: A Histological Study in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Arturo; Guitián, Francisco; López-Píriz, Roberto; Bartolomé, José F.; Cabal, Belén; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression. PMID:24466292

  20. Alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 films coated on soda-lime-silica glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Matsuno, Y; Katayama, S; Tsuno, T [Nippon Steel Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Toge, N; Minami, T [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1992-09-01

    TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by the sol-gel method serves as an effective alkali passivation layer on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate and the film is superior to a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film from the view point of weathering resistance improvement. To clarify the reason, alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 glass films with different TiO2 contents coated on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate was studied by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses, and compared with the results of a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: An increase in TiO2 content in the TiO2 SiO2 film increases the sodium concentration in the film, which was induced by sodium migration from the glass substrate during the heat-treatment. Because of the presence of sodium the TiO2 -SiO2 films serve not as a barrier but as an effective getter of alkali ions and thereby effectively improve the weathering resistance Of the glass substrate. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Bone loss at implant with titanium abutments coated by soda lime glass containing silver nanoparticles: a histological study in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martinez

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression.

  2. Effect of sintering temperature on physical, structural and optical properties of wollastonite based glass-ceramic derived from waste soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Amer Almasri

    Full Text Available The impact of different sintering temperatures on physical, optical and structural properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3 based glass-ceramics were investigated for its potential application as a building material. Wollastonite based glass-ceramics was provided by a conventional melt-quenching method and followed by a controlled sintering process. In this work, soda lime silica glass waste was utilized as a source of silicon. The chemical composition and physical properties of glass were characterized by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and Archimedes principle. The Archimedes measurement results show that the density increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The generation of CaSiO3, morphology, size and crystal phase with increasing the heat-treatment temperature were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transforms infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average calculated crystal size gained from XRD was found to be in the range 60 nm. The FESEM results show a uniform distribution of particles and the morphology of the wollastonite crystal is in relict shapes. The appearance of CaO, SiO2, and Ca-O-Si bands disclosed from FTIR which showed the formation of CaSiO3 crystal phase. In addition to the calculation of the energy band gap which found to be increased with increasing sintering temperature. Keywords: Soda lime silica glass, Wollastonite, Sintering, Structural properties, Optical properties

  3. Use of wasted foundry sand (WFS) as a partial substitute for silica in a soda lime glass; Utilizacao de areia descartada de fundicao (ADF) como substituinte parcial da silica em um vidro soda-cal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.C.; Ueno, O.K.; Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: amandacarolinemartin@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (CCT/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2016-07-01

    The waste foundry sand (WFS) is the main waste generates in foundry industries. Studies in the literature suggest the use of WFS in different materials, such as concrete, brick or asphalt. This work aims to partially replace the silica of a soda-lime glass by the WFS. The waste foundry sand has in its composition elements such as iron and aluminum that can affect the glass quality, which justifies the residue processing to reduce the impurity content. The treatments, that included mechanical agitation and thermal treatment, resulted in a slight decrease in the percent of iron with consequent increase of the silica content. After treatment, some sands were incorporated into the glass, that showed green color but with lower absorption intensity for the sand with less iron content. It was observed that it's possible to obtain glasses using WFS, however, there is difficulty in color controlling. (author.

  4. Wiping frictional properties of electrospun hydrophobic/hydrophilic polyurethane nanofiber-webs on soda-lime glass and silicon-wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Wei, Kai; Nakashima, Ryu; Kim, Ick Soo; Enomoto, Yuji

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, we conducted the frictional tests of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polyurethane (PUo and PUi) nanofiber webs against engineering materials; soda-lime glass and silicon wafer. PUi/glass combination, with highest hydrophilicity, showed the highest friction coefficient which decrease with the increase of the applied load. Furthermore, the effects of fluorine coating are also investigated. The friction coefficient of fluorine coated hydrophobic PU nanofiber (PUof) shows great decrease against the silicon wafer. Finally, wiping ability and friction property are investigated when the substrate surface is contaminated. Nano-particle dusts are effectively collected into the pores by wiping with PUo and PUi nanofiber webs both on glass and silicon wafer. The friction coefficient gradually increased with the increase of the applied load.

  5. Nonlinear relationship between the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response and the Al/B ratio in a soda-lime aluminoborosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah, E-mail: rufarooqi@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We have investigated the effect of Al/B ratio on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response. In an aluminoborosilicate soda-lime glass based on a modified International Simple Glass, ISG-3, the Al/B ratio varied from 0 to 0.55 (in mole fractions). In agreement with various models of the PCT response as a function of glass composition, we observed a monotonic increase of B and Na releases with decreasing Al/B mole ratio, but only when the ratio was higher than 0.05. Below this value (Al/B < 0.05), we observed a sharp decrease that we attribute to B in tetrahedral coordination.

  6. Formation of silver nanoparticles inside a soda-lime glass matrix in the presence of a high intensity Ar+ laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niry, M. D.; Khalesifard, H. R.; Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Ahangary, A.; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Formation and motion of the silver nanoparticles inside an ion-exchanged soda-lime glass in the presence of a focused high intensity continuous wave Ar + laser beam (intensity: 9.2 x 10 4 W/cm 2 ) have been studied in here. One-dimensional diffusion equation has been used to model the diffusion of the silver ions into the glass matrix, and a two-dimensional reverse diffusion model has been introduced to explain the motion of the silver clusters and their migration toward the glass surface in the presence of the laser beam. The results of the mentioned models were in agreement with our measurements on thickness of the ion-exchange layer by means of optical microscopy and recorded morphology of the glass surface around the laser beam axis by using a Mirau interferometer. SEM micrographs were used to extract the size distribution of the migrated silver particles over the glass surface.

  7. Characterization of residues of effluent treatment plant from lapping process of soda-lime glass and its application in the production of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Aline Pignaton; Calmon, Joao Luiz; Tristao, Fernando Avancini

    2012-01-01

    This study enunciates the physical, chemical and mineralogical composition of the residue from the process of ETE cutting of soda-lime glasses and its application in concrete as a replacement to the weight of CPV ARI RS cement, at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Tests were performed on fresh and hardened (ages 3, 7, 28 and 300 days). The results were compared and statistically analyzed. In the fresh state, reductions in the amount of exuding water and consistency were observed. The results of compressive strength were statistically different, while the results for the tensile strength by diametrical compression and modulus of elasticity results were belonging to homogeneous groups. Beneficial effects the levels of residue on the cementitious matrix and the transition zone of concrete were identified by SEM, particularly concrete in S15

  8. An Analysis of the Nonlinear Spectral Mixing of Didymium and Soda-Lime Glass Beads Using Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    2001). Learning with Kernels: Support Vector Machines , Regularization, Optimization, and Beyond. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 644 p. [26] Banerjee...A., Burlina, P., and Broadwater, J., (2007). A Machine Learning Approach for finding hyperspectral endmembers. Proceedings of the IEEE International... lime glass beads using hyperspectral imagery (HSI) microscopy Ronald G. Resmini1*, Robert S. Rand2, David W. Allen3, and Christopher J. Deloye1

  9. Use of rice rusk ash and spent catalyst as a source of raw material for the production and characterization of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Mariana Silva de

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the use of two industrial solid wastes (ISW), generated in large quantities in Brazil, were presented in production of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging. The evaluated wastes were rice husk ash (RHA) and the spent catalyst at the Petrochemical Fluid Catalytic Cracking units (ECAT), both may be classified as a class II solid waste according to NBR 10.004. This new proposal for the allocation of such wastes is an alternative to current provisions, seeking not only to minimize environmental impacts, but also enrich them as raw materials. For the samples production, besides ISW were used melting oxide (Na 2 CO 3 ) and stabilizer oxide (CaO).The results demonstrate that both can be used in their raw form (without treatment) replacing important raw materials, sources of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , essential for glass formation. The samples obtained presented amber color due to the presence of nickel (Ni² + ion) from ECAT and 18% of optical transmittance. They also showed a good homogeneity, i.e., absence of bubbles and striae and 1,33 x 10 -8 g/cm²·day of hydrolytic resistance according to ISO695-1984. Thus, the obtained glass is suitable for applications requiring low light transmittance such as colored glasses containers in general, which does not require perfect visibility and transparency. The incorporation in the final composition was approximately 78% in mass. (author)

  10. Impact effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and FT infrared absorption spectra of some Nd3+-doped soda lime phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Elkashef, I. M.; Elbatal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study by two collective optical and FTIR spectral measurements some prepared Nd2O3-doped soda lime phosphate glasses before and after gamma irradiation with dose (9 Mrad). The spectral data reveal two strong UV absorption peaks which are correlated with unavoidable trace iron impurities beside extended additional characteristic bands due to Nd3+ ions. Gamma irradiation on the undoped glass produces slight decrease of the intensity of the UV absorption and the generation of an induced visible band and these effects are controlled with two photochemical reduction of some Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions together with the formation of nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) or phosphorous oxygen hole center (POHC). The impact effect of gamma irradiation on the spectra of Nd2O3-doped glasses is limited due to suggested shielding behavior of neodymium ions. FT-infrared spectra show vibrational modes due to main Q2-Q3 phosphate groups and the response of gamma irradiation of the IR spectra is low and the limited variations are related to suggested changes in some bond angles and bond lengths which cause the observed decrease to the intensities of some IR bands.

  11. Use of rice rusk ash and spent catalyst as a source of raw material for the production and characterization of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging; Utilizacao de residuos de catalisador (ECAT) e cinzas da casca de arroz (CCA) na elaboracao de vidros silicatos soda-cal destinados ao setor de embalagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.S.; Martinelli, J.R.; Genova, L.A.; Prado, U.S. do, E-mail: araujo.mariaana@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    Study on the use of rice husk ash (RHA) and waste catalyst (ECAT), two industrial solid waste generated in large quantities in Brazil, getting soda-lime glass for the production of packaging. Both the waste may be classified as class II waste according to NBR 10,004. Samples were produced adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaO to obtain a composition within the range of commercial soda-lime glasses. The results showed that both can be used as received (without any previous treatment) replacing important raw materials, source of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO2, necessary for glass formation. The produced samples were amber due to the presence of nickel (Ni2+ ions) from the ECAT and optical transmittance of 18%. These also showed good homogeneity, i.e., absence of bubbles and striae and dissolution rate higher than a commercial soda-lime glass. In general, the samples are presented suitable for applications that require low transmittance such as colored glass containers, which does not require perfect visibility and transparency. Finally, the waste level of incorporation was approximately 78 mass%. (author)

  12. ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on soda lime glass substrates for the ultraviolet inactivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Mosnier, Richard J O'Haire, Enda McGlynn, Martin O Henry, Stephen J McDonnell, Maria A Boyle and Kevin G McGuigan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that a ZnO film of 2 μm thickness which was laser-deposited at room temperature onto a plain soda lime glass substrate, exhibits notable antibacterial activity against a biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis when back-illuminated by a UVA light source with a peak emission wavelength of about 365 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS were used to characterize the ZnO films before and after the interactions with the biofilm and the ultraviolet light, respectively. The as-deposited film was highly textured with the wurtzite (0002 in-plane orientation (c-axis perpendicular to ZnO surface and had a surface rms roughness of 49.7 nm. In the as-deposited film, the Zn to O ratio was 1 to 0.95. After the UV and biofilm treatments, the ZnO film surface had become rougher (rms roughness 68.1 nm and presented uniform micron-sized pitting randomly distributed, while the zinc to oxygen ratio had become 1 to 2.2. In this case, both the UV-visible and Raman spectra pointed to degradation of the structural quality of the material. On the strength of these data, we propose a model for the mediation of the bactericidal activity in which the photogeneration of highly oxidizing species and the presence of active surface defect sites both play an important role. This study is of particular interest for the acute problem of disinfection of pathogenic biofilms which form on medical device/implant surfaces.

  13. β-Irradiation Effects on the Formation and Stability of CaMoO4 in a Soda Lime Borosilicate Glass Ceramic for Nuclear Waste Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karishma B; Boizot, Bruno; Facq, Sébastien P; Lampronti, Giulio I; Peuget, Sylvain; Schuller, Sophie; Farnan, Ian

    2017-02-06

    Molybdenum solubility is a limiting factor to actinide loading in nuclear waste glasses, as it initiates the formation of water-soluble crystalline phases such as alkali molybdates. To increase waste loading efficiency, alternative glass ceramic structures are sought that prove resistant to internal radiation resulting from radioisotope decay. In this study, selective formation of water-durable CaMoO 4 in a soda lime borosilicate is achieved by introducing up to 10 mol % MoO 3 in a 1:1 ratio to CaO using a sintering process. The resulting homogeneously dispersed spherical CaMoO 4 nanocrystallites were analyzed using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies prior to and post irradiation, which replicated internal β-irradiation damage on an accelerated scale. Following 0.77 to 1.34 GGy of 2.5 MeV electron radiation CaMoO 4 does not exhibit amorphization or significant transformation. Nor does irradiation induce glass-in-glass phase separation in the surrounding amorphous matrix, or the precipitation of other molybdates, thus proving that excess molybdenum can be successfully incorporated into a structure that it is resistant to β-irradiation proportional to 1000 years of storage without water-soluble byproducts. The CaMoO 4 crystallites do however exhibit a nonlinear Scherrer crystallite size pattern with dose, as determined by a Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns and an alteration in crystal quality as deduced by anisotropic peak changes in both XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Radiation-induced modifications in the CaMoO 4 tetragonal unit cell occurred primarily along the c-axis indicating relaxation of stacked calcium polyhedra. Concurrently, a strong reduction of Mo 6+ to Mo 5+ during irradiation is observed by EPR, which is believed to enhance Ca mobility. These combined results are used to hypothesize a crystallite size alteration model based on a combination of relaxation and diffusion

  14. Bone bonding ability of some borate bio-glasses and their corresponding glass-ceramic derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma H. Margha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary borate glasses from the system Na2O·CaO·B2O3 together with soda-lime-borate samples containing 5 wt.% of MgO, Al2O3, SiO2 or P2O5 were prepared. The obtained glasses were converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives by controlled heat treatment. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the separated crystalline phases in glass-ceramics after heat treatment of the glassy samples. The glasses and corresponding glass-ceramics after immersion in water or diluted phosphate solution for extended times were characterized by the grain method (adopted by several authors and recommended by ASTM and Fourier-transform infrared spectra to justify the formation of hydroxyapatite as an indication of the bone bonding ability. The influence of glass composition on bioactivity potential was discussed too.

  15. Recovery of drinking water and valuable minerals from acid mine drainage using an integration of magnesite, lime, soda ash, CO(sub)2 and reverse osmosis treatment processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available that drinking water, metals, gypsum, hydrated lime/limestone were recovered from the treatment process as valuable resources. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Morphological properties of initial and recovered minerals...

  16. Characterization of residues of effluent treatment plant from lapping process of soda-lime glass and its application in the production of concrete; Caracterizacao de residuo de estacao de tratamento de efluentes de processo de lapidacao de vidro sodo-calcico e sua aplicacao na producao de concreto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Aline Pignaton; Calmon, Joao Luiz; Tristao, Fernando Avancini, E-mail: apignaton@hotmail.com, E-mail: calmonbarcelona@gmail.com, E-mail: fernandoavancini@ct.ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Civil

    2012-07-01

    This study enunciates the physical, chemical and mineralogical composition of the residue from the process of ETE cutting of soda-lime glasses and its application in concrete as a replacement to the weight of CPV ARI RS cement, at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Tests were performed on fresh and hardened (ages 3, 7, 28 and 300 days). The results were compared and statistically analyzed. In the fresh state, reductions in the amount of exuding water and consistency were observed. The results of compressive strength were statistically different, while the results for the tensile strength by diametrical compression and modulus of elasticity results were belonging to homogeneous groups. Beneficial effects the levels of residue on the cementitious matrix and the transition zone of concrete were identified by SEM, particularly concrete in S15.

  17. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  18. Neutron shielding and constructional characteristics of a new type concrete and from borated clinker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakaloz, T.

    1979-07-01

    A boron containing cement, which can be used as nuclear shielding material, is produced at pilot plant scale applying two different methods. In the first method, the raw mixture of a normal portland cement is mixed with pre-calcined colemanite, a calcium borate mineral, and clinkerized in a rotary kiln (borated-clinker). In the second method, the colemanite is mixed with an admixture, which contains mainly limestone and marl, and burnt in the rotary kiln to obtain a borated-lime composite. The borated-lime composite is then added to the normal portland cement clinker up to 2% B 2 O 3 content for shielding purpose. The results have shown that the borated-clinker contained untolerable amount of free lime resulting in a decrease in compressive strength. The addition of the borated-lime composite to the normal portland cement clinker up to 1% B 2 O 3 content did not alter the setting time and the volume expansion properties. The reduction in the compressive strength was found to be tolerable, however, the decrease in the bending strength was 20% lower than that of permissible value. On the other hand, the increase in B 2 O 3 content of the mixture improved the neutron absorptivity resulting in an increase in total cross-section about 7 times for 1% B 2 O 3 without changing the gamma absorption value

  19. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  20. Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: A Property Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    temperature. West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International; 2012. 4. Quinn GD, Swab JJ . Fracture toughness of glasses as measured by the SCF and SEPB methods...Swab JJ , Patel PJ, Tran X, Gilde L, Luoto E, Gaviola MH, Gott A, Paulson B, Kilczewski S. Equibiaxial flexure strength of glass: influence of glass

  1. The Fracture Process of Tempered Soda-Lime-Silica Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This work presents experimental observations of the characteristic fracture process of tempered glass. Square specimens with a side length of 300 mm, various thicknesses and a residual stress state characterized by photoelastic measurements were used. Fracture was initiated using a 2.5 mm diamond...

  2. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... probe beam in the transverse direction coupled with an optical streak .... (650 ps) was split using a beam splitter after the fifth amplifier stage in the ..... [17] A S Joshi et al, Fusion Engg. Design 44, 067 (1999). [18] A K Sharma ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  4. Comparison studies on soda lignin and soda-anthraquinone lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M; Yusof, N.N.M.; Hashim, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin were compared in this study. The physico-chemical properties and structural features of the isolated lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV), ash test, Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analyzer, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C-NMR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Nitrobenzene oxidation was performed on these two types of lignin especially for the HPLC analysis. Based on the CHN, 13 C-NMR and UV results there were no significant differences between soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin. The FTIR results also showed that there were no significant differences in terms of functional groups that exist in both lignins. (author)

  5. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  6. On the Elastic behavior of Sodium Borate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignarooban, K.; Boolchand, P.; Kerner, R.; Micoulaut, M.

    2010-03-01

    Alkali Borates are industrial glasses and their physical properties are of general interest. We have made a special effort to synthesize dry (Na2O)x(B2O3)100-x glasses over a wide composition range, 0 modulated-DSC, Raman scattering, FTIR, and molar volume experiments. The enthalpy of relaxation at Tg shows a global minimum in the 20% < x < 40% range, which we identify with the rigid but stress-free Intermediate Phase (IP). The Boroxyl ring vibrational mode near 808 cm-1 in B2O3, steadily softens by about 4 cm-1 as the soda content increases to about 20%. A vibrational mode of mixed ringsfootnotetextKamitsos et al., Jour. Mol. Struct 247, 1 (1996). (containing 3-fold and 4-fold B) is also observed near 775 cm-1 at low x, and it also steadily softens by nearly 10 cm-1 as x increases in the 20% < x < 40% soda range (IP). We are examining the underlying optical elasticity power-laws to ascertain the nature of the elastic phases. IR reflectance experiments provide the 4-fold coordinated B fraction to increase from 0.17 near x = 20% to 0.44 near x = 40% in broad agreement with NMR results. Evolution of physical properties of these glasses with soda content will be reviewed.

  7. Magnesium borate radiothermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskaya, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Minaeva, E.E.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    In the report the technology of obtaining polycrystalline magnesium borate activated by dysprosium is described briefly and the method of preparing the tabletted detectors from it is presented. The dependence of the light sum of the samples on the proportion of the components and on the sintering regime has shown that the most sensitive material is obtained at the proportion of boric anhydride and magnesium oxide 2.2-2.4 and at the dysprosium concentration about 1 milligram-atom per gram molecule of the base. The glow curve of such a material has a simple form with one peak the maximum of which is located at 190-200 0 C. The measurement of the main dosimetric characteristics of the magnesium borate tabletted detectors and the comparison with similar parmaeters of the lithium fluoride tabletted detectors have shown that at practically identical effective number the former detectors have the following substantial advantages: the sensitivity is ten-twenty times as large, they are substantially more technological on synthesis of the radiothermoluminophor and during the production of the tabletted detectors, they have a simple glow curve, they do not require the utilization of the thermocycling during the use. (author)

  8. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Medical Radiography, Al-Azhar University, Gaza Strip, Palestine (Country Unknown); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Oncology Treatment Centre, Sultan Ismail Hospital, 81100 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mhareb, M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saleh, M.A. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); National Atomic Energy Commission (NATEC), Sana' a (Yemen)

    2014-11-15

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup ++}) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu{sup +} ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated

  9. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Hashim, S.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Bradley, D.A.; Mhareb, M.; Saleh, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu + and Cu ++ ) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu + ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated technique in borate

  10. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks | Akgül ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, cotton stalks (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cooked using soda and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process. Nine soda cooks were conducted by changing cooking conditions including active alkali charge and pulping time. Soda-AQ cooks were obtained by adding 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2% AQ (based on o.d stalks) to ...

  11. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  12. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  13. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  14. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  15. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  16. Field demonstration of in situ treatment of buried low-level radioactive solid waste with caustic soda and soda ash to immobilize 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1984-02-01

    A low-level radioactive solid waste disposal trench was injected on four occasions with solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, caustic soda, and lime/soda ash, respectively. Because investigations had indicated that 90 Sr could be coprecipitated with soil calcium carbonate by treatment with soda ash, this demonstration was undertaken as a test of its technical feasibility. After concentrations of 90 Sr and water hardness decreased within the intratrench monitoring wells; one well at the foot of the trench decreased from over 100 to a persistent level of less than 10 kBq of 90 Sr per liter. Recharge of 90 Sr from the trench to a sump immediately below was reduced by about 90%. Water hardness and 90 Sr concentrations were strongly correlated through time within each monitoring well, indicating that 90 Sr behaved as a tracer for soil calcium and magnesium. The disappearance of 90 Sr from the trench water, therefore, was an in situ water softening. Soil samples retrieved from the trench indicated that as much as 98% of the total 90 Sr was present as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate. The hydrologic characterization of this trench indicated an average void space of 41% and an average trench-wall hydraulic conductivity of 3.4 x 10 -7 m/s. Sampling of the trench's discharge contamination plume indicated that it had resulted from a combination of subsurface seepage and bathtub overflow during infrequent periods of intense precipitation. A generic assessment of soda ash treatment indicated that treatment would be most effective for soils of high cation exchange capacity with either low ( 80%) basic cation saturation of that cation exchange capacity

  17. Como evitar a formação de substâncias tóxicas durante a absorção de dióxido de carbono pela cal sodada com uso de anestésicos halogenados Como evitar la formación de substancias tóxicas durante la absorción de dióxido de carbono por la cal sodada con uso de anestésicos halogenados Preventing toxic substances production during carbon dioxide absorption by soda lime with halogenate anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ângelo Saraiva

    2004-06-01

    para evitar excesivo aumento de la temperatura y grande degradación metabólica de los halogenados sin perjudicar la absorción del dióxido de carbono. CONCLUSIONES: Se debe tener el cuidado en usar la cal sodada lo antes posible y cuando ella queda expuesta al medio ambiente (aire seco por muchas horas como por ejemplo en un final de semana (mas de 48 horas es recomendable colocar agua, de preferencia destilada, en la relación de 25 ml para cada 500 g de cal. Actualmente la industria está bien informada sobre el problema de la composición de la cal, entonces, se debe preferir la cal sodada que tenga solamente el hidróxido de calcio y sea totalmente desprovista de hidróxido de potasio e hidróxido de sodio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since the beginning, soda lime use has presented some complications which resulted in its difficult application. However major advantages such as decreasing fresh gas flow, anesthetic consumption and operating room pollution, and improving breathing system and airway humidity, have pushed research forward to improve it and assure the continuity of its use. Currently, there are problems with dehydration, increased temperature and metabolic degradation of halogenate agents, which require special care to prevent toxic substances formation. CONTENTS: There is a chain reaction as from dehydrated or dried out soda lime with very low percent volume of water. There is increased temperature, more halogenate anesthetic absorption by lime granules, followed by higher metabolic degradation of these agents' molecules and, as a consequence, the production of toxic substances, such as Compound A by reaction of hydroxides with sevoflurane. There is also carbon monoxide production by reaction of halogenate anesthetics and strong lime bases. Compound A is nephrotoxic and carbon monoxide may lead to hypoxia and severe coagulation problems. In addition to care with soda lime hydration it is possible to use it without strong bases, such as potassium and

  18. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  19. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  20. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures.

  1. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  2. Potential Use Of Carbide Lime Waste As An Alternative Material To Conventional Hydrated Lime Of Cement-Lime Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khaja, Waheeb A.

    1992-01-01

    The present study aimed at the possibility of using the carbide lime waste as an alternative material to the conventional lime used for cement-lime mortar. The waste is a by-product obtained in the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide. Physical and chemical properties of the wastes were studied. Two cement-lime-sand mix proportions containing carbide lime waste were compared with the same mix proportions containing conventional lime along with a control mix without lime. Specimens wer...

  3. [Review of lime carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li Li; Ling, Jiang Hua; Tie, Li; Wang, Jiao Yue; Bing, Long Fei; Xi, Feng Ming

    2018-01-01

    Under the background of "missing carbon sink" mystery and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology development, this paper summarized the lime material flow process carbon sink from the lime carbonation principles, impact factors, and lime utilization categories in chemical industry, metallurgy industry, construction industry, and lime kiln ash treatment. The results showed that the lime carbonation rate coefficients were mainly impacted by materials and ambient conditions; the lime carbon sink was mainly in chemical, metallurgy, and construction industries; and current researches focused on the mechanisms and impact factors for carbonation, but their carbon sequestration calculation methods had not been proposed. Therefore, future research should focus on following aspects: to establish a complete system of lime carbon sequestration accounting method in view of material flow; to calculate lime carbon sequestration in both China and the world and explain their offset proportion of CO 2 emission from lime industrial process; to analyze the contribution of lime carbon sequestration to missing carbon sink for clarifying part of missing carbon sinks; to promote the development of carbon capture and storage technology and provide some scientific bases for China's international negotiations on climate change.

  4. Exoelectron emission from magnesium borate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Takamichi; Yanagisawa, Hideo; Nakamichi, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) of a magnesium borate glass ceramics was investigated for its application to dosemetric use. It has been found that the TSEE glow patterns of the magnesium borate glass ceramics as well as a Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics depend on the kind of the radiation used and that the heat resistance of the magnesium borate glass ceramics is higher than that of the Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics. Therefore, the TSEE glow patterns of the magnesium borate glass ceramics indicate a possibility to be used as the dose measurement for each kind of radiation in the mixed radiation field. (author)

  5. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  6. Chemical stability of soda-alumina-zirconia-silica glasses to Na, Na2S4, and S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.I.; Bradley, J.; Nelson, P.A.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two glasses with a broad range of compositions, spanning the quaternary soda-alumina-zirconia-silica system, have been prepared to allow characterization of the various properties of the system. The glasses were characterized by their resistivities, energies of activation for conduction, and glass transition temperatures. The glasses were screened for compositions of especially high chemical stability of static corrosion tests in Na, S, and Na 2 S 4 for 1000h at 400 0 C. Among the glasses tested, the high soda glasses showed the smallest weight change after exposure to the three media. The weight change observed was comparable to that seen in the Dow borate glass and beta'' alumina

  7. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  8. Lime-water consolidation effects on poor lime mortars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 31-36 ISSN 0044-9466 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : lime mortar s * lime -water consolidation * conservation Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  9. LIME REQUIREMENT DETERMINATION AND LIMING IMPACT ON SOIL NUTRIENT STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Karalić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of conducted research was to determine the influence of liming, mineral and organic fertilization on soil chemical properties and nutrient availability in the soil, yield height and mineral composition of alfalfa. Results were used to create regression models for prediction of liming impact on soil chemical properties. Liming and fertilization experiment was sat up in 20 L volume plastic pots with two types of acid soils with different texture from two sites. Ten liming and fertilization treatments were applied in four repetitions. Lime treatments increased soil pH values and decreased hydrolytic acidity. Mineral and organic fertilization affected additional soil acidification. Application of lime intensified mineralization and humus decomposition, while organic fertilization raised humus content. The results showed significant increase of AL-P2O5 and K2O availability. The treatments increased soil Ca concentrations, but at the same time decreased exchangeable Mg concentrations. Soil pH increase resulted in lower Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu availability. Soil CEC was increased by applied treatments. Lime rates increased number and height of alfalfa plants, as well as yield of leaf, stalk increased concentrations of N, P, K and Ca in alfalfa leaf and stalk, but decreased leaf Mg and Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations. Regression computer models predicted with adequate accuracy P, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu availability and final pH value as a result of liming and fertilization impact.

  10. Papermaking Properties of Carpinus betulus with kraft, Soda and Soda-Urea Pulping Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Darstan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to comparatively investigate the hornbeam kraft, soda and soda-urea papermaking properties. The selected treatment in kraft process had an average yield of 44.43% and kappa number of 23.75. In soda process the selected treatment had an average yield of 38.75% and kappa number of 19.28. In soda-urea process, the selected treatments had an average yield of 39.85, 40.1, 40.5, 39.8 and 40.61 and kappa number of 21.21, 22.33, 22.66, 25.28 and 26.85. After refining the selected pulp to reach the freeness of 400±25 ml CSF, 60 g/m2 handsheets were made and physical, mechanical and optical properties were measured. Results showed that kraft pulps had higher yield and better refinability than soda and soda-urea pulps. Papers made from kraft process had higher strength properties than those made of soda and soda-urea process. With addition of urea, yield and kappa number of pulps increased. The highest improvement in tensile index, breaking length and tear index was achieved with addition of 3% urea and the highest improvement in burst index was achieved with adding 4% urea. Results of brightness measurements showed that papers from kraft and soda processes had the lowest and highest brightness degree respectively. With the addition of urea, brightness of papers decreased.

  11. Durability of air lime mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the physical and chemical reasons why pure air lime mortars used in masonry of burned bricks exposed to outdoor climate have shown to be durable from the Middle Ages to our days. This sounds strange in modern times where pure air lime mortars are regarded as weak...... materials, which are omitted from standards for new masonry buildings, where use of hydraulic binders is prescribed. The reasons for the durability seam to be two: 1. The old mortars have high lime contents. 2. The carbonation process creates a pore structure with a fine pored outer layer and coarser pores...

  12. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  13. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  14. Analysis of soda-lime glasses using non-negative matrix factor deconvolution of Raman spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Woelffel , William; Claireaux , Corinne; Toplis , Michael J.; Burov , Ekaterina; Barthel , Etienne; Shukla , Abhay; Biscaras , Johan; Chopinet , Marie-Hélène; Gouillart , Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Novel statistical analysis and machine learning algorithms are proposed for the deconvolution and interpretation of Raman spectra of silicate glasses in the Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 system. Raman spectra are acquired along diffusion profiles of three pairs of glasses centered around an average composition of 69. 9 wt. % SiO 2 , 12. 7 wt. % CaO , 16. 8 wt. % Na 2 O. The shape changes of the Raman spectra across the compositional domain are analyzed using a combination of princi...

  15. Crystallization kinetics of a soda lime silica glass with TiO2 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Parra A, S. M.; Alvarez M, A.; Torres G, L. C.; Sanchez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies conducted into Na 2 O-CaO-3SiO 2 glass composition suggest that its phase transformation occurs from the surface towards the interior of the sample. In a study carried out in 1982, it was reported that no addition of nucleating agents modified the mechanism. Taking advantage of the disposition materials synthesized by nanotechnology, in this study TiO 2 in nanometer size was used with the idea that, because of its qualities, it could modify the crystallization mechanism. The glasses obtained as well as the thermally treated samples, were evaluated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder method, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and by optical microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Within the range of TiO 2 concentration studied (0 - 10 wt %), 10 wt % of TiO 2 considerably reduced the Na 2 O-2CaO-3SiO 2 phase crystallization process. The crystallization mechanism was not modified and TiO 2 did not form compounds with the matrix components. (Author)

  16. Reaction of soda-lime-silica glass melt with water vapour at melting temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vernerová, Miroslava; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAY 15 (2015), s. 21-30 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * sulfate * water vapour * bubble nucleation * melt foaming * glass melting Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  17. Oxidation state variation under {beta}-irradiation in an iron-bearing soda lime glass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano, S; Boizot, B [Lab. des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Jean-Soro, L; Hullebusch, E van; Gouzin, L; Combes, R [Lab. Geomateriaux et Environnement, EA 4119, Univ. Paris-Est Marne la Vallee (France); Farges, F [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle de Paris, UMR CNRS 7202, Paris (France); Labanowski, J [Lab. de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau, UMR CNRS 6008, Univ. de Poitiers (France); Linares, J [GEMAC, UMR 8635, Univ. de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Swarbrick, J C [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38043 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Harfouche, M, E-mail: stephanie.rossano@univ-paris-est.f [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    The effect of ionizing radiation on glasses in the system SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is investigated as a function of iron concentration or / and irradiation dose by a pre-edge analysis at the iron K-edge. While reduction phenomenon is clearly observed for large irradiation doses (5 C), the effect of irradiation for intermediate doses is more challenging to interpret. Comparison between X-ray absorption measurements, colorimetry results and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance measurements suggest that iron environment may be modified without the ions being reduced.

  18. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Baardolf, G.

    2014-01-01

    A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency

  19. Sulphate decomposition and sodium oxide activity in soda-lime-silica glass metls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Reaction equilibrium constants for the sulfate decomposition process, which releases oxygen and sulfur oxide gas in sodalimesilica glass melts, have been determined. The chemical solubility of SO2, probably in the form of sulfite ions in sodalimesilica melts, has also been determined. The chemical

  20. Structural and optical properties of Eu3+ activated low cost zinc soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alia Sheh Omar

    Full Text Available A low cost method was employed to synthesize ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors using recyclable bottle glass as silica source. The structural and optical properties of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.% glasses were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR, UV-visible (Uv-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Structural investigation using XRD measurement had broadened the halo peak with the doping of dopants. FTIR spectra showed the glass system consists of –OH and SiO4 bands. Meanwhile, the optical measurement using UV-Vis absorption has been induced a blue shift of the electronic absorption edge. The emission peak intensity of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors was enhanced with the progression of doping concentration and thus, revealed their potential as red emitting phosphors under 400 nm excitation. Keywords: Eu3+ doped ZnO-SLS glasses, Solid state method, Optical band gap, Photoluminescence

  1. Study of the influence of chemical composition on the pozzolanicity of soda-lime glass microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, R.B.C.; Mohallem, N.D.S.; Aguilar, M.T.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of residues presents interesting possibilities for obtaining eco-efficient concretes. Research has investigated the use of glass residue in Portland cement composite, whether as an aggregate or a supplementary material. However, there is still no consensus on the influence of the chemical composition of glass on the behaviour of the composites in which it is used. This paper aims to analyse the influence of this composition on the performance of cement composites produced with microparticles of colourless and amber glass. Pozzolanicity was assessed by means of direct tests (modified Chapelle and electrical conductivity) and indirect tests (chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction, thermo analysis and pozzolanic activity index). Most of the results show that microparticles of both types of glass display pozzolanic activity, with no significant differences between them. This indicates the potential for the use of glass microparticles as a supplementary material in cement composites. (author)

  2. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  3. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  4. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  5. Separation of cesium from aqueous solutions using alkylated tetraaryl borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmaier, F.

    1991-01-01

    The water solubility of cesium tetraaryl borates was lowered by introducing hydrophobic aliphatic side chains into corresponding acid-resistant fluorosubstituted tetraaryl borates. This improved cesium spearability both in precipitation and in extraction from aqueous solutions. (orig.) [de

  6. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  7. Optimization of lime treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinck, J. M.; Aube, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    Lime neutralization technology used in the treatment of acid mine drainage and other acidic effluents is discussed. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments designed to optimize the technology of lime neutralization processes and to improve the cost efficiency of the treatment process are described. Effluent quality, slaking temperature, aeration, solid-liquid separation, sludge production and geochemical stability have been studied experimentally and on site. Results show that through minor modification of the treatment process, costs, sludge volume generated, and metal released to the environment can be significantly reduced. 17 refs., 4 figs

  8. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  9. Mineral Resource of the Month: Lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Lime is the common term for several chemicals in three major categories: quicklime, hydrated lime and refractory dead-burned dolomite. Lime is almost never found naturally. It is primarily manufactured by burning limestone in kilns, followed by hydration when necessary. 

  10. Fusion welding of borated stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robino, C.V.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Borated austenitic stainless steels have been developed for use in the nuclear industry where storage, transport, and reprocessing of nuclear materials are required. The objective of this work is to develop appropriate joining technology for borated stainless steels based upon understanding the response of these materials to thermal processing involving melting. This understanding is being developed through the application of physical metallurgy techniques to determine the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties within the various regions of the HAZ. Initial investigations include development of the kinetics of boride coarsening in the solid-state region of HAZ and the effect of boride coarsening on the impact properties of this region of the weld zone. Microstructures of the borated stainless steels, their response to high temperature isothermal heat treatments, and the implications of these heat treatments with respect to welding behavior will be presented

  11. Green colorants based on energetic azole borates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Johann; Klapötke, Thomas M; Rusan, Magdalena; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-11-24

    The investigation of green-burning boron-based compounds as colorants in pyrotechnic formulations as alternative for barium nitrate, which is a hazard to health and to the environment, is reported. Metal-free and nitrogen-rich dihydrobis(5-aminotetrazolyl)borate salts and dihydrobis(1,3,4-triazolyl)borate salts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and vibrational spectroscopy. Their thermal and energetic properties have been determined as well. Several pyrotechnic compositions using selected azolyl borate salts as green colorants were investigated. Formulations with ammonium dinitramide and ammonium nitrate as oxidizers and boron and magnesium as fuels were tested. The burn time, dominant wavelength, spectral purity, luminous intensity, and luminous efficiency as well as the thermal and energetic properties of these compositions were measured. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Lime treatment of stabilized leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, S.; Poulain, S.; Givaudan, J. G.; Sahut, C.; Moulin, P.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse Osmosis is the most widely used method for treating municipal solid waste landfill leachates, since it produces a permeate in compliance with reject requirements. However, the efficiency of this process at the industrial scale is limited mainly because of membrane fouling and the high osmotic pressures involved. Although lime precipitation is traditionally used to eliminate the temporary hardness of water by de-carbonation, it has also been shown to be highly efficient in removing humic substances which are known to have strong fouling potential towards membranes. Our objective is to study the lime/leachate physico-chemistry, in order to determine the potential of the lime precipitation as pre-treatment for reverse osmosis. The results show that the lime treatment makes it possible (i) to act efficiently on the inorganic fraction of leachates through a de-carbonation mechanism which entails massive precipitation of the carbonates under the form of CaCO 3 , (ii) to eliminate by co-precipitation the high Molecular Weight (MW) organic macromolecules (≥ 50, 000 g.mol -1 ) such as humic acids, and (iii) to generate a stable residue that can be easily stored at a landfill. The reverse osmosis step will be facilitated through significant reduction of the osmotic pressures and prevention of membrane fouling. (authors)

  13. Rheological properties of potassium barium borate glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwejda, K.A.; Vogel, D.L.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Several series of potassium barium borate glasses have been investigated as to their rheological properties. It has been found, that all these glasses show deviations from ‘Newtonian’ behaviour below temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 1010 poises. The activation energies of viscous flow

  14. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, H. B.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, K. B.; Li, L. C.; Li, Z. Y.; Lam, W. M.; Lu, W. W.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, W. H.; Lin, K. L.; Chang, J.

    2009-01-01

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid relea...

  15. Investigation into the structure of lead-borate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtsinovskaya, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    X-ray phase and IR analysis of lead borate glasses show that glasses containing from 12 to 45 mole % PbO consist of several phases. A comparison of x-ray different data for lead borate and lead germanate glasses, which have two maxima on the diffraction patterns throughout the glass-formation region, shows that the microstructure of lead borate glasses is far more complex

  16. Characterization and Exergy Analysis of Triphenyl Borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acarali, N. B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, unlike from the literature, boron oxide, borax decahydrate, boric acid and borax pentahydrate as boron sources were used to synthesize Triphenyl Borate (TPB). The reactions of TPB were carried out by using both phenol and various boron sources in inert water-immiscible organic solvent successfully. On the basis of analyzes (FT-IR, SEM, TGA/DSC) obtained, it was seen that phenol acted as a support to borate structure framework and thermal characterisation of the amorphous solid under determined conditions suggested that usage of different boron sources had effects for glass transition temperature in TPB production. The exergy analysis was performed to the TPB production to determine efficiency. The exergy analysis showed that the highest exergy efficiency was obtained by using boron oxide as a boron source. Consequently, all analyses results showed that TPB was produced successfully. Accordingly, characterization and exergy analysis supported each other. (author)

  17. Interfacial reactions between titanium and borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saha, S.K.; Goldstein, J.I. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1992-12-31

    Interfacial reactions between melts of several borate glasses and titanium have been investigated by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A thin titanium boride interfacial layer is detected by XPS after short (30 minutes) thermal treatments. ASEM analyses after longer thermal treatments (8--120 hours) reveal boron-rich interfacial layers and boride precipitates in the Ti side of the interface.

  18. Tensile behavior of borated stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J. Jr.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Borated stainless steel tensile testing is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the test program is to provide data to support a code case inquiry to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The adoption by ASME facilitates a material's qualification for structural use in transport cask applications. For transport cask basket applications, the potential advantage to using borated stainless steel arises from the fact that the structural and criticality control functions can be combined into one material. This can result in a decrease in net section thickness of the basket web (increased payload capacity) and eliminates the fabrication process and cost of attaching a discrete boron poison material to the basket web. In addition, adding borate stainless steel to the inventory of acceptable structural material provides the Department of Energy (DOE) and its cask contractors an alternative to current proposed materials which have not been qualified for structural service. The test program at SNL involves procuring material, machining test specimens, and conducting the tensile tests. From test measurements obtained so far, general trends indicate that tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate strength) increase with boron content and are in all cases superior to the minimum required properties established in A-240, Type 304, a typical grade of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, in a designed basket, web thicknesses using borated stainless steel would be comparable to or thinner tan an equivalent basket manufactured from a typical stainless steel without boron additions. General trends from test results indicate that ductilities decrease with increasing boron content

  19. Comparative evaluation of aerial lime mortars for architectural conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Paulina; Henriques, Fernando M.A.; Rato, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008) 338-346 International bibliography on conservation usually refers that mortars made with lime putty with long extinction periods behave better than others made with the current dry hydrated limes. In order to evaluate this assess, an experimental study of lime mortars was carried out, using dry hydrated lime and two lime putties. It becomes clear that the use of lime putties with long extinction periods in mortars allow better performances, pa...

  20. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Synthesis and Physical Properties of Magnesium Borate Mineral of Admontite Synthesized from Sodium Borates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borates are significant compounds due to their advanced mechanical and thermal durability properties. This group of minerals can be used in ceramic industry, in detergent industry, and as neutron shielding material, phosphor of thermoluminescence by dint of their extraordinary specialties. In the present study, the synthesis of magnesium borate via hydrothermal method from sodium borates and physical properties of synthesized magnesium borate minerals were investigated. The characterization of the products was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry (DTA/TG. The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. B2O3 content was determined through titration. The electrical resistivity/conductivity properties of products were measured by Picoammeter Voltage Source. UV-vis spectrometer was used to investigate optical absorption characteristics of synthesized minerals in the range 200–1000 nm at room temperature. XRD results identified the synthesized borate minerals as admontite [MgO(B2O33·7(H2O] with code number “01-076-0540” and mcallisterite [Mg2(B6O7(OH62·9(H2O] with code number “01-070-1902.” The FT-IR and Raman spectra of the obtained samples were similar with characteristic magnesium borate bands. The investigation of the SEM images remarked that both nano- and microscale minerals were produced. The reaction yields were between 75.1 and 98.7%.

  2. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  3. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  4. Ectomycorrhizal activity as affected by soil liming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Solbritt

    1996-05-01

    Acidification of the forest soils in southern Sweden due to atmospheric deposition has become evident during recent decades. To counteract further acidification, liming of forests in the most affected areas has been proposed. Most forest trees in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and their uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil is greatly influenced by the symbiosis. In this thesis effects of liming on ectomycorrhiza have been studied in relation to effects on root colonization, fungal growth and nitrogen uptake. In field experiments the effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal colonization of root tips were variable, possibly due to different soil types and climatic variations. However, a changed mycorrhizal community structure could be detected. Laboratory studies also showed that the substrate may influence the outcome of lime applications; the nutrient status of the substrate had a marked effect on how mycelial growth was affected by liming. Under the experimental conditions used in the studies presented in this thesis, liming reduced the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The amount of extractable nitrogen and phosphorus in the peat was also reduced by liming. The latter could be due to either microbial or chemical immobilization. The lime induced decrease in nitrogen uptake was stronger in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the mycorrhizal plants had a higher ability to deal with the negative effects of liming on nitrogen availability. This was not the case for phosphorus. The lime induced decrease in phosphorus uptake was stronger for mycorrhizal plants, and in the highest lime treatment there was no significant difference between the mycorrhizal and the non-mycorrhizal spruce plants. 76 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Hydrogen Chloride Reaction with Lime and Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Jensen, Peter I.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of solid slaked lime and limestone for binding HCl from a gas phase has been investigated in the temperature range 60-1000 °C. The binding capacity is largest in the range 500-600 °C. However, for slaked lime in the presence of water, a large binding capacity is observed also below 150...

  6. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  7. Towards the industrial solar production of lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.; Bonaldi, E. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Cella, G.M. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Lipinski, W.; Palumbo, R.; Steinfeld, A. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland) and PSI; Wieckert, C.; Wuillemin, D.

    2002-03-01

    A new industrial concept that aims at the development of the chemical engineering technology for the solar production of lime is being examined. To establish the technical feasibility, a 10 kW solar reactor has been designed, constructed, and experimentally tested at a high-flux solar furnace. The quality of the produced solar lime meets industrial standards. (author)

  8. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  9. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangda Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  11. Sorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Obtained from Rice Husks by Treatment with Lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnin Nwe Aye; Aye Aye Maw; Nyunt Wynn

    2011-12-01

    The sorption studies of rice husk char prepared by carbonization and activation with lime, caustic soda and sulphuric acid have been investigated. Prior to impregnation with the lime; on a micro processing scale the pre-carbonization temperature of rice husk were determined by using TG-DTA thermal analysis. The impregnation with chemical was made after carbonization and the impregnated chars were subjected to activation at appropriate temperatures of about 300 C to 500 C depending on the impregnated chars. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared chars were tested by conventional and modern techniques. Sorption capacities with respect to colored dyes were determined for each of the char. These sorption capacities are indicative of the decolorizing nature and the acid or basic nature. The sorption capacities of the prepared chars towards the uptake of metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were also studied and the lime activated char exhibits high adsorptive capacities for all the metals compared to other prepared chars as well as the commercial wood char. The evaluation of the sorption capacities of this chars were made on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir monolayer coverage equations. Thus, based on batch dosage method and breakthrough flow method, the uptake of the metals were found to be in following order for the lime activated rice husk char; Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd. From this investigation, it can be inferred that a rice husk char impregnated with 20% technical grade CaO has the potential effect to be used as an effective metal adsorbent particularly for the uptake of toxic heavy metals in the secondary stage of water treatment processes.

  12. Allyl borates: a novel class of polyhomologation initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2016-12-24

    Allyl borates, a new class of monofunctional polyhomologation initiators, are reported. These monofunctional initiators are less sensitive and more effective towards polymethylene-based architectures. As an example, the synthesis of α-vinyl-ω-hydroxypolymethylenes is given. By designing/synthesizing different allylic borate initiators, and using 1H and 11B NMR spectroscopy, the initiation mechanism was elucidated.

  13. Corrosion behaviour of borated aluminium used as neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R. [EaglePicher Technologies GmbH, Oehringen (Germany); Ensinger, W.; Enders, B. [Philipps-Univ. of Marburg, Dept. of Chemistry, Material Science Centre (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of pure and borated aluminium was examined. Measurements were performed in two different electrolytes at 90 C containing different trace-amounts of chloride. For borated aluminium current transients, i.e. metastable depassivation events were found. It is suggested to attribute these transients to less stable passivation layers in comparison to pure aluminium.

  14. Density of mixed alkali borate glasses: A structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doweidar, H.; El-Damrawi, G.M.; Moustafa, Y.M.; Ramadan, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Density of mixed alkali borate glasses has been correlated with the glass structure. It is assumed that in such glasses each alkali oxide associates with a proportional quantity of B 2 O 3 . The number of BO 3 and BO 4 units related to each type of alkali oxide depends on the total concentration of alkali oxide. It is concluded that in mixed alkali borate glasses the volumes of structural units related to an alkali ion are the same as in the corresponding binary alkali borate glass. This reveals that each type of alkali oxide forms its own borate matrix and behaves as if not affected with the presence of the other alkali oxide. Similar conclusions are valid for borate glasses with three types of alkali oxide

  15. Polarized localization and borate-dependent degradation of the Arabidopsis borate transporter BOR1 in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Noboru; Gosho, Tadashi; Asatuma, Satoru; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fujiwara, Toru; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis the borate transporter BOR1, which is located in the plasma membrane, is degraded in the presence of excess boron by an endocytosis-mediated mechanism. A similar mechanism was suggested in rice as excess boron decreased rice borate transporter levels, although in this case whether the decrease was dependent on an increase in degradation or a decrease in protein synthesis was not elucidated. To address whether the borate-dependent degradation mechanism is conserved among plant cells, we analyzed the fate of GFP-tagged BOR1 (BOR1-GFP) in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Cells expressing BOR1-GFP displayed GFP fluorescence at the plasma membrane, especially at the membrane between two attached cells. The plasma membrane signal was abolished when cells were incubated in medium with a high concentration of borate (3 to 5 mM). This decrease in BOR1-GFP signal was mediated by a specific degradation of the protein after internalization by endocytosis from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological analysis indicated that the decrease in BOR1-GFP largely depends on the increase in degradation rate and that the degradation was mediated by a tyrosine-motif and the actin cytoskeleton. Tyr mutants of BOR1-GFP, which has been shown to inhibit borate-dependent degradation in Arabidopsis root cells, did not show borate-dependent endocytosis in tobacco BY-2 cells. These findings indicate that the borate-dependent degradation machinery of the borate transporter is conserved among plant species.

  16. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  17. The antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared with the commercial lime efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigac, J.; Mikusinec, J.; Strigacova, J.; Stevulova, N.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with studying the antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared to industrially manufactured commercial lime. Antifungal efficiency expressed as mould proofness properties was tested on the fungi using the procedure given in standard CSN 72 4310. A mixture of fungi Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium funiculosum, Paecilomyces variotii and Gliocladium virens was utilized for testing. The scale for evaluating mould proofness properties according to CSN 72 4310 is from 0 to 5 in degree of fungi growth, where 0 means that no fungi growth occurs and the building products and materials possess fungistatic properties. The study confirms the fungistatic propeties of carbide lime slurry as well as industrially manufactured commercial lime. However, carbide lime slurry and industrially manufactured commercial lime possess no fungicidal effect.

  18. Combined distiller waste utilisation and combustion gases desulphurisation method. The case study of soda-ash industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasikowski, Tomasz; Buczkowski, Roman; Cichosz, Marcin; Lemanowska, Eliza [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolas Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, a concept of technology that can be helpful for lowering the negative influence of the synthetic (based on the Solvay process) soda ash plant on the natural environment is presented. We describe the desulphurisation of combustion gases from the factory's power plant, which is based on their absorption in the overflow of distiller waste. The excess of lime milk, which is added in the process of ammonia regeneration from filter liquor, results in a strong alkalinity of distiller waste. The high pH of distiller waste favours absorption of acidic combustion gases. The laboratory-scale tests showed about 80% efficiency of the desulphurisation process. The suspension samples we obtained consist mainly of CaCO{sub 3}. We suggest using the obtained solid phase as an adsorbent-insert in Fluidised Bed Combustion technology (FBC). Based on raw material prices, production costs, and average sell prices of the product, economic analysis of innovation was executed. Profits from employing the method presented come mainly from reduction of environmental fees. The sensitivity analysis of cost showed that the application of the desulphurisation process causes cost reduction in soda-ash production accounting for EUR 150 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Poland, and EUR 11,700 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Sweden. It has been found that the latter value is similar to the positive environmental impact of this innovation expressed in monetary units (EUR 10,350 thousand per year, excluding depreciation). (author)

  19. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  20. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  1. Rare earth separations by selective borate crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuemiao; Wang, Yaxing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Yumin; Chen, Lanhua; Xiao, Chengliang; Diwu, Juan; Du, Shiyu; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Wang, Shuao

    2017-03-01

    Lanthanides possess similar chemical properties rendering their separation from one another a challenge of fundamental chemical and global importance given their incorporation into many advanced technologies. New separation strategies combining green chemistry with low cost and high efficiency remain highly desirable. We demonstrate that the subtle bonding differences among trivalent lanthanides can be amplified during the crystallization of borates, providing chemical recognition of specific lanthanides that originates from Ln3+ coordination alterations, borate polymerization diversity and soft ligand coordination selectivity. Six distinct phases are obtained under identical reaction conditions across lanthanide series, further leading to an efficient and cost-effective separation strategy via selective crystallization. As proof of concept, Nd/Sm and Nd/Dy are used as binary models to demonstrate solid/aqueous and solid/solid separation processes. Controlling the reaction kinetics gives rise to enhanced separation efficiency of Nd/Sm system and a one-step quantitative separation of Nd/Dy with the aid of selective density-based flotation.

  2. Borated stainless steel joining technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    EPRI had continued investigating the application of borated stainless steel products within the US commercial nuclear power industry through participation in a wide range of activities. This effort provides the documentation of the data obtained in the development of the ASTM-A887 Specification preparation effort conducted by Applied Science and Technology and the most recent efforts for the development of joining technologies conducted under a joint effort by EPRI, Carpenter Technologies and Sandia National Laboratory under a US DOE CRADA program. The data presented in this report provides the basis for the ASTM specification which has been previously unpublished by EPRI and the data generated in support of the Joining Technology research effort conducted at Sandia. The results of the Sandia research, although terminated prior to the completion, confirms earlier data that the degradation of material properties in fusion welded borated stainless steels occurs in the heat affected zone of the weld area and not in the base material. The data obtained also supports the conclusion that the degradation of material properties can be overcome by post weld heat treatment which can result in material properties near the original unwelded metal

  3. Subgrade stabilization alternatives to lime and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This project involved four distinct research activities, (1) the influence of temperature on lime-stabilized soils, (2) the influence of temperature on cement-stabilized soils (3) temperature modeling of stabilized subgrade and (4) use of calcium chl...

  4. Modification of Lime Mortars with Synthesized Aluminosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganina, Valentina I.; Sadovnikova, Marija E.; Jezierski, Walery; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-10-01

    The increasing attention for restoration of buildings of historical and architectural importance has increased the interest for lime-based binders, which could be applied for manufacturing repair mortars and plasters compatible with historical heritage. Different additives, admixtures or fibers may be incorporated to improve mechanical and thermal features of such materials. In this study synthesized aluminosilicates (SA) were applied as an additive for lime mortar. The technology of synthesis consisted in the deposition of aluminosilicates from a sodium liquid glass by the aluminum sulphate Al2(SO4)3. The goal of this investigation was developing a new method of aluminosilicates synthesis from a sodium liquid glass and using this new material as a component for a lime mortar. Aluminosilicates were precipitated from the solution of aluminum sulphate Al2(SO)3 and sodium silicate. SA were then used as an additive to calcareous compositions and their influence was tested. Mortars were prepared with commercial air lime and siliceous river sand. Air lime binder was replaced by 5 and 10 wt.% of SA. Calcareous composition specimens were formed at water/lime ratio 1.0. The following analyses were made: grain size distribution of SA, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), sorption properties, plastic strength and compressive strength of lime mortars. XRD pattern of the SA shows the presence of thenardite, gibbsite and amorphous phase represented by aggregate of nano-size cristobalite-like crystallites. Application of SA leads to increase of compressive strength after 90 days of hardening by 28% and 53% at SA content 5 and 10% respectively comparing to specimens without this additive. Contents of chemically bound lime in the reference specimens after 28 days of hardening in air-dry conditions was 46.5%, while in specimens modified with SA contained 50.0-55.3% of bound lime depending on filtrate pH. This testifies to high activity of calcareous composition. The new blended lime

  5. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  7. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  8. Improved control of sucrose losses and clarified juice turbidity with lime saccharate in hot lime clarification of sugarcane juice and other comparisons with milk of lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative investigation of adding milk of lime (MOL) versus lime saccharate (SACCH) in hot lime clarification of juice at a U.S. sugarcane factory was undertaken to quantify performance across the 2009 processing season after a preliminary factory study in 2008. SACCH was prepared by adding hyd...

  9. Topological phases in Ba-Borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Chad; Czaja, Andrew; Boolchand, Punit

    2015-03-01

    Twelve compositions in the (BaO)x(B2O3)100-x pseudo binary, in the 15% Modulated- DSC and Raman scattering experiments were undertaken systematically as function of BaO content (x). Calorimetric measurements reveal Tg(x) to show a broad maximum and the non-reversing enthalpy to show a Gaussian-like reversibility window2, both centered near x = 28%. Raman scattering displays rich lineshapes with modes similar to those observed in Na-Borates2. Modes near 808 cm-1, 770 cm-1, 740 cm-1 and 705 cm-1 are observed, and identified with breathing modes of pure and mixed rings from characteristic structural groupings2. These preliminary results suggest that glasses at x 30% in the flexible phase. Supported by NSF Grant DMR 08-53957.

  10. Borat tungib psüühesse / Rain Tolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tolk, Rain, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Briti koomik Sacha Baron Cohen ja tema loodud peategelasega film "Borat - kultuurialased õppetunnid Ameerikast abiks suursuguse Kasahstani riigi ülesehitamisel", režissöör Larry Charles : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  11. Interaction of natural borates with potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarova, L.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.; Kudinov, I.B.; Panasyuk, G.P.; Danilov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of natural borates - inyoite, ulexite and hydroboracite MgCa[B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] 2 ·3H 2 O with KOH solution is studied at 50 Deg C by the methods of chemical, x- ray phase, differential thermal analyses and IR spectroscopy. IR spectra points out on island character of forming borates and confirms the data of x-ray phase and chemical analyses about presence of asharite and calcium hydrous borate in resulting products. Hydroboracite (chain structure) under the action of potassium hydroxide passes into borates of magnesium and calcium with island structure and in this case boron transforms partially into liquid phase. When potassium hydroxide interacts with inyoite and ulexite calcium hydroxide and roentgenoamorphous boron-containing product precipitate [ru

  12. Ultrasonic investigations of some bismuth borate glasses doped with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bismuth borate glasses; elastic moduli; Makishima–Mackenzie model. 1. Introduction ... former because of the small field strength of Bi3+ ion. Bi2O3 ..... Typically, when the material undergoes a phase change, the value of the.

  13. Allyl borates: a novel class of polyhomologation initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Allyl borates, a new class of monofunctional polyhomologation initiators, are reported. These monofunctional initiators are less sensitive and more effective towards polymethylene-based architectures. As an example, the synthesis of α

  14. Magnesium Borate Synthesis by Microwave Energy: A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borates are one of the major groups of boron minerals that have important properties such as high heat and corrosion resistances and high coefficients of elasticity. In this study, magnesium borate minerals are synthesized using boric acid and magnesium oxide with a new method of microwave, and the synthesized minerals are characterized by various analysis techniques. The results show that pure, “magnesium borate hydrate” minerals are obtained at the end of various steps. The characterization of the products is determined with the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Additionally, overall “magnesium borate hydrate” yields are calculated and found about 67% at 270 W, 8 minutes and 360 W, 3 minutes of reaction times, respectively.

  15. SODA: The reduced database for the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, A.; Michaud, D.; Caumartin, J.; de Villers, P.; Gauthier, Y.; Gauvreau, J.; Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    SODA which stands for Systgrave eme d close-quote Organisation des Donnacute ees et d close-quote Analyse, is a general database for TdeV. SODA has the following goals: to produce a database of a reduced set of physical data; to ensure that these data are validated; to record all the parameters relevant to tokamak operation and experiments; to facilitate the retrieval of data using given selection criteria; and to improve data accessibility and analysis. The relational database ORACLE trademark has been chosen to provide flexibility and to accommodate the increasing expectations of the TdeV researchers. In-house expertise allows custom-made tables and centralized data management. In the process of creating SODA several new interfaces for the scientific coordinator, machine operator, and diagnosticians have been added to provide a better definition of the experiment for the archiving system. The database includes the more relevant machine and diagnostic parameters, plasma perturbations (rf, biasing, gas hor-ellipsis), mean and standard deviation of physical signals, plasma profiles, and code results (equilibrium hor-ellipsis) for selected time windows in a discharge. Users of the X-window interface of SODA are not required to know the database structure or the SQL language. SODA has been operating successfully for over a year and its capabilities are continuously expanding. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CREEP BEHAVIOR OF BORATE-TREATED STRANDBOARD: EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE RETENTION, WOOD SPECIES, AND LOAD LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Wu,Qinglin; Lee,Ong N; Cai,Zhiyong; Zhou,Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Creep performance of zinc borate-treated strandboard from southern pine (Pinus taeda L.) and red oak (Quercus falcata) was investigated at 25(0)C temperature and 65% relative humidity. It was shown that the borate treatment had some significant effect on creep deflection of the test panels, and the effect varied with wood species. There was no significant effect of creep loading on residual bending properties of treated strandboard under the stress levels used. The four element spring-dashpot...

  18. Lime in gold and uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Staden, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role of lime in gold and uranium extraction and looks more closely at the industry's efforts to improve the environment by vegetation of sand dumps and slimes dams. He then comes to the conclusion that lime has been and still is the most effective, practical and cheapest chemical that can be used in the South African gold and uranium mining industry to settle pulps, protect cyanide solutions, aid the vegetation of dumps and neutralise acidic waters and residues. The gold and uranium industry is very pollution concious, and in South Africa the importance of the role that lime plays in combating air and water pollution cannot be over emphasised

  19. Inclusion of Material Non-Linearity and Inelasticity into a Continuum-Level Material Model for Soda-Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Grujicic et al. /Materials and Design 35 (2012) 144–155 where Zsh is the average size of the shielding zone defined as: ktðtÞZshðtÞ ¼ Z t 0 dkt dt...of the flaws at time s, given as 1kt ðtÞ dkt dt s withR t 0 ktðtÞ dkt dt sds ¼ 1 (since for a shielding zone to exist the crack must have...the term dktdt s can be written as: dkt dt ¼ k0m _r mtm1 Sm0 ð12Þ After substitution of Eq. (12) into Eq. (11) and, in turn, into Eq. (10

  20. Influence of Thermal Annealing and a Glass Coating on the Strength of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    7. Fletcher PC, Tillman JJ . Effect of silicone quenching and acid polishing on the strength of glass. J Am Ceram Soc. 1964;47(8):379–382. 8...advanced ceramics at ambient temperature. West Conshohocken (PA): ASTM International; 2015. 14. Swab JJ , Thies SR, Wright JC, Shoenstein JA, Patel PJ

  1. Potassium/sodium ion exchange of sodium aluminosilicate and soda-lime glasses with potassium nitrate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.

    1983-08-01

    The alkali self-diffusion coefficients, the concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficients, and the actual equilibrium constants of the ion exchange process were determinated for model glasses of the Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 type and the Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 type by nuclear techniques. The measured self-diffusion data and interdiffusion coefficients were used to estimate the stress profiles initiated by the K/Na exchange below the transformation temperature in the surface region. The activation volume of the sodium and potassium ions for diffusion through the surface zone stressed by ion exchange was determined. The disturbing influence of small concentrations of determined divalent cations in KNO 3 (especially Ca 2+ ) was investigated and thermodynamically described. Possibilities were demonstrated to remove these disturbances by anionic admixtures to the KNO 3 melt. Conclusions were drawn for the technical process of the chemical strengthening of glass by K/Na ion exchange at lower temperatures. (author)

  2. Study of phase separation and crystallization phenomena in soda-lime borosilicate glass enriched in MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, M.

    2009-09-01

    Molybdenum oxide immobilization (MoO 3 , as fission product) is one of the major challenges in the nuclear glass formulation issues for high level waste solutions conditioning since many years, these solutions arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Phase separation and crystallisation processes may arise in molten glass when the MoO 3 content is higher than its solubility limit that may depend on glass composition. Molybdenum combined with other elements such as alkali and alkaline-earth may form crystalline molybdates, known as 'yellow phases' in nuclear glasses which may decrease the glass durability. In order to confine high level wastes (HLW) such as the fission product solutions arising from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX-type nuclear spent fuels, a new glass composition (HLW glass) is being optimized. This work is devoted to the study of the origin and the mechanism of phase separation and crystallization phenomena induced by molybdenum oxide incorporation in the HLW glass. From microstructural and structural point of view, the molybdenum oxide behavior was studied in glass compositions belonging to the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O-CaO simplified system which constituted basis for the HLW glass formulation. The structural role of molybdenum oxide in borosilicate network explaining the phase separation and crystallization tendency was studied through the coupling of structural ( 95 Mo, 29 Si, 11 B, 23 Na MAS NMR, XRD) and microstructural (SEM, HRTEM) analysis techniques. The determination of phase separation (critical temperature) and crystallization (liquidus temperature) appearance temperatures by in situ viscosimetry and Raman spectroscopy experiments allowed us to propose a transformation scenario during melt cooling. These processes and the nature of the crystalline phases formed (CaMoO 4 , Na 2 MoO 4 ) that depend on the evolution of MoO 3 , CaO and B 2 O 3 contents were correlated with changes of sodium and calcium cations proportions in the environment of molybdate entities in the glassy network. (author)

  3. Influence of glass furnace operational conditions on the evaporation from soda-lime and borosilicate glass melts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The evaporation of sodium and boron species from the melts in industrial glass furnaces leads to emissions of particulates (dust) and to furnace atmospheres containing reactive evaporation products. These reactive species, especially alkali vapors, can react with the superstructure refractories

  4. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Group B was administered 50 ml of regular soda (RS), and group C was administered 50 ml of diet soda (DS) each per day for 21 days, and the rats were ...

  5. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  6. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unslaked lime in bulk. 148.04-23 Section 148.04-23... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must be transported in unmanned, all steel, double-hulled barges...

  7. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, S; Hooper, W; Xu, Y; Ghassemi, A; Winston, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine if baking soda toothpastes are relatively more effective than non-baking soda toothpastes in promoting plaque removal from less accessible sites in the dentition. Several single-brushing comparisons of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes for their overall ability to remove plaque have been published. In this study, individual comparisons of these published data, comparing the plaque removal performance of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes at various sites in the dentition, were examined to see if there were any site-dependant performance trends. The site-specific single-brushing data were then combined and analyzed in two ways. Meta-analyses of the clinical studies were performed to compare baking soda's relative plaque removal advantage at various sites in the mouth using paired t-testing at p baking soda toothpastes were graphically compared with plaque index reductions due to brushing with non-baking soda dentifrices. The percent relative plaque removal advantage for baking soda toothpastes at various sites were plotted against the reduction in plaque index due to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes. Individual comparisons showed that brushing with the toothpastes containing baking soda generally removed significantly more plaque from each site than brushing with toothpastes without baking soda. The relative efficacy advantage for baking soda toothpastes was consistently higher at sites where the non-baking soda toothpastes removed less plaque. Meta-analytical comparisons confirmed baking soda toothpastes to be relatively more effective in enhancing plaque removal from sites where less plaque was removed compared to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes (p baking soda toothpastes' relative plaque removal advantage could be seen to increase hyperbolically with decreasing plaque removal by the non-baking soda toothpastes with which they were compared. We presuppose that the reason less plaque is removed by non-baking soda

  8. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  9. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  10. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  11. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  12. Influence of fast neutrons on thermophysical properties of pure and borated low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, A. M.; Kassem, M.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of radiation crosslinking on the mechanical, thermomechanical and electrical conductivity properties of LDPE and borated polyethylene have been studied and evaluated. The 8% borated polyethylene samples have added a new advantage where the tensile strength has increased to the maximum and then it became constant at higher crosslink density. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of 8% borated polyethylene is much higher than pure and 4% borated polyethylene. (author). 16 refs., 8 figs

  13. Corrosion studies of titanium in borated water for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.F.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.; Cole, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion testing was performed to demonstrate the compatibility of the titanium vacuum vessel with borated water. Borated water is proposed to fill the annulus of the double wall vacuum vessel to provide effective radiation shielding. Borating the water with 110 grams of boric acid per liter is sufficient to reduce the nuclear heating in the Toroidal Field Coil set and limit the activation of components external to the vacuum vessel. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) and electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed. Results of the CERT tests confirm that stress corrosion cracking is not significant for Ti-6Al4V or Ti-3AI-2.5V. Welded and unwelded specimens were tested in air and in borated water at 150 degree C. Strength, elongation, and time to failure were nearly identical for all test conditions, and all the samples exhibited ductile failure. Potentiodynamic tests on Ti-6A1-4V and Ti in borated water as a function of temperature showed low corrosion rates over a wide passive potential range. Further, this passivity appeared stable to anodic potentials substantially greater than those expected from MHD effects

  14. Sonochemical-assisted magnesium borate synthesis from different boron sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Meral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sonochemical-assisted magnesium borate synthesis is studied from different boron sources. Various reaction parameters are successfully applied by a simple and green method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies are used to characterize the synthesized magnesium borates on the other hand surface morphologies are investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The XRD analyses showed that the products were admontite [MgO(B2O33 · 7(H2O] with JCPDS (Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards no. of 01-076-0540 and mcallisterite [Mg2(B6O7(OH62 · 9(H2O] with JCPDS no. of 01-070-1902. The results that found in the spectroscopic studies were in a good agreement with characteristic magnesium borate bands in both regions of infra-red and visible. According to SEM results, obtained borates were in micro and sub-micro scales. By the use of ultrasonication, reaction yields were found between 84.2 and 97.9%. As a result, it is concluded that the sonochemical approach is a practicable synthesis method to get high efficiency and high crystallinity in the synthesis magnesium borate compounds.

  15. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M.T.; Sridevi, J.; Venkatraman, B.; Amarendra, G.; Mandal, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10 9 –10 12 s −1 and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies

  16. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annalakshmi, O. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Jose, M.T., E-mail: mtj@igcar.gov.in [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Sridevi, J. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mandal, A.B. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India)

    2014-03-15

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} s{sup −1} and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies.

  17. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  18. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zambri Nadhirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  19. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambri, Nadhirah Mohd; Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  20. The Stabilization of Weathered Dolerite Aggregates with Cement, Lime, and Lime Fly Ash for Pavement Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix N. Okonta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed on weathered dolerite specimens stabilized by adding varying percentages of cement (4, 8, 12, and 16 % and lime (6 and 12 % and a combination of lime and fly ash (6% lime + 12% Fly ash and 12% lime + 12% Fly ash % by dry weight of soil. The strength was examined under three different curing methods, namely, membrane curing (MBC, alternate moist-air curing (MAC, and water curing (WAC, by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS tests. Simple polynomial and linear functions (regression models were used to define the relationships between the variables investigated. Membrane curing (MBC gave results close enough to the water curing (WAC to indicate that it can be confidently used on the field during pavement construction. From the results obtained, for class B (interurban collector and major rural roads pavement construction, addition of 8% cement was recommended for road base construction with stabilized WDA. Also the addition of 12 + 12% Lime and Fly Ash was recommended for road subbase construction with stabilized WDA. Stabilized WDA against the prejudiced myths would perform satisfactorily for base and subbase construction in both heavily trafficked and low volume roads with economic quantities of cement, lime, and fly ash in South Africa.

  1. Intrinsic luminescence of un-doped borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindrat, I.I.; Padlyak, B.V.; Drzewiecki, A.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of intrinsic luminescence in the un-doped borate glasses of different compositions has been investigated using spectroscopic methods including photoluminescence, optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL). The un-doped borate glasses with Li 2 B 4 O 7 , LiKB 4 O 7 , CaB 4 O 7 , and LiCaBO 3 basic compositions were obtained from corresponding polycrystalline compounds in the air with usage the standard technology of glasses. Three different broad emission bands in the UV–Visible spectral range have been observed under different wavelength of photoexcitation. The luminescence kinetics of the observed emission bands have been registered and analysed. The nature and possible mechanisms of the intrinsic luminescence in the investigated borate glasses are considered and discussed based on the obtained results and referenced data.

  2. Study on cementation of simulated radioactive borated liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qina; Li Junfeng; Wang Jianlong

    2010-01-01

    To compare sulfoaluminate cement with ordinary Portland cement on their cementation of radioactive borated liquid waste and to provide more data for formula optimization, simulated radioactive borated liquid waste were solidified by the two cements. 28 d compressive strength and strength losses after water/freezing/irradiation resistance tests were investigated. Leaching test and X-ray diffraction analysis were also conducted. The results show that it is feasible to solidify borated liquid wastes with sulfoaluminate cement and ordinary Portland cement with formulas used in the study. The 28 d compressive strengths, strength losses after tests and simulated nuclides leaching rates of the solidified waste forms meet the demand of GB 14569.1-93. The sulfoaluminate cement formula show better retention of Cs + than ordinary Portland cement formula. Boron, in form of B (OH) 4 - , incorporate in ettringite as solid solutions. (authors)

  3. Barium-borate-flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Devinder; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-borate-flyash glasses have been measured for γ-ray photon energies of 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow beam transmission geometry. The photon beam was highly collimated and overall scatter acceptance angle was less than 3 o . Our results have an uncertainty of less than 3%. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number and electron density. Good agreements have been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the studies of the obtained results it is reported here that from the shielding point of view the barium-borate-flyash glasses are better shields to γ-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes and also to the ordinary barium-borate glasses

  4. The effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chair Effendi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is the tooth-colored restorative material which most of the people are fond of due to their aesthetic value. The composite resin discoloration may happen because of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Soda water is one of the beverages which can cause the composite resin discoloration. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Methods: The study was an experimental laboratory study using 100 shade A3 nano hybrid composite resin specimens with the diameter of 5 mm and density of 2mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups, each group was immersed in different beverages. The beverages were mineral water; lemon-flavored soda; strawberry-flavored soda; fruit punch-flavored soda; and orange-flavored soda for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days respectively, in the temperature of 37o C. The discoloration measurement utilizes Spectrophotometer, Vita Easy Shade, and uses CIEL*a*b* method. Results: The result showed that the duration of immersion in soda had an effect on the Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Strawberry and fruit punch- flavored soda were the most influential components toward the discoloration. Nevertheless, the generally-occurred discoloration was clinically acceptable (∆E ≤ 3,3. Conclusion: The study suggested that the soda immersion duration has effect on Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration.Latar belakang: Resin komposit adalah material sewarna gigi yang diminati masyarakat karena memiliki nilai estetik yang baik. Perubahan warna resin komposit dapat terjadi karena faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Minuman soda merupakan salah satu minuman yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan warna pada resin komposit. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk meneliti perubahan warna resin komposit nanohibrida akibat perendaman dalam minuman soda. Metode: Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorik dengan menggunakan

  5. Thermal property of holmium doped lithium lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, V. L.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    The new glass system of holmium doped lithium lead borate glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The thermal stability of the different compositions of Ho3+ ions doped lithium lead borate glasses were studied by using TG-DTA. The Tg values are ranging from 439 to 444 °C with respect to the holmium concentration. Physical parameters like polaron radius(rp), inter-nuclear distance (ri), field strength (F) and polarizability (αm) of oxide ions were calculated using appropriate formulae.

  6. Crystallo-chemistry of boric anhydride and of anhydrous borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, Jacques

    1968-01-01

    After an overview of various aspects related to the atomic structure of boron and of its three-bind and four-bind compounds, this report briefly presents the different forms of boric anhydride (in solid, liquid, glassy and gaseous state), presents and comments the structure of these different forms, and addresses the molten boric anhydride which is used as oxide solvent. The next part addresses the structure of anhydrous borates. It presents some generalities on their structure, and describes examples of known structures: dimers, trimers, polymers with a degree higher than three like calcium metaborate, caesium tri-borate, lithium tetraborate, or potassium pentaborate

  7. The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond experime......A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond...

  8. Study of neutron and gamma shielding by lead borate and bismuth lead borate glasses: transparent radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation shielding for gamma and neutron is the prominent area in nuclear reactor technology, medical application, dosimetry and other industries. Shielding of these types of radiation requires an appropriate concrete with mixture of low-to-high Z elements which is an opaque medium. The transparent radiation shielding in visible light for gamma and neutron is also extremely essential in the nuclear facilities as lead window. Presently various types of lead equivalent glass oxides have been invented which are transparent as well as provide protection from radiation. In our study we have assessment of effectiveness of neutron and gamma radiation shielding of xPbO.(1-x) B 2 O 3 (x=0.15 to 0.60) and xBi 2 O 3 .(0.80-x) PbO.0.20 B 2 O 3 (x=0.10 to 0.70) transparent borate and bismuth glasses by NXCOM program. The neutron effective mass removal cross section, Σ R /ρ (cm 2 /g) of the lead, bismuth and boron oxides are given. We found invariable Σ R /ρ of various combinations of the lead borate glass for x=0.15 to 0.60 and bismuth lead borate glass for x=0.10 to 0.70. It is observed that the effective removal cross-section for fast neutron (cm -1 ) of lead borate reduces significantly whereas roughly constant for bismuth borate. The gamma mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of the glasses were also compared with possible experimental values and found comparable. High (μ/ρ) for gamma radiation of the bismuth glasses shows that it is better gamma shielding compared with lead containing glass. However lead borate glasses are better neutron shielding as the neutron removal coefficient are higher. Our investigation is very useful for nuclear reactor technology where prompt neutron of energy 17 MeV and gamma photon up to 10 MeV produced. (author)

  9. Effect of Magnesium Borates on the Fire-Retarding Properties of Zinc Borates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borate (MB is a technical ceramic exhibiting high heat resistance, corrosion resistance, great mechanical strength, great insulation properties, lightweightness, high strength, and a high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB can be used as a multifunctional synergistic additive in addition to flame retardant additives in polymers. In this study, the raw materials of zinc oxide (ZnO, magnesium oxide (MgO, and boric acid (H3BO3 were used in the mole ratio of 1 : 1 : 9, which was obtained from preexperiments. Using the starting materials, hydrothermal synthesis was applied, and characterisation of the products was performed using X-Ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The forms of Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O, MgO(B2O33·7(H2O, and Mg2(B6O7(OH62·9(H2O were synthesised successfully. Moreover, the surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the B2O3 content was determined. In addition, the reaction yields were calculated. The results of the B2O3 content analysis were in compliance with the literature values. Examination of the SEM images indicated that the obtained nanoscale minerals had a reaction efficiency ranging between 63–74% for MB and 87–98% for ZB. Finally, the fire-retarding properties of the synthesised pure MBs, pure ZBs, and mixtures of MB and ZB were determined using differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry (DTA-TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.

  10. Effect of the preparation of lime putties on their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátilová, Eva; Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Pavlík, Jaroslav

    2017-12-08

    In the study of lime as the basic component of historical mortars and plasters, four lime putties prepared from various kinds of lime of various granulometry and by various ways of preparation were evaluated. The rheological properties and micro-morphologic changes, growing of calcite crystals, and rate of carbonation were monitored. The lime putty prepared from lump lime achieves the best rheological properties, yield stress 214.7 Pa and plastic viscosity 2.6 Pa·s. The suitability of this lime putty was checked by testing the development of calcium hydroxide and calcite crystals using scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The disordered crystals of calcium hydroxide exhibit better carbonation resulting in the large crystals of calcite; therefore, the mortar prepared from the lump lime has the highest flexural strength and compressive strength 0.8/2.5 MPa, its carbonation is the fastest and exhibits the longest durability. Also, thanks to the micro-morphological characterization of samples in their native state by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy, the new way of lime putty preparation by mixing was proven. The preparation consists in the mechanical crash of the lime particles immediately after hydration. This enables the properties of putty prepared from lump lime to be nearly reached.

  11. Baking soda pica associated with rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Myles, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pica is a commonly underappreciated disorder in pregnancy that can lead to several complications, including severe metabolic derangements and other adverse outcomes. We report a case of baking soda pica in pregnancy associated with both rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. A multigravid woman at 37 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and severe hypokalemia. She subsequently had development of rhabdomyolysis and presumed peripartum cardiomyopathy. After delivery, it was discovered that the patient had a long history of consumption of large quantities of baking soda. Her condition improved with cessation of the pica. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for pica in pregnancy because it can lead to complex diagnostic challenges and pregnancy complications. The diagnosis should be considered in a patient with unexplained metabolic abnormalities.

  12. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  13. Effect of borate concentration on solidification of radioactive wastes by different cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qina; Li Junfeng; Wang Jianlong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effect of borate on cementation of radioactive borate evaporator concentrates by sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) and Portland cement (PC) was compared. → The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that borate did not interfere with the formation of main hydration products of SAC and PC. → Borate, in the form of B(OH) 4- , incorporated in ettringite as solid solution phase. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of borate on the cementation of radioactive evaporator concentrates, and to provide more data for solidification formula optimization, the simulated borate evaporator concentrates with different borate concentrations (as B) and Na/B ratio (molar ratio) were solidified by sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) and Portland cement (PC), with addition of Ca(OH) 2 , zeolite and accelerator or water reducer. The hydration products of solidified matrices were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that borate retarded the cement setting for both SAC and PC formulas, and the final setting time prolonged with decrease of Na/B ratio. Borate could enhance the fluidity of the cement mixture. The 28 d compressive strengths of the solidified matrices for both SAC and PC formulas decreased with increase of borate concentration. The XRD patterns suggested that, in the matrices maintained for 28 d, borate did not interfere with the formation of main hydration products of SAC and PC. Borate, in the form of B(OH) 4- , incorporated in ettringite (3CaO.Al 2 O 3 .3CaSO 4 .32H 2 O) as solid solution phase. The formula of SAC and PC developed in this study was effective for cementation of the simulated borate evaporator concentrates. However further optimization was required to reduce retarding effect of higher borate concentrations and to extend the practical feasibility for actual evaporator concentrates.

  14. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Aerobic Digestion of Lime Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    removal. 1,2 After lime addition, phosphorus is considered to be in the form of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca5-(OH)(P04 )3 ), which will not resolubilize...U: c a e - ~ -’ tr *cr. V. (r. C . -~~~ C c C C&c cj Ir u -. C Fy. - U C C - C F.~-cc 0.c gC - - gg MFC - - C -66 TABLE 20. SUMMARY OF LEAST

  16. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mater. Sci., Vol. 29, No. 1, February 2006, pp. 55–58. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 55. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate glasses. A A ALEMI*, H SEDGHI†, A R MIRMOHSENI and V GOLSANAMLU. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

  17. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H B; Zhao, X L; Zhang, X; Zhang, K B; Li, L C; Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Lu, W W; Wang, D P; Huang, W H; Lin, K L; Chang, J

    2010-07-06

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones.

  18. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na 2 O), its content in B 2 O 3 being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  19. Geomechanical properties of lime stabilized clayey sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabani, M.; Karami, M. Veis

    2007-01-01

    Clayey sands that have low plasticity, low compressibility and high strength under loads, are suitable as a base material for any engineering construction projects as well as for roads and building construction. Decrease of plasticity and compressibility as well as increase in strength of these materials can be obtained by many different methods. Of these methods, lime stabilization is a common, applicable, and easy to use approach that can improve geomechanical and geotechnical properties of clayey sand fills. In this study some important geomechanical properties and geotechnical properties of clayey sands including compressive strength, CBR and elastic plastic behavior are investigated. A range of gradations representative of those gradations found in situ in the north of Iran were selected for testing and samples were artificially rebuilt in the laboratory. The mixes were then stabilized with hydrated lime and cured. Different mechanical tests were performed on mature materials. The stress-strain behavior of lime-stabilized mixes was plotted and a parabolic function was used to estimate the trend of stress-strain behavior. The data show that there is a correlation among the results of uniaxial load test, tensile strength, and CBR of the tested specimens. Also, results of the unconfined compression test and the indirect tensile strength test show that an increase in clay content up to a certain percent, in the clay-sand fills, tends to increase the strength of the materials in compression as well as in tension. (author)

  20. Imperial Limes - Projections in Medieval Imperial Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Z. Zhekov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman imperial limes from I - V BC was the first state border in world history, which in some sense corresponds to the modern concept of political boundary. It represents sustainable political, military and economic barrier between the Romans and the rest of the world. With minor modifications it retains their basic strategic concept during the period as expressed from the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Limes become powerful barrier that separates cultural Roman Hellenistic world of the wild barbarian but at the same time limits the constructed infrastructure of roads, forts and towns became a natural cultural, commercial and political mediator between these two initially hostile worlds. In border towns developed a lively trade between Romans and barbarians. Roman traders penetrate inside the barbarian lands getting to know their culture and history. Studying foreign peoples and countries they convey information gathered imperial legate of the Roman population. The same process was developed and of course in the opposite direction. Exchange of information on the other promotes mutual understanding and open living on both sides of the Roman Limes.

  1. Structure change of soda-silicate glass by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, M; Okuno, M

    2010-01-01

    Structure change of ground soda-silicate glass (SiO 2 -Na 2 O binary systems) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The measurement results were discussed comparison to that of SiO 2 glass. With increasing Na 2 O concentrations, the XRD intensity around 2θ = 22 0 decreased and the intensity around 32 0 increased. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 maybe attributed to SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass unit, respectively. The peaks of Na 2 CO 3 crystal for 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass were observed with increasing milling time. This crystallization was suggested that Na + ion on 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass surface connected CO 2 in air. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 decreased and the intensity around 30 0 increased with increasing milling time. These may indicate that SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass structure unit were mixed by milling. In addition, IR absorption band near v = 1100 cm -1 was separated to two bands near 940 cm -1 and 1070 cm -1 with increasing Na 2 O concentrations. The band near 940 cm -1 decreased and the band near 1070 cm -1 increased with increasing milling time. These spectra changes were suggested due to decrease of Na 2 O concentrations in 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass with Na 2 CO 3 crystallization.

  2. Characteristic Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (ACWC) Using Variation Lime Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, R. A.; Pramesti, F. P.; Setyawan, A.

    2018-03-01

    This research use of lime filler Sukaraja expected add durability layers of concrete pavement is asphalt damage caused by the weather and load traffic. This study attempts to know how much value characteristic Marshall on a mixture of concrete asphalt using lime filler. This research uses experimental methods that is with a pilot to get results, thus will look filler utilization lime on construction concrete asphalt variation in filler levels 2 %, 3 %, 4 %.The results showed that the use of lime filler will affect characteristic a mixture of concrete asphalt. The more filler chalk used to increase the value of stability. On the cretaceous filler 2 % value of stability is 1067,04 kg. When lime filler levels added to the levels of filler 4 %, the value of stability increased to 1213,92 kg. The flexibility increased the number of filler as levels lime 2 % to 4 % suggests that are conducted more stiff mix.

  3. Effects of corn cob ash on lime stabilized lateritic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnochiri, Emeka Segun

    2018-03-01

    This study assesses the effects of Corn Cob Ash (CCA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for purpose of identification and classification. Lime being the main stabilizing material was thoroughly mixed with the soil sample to determine the optimum lime requirement of the sample as a basis for evaluating the effects of the CCA. The optimum lime requirement was 10%. The CCA was thereafter added to the lime stabilized soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%. Unsoaked CBR increased from 83% at 0% CCA to highest value of 94% at 4% CCA. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values increased from 1123kN/m2 at 0% CCA to highest value of 1180kN/m2 at 4% CCA. It was therefore concluded that CCA can serve as a good complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

  4. Liming as a method to remedy lakes contaminated by radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakanson, Lars

    2003-01-01

    This work has identified the characteristics regulating lake sensitivity to 90 Sr-contamination and why certain lakes are likely to respond positively to lake liming (Ca-treatment) and when this would not be a feasible or economic remedial measure to lower 90 Sr-levels in fish. The results demonstrate that liming would work best in (1) small, (2) low-productive, (3) oligohumic, (4) acid lakes with (5) low initial Ca-concentrations. It is important to start the liming as soon as possible after the fallout. The liming model discussed in this work can be used to calculate the changes in lake Ca-concentrations and the duration of the liming. The Sr-model can be used to calculate changes in Sr-levels in water, sediments and fish. At best, these simulations indicate that it is realistic to expect that lake liming can reduce peak levels of 90 Sr in fish by 25-40%

  5. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  6. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  7. Overview of ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ doped borate and oxy-borates compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablayrolles, J.

    2006-12-01

    The trivalent ytterbium ion can give rise to two emissions with different spectroscopic properties: the first one, with a short lifetime, in the ultraviolet (charge transfer emission) is used in detectors such as scintillators, and the other one, with a long lifetime, in the infrared (4f-4f emission) for laser applications. The strong link between material structure and properties is illustrated through ytterbium luminescence study, in the ultraviolet and infrared, inserted in the borate Li 6 Y(BO 3 ) 3 and two oxy-borates: LiY 6 O 5 (BO 3 ) 3 and Y 17,33 B 8 O 38 . For the first time an ytterbium charge transfer emission in oxy-borates has been observed. The calculation of the single configurational coordinate diagram, as well as the thermal quenching, has been conducted under a fundamental approach on the ytterbium - oxygen bond. The study of the ytterbium infrared spectroscopy in these compounds has been realised and an energy level attribution is proposed in the particular case of the borate Li 6 Y(BO 3 ) 3 : Yb 3+ . An original approach is introduced with the study of the charge transfer states for the three compounds by looking at the infrared emission. The first laser performances in three operating modes (continuous wave, Q-switch and mode locking) of a Li 6 Y(BO 3 ) 3 : Yb 3+ crystal are reported. (author)

  8. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater.

  10. Time evolution of pore system in lime - Pozzolana composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Keppert, Martin

    2017-11-01

    The lime - pozzolana mortars and plasters are used in restoration works on building cultural heritage but these materials are also following the trend of energy - efficient solutions in civil engineering. Porosity and pore size distribution is one of crucial parameters influencing engineering properties of porous materials. The pore size distribution of lime based system is changing in time due to chemical processes occurring in the material. The present paper describes time evolution of pore system in lime - pozzolana composites; the obtained results are useful in prediction of performance of lime - pozzolana systems in building structures.

  11. Amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood treated with borates and water repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ergun; Sonmez, Abdullah; Colak, Mehmet; Toker, Hilmi

    2006-12-01

    Wood protection efficacy of borates against biological agents, flame retardancy, and suitability to the environment is well known. Since borates can be applied to timber as water based solutions, they are preferred economically as well. Even though they are highly mobile in wood, boron compounds are widely used in timber preservation. Borates migrate in liquid and increase the hygroscopicity of wood in damp conditions. This study deals with the physical restriction of water access in wood by impregnating water repellent agents into wood to limit amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood after boron treatment. Borates were incorporated with polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) their bulking effect in wood was considered. Results indicated that the amount of leachates from wood treated with borates in PEG-400 was remarkably higher compared to those of wood treated with the aqueous solutions of borates. Water absorption (WA) levels of wood treated with aqueous solutions of borates were higher than those of their treated samples with the solutions in PEG-400. Secondary treatments of wood with the water repellent (WR) chemicals following borate impregnation reduced the leaching of chemicals from wood in water and also WA of the specimens were less than those of the wood treated with only borates from aqueous and PEG solutions. Styrene (St) was the most effective monomer among the other agents used in terms of immobility effect on borates and WA.

  12. LIMES Large Infrastructure in Mathematics - Enhanced Services

    CERN Document Server

    Fachinformationszentrum Energie, Physik, Mathematik. Karlsruhe

    The Large Infrastructure in Mathematics - Enhanced Services (LIMES) Project is a RTD project within the Fifth (EC) Framework Programme - Horizontal Programme "Improving human research potential and the socio-economic knowledge base", Access to Resear The objective of this project is to upgrade the existing database Zentralblatt-MATH into a European based world class database for mathematics (pure and applied) by a process of technical improvement and wide Europeanisation, improving the present distribuited system. The goal is to make Zentralblatt MATH a world reference database, offering full coverage of the mathematics literature worldwide ncluding bibliographic data, peer reviews and/or abstracts, indexing, classification and search,

  13. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  14. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  15. Enhancing mechanical properties of ceramic papers loaded with zeolites using borate compounds as binders

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Cecchini; Ramiro M. Serra; María A. Ulla; Miguel A. Zanuttini; Viviana G. Milt

    2013-01-01

    NaY zeolite-containing ceramic papers were prepared by a papermaking technique with a dual polyelectrolyte retention system that implied the use of cationic and anionic polymers. To improve their mechanical properties, we found that some borate compounds could be successfully used as ceramic binders. Three types of sodium and/or calcium borates were tested as binders: colemanite, nobleite, and anhydrous ulexite. The improvement in the mechanical properties depends both on the borate used and ...

  16. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  17. FTIR of binary lead borate glass: Structural investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, H. A.; Elkholy, H. S.; Hager, I. Z.

    2016-02-01

    The glass samples were prepared according to the following formula: (100-x) B2O3 - x PbO, where x = 20-80 mol% by melt quenching method. The density of the prepared samples was measured and molar volume was calculated. IR spectra were measured for the prepared samples to investigate the glass structure. The IR spectra were deconvoluted using curves of Gaussian shape at approximately the same frequencies. The deconvoluted data were used to study the effect of PbO content on all the structural borate groups. Some structural parameters such as density, packing density, bond length and bond force constant were theoretically calculated and were compared to the obtained experimental results. Deviation between the experimental and theoretically calculated parameters reflects the dual role of PbO content on the network of borate glass.

  18. Could borate have played a role in the RNA World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E. S.; Bada, J. L.; Hazen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Two scenarios have been proposed for boron to play a critical role in the stabilization of ribose and other sugars in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) World, >3.8 Ga ago. One scenario envisages oligomeric RNA being synthesized in subaerial intermountane desert valleys in which groundwater was enriched in borate from breakdown of tourmaline (Benner et al. 2012 doi: 10.1021/ar200332w). In the alternative scenario, borates are enriched in hydrothermal environments (3.8 Ma as they are today and (2) plate tectonics was the prevailing regime. The postulated non-marine borate deposits would have been associated with continental collision and subduction with volcanism releasing B, whereas in the second scenario, ocean floor caught up in an early phase of subduction is considered a favorable site for borate formation. Because borate deposits are typically ephemeral and poorly preserved, the lack of evidence in the geologic record for these scenarios does not invalidate them. For example, the oldest reported non-marine borate deposits analogous to the type postulated in first scenario are only 20 Ma, but metamorphosed borates of Precambrian age have been interpreted to have non-marine evaporite precursors, the oldest being 2.4-2.1 Ga in the Liaoning-Jilin area, China. The first B minerals so far reported in the geologic record are metamorphic dravite-schorl tourmalines in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt (southern West Greenland), where there is good evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction. The precursors to the Isua tourmalines are reported to include B-bearing marine clay minerals and detrital tourmaline. The relatively high Li contents in zircon from Jack Hills, Australia, have been cited as evidence for the presence of granitic (s. l.) "protocontinental" crust by 4.3 Ga (Ushikuba et al. 2008 doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.032; Valley et al. 2010 Rec Geol Surv W Aust, 5-7), but the existence of conventional plate tectonics prior to 3.8 Ga remains controversial

  19. Neutron shielding properties of a borated high-density glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Aly Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron shielding properties of a borated high density glass system was characterized experimentally. The total removal macroscopic cross-section of fast neutrons, slow neutrons as well as the linear attenuation coefficient of total gamma rays, primary in addition to secondary, were measured experimentally under good geometric condition to characterize the attenuation properties of (75-x B2O3-1Li2O-5MgO-5ZnO-14Na2O-xBaO glassy system. Slabs of different thicknesses from the investigated glass system were exposed to a collimated beam of neutrons emitted from 252Cf and 241Am-Be neutron sources in order to measure the attenuation properties of fast and slow neutrons as well as total gamma rays. Results confirmed that barium borate glass was suitable for practical use in the field of radiation shielding.

  20. Incorporation of turmeric-lime mixture during the preparation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... behaviour) of 2 min-blanched samples (both treated and control) were the maximum among other corresponding puree samples. Thus, 2 min blanching time may be preferred for the preparation of this new type of turmeric-lime treated tomato puree product. Key words: Turmeric-lime, Lycopersicon ...

  1. Carbonation of lime and cement stabilized layers in road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Netterberg, F

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of deterioration of lime, lime-slag and cement stabilized pavement layers during curing, before sealing and in service is partly ascribed to carbonation of the stabilizer during curing and subsequent exposure to the atmosphere before...

  2. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  3. 76 FR 82295 - Central Power & Lime LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL12-18-000; QF82-207-007] Central Power & Lime LLC; Notice of Filing December 23, 2011. Take notice that on December 22, 2011, Central Power & Lime LLC, pursuant to sections 18 CFR 292.205(c) and 385.207 of the Federal Energy...

  4. Efficacy and phytotoicity of lime sulphur in organic apple production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holb, I.J.; Jong, de P.F.; Heijne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Curative and preventive efficacy and phytotoxicity of lime sulphur spray schedules, based on a warning system, were evaluated in the Netherlands during two growing seasons under field conditions. In most cases, lime sulphur treatments applied either curatively or preventively resulted in

  5. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  6. A nano approach to consolidation of degraded historic lime mortars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana; Ziegenbalg, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2009), s. 13-22 ISSN 1662-5250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : lime water * calcium hydroxide nanosuspension * lime mortar Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2009

  7. Liming of acid tropical soils: practice, prospects and constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the incidental inclusion of liming materials in fertilizers has not been effective and sustainable due to the intensive land use activities, constant application of acid-forming chemical fertilizers, leaching losses of bases and crop removal. Liming materials themselves vary in their calcium and magnesium contents and ...

  8. Engineering Properties of Bentonite Stabilized with Lime and Phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sujeet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties such as compaction, unconfined compressive strength, consistency limits, percentage swell, free swell index, the California bearing ratio and the consolidation of bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum are presented in this paper. The content of the lime and phosphogypsum varied from 0 to 10 %. The results reveal that the dry unit weight and optimum moisture content of bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The percentage of swell increased and the free swell index decreased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum to the bentonite + 8 % lime mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum as well as an increase in the curing period up to 14 days. The liquid limit and plastic limit of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased, whereas the plasticity index remained constant with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The California bearing ratio, modulus of subgrade reaction, and secant modulus increased for the bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. The coefficient of the consolidation of the bentonite increased with the addition of 8 % lime and no change with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum.

  9. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Blain's air permeability apparatus was used for ... Pulverized lime with high per- centage of CaO (> 80 ... kept in a low-pressure autoclave at an average steam pressure and ... ing the solubility of lime in a solvent containing 1 part by volume of ...

  10. Fragility, anharmonicity and anelasticity of silver borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, Giovanni; Carini, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Giovanna; Tripodo, Gaspare; Bartolotta, Antonio; Marco, Gaetano Di

    2006-01-01

    The fragility and the anharmonicity of (Ag 2 O) x (B 2 O 3 ) 1-x borate glasses have been quantified by measuring the change in the specific heat capacity at the glass transition temperature T g and the room-temperature thermodynamic Grueneisen parameter. Increasing the silver oxide content above X = 0.10 leads to an increase of both the parameters, showing that a growing fragility of a glass-forming liquid is predictive of an increasing overall anharmonicity of its glassy state. The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range of 10-70 MHz have also been measured in silver borate glasses as a function of temperature between 1.5 and 300 K. The experimental data reveal anelastic behaviours which are governed by (i) quantum-mechanical tunnelling below 20 K (ii) thermally activated relaxations between 20 and 200 K and (iii) vibrational anharmonicity at even higher temperatures. Evaluation of tunnelling (C) and relaxation (C * ) strengths shows that C is independent of the structural changes affecting the borate network with increasing metal oxide content and is at least one order of magnitude smaller than C * . The latter observation implies that only a small fraction of the locally mobile defects are subjected to tunnelling motions

  11. Thermoluminescence properties of alkali borate glasses containing neodymium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.F.; Henaish, B.A.; Kenaway, M.A.; Salem, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of sodium borate glasses as a function of neodymium oxide content as well as the divalent metal oxides (RO = ZnO, MgO and CaO) in replacement of Na/sub 2/O have been investigated. It is observed that the addition of Nd/sub 2/O/sub 3/ imparts to the host glass a monopeak glow curve according to an active luminescent centre (E approx. = 0.97 eV to 1.232 eV). The gradual addition of neodymium oxide to the sodium borate glass causes gradual enhancement in the TL-intensity up to a quenching concentration value (4 g Nd/sub 2/O/sub 3/ added to 100 g of borate glass) above which a draw back in TL-intensity occurs. On the other hand the replacement of 5 wt% Na/sub 2/O by RO shows that CaO dominates the other two divalent metal oxides used, as it possesses a much deeper luminescent trap (1.232 eV). The results obtained suggest that these glasses can be used in radiation detection and dosimetry. The ..gamma..-induced Tl-signal of such type of glass is found to be reproducible within an acceptable error of not more than 3.5% in all individual and group scattering over the detector samples each of which is used 10 times for evaluating the same ..gamma..-dose.

  12. Energy saving plan for lime calcining kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Lime calcining kilns operating in China are of old type, consuming more heat energy by 30% or more than the latest type kilns. For the purpose of the COP3 joint implementation, a renewal plan was discussed taking up Benxi Steel Group Company as the object. The new type kiln is a parallel flow energy regenerating (Maerz) kiln. It has as high thermal efficiency as 900 kcal/kg of product. Annual fuel conservation as converted into crude oil will be 7.49x10{sup 3} tons, annual fuel cost reduction will be 101,200,000 yuan, and annual reduction in CO2 emission will be 23,200 tons. The estimated cost required for the project will be 991 million yen, or 66,070,000 yuan if the exchange rate is assumed to be 15 yen to one yuan. The profitability was discussed based on using bank loans and the special environmental yen loan. The investment recovering period was calculated as 7.9 years. This provides no realizability as a project on the business base. However, China strongly desires renewal of the facilities because of discharge of dust from old type facilities, and inferior quality of lime products. The project could be a candidate without doubt if the CDM system will have been established. (NEDO)

  13. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  14. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  15. The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Chriqui, Jamie; Moser, Richard P; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Perna, Frank M

    2014-10-01

    The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools. The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state. Data from BTG and CLASS were used. BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used. A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %. These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

  16. Hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis as a consequence of the therapeutic misuse of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S; Listernick, R

    1987-12-01

    When used appropriately, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, USP) is a nontoxic, readily available, multipurpose product found in many households. We report an infant who presented with hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis due to the addition of baking soda to her water. This case represents the possible dangerous use of a common household product in infants owing to the lack of proper warning labels.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Carl Houtman; Kolby Hirth

    2013-01-01

    When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with caustic soda, an auto-accelerating reaction can lead to generation of significant amounts of heat and oxygen. On the basis of experiments using typical pulp mill process concentration and temperatures, a relatively simple kinetic model has been developed. Evaluation of these model results reveals that hydrogen peroxide-caustic soda...

  18. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda

  19. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  20. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  1. Quantitative bacterial examination and chemical evaluation of Diet, Club, and Ice-cream Sodas, Soft Drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watoo, M.K.S.; Watoo, F.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diet, club, and ice cream sodas are flavored soft drinks consumed throughout the world, especially in summer seasons. This study has been undertaken to monitor the bacterial and chemical contamination of these national and international branded drinks procured from local markets. The isolated coliforms and microbes were E. coli Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, and Bacillus cereus. Diet and club sodas were less contaminated with microorganisms than were ice-cream sodas. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were identified with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer following the improved ash digestion method. The values of Nickel (Ni), (0.15 mg/L), (Pb) (0.28mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.13mg/L) and Aluminum (Al) (0.76 mg/L) were higher than the (WHO) recommended limits. The concentrations of (Na, Fe, Pb) and Chromium (Cr) were higher in club sodas than diet and ice-cream sodas and the concentrations of Calcium (Ca), (Mn) in ice-cream sodas were also higher than diet and club sodas. Overall, the ice-cream sodas did not conform to the (WHO) standards allowed for safe ingestion of micro- and macro-metals in various drinks. (author)

  2. The relationship between amount of soda consumed and intention to reduce soda consumption among adults exposed to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' health marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Lieberman, Alicea J; Barragan, Noel C; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2015-10-01

    To examine behavioural intention to reduce soda consumption after exposure to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' campaign in Los Angeles County, California, USA. A cross-sectional street-intercept survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, health behaviours and behavioural intentions after exposure to the 'Sugar Pack' campaign. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the amount of soda consumed and self-reported intention to reduce consumption of non-diet soda among adults who saw the campaign. Three pre-selected Los Angeles County Metro bus shelters and/or rail stops with the highest number of 'Sugar Pack' campaign advertisement placements. Riders of the region's Metro buses and railways who were the intended audience of the campaign advertisements. The overall survey response rate was 56 % (resulting n 1041). Almost 60 % of respondents were exposed to the advertisements (619/1041). The multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds of reporting intention to reduce soda consumption among moderate consumers (1-6 sodas/week) were 1·95 times greater than among heavy consumers (≥1 soda/d), after controlling for clustering and covariates. Respondents with less than a high-school education and who perceived sugary beverage consumption as harmful also had higher odds; in contrast, respondents aged ≥65 years had lower odds. Results suggest that future campaigns should be tailored differently for moderate v. heavy consumers of soda. Similar tailoring strategies are likely needed for younger groups, for those with less educational attainment and for those who do not perceive consumption of soda as harmful.

  3. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  4. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. Liming and postharvest quality of carambola fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of lime application on the postharvest quality of carambola fruit, an experiment with carambola trees cultivated on an acid soil was conducted at the Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil. The trees were treated with increasing doses of lime during the pre-planting period. Liming led to a increase in calcium concentration of carambola leaves and fruits. Adequate nutrition of the plant with calcium improved post-harvest fruit quality, permitting a longer (~ 2 days period of storage under ambient conditions.Tendo como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de doses crescentes de calcário ao solo, na qualidade de frutos de caramboleira pela avaliação das alterações físico-químicas dos frutos após a colheita, foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP,Brasil, sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, ácido. Os tratamentos foram doses crescentes de calcário, em pré-plantio, como segue: D0 = zero; D1 = metade da dose; D2 = a dose; D3 = 1,5 vez a dose; e D4 = 2 vezes a dose para elevar V= 70%. No florescimento da caramboleira, avaliou-se o teor de cálcio na folha. Após a colheita dos frutos, determinou-se o teor de cálcio na polpa, o peso dos frutos, diâmetro transversal, comprimento, peso da polpa, % de polpa, ºBrix, acidez titulável e Ratio dos frutos. Diariamente, durante sete dias de armazenamento em condições ambiente, determinou-se a perda de massa fresca e a firmeza dos frutos. A calagem proporcionou um aumentou linear de cálcio nas folhas e nos frutos da caramboleira. A nutrição adequada da planta com cálcio melhorou a qualidade dos frutos pós-colheita, permitindo um período de armazenamento mais longo (~ 2 days, em condições ambiente.

  6. Study of the creep of lime-stabilised zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jacques, Robert G.

    1971-09-01

    This research thesis reports the study of creep of stabilised zirconia containing between 13 and 20 per cent of lime, at temperatures between 1.200 and 1.400 C, and under compression stresses between 500 and 4.000 pounds by square inch. Specimens are polycrystalline with an average grain diameter between 7 and 29 microns. The author notably shows that the creep rate of lime-stabilised zirconia is directly proportional to the applied stress, and that the creep apparent activation energy is close to activation energy of volume self-diffusion of calcium and zirconium in lime-stabilised zirconia. Results of creep tests show that, in the studied conditions, the creep rate is directly proportional to the inverse of the grain average diameter, and this is in compliance with the Gifkins and Snowden theory of creep by sliding at grain boundaries. The author also shows that the creep rate of the lime stabilised zirconia varies with lime content, and reaches a maximum when zirconia contains about 15 per cent of lime. Lower creep rates obtained for higher and lower lime contents are explained [fr

  7. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Kamuthachad, Ludthawun; Anthapanya, Methinee; Samakchan, Natthapon; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Potup, Pachuen; Ferrante, Antonio; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2016-04-01

    Although kaffir lime has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antileukemic activity, little is known about the antimicrobial effect of kaffir lime extract. Because Streptococcus mutans has been known to cause biofilm formation, it has been considered the most important causative pathogen of dental caries. Thus, the effective control of its effects on the oral biofilm is the key to the prevention of dental caries. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on biofilm formation and its antibacterial activity on S. mutans. We examined the effect of kaffir lime leaves extract on growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. For the investigation we used a kaffir lime extract with high phenolic content. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract was determined by broth microdilution assay. The inhibitory effect of the test substances on biofilm formation was also investigated by biofilm formation assay and qRT-PCR of biofilm formation-associated genes. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits the growth of S. mutans, corresponding to the activity of an antibiotic, ampicillin. Formation of biofilm by S. mutans was also inhibited by the extract. These results were confirmed by the down-regulation of genes associated with the biofilm formation. The findings highlight the ability of kaffir lime leaves extract to inhibit S. mutans activity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of biofilm formation on dental surface, reducing dental plaque and decreasing the chance of dental carries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of lime concentration on gelatinized maize starch dispersions properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato-Calleros, C; Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Chavez-Esquivel, G; Meraz, M; Sosa, E; Lara, V H; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2015-04-01

    Maize starch was lime-cooked at 92 °C with 0.0-0.40% w/w Ca(OH)2. Optical micrographs showed that lime disrupted the integrity of insoluble remnants (ghosts) and increased the degree of syneresis of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD). The particle size distribution was monomodal, shifting to smaller sizes and narrower distributions with increasing lime concentration. X-ray patterns and FTIR spectra showed that crystallinity decreased to a minimum at lime concentration of 0.20% w/w. Lime-treated GSD exhibited thixotropic and viscoelastic behaviour. In the linear viscoelastic region the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus, but a crossover between these moduli occurred in the non-linear viscoelastic region. The viscoelastic properties decreased with increased lime concentration. The electrochemical properties suggested that the amylopectin-rich remnants and the released amylose contained in the continuous matrix was firstly attacked by calcium ions at low lime levels (<0.20% w/w), disrupting the starch gel microstructure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey.

  10. Managing ecosystems without prior knowledge: pathological outcomes of lake liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Angeler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Management actions often need to be taken in the absence of ecological information to mitigate the impact of pressing environmental problems. Managers counteracted the detrimental effects of cultural acidification on aquatic ecosystems during the industrial era using liming to salvage biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, historical contingencies, i.e., whether lakes were naturally acidic or degraded because of acidification, were largely unknown and therefore not accounted for in management. It is uncertain whether liming outcomes had a potentially detrimental effect on naturally acidic lakes. Evidence from paleolimnological reconstructions allowed us to analyze community structure in limed acidified and naturally acidic lakes, and acidified and circumneutral references. We analyzed community structure of phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates (littoral, sublittoral, profundal, and fish between 2000 and 2004. Naturally acidic limed lakes formed communities that were not representative of the other lake types. The occurrence of fish species relevant for ecosystem service provisioning (fisheries potential in naturally acidic limed lakes were confounded by biogeographical factors. In addition, sustained changes in water quality were conducive to harmful algal blooms. This highlights a pathological outcome of liming lakes when their naturally acidic conditions are not accounted for. Because liming is an important social-ecological system, sustained ecological change of lakes might incur undesired costs for societies in the long term.

  11. Lime stabilization of expansive soil from Sergipe - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Rafaella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soils are characterized by volumetric changes caused by variations in moisture. They can cause several damages to civil constructions, especially to lightweight structures, including cracks and fissures. Chemical stabilization through addition of lime is one of the most effective techniques used to treat this type of soil. Due to cationic exchanges, lime can significantly reduce swell potential. This research studied a disturbed sample of expansive soil collected in Nossa Senhora do Socorro – Sergipe, Brazil, through the following laboratory tests: sieve and hydrometer tests, Atterberg Limits, compaction, free swell and swell pressure. All direct and indirect methods mentioned in this paper indicated that the natural soil presented high to very high degree of expansion, which reached approximately 20% of free swell and nearly 200 kPa of swell pressure. In order to evaluate the effect of lime, the same tests were conducted in soil-lime mixtures, using lime contents of 3%, 6% and 9%. The results confirmed the efficiency of lime stabilization. It was noted that, as lime content increased, there was reduction of clay fraction and increment of silt fraction; plasticity index decreased to nearly its half; compaction curve was displaced; and free swell and swell pressure reduced significantly.

  12. Lime utilization in the laboratory, field, and design of pavement layers : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review and report the best practices of using lime (i.e., granulated lime, hydrated lime, and slurry lime) to dry soil, in working tables, and in pavement applications. The project also reviewed and documented the i...

  13. Use of lime cement stabilized pavement construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M.A.; Raju, G.V.R.P. [JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Expansive clay is a major source of heave induced structural distress. Swelling of expansive soils causes serious problems and produce damages to many structures. Many research organizations are doing extensive work on waste materials concerning the feasibility and environmental suitability. Fly ash, a waste by product from coal burning in thermal power stations, is abundant in India causing severe health, environmental and disposal problems. Attempts are made to investigate the stabilization process with model test tracks over expansive subgrade in flexible pavements. Cyclic plate load tests are carried out on the tracks with chemicals like lime and cement introduced in fly ash subbase laid on sand and expansive subgrades. Test results show that maximum load carrying capacity is obtained for stabilized fly ash subbase compared to untreated fly ash subbase.

  14. Effective binding of perhalogenated closo-borates to serum albumins revealed by spectroscopic and ITC studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Marina V.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Bykov, Alexander Yu.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay T.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.

    2017-08-01

    The interactions of boron cluster compounds closo-borates with biomolecules are widely studied due to their efficiency as agents for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. In present work the binding abilities of anionic halogen closo-borates [B10Hal10]2- (Hal = Cl, Br, I) and [B12Hal12]2- (Hal = Cl, I) towards bovine and human serum albumins were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods. The protein fluorescence quenching method and ITC studies confirmed the complex formation. The degree of protein fluorescence quenching increased from chlorine to iodine boron derivatives that is attributed to external heavy atom effect. The ITC data point on the existence in the protein structure of two types of binding sites: with higher and lower affinity to closo-borates. Albumin-closo-borate complex binding ratio, n (4-5 anions per protein molecule) is higher than for the parent hydrogen closo-borates (2 anions per protein molecule). Binding constants estimated by fluorescent and ITC methods indicate higher affinity of halogen closo-borates to albumins (K in the range of 104-106 M-1) comparing to that of the hydrogen closo-borate (K about 103 M-1). Due to their high affinity and high binding ratio to albumins halogen closo-borates are proposed for further studies as agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

  15. Conditioning highly concentrated borate solutions with calcium sulfo-aluminate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champenois, J.B.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Poulesquen, A.; Le Bescop, P.; Damidot, D.

    2012-01-01

    The early age hydration by borate solution of 3 calcium sulfo-aluminate cements (CSA), containing respectively 0%, 10% and 20% of gypsum by weight of cement was studied using isothermal calorimetry and dynamic mode rheo-metry. XRD and TGA analysis were carried out on pastes with increasing hydration degrees (up to 90 days) to specify the mineralogy and to figure out the mechanisms of borate immobilisation. It has been shown that the retarding effect of borate anions is due to the precipitation of the amorphous calcium borate C 2 B 3 H 8 ; borate anions were then incorporated in Aft-type phases. The macroscopic properties of hydrated binders (compressive strength, length change) were also followed during 180 days. It appears that the mechanical strength continuously increases with the hydration degree. Length changes under wet-curing and sealed bag remain moderate and seem to be stabilized after 180 days

  16. Evaluation of stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized 304SS in low-temperature borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1981-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has been observed in constant extension rate tests, CERT and constant load tests of 304SS tested at 32 0 C in borated water plus 15 ppM C1 - . Evidence of IGSCC was obtained in CERT tests of welded pipe samples only when the original inner diameter surface was intact and with 15 ppM C1 - added to the borated water while IGSCC occurred in a furnace sensitized pipe sample after 500 h at a constant stress of 340 MPa in borated water containing 15 ppM C1 - . These results indicate that surface features associated with weld preparation grinding contributed to the susceptibility of sensitized 304SS to IGSCC in low temperature borated water; however, the constant load test indicates that such surface defects are not necessary for IGSCC in low temperature borated water

  17. Recent advances in rare earth doped alkali-alkaline earth borates for solid state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shefali; Verma, Kartikey; Kumar, Deepak; Chaudhary, Babulal; Som, Sudipta; Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    As a novel class of inorganic phosphor, the alkali-alkaline earth borate phosphors have gained huge attention due to their charming applications in solid-state lighting (SSL) and display devices. The current research drive shows that phosphors based on the alkali-alkaline earth borates have transformed the science and technology due to their high transparency over a broad spectral range, their flexibility in structure and durability for mechanical and high-laser applications. Recent advances in various aspects of rare-earth (RE) doped borate based phosphors and their utilizations in SSL and light emitting diodes are summarized in this review article. Moreover, the present status and upcoming scenario of RE-doped borate phosphors were reviewed in general along with the proper credential from the existing literature. It is believed that this review is a sole compilation of crucial information about the RE-doped borate phosphors in a single platform.

  18. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  19. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roache, Sarah A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2017-06-14

    Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom's new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation - whether incentivized or mandatory - helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public's health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select bakeries and bakers in different districts of Qom. Age, bakery experience, education of bakers and bread's pH were collected by a questionnaire and an electrical pH meter. Results: The results showed that seventy bakeries (29.9% of Qom were using baking soda in bread. The highest frequent use of baking soda was observed in Taftoon (38.7% and Lavash bread (31.5%. There was a significant difference between the use of baking soda and demographic variables such as age and literacy level. The attitude and knowledge of bakery employees about the complications of the baking soda were not appropriate. Conclusions: To reduce the use of baking soda and improve their knowledge and attitude, there is a need of strict supervision and monitoring by responsible organisations, especially the Ministry of Health.

  1. Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Joy D; Duncan, Glen E; Bruemmer, Barbara; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2). Setting American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA. Subjects A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women. Results Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (PIndian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors. PMID:21208477

  2. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Roache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom’s new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation – whether incentivized or mandatory – helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs, which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public’s health.

  3. Plasticity, Swell-Shrink, and Microstructure of Phosphogypsum Admixed Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jijo; Pandian, P. Kasinatha

    2016-01-01

    The study involved utilization of an industrial waste, Phosphogypsum (PG), as an additive to lime stabilization of an expansive soil. Three lime dosages, namely, initial consumption of lime (ICL), optimum lime content (OLC), and less than ICL (LICL), were identified for the soil under study for stabilizing the soil. Along with lime, varying doses of PG were added to the soil for stabilization. The effect of stabilization was studied by performing index tests, namely, liquid limit, plastic lim...

  4. Optical properties of Dy3+ doped yttrium aluminium borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, R MartInez; Osellame, R; Marangoni, M; Ramponi, R; Dieguez, E; Ferrari, M; Mattarelli, M

    2004-01-01

    A Dy 3+ doped yttrium aluminium borate (Dy:YAB) crystal has been optically characterized. The refractive indices at seven different wavelengths, ranging from the visible to the near infrared (IR), have been measured and the Sellmeier curves have been calculated. The polarized optical absorption spectra have been obtained at room temperature, and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been calculated. The lifetime of the upper laser level 4 F 9/2 has been estimated and compared with the experimental value. Evidence of high luminescence quantum efficiency of the 4 F 9/2 state in YAB is provided by measured lifetimes

  5. Economic evaluation of the industrial solar production of lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Anton; Gremaud, Nicolas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The use of concentrated solar energy in place of fossil fuels for driving the endothermic calcination reaction CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2 at above 1300 K has the potential of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20% in a state-of-the-art lime plant and up to 40% in a conventional cement plant. An economic assessment for an industrial solar calcination plant with 25 MW th solar input indicates that the cost of solar produced lime ranges between 128 and 157 $/t, about twice the current selling price of conventional lime. The solar production of high purity lime for special sectors in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry might be competitive with conventional fossil fuel based calcination processes at current fuel prices

  6. occupational health problems studied among the workers of lime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMGANES

    In present study, an extensive health survey of 573 lime kiln workers of Maihar and Jhukehi region of ... Among the observed health anomalies, ..... Health benefits of air pollution control in ... “Association of Indoor and Outdoor Particulate.

  7. Ring Formation in Lime Kilns; Ringbildning i Mesaugnar II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhak, Janice [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-07-15

    The key to a cost efficient and high performance pulp production is low variations in the production level. Despite the fact that all pulp mills always work with improvements to eliminate problems with ring formations, AaF has at several mill seen that the operation of a lime kiln still often is disturbed by ring formation. In 1999 AAF made an extensive investigation of more than 10 lime kilns in Sweden, considering operational data, kiln data and lime chemical analyzes. The result pointed out the importance of how the lime kiln is operated and that dead load and contaminants in the lime was less important. The report suggested that it is the difference in the temperature between the flue gas and the lime that is of importance. There are no quantified process values available that guides for a 'best practice' way to run a lime kiln to avoid ring formation. The goal with this project has been to develop a strategy for operation of a kiln in a way that lowers the risk for ring formation. The results from simulations of a number of lime kilns in this project could not proof that a low difference in the temperature between the flue gas and the lime was the main cause of problems with ring formation and thus it was not possible to quantify the optimal difference to avoid rings. Probably the most important information from the simulations was that it is not the temperature difference in number of degrees that is of importance, rather the fact that the temperature difference in the kalcining zone varies, and time to time reach below the critical level were lime occasionally is cooled down. It can be the case if the temperature profile of the flue gas temporarily changes or if the lime mud temperature profile is changed. The reason for changes in the temperature profile is discussed in the report. The most important factors discussed are: Variations in the energy input e.g. oil and methanol/strong gases in cocombustion. One single fuel is easier to control

  8. Producer gas and its use for the manufacture of lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A K; Kumar, S

    1976-04-01

    An analysis of available data indicates that coal-based producer gas is superior to coal or wood as a fuel for lime kilns and much more readily available than oil or natural gas. With producer gas, chemical-grade lime is obtained, and the kiln capacity is increased, so that a smaller unit can be used or more lime obtained. With a mixture of coal and wood as the fuel, the lime produced is contaminated with ash. The added cost of the gas-producer unit can be paid out in one year owing to the greater demand for and the consequent higher prices obtainable for the chemical-grade product. In addition, the flue gases from the kiln can be used in place of steam to heat the gas producer, but experimental studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the savings in fuel consumption. 15 references.

  9. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  10. Audiovisual Documentation of an International Seminar : Case: LIME

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkanen, Kirsti; Rönnberg, Mira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create a documentary video of an international seminar held in Kerava, Finland, in June 2013. The seminar was called Learning on Immigration and Multicultural Education (LIME) and it was conducted by Kerava Adult Education Center (later Keravan Opisto). LIME was a two-year intercultural project funded by the European Union. Different non-governmental organizations and adult education centers from eight European countries took part on the project. The ai...

  11. Lime helps establish crownvetch on coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1976-01-01

    A study was begun in 1965 to determine the effect of lime fertilizer, and mulch on the establishment and growth of crownvetch crowns planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse. After 7 years the lime application had by far the strongest effect. Both 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre increased survival and ground cover manyfold, and both treatments were equally beneficial from...

  12. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  13. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  14. Elemental analysis of Taiwanese areca nut and limes with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Y.; Chung, C.

    1997-01-01

    The popular areca nuts were sampled and their stuffed white and red lime were collected simultaneously from four marketplaces in Taiwan in different growing seasons. Samples of areca nut were treated via homogenizer prior to freeze drying, about 100-150 mg each of the areca nut and lime were packed into PE bag. Samples were irradiated with neutron flux about 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 . A total of 17, 18, and 13 elements was analyzed with INAA for white lime, red lime, and areca nut, respectively. The results indicated that Ca have the highest concentration in both limes. Most elements in collected samples have wide range of concentrations among different seasons and marketplaces. It is suggested that the elemental concentration of areca nut and limes exists in divergence originated from various farms in Taiwan. In addition, four elements of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Sc are probably overtaken by persons having chewing habit of areca nut and their effects on oral cancer are discussed. (author)

  15. Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes: 2. Growth Response Versus Treatment Time and Lime Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Barko, John W

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of applying lime (as calcium hydroxide; Ca(OH)2) either early or later in the life cycle on the growth, survivorship, and reproductive success of Sago Pondweed...

  16. Study of lime vs. no lime in cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The resilient characteristics of cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete with and without lime were examined. Six core samples were obtained from a site two months after construction; six months later, six additional core samples were obtained from t...

  17. Practical use of lithium borate in thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavaudra, J.; Nguyen, J.; Marinello, G.; Brule, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The functional principles of thermoluminescent dosimeters are recalled: heating, apparatus for measuring the emitted light, circulation of nitrogen, reference source. The essential role played by the circulation of nitrogen over the dosimeters which equilibrates the temperature of the photomultiplier, reduces the emission of unwanted light, prevents the combustion of dust or other possible impurities and finally improves the accuracy of the measurements even for high doses, is underlined. Lithium borate is taken as an example and a simple method for finding the optimum working conditions for the heating apparatus of the planchette in the most simple T.L.D. readers and in those where the heating apparatus of the planchette has a pre-heating phase is proposed. The dosimetric properties of lithium borate incorporated in thin teflon discs (type DLB. 0.13 and 0.4) are studied. This shows itself to be very interesting for certain uses because it is a solid dosimeter which does not require annealing between two measurements. The accuracy of the measurements obtained with this material, the stability of the response relative to the delay between radiation and reading (fading), the response relative to the absorbed dose plus the nature and the energy of the rays, are presented with the usual reservations made for this type of dosimetry [fr

  18. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  19. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  20. Baking soda dentifrice and periodontal health: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical disruption of dental biofilm is critical to maintain periodontal health. Baking soda-containing dentifrices have shown to be potential aids for improving gingival health and maintaining dental biofilm control. Evidence from classic and contemporary literature is reviewed and summarized in this review. In vitro and in vivo (animal and human, respectively) studies and clinical trials have been analyzed. Some clinical studies demonstrated the benefits of baking soda dentifrices in plaque and gingivitis reduction. Clinical trials with longer follow-up would be useful to confirm the impact of baking soda on gingival health. Regular dental biofilm control and adjunctive use of baking soda dentifrices in an otherwise healthy and compliant patient may provide success in maintenance of gingival health. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities .... and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  2. Interpretation of the lime column penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanapathirana, D S; Kelly, R B

    2010-01-01

    Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

  3. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Ali Salehi; Hassan Izanloo; Zahra Ghorbani; Vahid Vanaki; Reza Ramazani; Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling met...

  4. Metabolic alkalosis secondary to baking soda treatment of a diaper rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Hogg, R J

    1981-06-01

    A 4-month-old infant was seen with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis that was associated with prior application of liberal amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to a diaper rash. After exclusion of other etiologies of the infant's acid-base disturbance, a complete resolution occurred following discontinuation of the baking soda applications. This case report provides a reminder of the significant side effects that may result from the excessive use of a seemingly harmless household substance.

  5. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  6. Contrasting the genetic patterns of microbial communities in Soda lakes with and without cyanobacterial bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Andreote, A. P. D.; Dini-Andreote, F.; Rigonato, J.; Machineski, G. S.; Souza, B. C. E.; Barbiéro, Laurent; Rezende, A. T.; Fiore, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved...

  7. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Mikhailova; V.O. Panasenko; N.B. Markova

    2016-01-01

    A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical a...

  8. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  9. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effect of ionic interaction of chlorode-borate and iodide-borate on their absorption by Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thellier, M; Ayadi, A; Tromeur, C

    1967-11-27

    The effect of borate ions on the absorption of chloride and iodide ions by Lemna minor was studied by using the radioactive tracers Cl-36 at 23/sup 0/C with an illumination of 8000 Lux and I-131 at 25.5 C with 600 Lux. The absorbed quantities of the tracer elements were measured with a Geiger counter. The concentrations of sodium chloride solutions tested ranged from 0.055 to 1 mM, those of potassium iodide from 0.04 to 4 mM. While the presence of borate ions in the test solutions of NaCl inhibited the absorption of Cl ions by Lemna minor, only a mild inhibition or none at all was noted in the case of the absorption of I ions. Because of the difference of the cations (sodium in the case of Cl, potassium in the case of I) no direct comparison can be drawn between the absorption of the two halogens. The absorption of I by the plant is thought to proceed by a much simpler mechanism than that of Cl.

  11. Lime and gypsum application on the wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caires Eduardo Fávero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Root growth and crop yield can be affected by chemical modifications of the soil profile owing to lime and gypsum applications. A field trial was carried out on a dystrophic Clayey Rhodic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil, aiming to evaluate lime (without or with incorporation into the soil and gypsum effects on root growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of wheat (cv. OR 1. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot experiment. Treatments with dolomitic limestone (without lime and 4.5 t ha-1 of lime applied on the surface, in total rate and 1/3 of the requirement per year during 3 years, or incorporated into the soil were applied in July 1998 (main plots and the rates of gypsum (0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 in October 1998 (subplots. Wheat was evaluated in the 2000 winter season. In conditions of water deficit absence, there was no limitation in root growth in depth, for exchangeable Ca of 6 mmol c dm-3. Lime incorporation of lime increased the Mg concentration in the leaves, but wheat yield was not influenced by the correction of soil acidity through liming treatments. Gypsum increased the concentrations of Ca and S in wheat leaves, with significant effects on grain yield. The critical level of S-SO4(2- in the 0-20 cm soil layer, extracted by ammonium acetate 0.5 mol L-1 in acetic acid 0.25 mol L-1, was 25.8 mg dm-3.

  12. Diffusion and ionic conduction in oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrer, H; Imre, A W; Tanguep-Nijokep, E

    2008-01-01

    The ion transport properties of soda-lime silicate and alkali borate glasses have been studied with complimentary tracer diffusion and impedance spectroscopy techniques in order to investigate the ion dynamics and mixed-alkali effect (MAE). In soda-lime silicate glasses the tracer diffusivity of 22 Na alkali ions is more than six orders of magnitude faster than the diffusivity of earth alkali 45 Ca ions. This observation is attributed to a stronger binding of bivalent earth alkali ions to the glass network as compared to that of alkali ions. The conductivity of the investigated standard soda-lime silicate glasses is mostly due to the high mobility of sodium ions and a temperature independent Haven ratio of about 0.45 is obtained. For single alkali sodium-borate glasses, the Haven ratio is also temperature independent, however, it is decreases with decreasing temperature for rubidium-borate glass. The MAE was investigated for Na-Rb borate glasses and it was observed that the tracer diffusivities of 22 Na and 86 Rb ions cross, when plotted as function of the relative alkali content. This crossover occurs near the Na/(Na+Rb) ratio of the conductivity minimum due to MAE. The authors suggest that this crossover and the trend of diffusion coefficients is the key to an understanding of the MAE

  13. Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

    2013-11-01

    Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation.

  14. LIME EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME FERTILIZERS IN A TROPICAL ACID ALFISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Omogbohu Anetor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Liming increases production costs and environmentally unfriendly. Effectiveness of crystalliser (CRYS, single super phosphate (SSP and organic fertilizer (OF for liming was evaluated by determining pH and phosphorus- (P- availability in an acid alfisol incubated with the amendments, Ca(OH2 being reference. Treatments were replicated thrice in completely randomised design. Un-amended soil remained acidic (pH 4.8 but liming raised pH (6.1-6.6, enhancing maximum (15.09-17.33 mg kg-1 P–release (un-amended having 4.24-7.09 mg P kg-1. Lime (L and L+P treatments resulted in maximum pH increases (7.0-7.2, decreasing with incubation. Fertilizer treatments also raised pH (5.0-5.5 for OF, CRYS or SSP; 5.6-5.8 for CRYS +SSP, CRYS+OF and OF+SSP relative to control (5.2. Acid soil infertility-ameliorating potential of CRYS and OF was revealed. They could be used multi-purposely as lime and P fertilizers by poor-resource farmers challenged by acid soil infertility factors.

  15. Experimental investigation and constitutive model for lime mudstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junbao; Liu, Xinrong; Zhao, Baoyun; Song, Zhanping; Lai, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanical properties of lime mudstone, conventional triaxial compression tests under different confining pressures (0, 5, 15 and 20 MPa) are performed on lime mudstone samples. The test results show that, from the overall perspective of variation law, the axial peak stress, axial peak strain and elastic modulus of lime mudstone tend to gradually increase with increasing confining pressure. In the range of tested confining pressure, the variations in axial peak stress and elastic modulus with confining pressure can be described with linear functions; while the variation in axial peak strain with confining pressure can be reflected with a power function. To describe the axial stress-strain behavior in failure process of lime mudstone, a new constitutive model is proposed, with the model characteristics analyzed and the parameter determination method put forward. Compared with Wang' model, only one parameter n is added to the new model. The comparison of predicted curves from the model and test data indicates that the new model can preferably simulate the strain softening property of lime mudstone and the axial stress-strain response in rock failure process.

  16. Soil Stabilization with Lime for the Construction of Forest Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Sérgio Pereira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mechanical performance of soil stabilization using lime to improve forest roads was assessed. This study was conducted with lateritic soil (LVAd30 using lime content of 2% in the municipality of Niquelândia, Goiás state, Brazil. Geotechnical tests of soil characterization, compaction, and mechanical strength were performed applying different compaction efforts and curing periods. The results showed that lime content significantly changed the mechanical performance of natural soil, increasing its mechanical strength and load-carrying capacity. Compaction effort and curing time provided different responses in the unconfined compressive strength (UCS and California Bearing Ratio (CBR tests. The best UCS value (786.59 kPa for the soil-lime mixture was achieved with modified compaction effort and curing time of 28 days. In the CBR test, soil-lime mixtures compacted at intermediate and modified efforts and cured for 28 days were considered for application as subbase material of flexible road pavements, being a promising alternative for use in layers of forest roads.

  17. The use of hydrated lime in acid mine drainage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anuar; Sulaiman, Azli; Sulaiman, Shamsul Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Hydrated lime also known as calcium hydroxide with chemical formula Ca(OH)2 was used in this study as neutralization agent in acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. Hydrated lime that is used to treat pool water samples from tin tailings located in Pengkalan Hulu, Perak was obtained from Simpang Pulai, Perak. The pH of water sample was around 2.6 to 2.8. Ten different variables of hydrated lime weights were used to treat 1 L of water sample. The weights of hydrated lime used were 0.2 g, 0.4 g, 0.6 g, 0.8 g, 1.0 g, 1.2 g, 1.4 g, 1.6 g, 1.8 g and 2.0 g. Time interval used was every 5 minutes up to minutes 30. Jar test method was used in this study. The maximum pH value of 5.93 ± 0.03 most approaches standard A and had complied standard B have been obtained using 2.0 g hydrated lime in 30-minute time interval. The concentration of arsenic, cadmium and chromium had decreased but only cadmium concentration did not comply with Standards A and B.

  18. Study of the influence of chemical composition on the pozzolanicity of soda-lime glass microparticles; Estudo da influencia da composicao quimica na pozolanicidade de microparticulas de vidro soda-cal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, R.B.C. [Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais (UEMG), MG (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Sales, F.A.; Correa, E.C.; Patricio, P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), MG (Brazil); Mohallem, N.D.S.; Aguilar, M.T.P., E-mail: teresa@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The use of residues presents interesting possibilities for obtaining eco-efficient concretes. Research has investigated the use of glass residue in Portland cement composite, whether as an aggregate or a supplementary material. However, there is still no consensus on the influence of the chemical composition of glass on the behaviour of the composites in which it is used. This paper aims to analyse the influence of this composition on the performance of cement composites produced with microparticles of colourless and amber glass. Pozzolanicity was assessed by means of direct tests (modified Chapelle and electrical conductivity) and indirect tests (chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction, thermo analysis and pozzolanic activity index). Most of the results show that microparticles of both types of glass display pozzolanic activity, with no significant differences between them. This indicates the potential for the use of glass microparticles as a supplementary material in cement composites. (author)

  19. Elevated temperature tensile properties of borated 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.; Sorenson, K.B.; McConnell, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the tensile properties of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 'Grade A' material with that of the conventional IM 'Grade B' material for two selected Types (i.e., boron contents) as defined by the ASTM A887 specification: Types 304B5 and 304B7. Tensile properties have been generated for these materials at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400degC (752degF). The data at higher temperatures are required for ASME Code Case purposes, since the use temperature of a basket under 'worst case' cask conditions may be as high as 343degC (650degF), due to self-heating by the activated fuel elements. We will also discuss the current status of efforts aimed at obtaining an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case for selected grades of borated stainless steel covered by the ASTM A887 specification. (J.P.N.)

  20. The thermal electrical properties of lithium sodium borate gasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anita R.; Bichile, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium sodium borate glasses with various composition have been prepared by melt quenching method. DSC studies were carried out. The glass transition temperature were found to decrease with alkali content in single alkali system and increase with second alkali content in mixed alkali system. The dc electrical conductivity has been measured as a function of temperature. The activation energy from the slope of the Arrhenius plots is calculated and it depends on the composition. In one set of single alkali glasses activation energies were found to increase with alkali content and in another set a single alkali system a transition from predominantly electronic to ionic conduction has been observed above 0.16 mol fraction of alkali content. The mixed alkali glasses have shown higher activation energies and lower conductivities. (author)

  1. Treatment of timber products with gaseous borate esters, Part 1: factors influencing the treatment process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, P

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors which influence the treatment of timber products with vapour phase preservatives such as borate esters are considered. Gas flow rate through the substrate was found to be a significant factor limiting both preservative penetration...

  2. Structure and luminescence spectra of lutetium and yttrium borates synthesized from ammonium nitrate melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, Nikolay V.; Shmurak, Semion Z.; Shmyt'ko, Ivan M.; Strukova, Galina K.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Weber, Marvin J.

    2005-01-01

    Lutetium and yttrium borates doped with europium, terbium, gadolinium, etc. have been synthesized by dissolving initial oxides and nitrates in ammonium nitrate melt and thermal decomposition of the solvent. Annealings in the range of 500-1100 deg. C modified the dimensions of the grains from 2 to 3 nm to more than 100 nm. Significant dependence of the structure of lutetium borate on slight doping with rare earth ions has been found: terbium makes high-temperature vaterite phase preferential at room temperature, whereas europium stabilizes low-temperature calcite phase. Influence of the structure of the borates on the pattern of the luminescence spectra of europium dopant was observed. Possibilities for manufacturing of scintillating lutetium borate ceramics by means of this method of synthesis are discussed

  3. Structure and luminescence spectra of lutetium and yttrium borates synthesized from ammonium nitrate melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Nikolay V.; Shmurak, Semion Z.; Shmyt'ko, Ivan M.; Strukova, Galina K.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Weber, Marvin J.

    2005-01-01

    Lutetium and yttrium borates doped with europium, terbium, gadolinium, etc. have been synthesized by dissolving initial oxides and nitrates in ammonium nitrate melt and thermal decomposition of the solvent. Annealings in the range of 500-1100°C modified the dimensions of the grains from 2 to 3 nm to more than 100 nm. Significant dependence of the structure of lutetium borate on slight doping with rare earth ions has been found: terbium makes high-temperature vaterite phase preferential at room temperature, whereas europium stabilizes low-temperature calcite phase. Influence of the structure of the borates on the pattern of the luminescence spectra of europium dopant was observed. Possibilities for manufacturing of scintillating lutetium borate ceramics by means of this method of synthesis are discussed.

  4. INFLUENCE OF BORATE BUFFERS ON THE ELECTROPHORETIC BEHAVIOR OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES IN CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of tetrahydroxyborate ions on the electrophoretic mobility of humic acids was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Depending on the molarity of borate ions in the separation buffer, the humic acids exhibit electropherograms with sharp peaks consistently exte...

  5. PERBEDAAN PH SALIVA ANTARA PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG BAKING SODA DAN PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG FLUOR

    OpenAIRE

    LINARDI, ALICIA NADIA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Latar belakang : Baking soda dan fluor merupakan bahan yang biasa ditambahkan dalam pasta gigi. Baking soda dan fluor mempunyai kemampuan untuk meningkatkan sekresi saliva dan pH saliva. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan pH saliva antara pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda dan pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandun fluor. Bahan dan metode : Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desai...

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  7. Gladstone-Dale rule and its applicability to natural calcium borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gode, G.K.; Spritse, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Applicability of Gladstone-Dale rule, relating a dependence between the values of refractive index, density and chemical composition of the liquids, to 25 natural crystalline calcium borates (minerals) is determined. The given rule is stated to be applicable to 21 of them. Only for 4 borates with unclear chemical composition and inaccurate data on the density and refractive indices Gladstone-Dale rule variations are expressed by more significant values

  8. Radiation Shielding Properties Comparison of Pb-Based Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glass Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Ruengsri, Suwimon

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients, partial interactions, atomic cross-section, and effective atomic numbers of PbO-based silicate, borate, and phosphate glass systems have been investigated at 662 keV. PbO-based silicate glass has been found with the highest total mass attenuation coefficient and then phosphate and borate glasses, respectively. Compton scattering has been the dominate interaction contributed to the different total attenuation coefficients in each of th...

  9. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL COMPONENTS, GENERATION FACTORS, AND AIRBORNE TRANSPORT ASSOCIATED WITH LIME TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime treatment has been used in contaminated sediment management activities for many purposes such as dewatering, improvement of physical properties, and reducing contaminant mobility. Exothermic volatilization of volatile organic compounds from lime-treated sediment is well kno...

  10. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  11. Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Soparkar, Pramod M; Winston, Anthony E; Proskin, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    An earlier clinical study demonstrated that brushing with a commercial Arm & Hammer dentifrice containing baking soda physically removed significantly more plaque than brushing with either of two commercial dentifrices which did not contain baking soda. However, little has been done to confirm these results and to compare baking soda-containing dentifrices with more recently commercialized non-baking soda dentifrice formulations. The objective of this study was to compare commercial dentifrices containing 20% to 65% baking soda and commercial dentifrices without baking soda in enhancing plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushing. Five randomized, controlled, blinded, crossover clinical studies were performed among healthy adult volunteers who provided informed consent. After approximately 24 hours without oral hygiene, subjects with sufficient plaque were enrolled in the study phase. Plaque was scored before and after supervised brushing for one minute using the Turesky, et al. modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at six sites per tooth according to Soparkar's modification as described by Lobene, et al. In each study, wash-out periods with a regular dentifrice not evaluated in the study separated each product treatment. In all studies, every dentifrice exhibited a significant (p baking soda dentifrices resulted in statistically greater (p baking soda. Results on other tooth surfaces, such as facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival surfaces also demonstrated statistically greater (p baking soda-containing dentifrices as compared to the baking soda-free dentifrices. In three of the studies comparing different levels of baking soda, brushing with dentifrices with higher concentrations of baking soda consistently removed numerically more plaque than those containing lower levels. In one of these three studies, the difference in plaque removal between the baking soda dentifrices reached statistical significance. The results suggest a positive relationship

  12. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH) 2 for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH) 2 at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL -1 . Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP

  13. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass irradiated by 6 MV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Rasid, A.; Wagiran, H.; Hashim, S.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass system with empirical formula (70–x) B 2 O 3 –30 Li 2 O–(x) Dy 2 O 3 (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 mol%) were prepared using the melt-quenching technique. The dosimetric measurements were performed by irradiating the samples to 6 MV photon beam using linear accelerator (LINAC) over a dose range of 0.5–5.0 Gy. The glass series of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass produced the best thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve with the highest intensity peak from sample with 1.0 mol% Dy 2 O 3 concentration. Minimum detectable dose was detected at 2.24 mGy, good linearity of regression coefficient, high reproducibility and high sensitivity compared to the undoped glass are from 1.0 mol% dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. The results indicated that the series of dysprosium doped lithium glasses have a great potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). - Highlights: • TL response of undoped and dysprosium doped lithium borate glass subjected to 6 MV photons irradiation at low dose range. • TL linear response of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass. • The sensitivity of dysprosium doped lithium borate glass is approximately 93 times higher than undoped glass

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in complex matrices by isothermal distillation of borate ester into curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Dhavile, S.M.; Dash, K.; Chaurasia, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In situ distillation of borate ester into the curcumin solution has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of boron in a variety of complex matrixes. A polypropylene vessel containing the sample solution was placed inside a vessel (PP) containing 10 ml of curcumin solution and the distillation was carried out at room temperature/on a water bath. The borate ester collected in to the curcumin solution was evaporated to dryness on the water bath, taken in acetone and the absorbance was measured at 550 nm. In situ distillation of borate ester directly into the chromogenic reagent eliminates tedious sample treatment (before and/or after borate separation), use of methanol, complicated quartz set up, possible loss of boron and reduces the analysis time significantly. In situ dehydration of sample solution by ethanolic vapour in the absence of dehydrating acid prevents the formation of fluoborate and co-distillation of potential anionic interferents (nitrate and fluoride). This developed method has been applied for the determination of traces of boric acid in boron powder by the distillation of methyl borate at room temperature. For other matrixes (water, uranium oxide, uranyl nitrate, fluoride salt, etc.) distillation of ethyl borate was carried out on the water bath. LOD (3σ) was 5 ng g -1 for water and 30 ng g -1 for solid samples

  15. Influence of water-repellent treatment on the properties lime and lime pozzolan mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes Revilla, C.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence that water-repellent products can have on physical and micro-structural properties of lime mortars, and lime plus pozzolan mortars has been studied. Three water repellent products have been used. Mixes of the previously mentioned three water repellents plus a biocide product were also applied. Treatments make the total porosity and saturation coefficient of both mortars to decrease, while colorimetric coordinates bear little alteration. All treatments with water repellent products provided mortars with a hydrophobic property index close to 100%. Durability of such mortars has been also studied: salt crystallization test, frost-thaw and dry-wet cycles, as well as ultraviolet radiation test were carried out. Relationship between mortars behavior and their porosity and saturation coefficient were found.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la influencia de la aplicación de productos hidrofugantes a morteros de cal y morteros de cal y puzolana sobre sus propiedades físicas y microestructurales. Se han estudiado tres productos hidrofugantes. También han sido estudiados dichos productos junto con un biocida. La porosidad total y el coeficiente de saturación de ambos tipos de morteros se ve reducido por el efecto de los tratamientos mientras que las coordenadas colorimétricas se ven poco alteradas. Todos los tratamientos confieren un índice de hidrofobicidad a los morteros próximo al 100%. Asimismo, también se ha estudiado la durabilidad de dichos morteros frente a la cristalización de sales, hielo-deshielo, los ciclos de humedad-sequedad y radiaciones ultravioleta. Se relaciona el comportamiento de los morteros con su porosidad y el coeficiente de saturación.

  16. Solidification of radioactive waste in a cement/lime mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a cement/lime mixture for use as a solidification agent for different types of wastes was investigated. This work includes studies directed towards determining the wasted/binder compositional field over which successful solidification occurs with various wastes and the measurement of some of the waste from properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment. In this study, four types of low-level radioactive wastes were simulated for incorporation into a cement/lime mixture. These were boric acid waste, sodium sulfate wastes, aion exchange resins and incinerator ash. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Mg- and K-bearing borates and associated evaporites at Eagle Borax spring, Death Valley, California: A spectroscopic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits

  18. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur. [70 FR 33363, June...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime. [70 FR 33363, June 8, 2005] ...

  20. Lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radionuclides and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radio nuclides and organics. Lime is wellknown for its use in softening drinking water the treatment of municipal wastewaters. It is becoming important in the treatment of industrial wastewater and liquid inorganic hazardous waste; however, there are many questions regarding the use of lime for the treatment of liquid hazardous waste

  1. Suitability of a lime source high in manganese as a feed ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plasma enzyme levels, mineral concentrations in plasma, faeces and kidneys, mineral content of livers, haematology, hislopathol- ogy of livers and kidneys and bone measurements.It is concluded that the Ouplaas lime, .... Table 1 Mineral composition of the pure lime sources (dry basis). Lime sources. Na. (vo). Mg. (vo). K.

  2. Where there's a will: can highlighting future youth-targeted marketing increase support for soda taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2014-12-01

    Amid concern about high rates of obesity and related diseases, the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to young people by the food industry has come under heavy criticism by public health advocates, who cite decades of youth-targeted marketing in arguing for reforms. In light of recent evidence that the same event evokes stronger emotional reactions when it occurs in the future versus the past, highlighting youth-targeted marketing that has yet to occur may evoke stronger reactions to such practices, and perhaps, greater support for related health policy initiatives. In a between-subjects experiment, Web participants (N = 285) read that a major soda company had already launched (past condition) or was planning to launch (future condition) an advertising campaign targeting children. Measures included support for a soda tax and affective responses to the company's actions. Greater support for the soda tax was observed in the future condition than in the past condition. Moreover, participants in the future condition reported heightened negative emotions about the company's actions, which mediated the observed effect on soda tax support. The same action undertaken by the food industry (here, marketing soda to children) may evoke stronger negative emotions and greater support for a health policy initiative when it is framed prospectively rather than retrospectively.

  3. Analysis of caustic soda of different manufacturers in pakistan for mercerization of cotton textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, B.; Faisal, S.; Siddique, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan has sufficient production capacity of caustic soda to cater the needs of the local industry. Presently, Pakistan has four major plants with production capacity around 435,000 mega ton per year of caustic soda of various grades. Textile industry of Pakistan is the major consumer of produced high grade caustic soda; as the presence of any impurities especially dissolved salts and metals is unfavorable for wet processing of cotton. This study investigates the performance of three different local brands of caustic soda intended for use in textile wet processing of cotton fabric specifically for mercerization process. The brands were selected based on their purity grades. The selected caustic soda samples were chemically analyzed for the presence of impurities. Twenty seven cotton fabric samples (nine samples of each brand) were prepared by mercerization in slack state. The cotton fabric samples were tested for changes in surface morphology, tensile strength (warp and weft), tear strength, air permeability and K/S (Colour Strength). The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to ascertain the statistical equivalence within and between the tested brands. The results showed no significant differences across the tested brands at a 95% confidence level except for air permeability and K/S in blue shade. (author)

  4. GPU-powered model analysis with PySB/cupSODA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leonard A; Nobile, Marco S; Pino, James C; Lubbock, Alexander L R; Besozzi, Daniela; Mauri, Giancarlo; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Lopez, Carlos F

    2017-11-01

    A major barrier to the practical utilization of large, complex models of biochemical systems is the lack of open-source computational tools to evaluate model behaviors over high-dimensional parameter spaces. This is due to the high computational expense of performing thousands to millions of model simulations required for statistical analysis. To address this need, we have implemented a user-friendly interface between cupSODA, a GPU-powered kinetic simulator, and PySB, a Python-based modeling and simulation framework. For three example models of varying size, we show that for large numbers of simulations PySB/cupSODA achieves order-of-magnitude speedups relative to a CPU-based ordinary differential equation integrator. The PySB/cupSODA interface has been integrated into the PySB modeling framework (version 1.4.0), which can be installed from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using a Python package manager such as pip. cupSODA source code and precompiled binaries (Linux, Mac OS/X, Windows) are available at github.com/aresio/cupSODA (requires an Nvidia GPU; developer.nvidia.com/cuda-gpus). Additional information about PySB is available at pysb.org. paolo.cazzaniga@unibg.it or c.lopez@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Phase Separation and Crystallization in soda-lime borosilicate glass enriched in MoO{sub 3} studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, M.; Schuller, S.; Advocat, T. [CEA Valrho, DEN/DTCD/SCDV, Laboratoire d' Etude de Base sur les Verres, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Caurant, D.; Majerus, O. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris- LCMCP - UMR-CNRS 7574, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris - ENSCP, Paristech, 75231 Paris (France); Ligny, D. de [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents- LPCML - UMR-CNRS 5620, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-07-01

    Phase separation and crystallisation processes may arise in molten glass when the MoO{sub 3} content exceeds its solubility limit. Molybdenum combined with other elements such as alkali and alkaline-earth may form crystalline molybdates, known as 'yellow phases' in nuclear glasses. In order to establish the sequence of phase separation and crystallization processes occurring during the cooling of the melt, a non-radioactive simplified glass composition was chosen in the SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO system, with 2 mol.% MoO{sub 3}. Various cooling scenarios were tested: cooling by air blowing, quenching between two copper plates and cooling on metallic plate. The resulting glass specimens were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in temperature. These observations made it possible to determine the sequence and the appearance temperature of phenomena upon cooling: first, a phase separation occurs, (small droplets dispersed in the molten glass) followed by molybdates crystallization inside the droplets. (authors)

  6. The influence of post-annealing treatment on the wettability of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchanged soda-lime glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaghi, Ahmad; Maleki, Maniya; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing and the duration of ion-exchange on the wetting parameters of the Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glasses have been reported. The analysis of wetting angle in different post-annealing temperatures shows that the wetting angle is increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The wetting parameters of Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glasses at different ion-exchanged periods of time have been also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used for determination of surface morphology and composition analysis of the prepared samples. The results of SEM show changes in the surface of the samples for different post-annealing temperatures. The optical characterization using UV–Vis spectroscopy shows an increase in the intensity of the absorption peak with increasing the ion-exchange duration. The FTIR spectroscopy confirms the formation of silver oxide material on the surface of Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glasses.

  7. Integrated removal of inorganic contaminants from acid mine drainage using BOF slag, lime, soda ash and reverse osmosis (RO): Implication for the production of drinking water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available softeners will pro- duce water of drinking standard. Acknowledgements The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to the Council for Scientific and Industrial research (CSIR), Tshwane University of Technology for providing lab space to execute... quality. As such, this study proved that the coupling of RO process to BOF slag and different softeners will produce water of drinking standard. Acknowledgements The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to the Council for Scientific...

  8. An interaction of the functionalized closo-borates with albumins: The protein fluorescence quenching and calorimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Kuperman, Marina V.; Potocki, Slawomir; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Zhdanov, Andrey P.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Voloshin, Yan Z.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai T.; Elskaya, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    An interaction of the boron clusters closo-borates K 2 [B 10 H 10 ], K 2 [B 12 H 12 ] and their functionalized derivatives with serum proteins human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) albumins and immonoglobulin IgG as well as globular proteins β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme was characterized. The steady state and time resolved protein fluorescence quenching studies point on the binding of the closo-borate arylamine derivatives to serum albumins and discrimination of other proteins. The mechanism of the albumin fluorescence quenching by the closo-borate arylamine derivatives was proposed. The complex formation between albumin and the closo-borate molecules has been confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The compound (K 2 [B 10 H 10 ]) and its arylamine derivative both interact with HSA, have close values of K a (1.4 and 1.2×10 3 M −1 respectively) and Gibbs energy (−17.9 and −17.5 kJ/mol respectively). However, the arylamine derivative forms complex with the higher guest/host binding ratio (4:1) comparing to the parent closo-borate (2:1). - Highlights: • Complex formation between boron clusters closo-borates and albumins was confirmed. • Functional substituent of closo-borate strongly affects its complex with albumins. • Binding of arylamine closo-borates essentially quench the albumin fluorescence. • Mechanism of tryptophan emission quenching by arylamine closo-borates was proposed.

  9. Structure and lattice dynamics in non-centrosymmetric borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.D.R.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study of structural and lattice dynamical properties of some noncentrosymmetric borates with outstanding non-linear optical properties. The focus was on the compound bismuth triborate (BiB 3 O 6 ). The structure of the tetraborates MB 4 O 7 (M=Pb,Sr,Ba) was also investigated. The structural investigations in bismuth triborate include powder and single crystal diffraction experiments on X-ray and neutron sources. The crystal structure was under examination in the temperature range from 100 K to room temperature and the lattice constants in the temperature range from 20 K to 800 K. The lattice constants show a nearly linear dependency from temperature. Our observations are in good agreement with investigations of the thermal expansion, which shows a strong anisotropy within the layer-like structure of bismuth triborate. Within the borate layers, along the polar axis a strong positive and in the orthogonal direction a negative thermal expansion is observed. This effect can be explained by a zig-zag effect within the borate layers. The lone electron pair at the bismuth atom is discussed to be possibly the origin of the temperature dependency of the coordination environment of the bismuth atom. The influence of the lone electron pair on the crystal structure is raising by lowering the temperature. At the bismuth atom distinct anharmonic effects are observed, where the maximum points along the direction of the polar axis and therefore along the direction of the lone electron pair. The phonon dispersion of bismuth triborate has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering. The low symmetry of the crystal structure depicts to be a special challenge. The dispersion was observed along the three reciprocal lattice constants. Along the polar axis the dispersion could be characterized to a maximum energy of 20 THz. The low energy acoustic branch along the polar axis shows a softening at the zone boundary. In the orthogonal directions the dispersion

  10. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  11. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  12. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Arun; Srinivas, C R; Mathew, Anil C

    2008-01-01

    Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall's Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  13. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  14. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  15. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  16. Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic polymer to evaluate the effect of pre-chlorination on motile Ceratium hirundinella cells during ... When organic material is released from algal cells as a result of physical-chemical impacts on the cells, it may result in tasteand odour-related problems or the ...

  17. Study of Hydrated Lime in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Rovnaníková, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, S2 (2013), s. 1644-1645 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hydrated Lime * Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  18. Simulation of the self-healing of dolomitic lime mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; Nijland, T.G.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    A test procedure was set up to reproduce laboratory self-healing on lime-based (both pure calcium and magnesium-calcium) mortar specimens. After a few months of testing, during which time the specimens were submitted to wet-dry cycles, thin sections of the specimens were prepared and observed using

  19. K'qizaghetnu Ht'ana (Stories from Lime Village).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Pete; And Others

    A cross section of Athabascan life as related by eight inhabitants of Lime Village, Alaska, is given in this document. The short narratives are printed in English and in Dena'ina. Illustrations accompany the text. The stories tell of making eagle feather robes, birchbark or mooseskin boats, a raincoat from black bear intestines, and boots from…

  20. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  1. Simulation of self-healing of dolomitic lime mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research a test procedure was set up to reproduce self-healing on lime-based (both pure calcium and magnesium-calcium) mortar specimens in laboratory. After few months testing, during which the specimens were subjected to wet-dry cycles, thin sections of the specimens were prepared

  2. Incorporation of turmeric-lime mixture during the preparation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New types of tomato puree products were developed by blanching matured tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 1 min, 2 min and 3 min individually with or without addition of the mixture of turmeric and lime during the blanching time. Soluble solid content and pH of the puree products were in therange of 11 - 12.6 Brix ...

  3. Fluoride removal performance of phosphoric acid treated lime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride in drinking water above permissible levels is responsible for dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, removal of fluoride ions from water using phosphoric acid treated lime was investigated in continuous and point-of-use system operations. In the continuous column operations, fluoride removal performance was ...

  4. Effect of quick lime on physicochemical properties of clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clay soils are known for their water sensitivity, which causes irreparable damage to any structure built on this type of soil. In order to avoid such problem, it is necessary to use various improvement and stabilization methods such as treatment with lime. This process has been used successfully in the field for decades. The addition of lime generates various physicochemical reactions within the soil such as cation exchange and pozzolanic reactions which are largely responsible for the improvement of the soil in question. This paper presents a study concerning the variation of physicochemical properties of clayey soil with the addition of quicklime at different percentages. Experiments were performed on two clayey soils (CL type in order to investigate the influence of quicklime on Atterberg limits and pH. These tests were carried out in an attempt to study and follow the development and progression of various reactions occurred within the soil with various lime percentages. The results show that the addition of quicklime causes a significant improvement in soil properties by reducing plasticity and thereby improves the soil workability. It can also be found that the addition of lime increase pH of soil, which allow activating pozzolanic reactions who tend to stabilize the soil in question by formation of cementitious compounds. Finally, the pH can be considered as a relevant parameter who allows a better understanding of the reactions that occur in the soil matrix.

  5. The Chemical Composition of Different Sources of Liming Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of some liming materials on soil chemical properties. The treatments comprised Cocoa Husk Pod Ash (CPHA), Oyster Shell Ash (OSA), Palm Bunch Ash (PBA), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Kitchen Residues Ash (KRA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) at five levels ...

  6. Dental erosion due to lime consumption; review of literature and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental health is increasingly threatened by dental erosion introduced by today's lifestyle. Extrinsic factor is the most implicated. Few literatures mentioned lime-incited dental erosion. Case Description: A 49 year old woman was referred to our clinic with tooth wear and sensitivity. She was in good health but on ...

  7. Ion-conductivity of thin film Li-Borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouzari, M.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the specific conductivity of ion-sputtered lithium borate thin films is studied. To this end, lithium borate glasses of the composition yLi 2 O.(1-y)B 2 O 3 with y=0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.35 were produced as sputter targets. Films with thicknesses between 7 nm and 700 nm are deposited on silicon substrate between two AlLi electrodes. Conductivity spectra have been taken over a frequency range of 5 Hz to 2 MHz. The measurements were performed at different temperatures between 40 C and 350 C depending on the thickness and the composition of the films. The following results are derived by studying the conductivities of the films: i) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses larger than 150 nm is independent of their thicknesses; we call these layers 'thick films' and consider their conductivity as the 'base conductivity'. ii) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses smaller than 150 nm, called 'thin films', depends on the layer thickness. A nontrivial enhancement of the specific dc conductivity about three orders of magnitude for y=0.15, 0.2, and 0.25 is observed. iii) The base conductivity depends on y and at 120 C it varies between 4 x 10 -10 Ω -1 cm -1 and 2.5 x 10 -6 Ω -1 cm -1 when y varies between 0.15 and 0.35, whereas the maximum value of the specific dc conductivity of extremely thin films (with a thickness of some nanometre) seems to be independent of y and equals to the specific dc conductivity of layers with y= 0.35. Furthermore, we found in this work a physical interpretation of the so-called 'Constant Phase Element' (CPE) which is widely used in equivalent circuits for ionic conductors. This element describes correctly the depressed impedance semicircles observed in impedance spectroscopy. So far, this effect is sometimes attributed to the surface roughness. We have shown not only the invalidity of this approach, but we have also found that the depression arises from the nature of ionic motions. The model

  8. Luminescence properties of the Sm-doped borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindrat, I.I.; Padlyak, B.V.; Drzewiecki, A.

    2015-01-01

    The optical absorption and photoluminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as decay kinetics of a series of the Sm-doped glasses with Li 2 B 4 O 7 , LiKB 4 O 7 , CaB 4 O 7 , and LiCaBO 3 compositions were investigated and analysed. The Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Sm, LiKB 4 O 7 :Sm, CaB 4 O 7 :Sm, and LiCaBO 3 :Sm glasses of high optical quality have been obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline compounds in the air atmosphere, using a standard glass technology. On the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectra analysis it was shown that the samarium impurity is incorporated into the glass network as Sm 3+ (4f 5 , 6 H 5/2 ) ions, exclusively. All observed 4f – 4f transitions of the Sm 3+ centres in the optical absorption and luminescence spectra of the investigated glasses are identified. Most intense emission band of the Sm 3+ ions peaked about 598 nm ( 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 transition) is characterised by a single exponential decay with typical lifetime values, which depend on the basic glass composition as well as concentration and local structure of the Sm 3+ luminescence centres. The quantum efficiency has been evaluated for observed transitions of the Sm 3+ centres using obtained experimental lifetimes and radiative lifetimes calculated by Judd–Ofelt theory. The calculated high quantum efficiencies and measured quantum yields of luminescence show that the investigated borate glasses are perspective luminescence materials. Energy transfer from the Ce 3+ non-controlled impurity and intrinsic luminescence centres to the Sm 3+ centres has been observed. Peculiarities of the Sm 3+ local structure in the network of investigated glasses have been discussed based on the obtained spectroscopic results and structural data. - Highlights: • The Sm-doped Li 2 B 4 O 7 , LiKB 4 O 7 , CaB 4 O 7 , and LiCaBO 3 glasses of high quality were obtained. • EPR, optical absorption and luminescence spectra of Sm 3+ ions in obtained glasses were

  9. Ion-conductivity of thin film Li-Borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouzari, M.R.S.

    2007-12-17

    In this thesis, the specific conductivity of ion-sputtered lithium borate thin films is studied. To this end, lithium borate glasses of the composition yLi{sub 2}O.(1-y)B{sub 2}O{sub 3} with y=0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.35 were produced as sputter targets. Films with thicknesses between 7 nm and 700 nm are deposited on silicon substrate between two AlLi electrodes. Conductivity spectra have been taken over a frequency range of 5 Hz to 2 MHz. The measurements were performed at different temperatures between 40 C and 350 C depending on the thickness and the composition of the films. The following results are derived by studying the conductivities of the films: i) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses larger than 150 nm is independent of their thicknesses; we call these layers 'thick films' and consider their conductivity as the 'base conductivity'. ii) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses smaller than 150 nm, called 'thin films', depends on the layer thickness. A nontrivial enhancement of the specific dc conductivity about three orders of magnitude for y=0.15, 0.2, and 0.25 is observed. iii) The base conductivity depends on y and at 120 C it varies between 4 x 10{sup -10} {omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} and 2.5 x 10{sup -6} {omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} when y varies between 0.15 and 0.35, whereas the maximum value of the specific dc conductivity of extremely thin films (with a thickness of some nanometre) seems to be independent of y and equals to the specific dc conductivity of layers with y= 0.35. Furthermore, we found in this work a physical interpretation of the so-called 'Constant Phase Element' (CPE) which is widely used in equivalent circuits for ionic conductors. This element describes correctly the depressed impedance semicircles observed in impedance spectroscopy. So far, this effect is sometimes attributed to the surface roughness. We have shown not only the invalidity of this approach, but

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on chemical composition and storability of lime RTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Bisen, A.; Dwivedi, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigation, the RTS was irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation to study their effect on chemical composition and storability of lime RTS and vitamin C content only was influenced significantly by 50 Gy gamma radiation during storage (16 days) without adversely affecting the quality of lime fruits, whereas, under control and higher doses of gamma radiation, the quality of lime RTS was deteriorated. The irradiation of lime with 50 Gy gamma radiation may be useful for extending storability of lime of RTS and stabilizing the market demand. (author)

  11. Uranium Geochemistry in Hypersaline Soda Lakes in Eastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, B. S.; Bennett, P.; Puntsag, T.

    2007-12-01

    Extremely high concentrations of uranium were discovered in water samples from hypersaline soda lakes in eastern Mongolia. The origin and fate of uranium in these lakes was examined using geochemical analyses and modeling, using samples collected from five lakes, six wells and one stream. Samples were analyzed for strontium and uranium isotopes, cations and trace metals, anions, alkalinity, and unstable field parameters. The lakes are small, shallow (chlorine to bromine ratios implying groundwater discharges to lake water and is subsequently evaporated. Evaporation is intense with lake waters having average chlorine concentrations 300 times that of well waters. Uranium in well samples is higher than typical for shallow groundwaters (7-101ppb) suggesting discharging groundwater as a probable source of uranium in lake water. Concentrations of uranium in lake water ranges from 57-14,900ppb making these lakes possibly the highest naturally occurring uranium concentration reported. Lake water alkalinity is strongly correlated to uranium abundance suggesting uranium is complexed with carbonate as the aqueous species UO2CO3. Consequently, the extremely high alkalinity of the most alkaline lake (pH = 9.8, 1288.8 meq alk/L) also has the highest uranium concentrations. Stable strontium isotopes were used to assess the degree of water rock interactions and the presence of 90Sr was checked for to test the possibility of input of nuclear fallout. 90Sr was not detected in lake water samples suggesting the high uranium is of natural origins. A large difference in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was found between groundwater and lake water samples. Groundwater samples displayed large variation in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70612-0.709776) whereas lake water samples averaged a high radiogenic ratio (0.709432). The large variation in the strontium isotopes in groundwater samples suggests varying degrees of water rock interactions, however the least radiogenic samples likely are derived from

  12. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Saliva secretion difference before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggraeni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause women can experience a decrease in saliva secretion (decrease. To understand the clear picture about saliva secretion, the volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity were then measured. The aim of this research was to obtain a picture about the difference of saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women. The type of the research used was a laboratory quasi-experiment with comparative descriptive form. The technique used in this research is the survey method, and samples were taken using the multistage cluster random sampling method, and t-student statistical analysis. This research was conducted with the saliva collected with spitting method on 45 menopause women. The results show that the average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity before rinsing with baking soda was 1.79 ml, 0.18 ml/minute, 7.40 and 0.81 mm2/second. The average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity after rinsing with baking soda were 2.66 ml; 0.27 ml/minute; 8.67 and 0.78 mm2/second. Statistical analysis t-student on α = 0.05 shows volume changes, flow rate, pH and saliva viscosity before and after rinsing with baking soda was 0.873; 0.086; 1.273 and 0.037 respectively. The conclusion shows a significant difference between saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda, and saliva secretion after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women.

  14. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, S A; Kearney, T

    2014-02-01

    Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of liquid liming on sorghum growth in an Ultisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid lime on sorghum growth in an Ultisol. This research was conducted between August and November, 2011 at the Agricultural Research Center, San José, Costa Rica. In an Ultisol planted with sorghum, in pots of 800 ml, the following treatments where applied: control without lime, calcium carbonate at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide at doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. Six weeks after planting, sorghum was harvested, measuring leaf area, dry and fresh weight of the aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and the soil chemical characteristics. Treatments using calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the higher weight of the aerial and root biomass of sorghum. Even though there were no significant differences between liquid lime treatments, there were regarding control without lime and weight biomass variables. Liquid calcium carbonate significantly increased Ca absorption, and the calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide treatment at doses of 10 l/h showed the highest Mg absorption. All amendment treatments caused an improvement of the soil fertility, the most notable being the application of 20 l/ha of magnesium oxide that dropped the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol(+/l, acidity saturation dropped from 95 to 3.3%, and pH increased from 5 to 5.7. It was concluded that the liquid liming amendments had a positive effect over the crop and the soil fertility.

  16. The relationships among lemons, limes and citron: a chromosomal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R; Soares Filho, W S; Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Guerra, M

    2005-01-01

    Lemons, limes and citron constitute a group of closely related Citrus species, whose species delimitations and taxonomic relationships are unclear. In order to identify karyotypic similarities and species relationships within this group, the CMA+/DAPI- banding pattern and the distribution of the 5S and 45S rDNA sites of 10 accessions of lime, lemon, and citron were investigated. The four cultivars of C. limon analyzed showed the same pattern of CMA+ bands and rDNA sites, suggesting that they originated from a single germplasm, later differentiated by distinct somatic mutations. The lemons C. jambhiri, C. limonia and C. volkameriana displayed karyotypes very similar to each other, but they differed from C. limon by the absence of a single chromosome with one band in each telomere. The limes, C. aurantifolia and C. limettioides, seemed less related to each other and exhibited different heteromorphic chromosome pairs. In C. aurantifolia, the presence of a chromosome type unknown in all other Citrus species cytologically known so far supports the assumption that this accession may be derived from a hybrid with a species from the subgenus Papeda or from another genus. Citrus medica was the only homozygous accession of this group and all of its chromosome types were clearly represented in limes and lemons, some of them forming heteromorphic pairs. The analysis of the distribution of rDNA sites allowed a further refinement of the comparison among accessions. The lemons and limes were heterozygous for all rDNA sites, whereas C. medica was entirely homozygous. These data support the hypothesis that C. medica is a true species while the other nine accessions are hybrids. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano; Ball, Richard James; Rocha, Joao; Labrincha, Joao A.; Allen, Geoffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C 3 A and C 3 S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements

  18. Classical Methods and Calculation Algorithms for Determining Lime Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guarçoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The methods developed for determination of lime requirements (LR are based on widely accepted principles. However, the formulas used for calculation have evolved little over recent decades, and in some cases there are indications of their inadequacy. The aim of this study was to compare the lime requirements calculated by three classic formulas and three algorithms, defining those most appropriate for supplying Ca and Mg to coffee plants and the smaller possibility of causing overliming. The database used contained 600 soil samples, which were collected in coffee plantings. The LR was estimated by the methods of base saturation, neutralization of Al3+, and elevation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents (two formulas and by the three calculation algorithms. Averages of the lime requirements were compared, determining the frequency distribution of the 600 lime requirements (LR estimated through each calculation method. In soils with low cation exchange capacity at pH 7, the base saturation method may fail to adequately supply the plants with Ca and Mg in many situations, while the method of Al3+ neutralization and elevation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents can result in the calculation of application rates that will increase the pH above the suitable range. Among the methods studied for calculating lime requirements, the algorithm that predicts reaching a defined base saturation, with adequate Ca and Mg supply and the maximum application rate limited to the H+Al value, proved to be the most efficient calculation method, and it can be recommended for use in numerous crops conditions.

  19. Effects of Diet Soda on Gut Hormones in Youths With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rebecca J.; Walter, Mary; Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, abnormal secretion of incretins in response to oral nutrients has been described. In healthy youths, we recently reported accentuated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in response to a diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-K. In this study, we examined the effect of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects aged 12?25 years with type 1 diabetes (n = 9) or type...

  20. Structural adaptation of Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae from inland and maritime saline area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic analysis of leaf and stem in two populations of Salsola soda was carried out in order to examine mechanism of anatomical adaptations to environmental condition on saline habitats and to determine if there exists a morpho-anatomical differentiation between populations from maritime and inland saline area. Analysis included 26 quantitative characters of leaf and stem. The results showed that both populations exhibited halomorphic and xeromorphic adaptations, which refered to ecological plasticity and adaptations of plants to their habitats. Our research also showed that S. soda had quite a stable morphoanatomical structure, since only quantitative changes were recorded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  1. [Study on Archaeological Lime Powders from Taosi and Yinxu Sites by FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-feng; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Guo-liang; He, Yu-ling; Gao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2015-03-01

    Archaeological lime powders samples from Taosi and Yinxu sites, natural limestone and experimentally prepared lime mortar were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to identify the raw material of lime powders from Taosi and Yinxu sites. Results show that ν2/ν4 ratio of calcite resulted from carbonation reaction of man-made lime is around 6.31, which is higher than that of calcite in natural limestone and reflects the difference in the disorder of calcite crystal structure among the natural limestone and prepared lime mortar. With additional grinding, the values of v2 and ν4 in natural limestone and prepared lime mortar decrease. Meanwhile, the trend lines of ν2 versus ν4 for calcite in experimentally prepared lime mortar have a steeper slope when compared to calcite in natural limestone. These imply that ν2/ν4 ratio and the slope of the trend lines of ν2 versus ν4 can be used to determine the archaeological man-made lime. Based on the experiment results, it is possible that the archaeological lime powder from Taosi and Yinxu sites was prepared using man-made lime and the ancient Chinese have mastered the calcining technology of man-made lime in the late Neolithic period about 4 300 years ago.

  2. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  3. Investigation of impact of water type on borate ore flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S G; Acar, A

    2004-04-01

    In this work, the impact of water type on borate ore flotation was investigated, while various physical parameters during flotation were considered in order to compare the results. Two different colemanite samples from Emet deposits of Turkey, named as Emet-A and Emet-B contained 44% B(2)O(3) and 40% B(2)O(3), respectively. The flotation tests were performed at feed particle size range of -210 +20 microm. Optimal consumption values for the reagents were determined as 2000 gt(-1) for AeroPromoter R825 from Cytec Company, a sulphonate type collector, 1500 gt(-1) for Procol CA927 from Allied Colloids Company, a sulphosuccinamate type collector and 100 gt(-1) for AeroFrother 70 from Cytec Company, an alcohol-type frother. In the tests, the impeller speed of the Denver-type flotation machine was set to 1200 rpm and the samples were fed into a litre cell at 25% solid/liquid ratio and at natural pH value of the slurry at room temperature. The flotation results obtained from the tests with use of tap water, demineralised water and the artificial water prepared with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations deliberately added into demineralised water were compared to each other in optimal flotation conditions.

  4. Rare Earth Doped Lanthanum Calcium Borate Polycrystalline Red Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phased Sm3+ doped lanthanum calcium borate (SmxLa2−xCaB10O19, SLCB, x=0.06 polycrystalline red phosphor was prepared by solid-state reaction method. The phosphor has two main excitation peaks located at 398.5 nm and 469.0 nm, which are nicely in accordance with the emitting wavelengths of commercial near-UV and blue light emitting diode chips. Under the excitation of 398.0 nm, the dominant red emission of Sm3+ in SLCB phosphor is centered at 598.0 nm corresponding to the transition of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2. The Eu3+ fluorescence in the red spectral region is applied as a spectroscopic probe to reveal the local site symmetry in the host lattice and, hence, Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωt  (t=2, 4 of Eu3+ in the phosphor matrix are derived to be 3.62×10-20 and 1.97×10-20 cm2, indicating a high asymmetrical and strong covalent environment around rare earth luminescence centers. Herein, the red phosphors are promising good candidates employed in white light emitting diodes (LEDs illumination.

  5. Electrochemical behaviour of silver in borate buffer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaky, Ayman M.; Assaf, Fawzi H.; Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Mohamed, Basheer

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Ag in aqueous 0.15 M borax and 0.15 M boric acid buffer solution was studied under various conditions using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic techniques. It was found that the anodic polarization curve of Ag in borate buffer solution was characterized by the appearance of two potential regions, active and passive, prior to the oxygen evolution reaction. The active potential region was characterized by the appearance of three anodic peaks, the first two peaks A 1 and A 2 correspond to the oxidation of Ag and formation of [Ag(OH) 2 ] - soluble compound and a passive film of Ag 2 O on the electrode surface. The third anodic peak corresponds to the conversion of both [Ag(OH) 2 ] - and Ag 2 O to Ag 2 O 2 . X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the existence of Ag 2 O and Ag 2 O 2 passive layers on the electrode surface potentiodynamically polarized up to 800 mV. Potentiostatic current transient measurements showed that the formation of Ag 2 O and Ag 2 O 2 involves a nucleation and growth mechanism under diffusion control

  6. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  7. Polarized localization and borate-dependent degradation of the Arabidopsis borate transporter BOR1 in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/kv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Yamauchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis the borate transporter BOR1, which is located in the plasma membrane, is degraded in the presence of excess boron by an endocytosis-mediated mechanism. A similar mechanism was suggested in rice as excess boron decreased rice borate transporter levels, although in this case whether the decrease was dependent on an increase in degradation or a decrease in protein synthesis was not elucidated. To address whether the borate-dependent degradation mechanism is conserved among plant cells, we analyzed the fate of GFP-tagged BOR1 (BOR1-GFP in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Cells expressing BOR1-GFP displayed GFP fluorescence at the plasma membrane, especially at the membrane between two attached cells. The plasma membrane signal was abolished when cells were incubated in medium with a high concentration of borate (3 to 5 mM. This decrease in BOR1-GFP signal was mediated by a specific degradation of the protein after internalization by endocytosis from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological analysis indicated that the decrease in BOR1-GFP largely depends on the increase in degradation rate and that the degradation was mediated by a tyrosine-motif and the actin cytoskeleton. Tyr mutants of BOR1-GFP, which has been shown to inhibit borate-dependent degradation in Arabidopsis root cells, did not show borate-dependent endocytosis in tobacco BY-2 cells. These findings indicate that the borate-dependent degradation machinery of the borate transporter is conserved among plant species.

  8. Novel method for early investigation of bioactivity in different borate bio-glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, A. M.

    Some ternary borate glasses were prepared and corrosion behavior of such ternary borate glasses after immersion in aqueous dilute phosphate solution was studied using different immersion times. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectral measurements were done before and after immersion in the mentioned solution for extended times up to 2 days to justify the appearance of the characteristic FTIR bands due to calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite (HA)) which is considered as the potential indication of bioactivity. Experimental IR data confirm the beginning of the appearance of FTIR bands at about 580 and 620 cm-1 after 3 days and the complete resolution with its characteristic split form after 1 week and more. Deconvolution analysis technique (DAT) of the FTIR spectrum was employed to investigate the bioactivity of such ternary borate system after a short period of immersion. The corrosion behavior of such glasses is explained in relation to a suggested hydrolysis followed by direct dissolution mechanism. The ease of dissolution of all the borate glasses constituents explains the formation of calcium phosphate and conversion to crystalline hydroxyapatite within the borate glass matrix. X-ray diffraction may be used to retrace the structural changes and degree of crystallinity of the prepared glasses.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of The Emet (Espey-Hisarcik) borate deposits, Kütahya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, İ.; Koç, Ş.

    2018-06-01

    Nearly 72% world's borate reserves are in western part of Turkey. The Emet (Kütahya) deposit is one of these deposits. The Emet borate deposit, like other deposits in western Anatolia, was deposited in Miocene lacustrine environment whose formation coincides with volcanic activity started in Paleogene and lasted to the beginning of Quaternary. The borate ore displaying lenticular structure is alternated with claystone, marl, tuff and thin bedded limestone. The mineral paragenesis is composed of colemanite, hydroboracite, Veatchite, dolomite, calcite, montmorillonite and illite. The Emet borate deposit has been the subject of various geologic and mineralogical studies. In the present study major and trace element contents of 60 borate samples from this deposit are discussed. Among the trace elements, significant enrichment was found in As, Se, Sr, Cs, Sb and Li. Element correlations indicate volcanic source for boron (exhalations and hydrothermal solutions) whilst other elements are found to be derived from a terrestrial source. According to REE data, high Ce concentrations and anomalies are generally indicative of oxygenated depositional environment whilst low Ce contents facilitated the lake waters to be low oxygenated as a result of H2S-rich hydrothermal solutions. The weak negative anomaly detected only in the Hisarcık region is attributed to lacking of Eu contribution to the lake due to insufficient alteration on the continent.

  10. Cement matrix for immobilisation of spent anionic resins in borate form arising from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    In water cooled reactors boron is added as boric acid to control nuclear reactor power levels. The boric acid concentration in coolant/moderator water, is controlled by using strongly basic anionic resins in borate (H 2 BO 3 - ) form. The spent anionic resins in borate form contain 131 Iodine, 99 Technitium and 137 Cesium activities. Direct immobilisation of anionic resins in borate form in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Slag Cement was investigated using vermiculite, bentonite, calcium oxide and silica as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cesium leached and 137 Cesium leach rate for slag cement matrix were 0.029 and 0.00064 g.cm 2 .d -1 respectively for 95 days of leaching. The volume reduction factor achieved by direct immobilisation of anionic resins in borate form was 0.48. Immobilisation of pyrolysis residues from these resins in OPC matrix was also studied. Leaching of matrix blocks was carried out for 180 days in DM water to optimise the matrix formulation. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cesium leached and 137 Cesium leach rate were 0.076 and 0.00054 respectively for 180 days leaching. The volume reduction factor achieved by immobilisation of pyrolysis residues was 2.4. OPC is non compatible to cationic resins loaded with alkali in absence of specific admixtures. Hence cationic resins loaded with alkali and anionic resins in borate form can not be immobilised together. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  12. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit HELVACI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins, and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey, California (USA, Central Andes (South America and Tibet (Central Asia. The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka, California (Boron, and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca. Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and

  13. Flue gas desulphurization in a spray tower with de-coupled recycling of soda ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebgott, H.

    1983-05-01

    RD project to develop a ''dry'' process for the desulphurization of flue gases. The process is based on a desulphurization step with a solution of soda ash which is sprayed into the flue gas. The gas is cooled by evaporation but its temperature is still higher than the dew point; reheating is not necessary. The product of the desulphurization is a dry mixture of sodium sulphite and -carbonate. It is intended to reprocess this powder to soda in a central plant - serving several power stations. First sulphite is oxidized to sulphate, which in turn is reacted with calcium chloride to form calcium sulphate and sodium chloride. The latter is introduced into the Solvay-soda ash process which yields calcium chloride as a by-product. Tests were carried out for the desulphurization step and the oxidation of sulphite. The desulphurization tests resulted in poor degrees of SO/sub 2/-removal even with high stoichiometric ratios of soda ash to sulphur dioxide. The preliminary estimates of process economics made before start of experimental work could not be verified. Furthermore, during work on the project, new processes were revealed whereby flue gas is desulphurized in a spray-drying apparatus with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. In an extension of the project, tests were carried out which confirmed these findings. The project was abandoned.

  14. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon streams

  15. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  17. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  18. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of female albino Wistar rats was ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities consumed5. Caffeine is linked ... consumption might result in seizures, memory loss, dizziness, headache and ...

  19. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavourakis, C. D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, February (2016), č. článku 211. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soda lake brines * Nanohaloarchaea * Halobacteria * Bacteroidetes * hydrolytics * cellulase * chitinase * rhodopsin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of the borate mineral kotoite Mg₃(BO₃)₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-02-15

    Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to assess the structure of kotoite a borate mineral of magnesium which is isostructural with jimboite. The mineral is orthorhombic with point group: 2/m 2/m 2/m. The mineral has the potential as a new memory insulator material. The mineral has been characterised by a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum is dominated by a very intense band at 835 cm(-1), assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of tetrahedral boron. Raman bands at 919, 985 and 1015 cm(-1) are attributed to the antisymmetric stretching modes of tetrahedral boron. Kotoite is strictly an hydrous borate mineral. An intense Raman band observed at 3559 cm(-1) is attributed to the stretching vibration of hydroxyl units, more likely to be associated with the borate mineral hydroxyborate. The lack of observation of water bending modes proves the absence of water in the kotoite structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation Shielding Properties Comparison of Pb-Based Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glass Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwimon Ruengsri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients, partial interactions, atomic cross-section, and effective atomic numbers of PbO-based silicate, borate, and phosphate glass systems have been investigated at 662 keV. PbO-based silicate glass has been found with the highest total mass attenuation coefficient and then phosphate and borate glasses, respectively. Compton scattering has been the dominate interaction contributed to the different total attenuation coefficients in each of the glass matrices. The silicate and phosphate glass systems are more appropriate choices as lead-based radiation shielding glass than the borate glass system. Moreover, comparison of results has shown that the glasses possess better shielding properties than standard shielding concretes, suggesting a smaller size requirement in addition to transparency in the visible region.

  2. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  3. Influence of Lime and Phosphorus Application Rates on Growth of Maize in an Acid Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of lime and phosphorus on maize growth in an acid soil were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. A completely randomized design with 12 treatments consisting of four lime levels, 0, 2, 10, and 20 t ha−1, in a factorial combination with three phosphorus rates, 0, 30, and 100 kg ha−1, was used. Maize was grown in pots for six weeks and its heights and dry matter yield were determined and soils were analyzed for available P and exchangeable acidity. Liming significantly reduced the exchangeable acidity in the soils. The effect of lime on available P was not significant but available P increased with increasing P rates. There was a significant effect of lime, P, and P by lime interactions on plant heights and dry matter. Without lime application, dry matter increased with increasing P rates but, with lime, dry mattes increased from 0 to 30 kg P ha−1 but declined from 30 to 100 kg P ha−1. The highest dry matter yield (13.8 g pot−1 was obtained with a combined 2 t ha−1 of lime with 30 kg P ha−1 suggesting that lime application at low rates combined with moderate amounts of P would be appropriate in this soil.

  4. Experimental study of silty clay stabilization with cement and lime in multan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Stabilization is valuable substitute for advancing the soil characteristics. The engineering features gained after stabilization differs broadly owing to non-uniformity in constitutions of soil. This study describes an assessment of cement and lime additives for advancing soils ventures. The effectiveness of lime and cement stabilization on geotechnical characteristics of the in situ soil has also been described in the paper. The additives like cement and lime were added in different dosage rates to examine the change in properties of the in situ soil. Cement addition caused an increase in unconfined compression strength (UCS) throughout from 4% to 16% of cement. Moreover, it has been observed that by adding lime, the early strength of clay increases up to 6% of lime but for long term strength i.e. 28 days maximum strengths is achieved for 4% of lime. It also confirms that with more percentage of lime and longer duration of curing, it expands. In addition to the strength behavior of samples at various percentages of cement and lime, the deflection at failure point was also examined. In order to make a straight comparison, both cement and lime stabilized soils were also tested in laboratory. Generally, the performance of Portland cement-stabilized soils was advanced to lime in the experiments performed. (author)

  5. Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO₂gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of PO(3⁻)(4) exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with > 0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P₂O₅ in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent PO(3⁻)(4) -P to added M-CSH-lime was > 0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer.

  6. Luminescence properties of the Sm-doped borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindrat, I.I. [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Padlyak, B.V., E-mail: B.Padlyak@if.uz.zgora.pl [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Vlokh Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79-005 Lviv (Ukraine); Drzewiecki, A. [University of Zielona Góra, Institute of Physics, Division of Spectroscopy of Functional Materials, 4a Szafrana Street, 65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The optical absorption and photoluminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as decay kinetics of a series of the Sm-doped glasses with Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, CaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, and LiCaBO{sub 3} compositions were investigated and analysed. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, CaB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Sm, and LiCaBO{sub 3}:Sm glasses of high optical quality have been obtained from the corresponding polycrystalline compounds in the air atmosphere, using a standard glass technology. On the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectra analysis it was shown that the samarium impurity is incorporated into the glass network as Sm{sup 3+} (4f{sup 5}, {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}) ions, exclusively. All observed 4f – 4f transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} centres in the optical absorption and luminescence spectra of the investigated glasses are identified. Most intense emission band of the Sm{sup 3+} ions peaked about 598 nm ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition) is characterised by a single exponential decay with typical lifetime values, which depend on the basic glass composition as well as concentration and local structure of the Sm{sup 3+} luminescence centres. The quantum efficiency has been evaluated for observed transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} centres using obtained experimental lifetimes and radiative lifetimes calculated by Judd–Ofelt theory. The calculated high quantum efficiencies and measured quantum yields of luminescence show that the investigated borate glasses are perspective luminescence materials. Energy transfer from the Ce{sup 3+} non-controlled impurity and intrinsic luminescence centres to the Sm{sup 3+} centres has been observed. Peculiarities of the Sm{sup 3+} local structure in the network of investigated glasses have been discussed based on the obtained spectroscopic results and structural data. - Highlights: • The Sm-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, LiKB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Ca

  7. Estimation of atmospheric fluoride by limed filter papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.

    1988-09-01

    The limed filter paper method of static sampling of atmospheric fluoride is reviewed in this report. Use of the technique, in conjunction with precise measurement of the absorbed fluoride and calibration with dynamic air sampling techniques, to estimate atmospheric fluoride levels, is considered to give only qualitative data (± 50%). The limed filter paper method is site specific due to variations in meteorological conditions. Its main value is to indicate seasonal and annual trends in fluoride exposure of vegetation. Subject to these considerations, the lower and upper limits of atmospheric fluoride exposure and the applicability to atmospheric fluoride estimation under routine or emergency fluoride release conditions are discussed, with special emphasis on the limiting factors

  8. Wood ash as a soil additive and liming agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.; Etiegni, L.; Mahler, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated wood ash as an agricultural soil supplement and liming material. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and poplar (Populus sp.) were grown in a greenhouse on six different Idaho soils amended with different ash concentrations. At ash levels equal to or lower than 2%, no detrimental effects were observed. In fact, the biomass of the wheat and the caliper and height of the poplar cuttings increased more at 2% ash 940 metric tons/ha than with the control soil. These results suggest that wood ash could be used in agricultural applications as a low analysis fertilizer containing potassium and as a liming agent. Land application of wood ash could be less expensive and more environmentally sound than present landfilling practices

  9. Repair mortars based on lime. Accelerated aging tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour under different accelerated aging tests (freeze/thaw and crystallization cycles of a new lime mortar with biocide properties destinated to monumental repair has been studied. New mortars (which have the biocide impregnated in a clay called sepiolite have a similar behaviour to lime mortars used as a reference. After the aging tests, the biocide properties of the mortars have been tried.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a distintos ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (ciclos de hielo/deshielo y cristalización de sales de un nuevo mortero de cal con propiedades biocidas, destinado a la reparación monumental. Se ha comprobado que los nuevos morteros (que llevan incorporado el biocida impregnado en una arcilla denominada sepiolita tienen un comportamiento muy similar a los morteros de cal utilizados como referencia. Tras los ensayos de envejecimiento se ha visto que las propiedades biocidas de los morteros se mantienen.

  10. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sánchez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  11. Hydrogenolysis and Activation of Soda Lignin Using [BMIM]Cl as a Catalyst and Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactivity of the soda lignin, an acid ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-mthylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl was used as the catalyst and solvent to degrade the soda lignin through hydrogenolysis. Structural elucidation of the lignin samples was conducted by using a combination of analytical methods including chemical analysis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR techniques, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antioxidant activities of the lignin samples were evaluated using the diammonium 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS+ radical scavenging and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging methods. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the characterization results. The optimal reaction condition was as follows: the concentration of [BMIM]Cl in the solution was 10 wt %, the hydrogen initial pressure was 3 MPa, and the solution was heated for 4 h at 90 °C. After the reaction, the total hydroxyl content of the soda lignin increased by 81.3%, while the phenolic hydroxyl content increased by 23.1%. At the same time, the weight-average molar mass of the soda lignin sample decreased from 8220 to 6450 g/mol with an improved antioxidant activity. In addition, approximately 56.7% of the β-O-4 linkages were degraded in the lreaction. The main effect of the acid ionic liquid [BMIM]C1 was related to the cleavage of β-O-4 linkages. This study has shown the potential of using the catalyzed soda lignin as a natural polymer antioxidant.

  12. Volume and structural relaxation in compressed sodium borate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Mouritz N; Youngman, Randall E; Yue, Yuanzheng; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Bockowski, Michal; Jensen, Lars R; Smedskjaer, Morten M

    2016-11-21

    The structure and properties of glass can be modified through compression near the glass transition temperature (T g ), and such modified structure and properties can be maintained at ambient temperature and pressure. However, once the compressed glass undergoes annealing near T g at ambient pressure, the modified structure and properties will relax. The challenging question is how the property relaxation is correlated with both the local and the medium-range structural relaxation. In this paper, we answer this question by studying the volume (density) and structural relaxation of a sodium borate glass that has first been pressure-quenched from its T g at 1 GPa, and then annealed at ambient pressure under different temperature-time conditions. Using 11 B MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy, we find that the pressure-induced densification of the glass is accompanied by a conversion of six-membered rings into non-ring trigonal boron (B III ) units, i.e. a structural change in medium-range order, and an increase in the fraction of tetrahedral boron (B IV ), i.e. a structural change in short-range order. These pressure-induced structural conversions are reversible during ambient pressure annealing near T g , but exhibit a dependence on the annealing temperature, e.g. the ring/non-ring B III ratio stabilizes at different values depending on the applied annealing temperature. We find that conversions between structural units cannot account for the pressure-induced densification, and instead we suggest the packing of structural units as the main densification mechanism.

  13. Comparative study of ion conducting pathways in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Andreas; Swenson, Jan; Adams, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The conduction pathways in metal-halide doped silver, lithium, and sodium diborate glasses have been examined by bond valence analysis of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) produced structural models of the glasses. Although all glass compositions have basically the same short-range structure of the boron-oxygen network, it is evident that the intermediate-range structure is strongly dependent on the type of mobile ion. The topography of the pathways and the coordination of the pathway sites differ distinctly between the three glass systems. The mobile silver ions in the AgI-doped glass tend to be mainly iodine-coordinated and travel in homogeneously distributed pathways located in salt-rich channels of the borate network. In the NaCl-doped glass, there is an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of pathways that reflects the inhomogeneous introduction of salt ions into the glass. However, since the salt clusters are not connected, no long-range conduction pathways are formed without including also oxygen-rich regions. The pathways in the LiCl-doped glass are slightly more evenly distributed compared to the NaCl-doped glass (but not as ordered as in the AgI-doped glass), and the regions of mainly oxygen-coordinated pathway sites are of higher importance for the long-range migration. In order to more accurately investigate how these differences in the intermediate-range order of the glasses affect the ionic conductivity, we have compared the realistic structure models to more or less randomized structures. An important conclusion from this comparison is that we find no evidence that a pronounced intermediate-range order in the atomic structure or in the network of conduction pathways, as in the AgI-doped glass, is beneficial for the dc conductivity

  14. Comparision of γ -ray shielding properties of some borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    Several new glasses have been prepared in recent years to suit their increasing number of applications. Some of the glass compositions have distinct properties which make them the most preferred materials for certain applications such as shielding, optical fibers, electronics displays etc. The information of composition, processing and effect of environment on the glass properties is of great importance for their design and application. The shielding ability of pure elements and some mixtures have already been studied but limited attempts have been made on glasses. A good shielding glass should have high absorption cross - section for radiation and at the same time irradiation effects on its mechanical and optical properties should be small. By keeping in view of the importance of shielding ability of borate glasses, we have studied two series of different glass type: x PbO - (1-x) B 2 O 3 and x ZnO - 2xPbO - (1-3x) B 2 O 3 (where x is the mole fraction) by using narrow beam transmission method. A 2' x 2' NaI(Tl) crystal with an energy resolution of 12.5% at 662 keV of 137 Cs was used for the determination of attenuation coefficients and hence interaction cross-sections. Glass samples were prepared by using melt-quenching technique. Thickness measurement was carried out by micrometer and density was measured by Archimede's Principle using benzene as the immersion liquid. The densities of the glasses were found to increase linearly with the increase in the chemical composition of heavy metal oxide. Variations in mass attenuation coefficients and interaction cross ' sections were observed with the change in chemical composition and photon energy. It is found that these glasses have potential applications to be used as radiation shielding materials

  15. Comparative study of engineering properties of two-lime waste tire particle soil and soil with lime/loess ratio of 3:7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecheng, Yan; Xingyuan, Zhang; Hongping, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This study describes an analytical comparison of the engineering characteristics of two-lime waste tire particle soil and soil with lime/loess ratio of 3:7 using density measurements, results of indoor consolidation tests, and direct shear tests to examine the strength and deformation characteristics. It investigates the engineering performance of collapsible loess treated with waste tire particles and lime. The results indicate that (1) the shear strength of the two-lime waste tire particle soils increases continuously with soil age; and (2) the two-lime waste tire particle soils are light-weight, strong, and low-deformation soils, and can be applied primarily to improve the foundation soil conditions in areas with collapsible loess soils. This could address the problem of used tire disposal, while providing a new method to consider and manage collapsible loess soils.

  16. Innovative Lime Pozzolana Renders for Reconstruction of Historical Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelkova, E.; Maca, P.; Konvalinka, P.; Cerny, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk density, matrix density, open porosity, compressive strength, bending strength, water sorptivity, moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of two innovative renovation renders on limepozzolana basis are analyzed. The obtained results are compared with reference lime plaster and two commercial renovation renders, and conclusions on the applicability of the particular renders in practical reconstruction works are drawn. (author)

  17. Freezing and thawing resistance of aerial lime mortar with metakaolin\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Slížková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 114, July (2016), s. 896-905 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : freeze-thaw * lime * metakaolin * linseed oil * mortar * water-repellency Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061816305645

  18. Between tradition and technological innovation: challenges to lime Heritage conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to discuss the relationship between traditional and scientific technological knowledge as innovative and fundamental to heritage conservation. It is argued that this innovation does not necessarily come from scientific knowledge, but potentially from a wise articulation between these two types of knowledge. This discussion starts from an already long process of reflection on lime heritage conservation, as developed in LNEC from research projects.

  19. Effect of the preparation of lime putties on their properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Rovnaníková, P.; Pavlík, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, DEC (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 17260. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : lime putties * micromorphology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-17527-3

  20. Application of different lime rates and phosphorus on soil physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments were factorial combination of five rates of phosphorus (0, 11.5, 23, 46, 57.5 kg P2O5) and four rates of lime (CaCO3) (0, 2.25, 3 and 3.75 tons ha-1) in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The pre soil analysis indicated that the soil of experimental area was acidic (pH = 5.31) and low ...

  1. Effect of alkali ion on relaxation properties of binary alkali-borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Method of relaxation spectrometry were used to analyze the data on internal friction spectra of lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium alkali-borate glasses in wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The nature of two relaxation processes was clarified: β m -process, related with mobility of alkaline metal cations, and α-process (vitrification), conditioned by system transformation from viscous-flow to vitreous state. It is shown that atomic-molecular mechanism of vitrification process changes when passing from vitreous B 2 O 3 to alkali-borate glasses

  2. Composition effect of potassium-borate glasses on their relaxation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Relaxation processes in potassium-borate glasses have been investigated in detail for the first time. It is shown that low-temperature β-process of relaxation relating to rotational mobility of the B-O bond is the same for all potassium-borate glasses and B 2 O 3 . The process of β k -relaxation related to diffusion mobility of potassium ions depends on the composition of the glasses in the same way as α-relaxation (glass formation).12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. General and Localized corrosion of Austenitic and Borated Stainless Steels in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, D.; Estill, J.; Wong, L.; Rebak, R.

    2004-01-01

    Boron containing stainless steels are used in the nuclear industry for applications such as spent fuel storage, control rods and shielding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion resistance of three borated stainless steels with standard austenitic alloy materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Tests were conducted in three simulated concentrated ground waters at 90 C. Results show that the borated stainless were less resistant to corrosion than the witness austenitic materials. An acidic concentrated ground water was more aggressive than an alkaline concentrated ground water

  4. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation properties of bismuth borate glass systems using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D.A.; Gurler, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi 2 O 3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented. - Highlights: • Radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass systems have been reported. • Mass attenuation coefficients increase linearly with increase in Bi concentration. • Half-value layer decreases with increasing concentration of Bi. • Half-value layer decreases with the increase in the sample density.

  5. Ion-chromatographic determination of borates and sulfides with the use of a developing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotilina, N.K.; Dolgonosov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of the sensitive and selective determination of borates and sulfides were considered. A method was proposed for substantially increasing the sensitivity of the ion-chromatographic determination of weak acids by their conversion into corresponding salts on an auxiliary column with a cation exchanger in the K form. It is demonstrated that the detection limit of the anions under consideration can be decreased to 5-10 μg/l and the selectivity of the method is sufficient for the determination of trace borates in strongly mineralized waters like sea water [ru

  6. Speciation of aluminium, arsenic and molybdenum in excessively limed lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestedt, Carin; Waellstedt, Teresia; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Borg, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The possible existence of the potentially toxic oxyanions of Al (Al(OH) 4 - ), As (HAsO 4 2- ), and Mo (MoO 4 2- ) was examined in excessively limed lakes. In-situ dialysis (MWCO 1 kDa) was performed in the surface and bottom waters of two excessively limed lakes (pH 7.1-7.7) and one acidic lake (pH ∼ 5.4). The dialysable metal concentrations were compared to the equilibrium distribution of species as calculated with the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ incorporating the CD-MUSIC and Stockholm Humic models for complexation onto colloidal ferrihydrite and dissolved organic matter. Arsenic and molybdenum in the excessively limed lakes were to a large extent present in the dialysable fraction (> 79% and > 92% respectively). They were calculated to exist as free or adsorbed oxyanions. Most of the Al was observed to reside in the colloidal fraction (51-82%). In agreement with this, model predictions indicated aluminium to be present mostly as colloids or bound to dissolved organic matter. Only a small fraction was modelled as Al(OH) 4 - ions. In most cases, modelled values were in agreement with the dialysis results. The free concentrations of the three oxyanions were mostly low compared to toxic levels.

  7. Vanadium extraction from slimes by the lime-bicarbonate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishchenko, T.V.; Vdovina, L.V.; Slobodchikova, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Some main parameters of the lime-bicarbonate method of extracting vanadium from residues obtained in washing waters of mazut boilers on thermal stations have been determined. To study the process of vanadium extraction during caking of the residues with lime and subsequent leaching of water-soluble vanadium, a ''Minsk-22'' computer has been used for computation. Analysis of the equation derived has shown that a change in temperature of vanadium leaching, density of pulp, and a kind of heating of the charge affect the process only slightly. It has also been shown that the calcination temperature is expedient to be kept above 850 deg C and consumption temperature is expedient to be kept above 85O deg C and consumption of lime must not exceed 20% of the residues weight. Bicarbonate consumption exerts a decisive influence on completeness of vanadium extraction and must be increased up to >35%; duration of leaching should be raised up to 30-45 minutes. With increasing calcination temperature the duration of leaching decreases. When temperature and duration of calcination increase, the formation of water-soluble vanadium intensifies. With the aid of optimization program seven variants have been chosen, which ensure vanadium extraction into solution by 95-100%

  8. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of its total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse ap

  9. Sorghum yield after liming and combinations of phosphorus sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago C. Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphate fertilization has increased sorghum yield, but few studies are available on sorghum production and efficient fertilizer management related to liming and phosphorus (P sources. This work evaluates production, dry matter partitioning and agronomic efficiency (AEI in successive sorghum cycles after application of limestone and combinations of phosphorus sources. Two cycles were conducted in sequence in the same experimental field, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme, corresponding to soil with or without liming and six combinations of P2O5 sources: control (0 kg ha-1 P2O5, 100% Itafós natural phosphate (NP, 75% NP + 25% single superphosphate (SS, 50% NP + 50% SS, 25% NP + 75% SS and 100% SS. Pots with capacity for 8 dm3 were used in a randomized block design with four replicates. The first cycle, conducted in the summer/autumn season, reached the highest dry matter production and P accumulation in treatments with higher SS proportions, leading to higher AEI. Subsequently, in the second cycle, conducted considering only the residual phosphate fertilization of the first cycle, highest dry matter production and AEI were obtained in the treatment with 100% or higher proportions of natural phosphate in the presence of liming, most likely due to the gradual release of P.

  10. Thermophysical properties of hydrophobised lime plasters - The influence of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Zemanová, Lucie; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    The building envelope is a principal responsible for buildings energy loses. Lime plasters as the most popular finishing materials of historical buildings and culture monuments influence the thermal behaviour as well as construction material of masonry. On this account, the effect of ageing on the thermophysical properties of a newly designed lime plasters containing hydrophobic admixture is analysed in the paper. For the comparative purposes, the reference lime plaster is tested. The ageing is accelerated with controlled carbonation process to simulate the final plasters properties. Basic characterization of the tested materials is done using bulk density, matrix density, and porosity measurements. Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity are experimentally assessed using a transient impulse method. The obtained data revealed the significant changes of the both studied thermal parameters in the dependence on plasters composition and age. The assessed material parameters will be stored in a material database, where will find use as an input data for computational modelling of heat transport in this type of porous building materials and evaluation of energy-savings and sustainability issues.

  11. Liming impacts on soils, crops and biodiversity in the UK: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J E; Bennett, A E; Newton, A C; White, P J; McKenzie, B M; George, T S; Pakeman, R J; Bailey, J S; Fornara, D A; Hayes, R C

    2018-01-01

    Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil management including the re-evaluation of existing management practices. Liming is a long established practice to ameliorate acidic soils and many liming-induced changes are well understood. For instance, short-term liming impacts are detected on soil biota and in soil biological processes (such as in N cycling where liming can increase N availability for plant uptake). The impacts of liming on soil carbon storage are variable and strongly relate to soil type, land use, climate and multiple management factors. Liming influences all elements in soils and as such there are numerous simultaneous changes to soil processes which in turn affect the plant nutrient uptake; two examples of positive impact for crops are increased P availability and decreased uptake of toxic heavy metals. Soil physical conditions are at least maintained or improved by liming, but the time taken to detect change varies significantly. Arable crops differ in their sensitivity to soil pH and for most crops there is a positive yield response. Liming also introduces implications for the development of different crop diseases and liming management is adjusted according to crop type within a given rotation. Repeated lime applications tend to improve grassland biomass production, although grassland response is variable and indirect as it relates to changes in nutrient availability. Other indicators of liming response in grassland are detected in mineral content and herbage quality which have implications for livestock-based production systems. Ecological studies have shown positive impacts of liming on biodiversity; such as increased earthworm abundance that

  12. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  13. Models for predicting the mass of lime fruits by some engineering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraei Ashtiani, Seyed-Hassan; Baradaran Motie, Jalal; Emadi, Bagher; Aghkhani, Mohammad-Hosein

    2014-11-01

    Grading fruits based on mass is important in packaging and reduces the waste, also increases the marketing value of agricultural produce. The aim of this study was mass modeling of two major cultivars of Iranian limes based on engineering attributes. Models were classified into three: 1-Single and multiple variable regressions of lime mass and dimensional characteristics. 2-Single and multiple variable regressions of lime mass and projected areas. 3-Single regression of lime mass based on its actual volume and calculated volume assumed as ellipsoid and prolate spheroid shapes. All properties considered in the current study were found to be statistically significant (ρ lime based on minor diameter and first projected area are the most appropriate models in the first and the second classifications, respectively. In third classification, the best model was obtained on the basis of the prolate spheroid volume. It was finally concluded that the suitable grading system of lime mass is based on prolate spheroid volume.

  14. Influence of lime juice on the severity of sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Samuel Ademola; Shehu, Umar Abdullahi; Mohammed, Lasisi Oluwafemi; Sanusi, Yunusa; Oyelami, Oyeku Akibu

    2013-06-01

    The pain in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is often triggered by dehydration, acidosis, and fever that are usually due to malaria. Intake of lime juice was recently demonstrated to facilitate clearance of the malaria parasite. It was therefore sought to determine whether regular intake of lime juice will ameliorate crisis, especially recurrent bone pain. In this preliminary, open-labeled, randomized study, the effects of lime juice on the clinical and some laboratory characteristics of children with SCA were tested. Among the 113 children with SCA studied in two hospitals, the 58 receiving lime treatment had lower rates of significant painful episodes than the 55 without lime (37 versus 83 crises in 6 months, and 0.64±0.11 versus 1.51±0.34 average rates per child, plime did not cause any significant side-effect. Regular intake of lime juice may be of great therapeutic and nutritional relevance in children with SCA.

  15. Plasticity, Swell-Shrink, and Microstructure of Phosphogypsum Admixed Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved utilization of an industrial waste, Phosphogypsum (PG, as an additive to lime stabilization of an expansive soil. Three lime dosages, namely, initial consumption of lime (ICL, optimum lime content (OLC, and less than ICL (LICL, were identified for the soil under study for stabilizing the soil. Along with lime, varying doses of PG were added to the soil for stabilization. The effect of stabilization was studied by performing index tests, namely, liquid limit, plastic limit, shrinkage limit, and free swell test, on pulverized remains of failed unconfined compression test specimens. The samples were also subjected to a microstructural study by means of scanning electron microscope. Addition of PG to lime resulted in improvement in the plasticity and swell-shrink characteristics. The microstructural study revealed the formation of a dense compact mass of stabilized soil.

  16. Unusual stoichiometry control in the atomic layer deposition of manganese borate films from manganese bis(tris(pyrazolyl)borate) and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klesko, Joseph P.; Bellow, James A.; Saly, Mark J.; Winter, Charles H.; Julin, Jaakko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-01-01

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of films with the approximate compositions Mn 3 (BO 3 ) 2 and CoB 2 O 4 is described using MnTp 2 or CoTp 2 [Tp = tris(pyrazolyl)borate] with ozone. The solid state decomposition temperatures of MnTp 2 and CoTp 2 are ∼370 and ∼340 °C, respectively. Preparative-scale sublimations of MnTp 2 and CoTp 2 at 210 °C/0.05 Torr afforded >99% recoveries with <0.1% nonvolatile residues. Self-limited ALD growth was demonstrated at 325 °C for MnTp 2 or CoTp 2 with ozone as the coreactant. The growth rate for the manganese borate process was 0.19 Å/cycle within the ALD window of 300–350 °C. The growth rate for the cobalt borate process was 0.39–0.42 Å/cycle at 325 °C. X-ray diffraction of the as-deposited films indicated that they were amorphous. Atomic force microscopy of 35–36 nm thick manganese borate films grown within the 300–350 °C ALD window showed root mean square surface roughnesses of 0.4–0.6 nm. Film stoichiometries were assessed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight-elastic recoil detection analysis. The differing film stoichiometries obtained from the very similar precursors MnTp 2 and CoTp 2 are proposed to arise from the oxidizing ability of the intermediate high valent manganese oxide layers and lack thereof for cobalt.

  17. Unusual stoichiometry control in the atomic layer deposition of manganese borate films from manganese bis(tris(pyrazolyl)borate) and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klesko, Joseph P.; Bellow, James A.; Saly, Mark J.; Winter, Charles H., E-mail: chw@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Julin, Jaakko; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2016-09-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of films with the approximate compositions Mn{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and CoB{sub 2}O{sub 4} is described using MnTp{sub 2} or CoTp{sub 2} [Tp = tris(pyrazolyl)borate] with ozone. The solid state decomposition temperatures of MnTp{sub 2} and CoTp{sub 2} are ∼370 and ∼340 °C, respectively. Preparative-scale sublimations of MnTp{sub 2} and CoTp{sub 2} at 210 °C/0.05 Torr afforded >99% recoveries with <0.1% nonvolatile residues. Self-limited ALD growth was demonstrated at 325 °C for MnTp{sub 2} or CoTp{sub 2} with ozone as the coreactant. The growth rate for the manganese borate process was 0.19 Å/cycle within the ALD window of 300–350 °C. The growth rate for the cobalt borate process was 0.39–0.42 Å/cycle at 325 °C. X-ray diffraction of the as-deposited films indicated that they were amorphous. Atomic force microscopy of 35–36 nm thick manganese borate films grown within the 300–350 °C ALD window showed root mean square surface roughnesses of 0.4–0.6 nm. Film stoichiometries were assessed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight-elastic recoil detection analysis. The differing film stoichiometries obtained from the very similar precursors MnTp{sub 2} and CoTp{sub 2} are proposed to arise from the oxidizing ability of the intermediate high valent manganese oxide layers and lack thereof for cobalt.

  18. Effects of experimental acidification on mobilisation of metals from sediments of limed and non-limed lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waellstedt, Teresia; Borg, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influence of pH on the mobilisation of metals from lake sediments, intact sediment cores with overlying water were sampled from one lime treated lake and one acidified lake. The overlying water of two cores from each lake was successively acidified to pH 4.2 over a period of 3 months. In the acid treated samples from the limed lake, the initial concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in the overlying water were generally lower and the final concentrations were higher than in the acid treated samples from the acidified lake. The labile inorganic fraction of Al (Al i ) was increasingly dominating as pH decreased. Redox potential and pH in the sediment indicated that the upper two centimetres were involved in the exchange reactions. The experiment showed that mobilisation of metals from sediments can occur and the results indicated that mobilisation could contribute to increased concentrations of metals in lake water during reacidification of formerly lime treated lakes. - Reacidification leads to mobilisation of metals from lake sediments

  19. Influence of the mechanical properties of lime mortar on the strength of brick masonry

    OpenAIRE

    PAVIA, SARA

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper aims at improving the quality of lime mortar masonry by understanding the mechanics of mortars and masonry and their interaction. It investigates how the mortar?s compressive and flexural strengths impact the compressive and bond strength of clay brick masonry bound with calcium lime (CL) and natural hydraulic lime (NHL) mortars. It concludes that the strength of the bond has a greater impact on the compressive strength of masonry than the mortar?s st...

  20. Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  2. Researches on the electrolysis of metal oxides dissolved in boric anhydride or in melt borates. New methods of preparation of amorphous boron, borides and some metals; Recherches sur l'electrolyse des oxydes metalliques dissous dans l'anhydride borique ou dans les borates fondus. Nouvelles methodes de preparation du bore amorphe, des borures et de quelques metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieux, Lucien

    1929-06-15

    This research thesis reports the investigation of the electrolysis of alkaline borates, alkaline earth borates and magnesium borate, and the investigation of mixtures containing a metal oxide dissolved in a bath formed by a tetraborate and a fluoride. The author more particularly studies the chemical products separated at the cathode level, i.e. boron (more or less pure), borates and other metals (zinc, tungsten, molybdenum)

  3. Lime sulfur toxicity to broad mite, to its host plants and to natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Perez, André L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy A; Martins Filho, Sebastião

    2013-06-01

    An acaricidal effect of lime sulfur has not been demonstrated for Polyphagotarsonemus latus. However, lime sulfur can cause toxicity to natural enemies and to host plants. In this study, the toxicity of different concentrations of lime sulfur to P. latus, to the predatory mite Amblyseius herbicolus and to the predatory insect Chrysoperla externa was evaluated. Additionally, the phytotoxicity of lime sulfur to two P. latus hosts, chili pepper and physic nut plants, was determined. Lime sulfur at a concentration of 9.5 mL L(-1) restrained P. latus population growth. However, this concentration was deleterious to natural enemies. The predatory mite A. herbicolus showed a negative value of instantaneous growth rate, and only 50% of the tested larvae of C. externa reached adulthood when exposed to 10 mL L(-1) . Physic nut had severe injury symptoms when sprayed with all tested lime sulfur concentrations. For chili pepper plants, no phytoxicity was observed at any tested concentration. Lime sulfur might be used for P. latus control on chili pepper but not on physic nut owing to phytotoxicity. Care should be taken when using lime sulfur in view of negative effects on natural enemies. Selective lime sulfur concentration integrated with other management tactics may provide an effective and sustainable P. latus control on chili pepper. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Enhanced inhibition of Aspergillus niger on sedge (Lepironia articulata) treated with heat-cured lime oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matan, N; Matan, N; Ketsa, S

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to examine heat curing effect (30-100°C) on antifungal activities of lime oil and its components (limonene, p-cymene, β-pinene and α-pinene) at concentrations ranging from 100 to 300 μl ml(-1) against Aspergillus niger in microbiological medium and to optimize heat curing of lime oil for efficient mould control on sedge (Lepironia articulata). Broth dilution method was employed to determine lime oil minimum inhibitory concentration, which was at 90 μl ml(-1) with heat curing at 70°C. Limonene, a main component of lime oil, was an agent responsible for temperature dependencies of lime oil activities observed. Response surface methodology was used to construct the mathematical model describing a time period of zero mould growth on sedge as functions of heat curing temperature and lime oil concentration. Heat curing of 90 μl ml(-1) lime oil at 70°C extended a period of zero mould growth on sedge to 18 weeks under moist conditions. Heat curing at 70°C best enhanced antifungal activity of lime oil against A. niger both in medium and on sedge. Heat curing of lime oil has potential to be used to enhance the antifungal safety of sedge products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  6. Crystal chemical characterization of mullite-type aluminum borate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K., E-mail: Kristin.Hoffmann@uni-bremen.de [Kristallographie, FB05, Klagenfurter Straße / GEO, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, FB02, Leobener Straße / NW2, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Hooper, T.J.N. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Zhao, H.; Kolb, U. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Jakob-Welder-WegJakob-Welder-Weg 11, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Murshed, M.M. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, FB02, Leobener Straße / NW2, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, Bibliothekstraße 1, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Fischer, M.; Lührs, H. [Kristallographie, FB05, Klagenfurter Straße / GEO, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, Bibliothekstraße 1, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Nénert, G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kudějová, P.; Senyshyn, A. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2017-03-15

    Al-rich aluminum borates were prepared by different synthesis routes using various Al/B ratios, characterized by diffraction methods, spectroscopy and prompt gamma activation analysis. The {sup 11}B NMR data show a small amount of BO{sub 4} species in all samples. The chemical analysis indicates a trend in the Al/B ratio instead of a fixed composition. Both methods indicate a solid solution Al{sub 5−x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 9} where Al is substituted by B in the range of 1–3%. The structure of B-rich Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} (C2/m, a=1488 pm, b=553 pm, c=1502 pm, ß=90.6°), was re-investigated by electron diffraction methods, showing that structural details vary within a crystallite. In most of the domains the atoms are orderly distributed, showing no signal for the postulated channel oxygen atom O5. The absence of O5 is supported by density functional theory calculations. Other domains show a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10, indicated by diffuse scattering along the b direction. - Graphical abstract: Projections of three-dimensional electron diffraction space of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} along the main directions. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} was re-evaluated. • Structural details vary among different crystals and inside Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallites. • Diffuse scattering indicate a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10. • A solid solution series for Al{sub 5−x}B{sub x}O{sub 9} is indicated by PGAA and NMR spectroscopy. • The presence of BO{sub 4} groups is confirmed by {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectroscopy for Al{sub 5−x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 9}.

  7. First evidence of lime burning in southern Scandinavia: lime kilns found at the royal residence on the west bank of Lake Tissø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen; Holst, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    In connection with investigations of the aristocratic residence at Tissø from the Viking Age, the earliest evidence so far of lime burning in Denmark has been excavated. The excavations unearthed traces of up to five lime kilns which were subsequently dated to the end of the ninth century....... This corresponds well with the dating of the erection of the hall in the third construction phase at Fugledegård. Finds of mud-and-wattle with whitewashing show that the lime was used to whitewash the halls at Tissø in both the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Age. Analyses of lime from the lime kilns...... and the whitewashed mud-and-wattle demonstrate that the raw material for the lime burning was mainly travertine deposited in spring water, but that bryozoan limestone was also used. The lime kilns were just under 2 m in diameter with stone-built edges, and there are indications that the superstructure may have been...

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in water with prior distillation and hydrolysis of the methyl borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, J.; Pomares, F.; Guardia, M. de la

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of boron in irrigation waters is proposed, involving the prior distillation and hydrolysis of methyl borate and subsequent spectrophotometric determination with azomethine-H. The selectivity is better than that of the direct analysis method. (author)

  9. Thermoluminescence properties of the Cu-doped lithium potassium borate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboud, Haydar; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Ali, Hassan; Alajerami, Yasser; Saeed, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of lithium potassium borate glasses with various copper concentrations are reported. The glasses were prepared by the melt quenching method and irradiated with photons to doses in the 0.5–4.0 Gy range. Glowing curves, dose response curves, reproducibility of the response, dose threshold, thermal fading and optical bleaching were studied

  10. BANDWIDTH STUDIES OF AN INJECTION-SEEDED BETA-BARIUM BORATE OPTICAL PARAMETRIC OSCILLATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonengering, J.M.; van der Veer, W.E.; Gerritsen, J.W.; Hogervorst, W.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral and temporal properties of a scanning injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator pumped by the third harmonic of a 10-Hz Nd:YAG laser have been studied. The seed source was a cw diode laser with a wavelength of 830 nm tunable over a range of 50 GHz. We measured the

  11. Characterization and Neutron Shielding Behavior of Dehydrated Magnesium Borate Minerals Synthesized via Solid-State Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borates are one of the major groups of boron minerals that have good neutron shielding performance. In this study, dehydrated magnesium borates were synthesized by solid-state method using magnesium oxide (MgO and boron oxide (B2O3, in order to test their ability of neutron shielding. After synthesizing the dehydrated magnesium borates, characterizations were done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also boron oxide (B2O3 contents and reaction yields (% were calculated. XRD results showed that seven different types of dehydrated magnesium borates were synthesized. 1000°C reaction temperature, 240 minutes of reaction time, and 3 : 2, 1 : 1 mole ratios of products were selected and tested for neutron transmission. Also reaction yields were calculated between 84 and 88% for the 3 : 2 mole ratio products. The neutron transmission experiments revealed that the 3 : 2 mole ratio of MgO to B2O3 neutron transmission results (0.618–0.655 was better than the ratio of 1 : 1 (0.772–0.843.

  12. Energy response of graphite-mixed magnesium borate TLDs to low energy x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelliccioni, M.; Prokic, M.; Esposito, A.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite-mixed sintered magnesium borate TL dosemeters are attractive for beta/gamma dosimetry because they combine a low energy dependence to beta-rays with near tissue or air equivalence to photon irradiations and a high sensitivity. In this paper results from the experimental measurements...

  13. DVD-d. "Borat", "United 93", "Must Daalia", "Vimm 2" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2007-01-01

    Uued mängufilmide DVD-d : Larry Charlesi "Borat" (peaosas Sacha Baron Cohen; USA 2006), Paul Greengrassi "United 93" (USA 2006), Brian De Palma "Must Daalia" ("The Black Dahlia", USA 2006), Takashi Shimizu "Vimm 2" ("The Grudge 2", USA 2006)

  14. Method for ultimate disposition of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bege, D.; Faust, H.J.; Puthawala, A.; Stunkel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Method for the ultimate disposition of radioactive wastes by vitrification, in which weak to medium radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing radioactive liquids are mixed with added glass-forming materials, maximally in a ratio of 1:3, and the mixture heated to obtain a glass-forming melt

  15. Crystallization of Reduced Strontium and Barium Niobate Perovskites from Borate Fluxes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, B.; Sunshine, S.A.; Siegrist, T.; Jimenez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Single crystals of three AxNbO3 (A = Sr, Ba) reduced niobate cubic perovskites have been obtained by recrystallization of reduced ternary ceramic precursors from borate fluxes under high-vacuum. Product formation could be influenced by variation of the alkaline-earth metal oxide content of the flux,

  16. Storage of unirradiated fuel in borated concrete at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkonen, D.L.

    1979-06-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), more than 3000 enriched uranium fuel elements can be stored in horizontal holes in borated concrete racks. This method of storage was selected. This paper describes the largest of these racks and the reactivity calculations and measurements which confirmed that SRP fuel may be safely stored in them

  17. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited...

  18. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation properties of bismuth borate glass systems using Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D. A.; Gurler, Orhan

    2017-11-01

    A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi2O3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented.

  19. High arsenic and boron concentrations in groundwaters related to mining activity in the Bigadic borate deposits (Western Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemici, Unsal; Tarcan, Gueltekin; Helvaci, Cahit; Somay, A. Melis

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the environmental impacts of borate mines in Bigadic district, which are the largest colemanite and ulexite deposits in the world. Borate-bearing formations have affected the concentrations of some contaminants in groundwater. Groundwater quality is directly related to the borate zones in the mines as a result of water-rock interaction processes. Calcium is the dominant cation and waters are Ca-SO 4 and HCO 3 type in the mine (Tuelue borate mine) from which colemanite is produced. However in the Simav and Acep Borate Mines, ulexite and colemanite minerals are produced and waters from these open pit mines are Na-HCO 3 -SO 4 types. High SO 4 concentrations (reaching 519 mg/L) might be explained by the existence of anhydrite, gypsum and celestite minerals in the borate zone. Groundwater from tuff and borate strata showed relatively low pH values (7-8) compared to surface and mine waters (>8). EC values ranged from 270 to 2850 μS/cm. Boron and As were the two important contaminants determined in the groundwaters around the Bigadic borate mines. Arsenic is the major pollutant and it ranged from 33 to 911 μg/L in the groundwater samples. The concentrations of B in the study area ranged from 0.05 to 391 mg/L. The highest B concentrations were detected at the mine areas. The extension of the borate zones in the aquifer systems is the essential factor in the enrichment of B and As, and some major and trace elements in groundwaters are directly related to the leaching of the host rock which are mainly composed of tuffs and limestones. According to drinking water standards, all of the samples exceed the tolerance limit for As. Copper, Mn, Zn and Li values are enriched but do not exceed the drinking water standards. Sulfate, Al and Fe concentrations are above the drinking water standard for the groundwater samples

  20. An interaction of the functionalized closo-borates with albumins: The protein fluorescence quenching and calorimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu., E-mail: mlosytskyy@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kovalska, Vladyslava B. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Varzatskii, Oleg A. [V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Palladin Avenue, 03080 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuperman, Marina V. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Potocki, Slawomir; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14F. Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Zhdanov, Andrey P. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 31 Leninskii Avenue, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yarmoluk, Sergiy M. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine); Voloshin, Yan Z. [Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, 28 Vavilova Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai T. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 31 Leninskii Avenue, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Elskaya, Anna V. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, 150 Zabolotnogo Street, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    An interaction of the boron clusters closo-borates K{sub 2}[B{sub 10}H{sub 10}], K{sub 2}[B{sub 12}H{sub 12}] and their functionalized derivatives with serum proteins human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) albumins and immonoglobulin IgG as well as globular proteins β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme was characterized. The steady state and time resolved protein fluorescence quenching studies point on the binding of the closo-borate arylamine derivatives to serum albumins and discrimination of other proteins. The mechanism of the albumin fluorescence quenching by the closo-borate arylamine derivatives was proposed. The complex formation between albumin and the closo-borate molecules has been confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The compound (K{sub 2}[B{sub 10}H{sub 10}]) and its arylamine derivative both interact with HSA, have close values of K{sub a} (1.4 and 1.2×10{sup 3} M{sup −1} respectively) and Gibbs energy (−17.9 and −17.5 kJ/mol respectively). However, the arylamine derivative forms complex with the higher guest/host binding ratio (4:1) comparing to the parent closo-borate (2:1). - Highlights: • Complex formation between boron clusters closo-borates and albumins was confirmed. • Functional substituent of closo-borate strongly affects its complex with albumins. • Binding of arylamine closo-borates essentially quench the albumin fluorescence. • Mechanism of tryptophan emission quenching by arylamine closo-borates was proposed.

  1. Studies on impact of release of liquid industrial waste from soda ash industry in the nearshore water of north Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    The nearshore waters of Mithapur, Porbandar and Sutrapada received 18-100 mid (million litres per day) of wastewater from soda ash manufacturing industries either through point discharges (Mithapur, Porbandar) or through submarine outfall (Sutrapada...

  2. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  3. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  4. Baking soda pica: a case of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotegut, Chad A; Dandolu, Vani; Katari, Sunita; Whiteman, Valerie E; Geifman-Holtzman, Ossie; Teitelman, Melissa

    2006-02-01

    We report a case of baking soda pica in a woman at 31 weeks of pregnancy causing severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis. A multigravida at 31 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and muscle pain. She was found to have severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis, with elevation in serum transaminases and hypertension. We initially thought the patient had an atypical presentation of preeclampsia until it was realized that she was ingesting 1 full box of baking soda (454 g sodium bicarbonate) per day. Symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings resolved with discontinuation of the patient's pica practices. Pica is a common but often overlooked practice that can potentially lead to life-threatening disorders. A thorough evaluation of a patient's dietary intake is extremely important, especially in the setting of atypical presentations of disease in pregnancy.

  5. Nano Transition Metal Sulfide Catalyst for Solvolysis Liquefaction of Soda Lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Ling, P.; Chin-Hua, C.; Sarani Zakaria; Soon-Keong, N.; Tze-Khong, L.

    2011-01-01

    Solvolysis liquefaction of soda lignin in the presence of various transition metal sulfide catalysts was studied to investigate the catalyst effects on the oil and gas yields, conversion rate and higher heating value (HHV) of oil. Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method under reaction temperature 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The addition of transition metal sulfide based catalysts (CuS, MoS 2 and FeS 2 ) enhanced both production of the oils and gas and the higher heating value (HHV) of oil products. A high oil and gas yields of 82.1 % and 2890 cm 3 was obtained with MoS 2 at 250 degree Celsius for 60 min. Elemental analyses for the oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude soda lignin powder. (author)

  6. Positive and negative aspects of soda/anthraquinone pulping of hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R C; Bolton, T S; Abdoulmoumine, N; Lavrykova, N; Bose, S K

    2008-11-01

    The positive aspects of the non-sulfur soda/anthraquinone (SAQ) process are mostly tied to improved energy efficiency while lower pulp brightness after bleaching is its most significant drawback. A credible method that quantifies bleachability as well as an approach that solves the problem for SAQ pulps from hardwoods will be described. A straight line correlation (R2=0.904) was obtained between O2 kappa number and final light absorption coefficient (LAC) value after standardized OD0EpD1 bleaching of nine hardwood kraft pulps from three laboratories and one pulp mill. The bleachability of pulps from four different soda processes catalyzed by anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) was compared to that of conventional kraft pulps by comparing O2 kappa number decrease and final LAC values. It was observed that a mild hot water pre-hydrolysis improved the bleachability of SAQ pulps to a level equal to that of kraft.

  7. Borate protection of softwood from Coptotermes acinaciformis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) damage: variation in protection thresholds explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory and field data reported in the literature are confusing with regard to "adequate" protection thresholds for borate timber preservatives. The confusion is compounded by differences in termite species, timber species and test methodology. Laboratory data indicate a borate retention of 0.5% mass/mass (m/m) boric acid equivalent (BAE) would cause > 90% termite mortality and restrict mass loss in test specimens to 0.5% m/m BAE are required. We report two field experiments with varying amounts of untreated feeder material in which Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) responses to borate-treated radiata (Monterey) pine, Pinus radiata D. Don, were measured. The apparently conflicting results between laboratory and field data are explained by the presence or absence of untreated feeder material in the test environment. In the absence of untreated feeder material, wood containing 0.5% BAE provided adequate protection from Coptotermes sp., whereas in the presence of untreated feeder material, increased retentions were required. Furthermore, the retentions required increased with increased amounts of susceptible material present. Some termites, Nasutitermes sp. and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, for example, are borate-tolerant and borate timber preservatives are not a viable management option with these species. The lack of uniform standards for termite test methodology and assessment criteria for efficacy across the world is recognized as a difficulty with research into the performance of timber preservatives with termites. The many variables in laboratory and field assays make "prescriptive" standards difficult to recommend. The use of "performance" standards to define efficacy criteria ("adequate" protection) is discussed.

  8. Methods for separating boron from borated paraffin wax and its determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Boron compounds are found to be useful in shielding against high-energy neutrons. In radiotherapy treatments, in order to protect occupational workers and patients from the undesirable neutron and gamma doses, paraffin wax containing B 4 C/boric acid is used. Low-level borate wastes generated from the nuclear power plants have been immobilized with paraffin wax using a concentrate waste drying system (CWDS). Borated paraffin waxes are prepared by mixing calculated amounts of either boric acid or boron carbide with the molten wax. This necessitates the determination of boron at different locations in order to check the homogeneous distribution of B over the borated wax. The determination of boron in nuclear materials is inevitable due to its high neutron absorption cross section. For the determination of boron in borated waxes, not many methods have been reported. A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H 3 BO 3 and B 4 C. The B 4 C optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U 3 O 8 , which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O 2 at 950℃ for 60 and 90 min for wax with H 3 BO 3 and wax with B 4 C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H 3 BO 3 . In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N=3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD)

  9. Liming effect on P availability from Maardu phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidlauskas, G.; Masauskas, S.; Ezerinskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty years ago phosphate rock from the Maardu deposit was intensively used for soil fertilization in Lithuania. However, the application of finely ground product caused an undesirable dusty operation. Afterwards, a super-phosphate production plant was built in Kedainiai and the use of phosphate rock was completely abandoned. Field experiments with fodder beets and barley were carried out to evaluate the P availability of granulated superphosphate and Maardu phosphate rock. The comparison was made at three acidity levels: a) unlimed acid soil with a high content of Al (pH kcl 4.3-4.4, hydrolytic acidity was 41-44 meq/kg soil), b) soil limed with 0.5n rate CaCO 3 powder limestone based on hydrolytic acidity, and c) soil limed with 1.0n rate CaCO 3 . Two field experiments were carried out with fodder beets. In 1997 the yield increased significantly due to liming. However, no significant yield increases were found due to the application of phosphorus fertilizers. Differences between the effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock were also not observed. This might have been caused by a severe drought during the vegetative growth of plants. In the following year, 1998, a soil with similar acidity was chosen, however it contained even lower amounts of available phosphorus in the arable soil (about 50 mg/kg soil A-L method). In the unlimed soil the yield was low, the effect of superphosphate was better than that of phosphate rock. A good fodder beet yield of 32 to 35 t/ha was obtained and the effect of phosphate rock was better than that of superphosphate at 0.5n CaCO 3 rate. When liming with at the high rate (1.0n CaCO 3 rate according to hydrolytic acidity) the action of phosphate rock declined, and a better yield was obtained with superphosphate. Barley was grown after fodder beets in the 1997 experimental field and the residual effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock was investigated. Weather conditions were favorable for barley growth. Therefore a normal yield

  10. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSE-GAS EXTRACTS FROM LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to make qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic biologically active substances (BAS in the extracts produced from lime flowers with condensed gases, using method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods: materials for this study were the extracts obtained by consequent processing of the herbal drug and marcs thereof with various condensed gases: difluorochloromethane (Freon R22, difluoromethane (Freon R32, azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane with pentafluoroethane (Freon 410A and freon-ammonium mixture. Extracts obtained with the latter were subjected to further fractionation by liquidliquid separation into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-alcohol phases. Besides, the supercritical СО2 extract, obtained from the herbal drug under rather strong conditions (at temperature 60°С and pressure 400 bar, was studied in our previous research. Presence of phenolic BAS and their quantity in the researched samples were determined by method of HPLC with UVspectrometric detection. Results and discussion: It has been found that Freon R22 extracted trace amounts of rutin from lime flowers – its content was only 0.08% of the total extract weight. On the other hand, Freons R32 and R410А showed good selectivity to moderately polar BAS of lime flowers (derivatives of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids: in particular, the extract obtained with freon R32 contained about 1.3% of the total phenolic substances, and it was the only one of the investigated condensed gases used by us which took the basic flavonoid of lime flowers tiliroside – its content was 0.42% of extract weight. Also Freons R32 and R410А were able to withdraw another compound dominating among phenolic substances in the yielded extracts. Its quantity was rather noticeable – up to 0.87% of extract weight. This substance was not identified by existing database, but its UV-spectrum was similar to those of

  11. PCM-enhanced lime plasters for vernacular and contemporary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Kyriakou, Loucas; Ioannou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    In 1997, the European Union (EU) pledged to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below the levels of 1990 by the end of 2020. In recent years it has become evident that, in order to reach that goal, EU Member States must take measures to encourage sustainability in the building industry, which is a major energy consumer. Such measures should involve the use of innovative, environmentally friendly materials and methods in new constructions, as well as the renovation of existing properties by upgrading their current state of energy efficiency. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have the ability to absorb and release thermal energy, in the form of latent heat, during the melting or solidifying processes respectively. Thus, they may be used as additives in the production of thermally efficient composite building materials. A PCM-enhanced plaster is a heat storage medium combining an appropriate PCM with a cementitious or non-cementitious matrix to produce a low-cost thermal storage material with structural and thermostatic properties. Although innovative technologies, such as PCMs, have certainly contributed to the boost in the evolution of the building materials industry in recent years, a significant proportion of these technologies and practices have not yet been fully exploited in materials based on traditional principles. This paper focuses on the design and production of novel cementless PCM-enhanced lime plasters, in line with the traditional production technology of lime composites. The new plasters are produced using either hydrated or natural hydraulic lime binder, crushed calcarenite sand (0-2 mm) and commercial microencapsulated PCM in powder form (5% w/w of solids). Results from comparative tests between reference mixtures and mixtures with the addition of PCM, carried out 28, 56 and 90 days after laboratory production, prove the potential of PCMs in enhancing the thermal performance of traditional lime-based composites. The modified composites

  12. Hydration products of lime-metakaolin pastes at ambient temperature with ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gameiro, A., E-mail: agameiro@lnec.pt [National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Materials Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Silva, A., E-mail: ssilva@lnec.pt [National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Materials Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal); Veiga, R., E-mail: rveiga@lnec.pt [National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Buildings Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal); Velosa, A., E-mail: avelosa@ua.pt [Department of Civil Engineering, Geobiotec, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-05-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the compounds formed in lime/MK blended pastes and their stability over time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different mixes of lime/MK pastes show different reaction kinetics during curing time, being the pozzolanic compounds formed directly proportional to the lime by MK replacement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some pozzolanic products are found to be unstable during the hydration reaction employed in our study. - Abstract: Mortars constituted of lime mixtures with pozzolanic additions have been extensively used in the past for the construction of historic and traditional buildings. This paper presents the results of blended pastes of lime and metakaolin (MK), namely compounds formed and their stability over time. This research is part of an extensive study aiming at the formulation of lime based mortars for restoration purposes. It has been shown for several years that MK has been applied in inorganic binders due to its capacity to react vigorously with calcium hydroxide (CH). In the presence of water originating a series of major hydrated phases, namely tetra calcium aluminate hydrate (C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}), calcium silicates hydrates (CSH) and calcium aluminium silicate hydrates (stratlingite - C{sub 2}ASH{sub 8}). Several blended pastes of lime and MK, with different substitution rates of lime by MK (wt%) were prepared and cured at a temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C and relative humidity RH > 95%. The phase composition of the formed hydrated phases was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The obtained results showed that lime/MK pastes compositions displayed different reaction kinetics during curing time, being the pozzolanic products content directly proportional to the substitution rate of lime by MK. Also, a relationship between the increase stratlingite content and the MK substitution rate of lime by MK was found.

  13. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  14. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Ana P D; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rigonato, Janaina; Machineski, Gabriela Silva; Souza, Bruno C E; Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Fiore, Marli F

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii . This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  15. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  16. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Heli Cheng; Huaiyu Zhan; Shiyu Fu; Lucian A. Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature) affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The...

  17. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  18. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Ana P. D.; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rigonato, Janaina; Machineski, Gabriela Silva; Souza, Bruno C. E.; Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende-Filho, Ary T.; Fiore, Marli F.

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes. PMID:29520256

  19. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. D. Andreote

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600 potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake. The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  20. Lime and fertilizer recommendation system for coconut trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nogueira Guedes Pereira Rosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendation to most agricultural crops is based on response curves. Such curves are constructed from field experimental data, obtained for a particular condition and may not be reliable to be applied to other regions. The aim of this study was to develop a Lime and Fertilizer Recommendation System for Coconut Crop based on the nutritional balance. The System considers the expected productivity and plant nutrient use efficiency to estimate nutrient demand, and effective rooting layer, soil nutrient availability, as well as any other nutrient input to estimate the nutrient supply. Comparing the nutrient demand with the nutrient supply the System defines the nutrient balance. If the balance for a given nutrient is negative, lime and, or, fertilization is recommended. On the other hand, if the balance is positive, no lime or fertilizer is needed. For coconut trees, the fertilization regime is divided in three stages: fertilization at the planting spot, band fertilization and fertilization at the production phase. The data set for the development of the System for coconut trees was obtained from the literature. The recommendations generated by the System were compared to those derived from recommendation tables used for coconut crop in Brazil. The main differences between the two procedures were for the P rate applied in the planting hole, which was higher in the proposed System because the tables do not pay heed to the pit volume, whereas the N and K rates were lower. The crop demand for K is very high, and the rates recommended by the System are superior to the table recommendations for the formation and initial production stage. The fertilizer recommendations by the System are higher for the phase of coconut tree growth as compared to the production phase, because greater amount of biomass is produced in the first phase.

  1. Mechanisms underlying recovery of zooplankton in Lake Orta after liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Piscia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of the large-scale mechanisms underlying the recovery of the zooplankton of Lake Orta from historical contamination, following reduced input of ammonia and metals and the subsequent 1989/90 liming intervention. The industrial pollution had been severe and long-lasting (1929-1990. Zooplankton biodiversity has improved, but most of the new taxa appearing in our counts are rotifers, while many calanoids and the large cladoceran predators (Bythotrephes and Leptodora that are common in the nearby Lake Maggiore, were still absent from Lake Orta 17 years after liming. To aid understanding of the large-scale mechanisms controlling changes in annual richness, we assessed the annual persistence (P of Crustacea and Rotifera taxa as an estimator of whether propagules that survived introduction, as result of the natural recolonization process, also thrived. We found that the rate of introduction of zooplankton colonists and their persistence in the water column of Lake Orta changed from 1971 to 2007. New rotifer taxa appeared in the lake after the mid-1980s, when discharge of toxic substances decreased, but their annual persistence was low (P<0.5 until the turn of the century. The numerical values of rotifer and crustacean persistence in Lake Orta were unexpectedly high in 2001 and 2007 (0.55 and 0.72 for rotifers, 0.85 and 0.86 for crustacean, respectively, much higher than in limed lakes in Sudbury, Canada, and in adjacent Lake Maggiore. We hypothesize this could be related to the lack of Cladoceran predators and zooplanktivorous fish in the pelagic waters of Lake Orta.

  2. CCD camera eases the control of a soda recovery boiler; CCD-kamera helpottaa soodakattilan valvontaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-07-01

    Fortum Technology has developed a CCD firebox camera, based on semiconductor technology, enduring hard conditions of soda recovery boiler longer than traditional cameras. The firebox camera air- cooled and the same air is pressed over the main lens so it remains clean despite of the alkaline liquor splashing around in the boiler. The image of the boiler is transferred through the main lens, image transfer lens and a special filter, mounted inside the camera tube, into the CCD camera. The first CCD camera system has been in use since 1999 in Sunila pulp mill in Kotka, owned by Myllykoski Oy and Enso Oyj. The mill has two medium-sized soda recovery boilers. The amount of black liquor, formed daily, is about 2000 tons DS, which is more than enough for the heat generation. Even electric power generation exceeds sometimes the demand, so the surplus power can be sold out. Black liquor is sprayed inside the soda recovery boiler with high pressure. The liquor form droplets in the boiler, the temperature of which is over 1000 deg C. A full-hot pile is formed at the bottom of the boiler after burning. The size and shape of the pile effect on the efficiency and the emissions of the boiler. The camera has operated well.

  3. Revisiting tropical instability wave variability in the Atlantic ocean using SODA reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Decco, Hatsue Takanaca; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Landau, Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of energy exchange in Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) in the Atlantic Ocean were investigated. A spectral analysis was used to filter the 5-day mean results from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis spanning from 1958 to 2008. TIWs were filtered over periods of 15 to 60 days and between wavelengths of 4 and 20 longitude degrees. The main approach of this study was the use of bidirectionally filtered TIW time series as the perturbation fields, and the difference in these time series from the SODA total results was considered to be the basic state for energetics analysis. The main result was that the annual cycle (period of 360 days) was the main source of variability of the waves, and the semi-annual cycle (period of 180 days) was a secondary variation, which indicated that TIWs occurred throughout the year but with intensity that varies seasonally. In SODA, barotropic instability acts as the mechanism that feeds and extracts energy to/from TIWs at equatorial Atlantic. Baroclinic instability is the main mechanism that extracts energy from TIWs to the equatorial circulation north of the Equator. All TIW patterns of variability were observed western of 10° W. The present study reveals new evidences regarding TIW variability and suggests that future investigations should include a detailed description of TIW dynamics as part of Atlantic Ocean equatorial circulation.

  4. The motivational benefits of a dentifrice containing baking soda and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, S L; Kugel, G; Truelove, R B; Nelson, B J; Cancro, L P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two family practice dentists, in a large metropolitan area, were recruited to act as independent examiners in a study to evaluate the compliance of their patients to accept a good oral hygiene regimen with the use of a fluoride dentifrice, containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda, dispensed from a dual dispensing package. To evaluate compliance, the dentists attended an orientation seminar and were trained to assess gingival health using the CPITN periodontal probe. Each dentist evaluated the gingival health status of five to seven of his own patients, initially and after one and three months of product use following hygiene instruction and product assignment. One-hundred and thirty-one patients successfully completed the study. After one month of using the hydrogen peroxide/baking soda toothpaste, the mean reduction in bleeding sites was 53%; at three months the reduction was 62%. The hydrogen peroxide/baking soda dentifrice was well accepted by dentist and patient, and a discernible improvement in oral health of the patients was achieved when the product was used in a conscientious oral hygiene program.

  5. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  6. Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumak, Hasan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Ucar, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey); Seyidbekiroglu, Nesim [Agricultural Machinery Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Amount of traditional fuel sources in the world has been decreasing and there is a definite need to produce and utilize alternative fuels such as biomass materials. In this study, briquetting conditions of Russian tumbleweed, Salsola tragus, (commonly named soda weed in Turkey) which grows in salty soils were investigated. Soda weeds were first chopped coarsely in a local tresher, then chopped finely in a hammer mill. Weed materials at three moisture levels (7%, 10%, and 13%) were prepared in the lab. Chopped weed materials were filled in cylindrical and square dies and compressed using a hydraulic press at three pressure levels of 15.7, 19.6 and 31.4 MPa. Optimum temperature, moisture rate, and pressure values were determined to produce stable briquettes. Further experiments were conducted to produce briquettes using sawdust and walnut shells as additives in conical dies of two different sizes. Results of a statistical analysis of parameters to produce briquettes in different dies indicated that moisture rates of 7-10%, pressure of 31.4 MPa, and temperatures of 85-105 C were suitable for briquetting soda weed. Furthermore, sawdust and walnut shells additives increased briquette density without any negative effects on production process and product stability. (author)

  7. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N.; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue

  8. Soda-anthraquinone, kraft and organosolv pulping of holm oak trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaejos, J; López, F; Eugenio, M E; Tapias, R

    2006-11-01

    The operating conditions for an organosolv (ethyleneglycol) and two alkaline (soda-anthraquinone and kraft) processes for obtaining cellulose pulp and paper from holm oak (Quercus ilex) wood trimmings were optimized. A range of variation for each process variable (viz. temperature, cooking time and soda or ethyleneglycol concentration) was established and a central composite experimental design involving three independent variables at three different variation levels was applied. The results obtained with the three cooking processes used were compared and those provided by the kraft process were found to be the best. Thus, the tensile index values it provided (5.9-16.3 N m/g) were 23.7% and 41.5% better than those obtained with the soda-AQ and ethyleneglycol processes, respectively. Also, the kraft process provided the best burst index, brightness and kappa number values. Based on the optimum working ranges, the temperature and cooking time were the variables resulting in the most and least marked changes, respectively, in pulp properties.

  9. Autoclaved Sand-Lime Products with a Polypropylene Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Paulina; Stępień, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on modifications of silicate bricks with a polypropylene mesh and their influence on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of such bricks. The main goal of the paper was to determine effects of the polypropylene mesh on sand-lime product parameters. The analysis has focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density and structural features of the material. The obtained product is characterized by improved basic performance characteristics compared to traditional silicate products. Using the polypropylene mesh increased compressive strength by 25% while decreasing the product density. The modified products retain their form and do not disintegrate after losing their bearing capacity.

  10. Pore structure and carbonation in blended lime-cement pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, J. I.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to gain a fuller understandingof the curing process in lime pastes (100, 90, 80, 70,60, 50 and 40% lime blended with cement by analyzingcarbonation in these materials. A hydrated, airslaked lime powder and CEM II A/L 32.5 Portlandcement were used for the blends. These materialswere singled out for research primarily because theymay be used in the restoration of heritage monuments.Variation in weight was used as an indicator for carbonation.A new parameter, A, was found to vary inverselywith the percentage of the cement because of theprevalence of Knudsen diffusion in the paste, in turndue to the characteristics of the pore structure, whichwas studied by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP.The hygroscopic study conducted on the different pastesprovided information on water content at a givenhumidity and its location, i.e., adsorbed on the surfaceof the pores or condensed inside them, obstructing thediffusion of CO2. The conclusion drawn from this studyof the curing process was that neither drying nor C3Shydration retarded lime carbonation.En este trabajo se estudia el proceso de carbonatacionen pastas mixtas de cal y cemento (100, 90, 80, 70, 60,50 y 40% de cal con el objeto de obtener un mejorconocimiento del proceso de curado en estos materiales.Para ello se ha empleado una cal aerea hidratada en polvoy un cemento Portland del tipo CEM II A/L 32,5. Enparticular, este estudio investiga estos materiales ya quepueden ser utilizados en la restauracion del PatrimonioCultural. Se ha utilizado la variacion de peso como indicadordel proceso de carbonatacion. Se ha establecidoun nuevo parametro, A, que varia inversamente con elporcentaje de cemento en la pasta, debido al predominiode la difusion de Knudsen como consecuencia de laestructura porosa, que ha sido estudiada por medio deporosimetria de intrusion de mercurio (PIM. El estudiohigroscopico realizado sobre las diversas pastas permiteconocer el contenido en agua a una

  11. Lime stabilization of fine-grained sediments in western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Skels, Peteris

    2011-01-01

    Thick deposits of fine-grained marine sediments exist in large areas of western Greenland. Many places these sediments are located above sea-level, and now complicate construction projects in urban areas. The mineralogy of the fine-grained sediments is very different from European sediments, mainly...... due to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability and strength properties. This project includes laboratory studies of lime stabilization on fine-grained marine sediments from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The results have included...

  12. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  13. Self-healing of lime based mortars : Microscopy observations on case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Lime mortars have, up to a certain extent, a self-healing capacity which may contribute to their durability. Self-healing in lime mortars consists of a process of dissolution, transport and re-precipitation of calcium compounds to heal cracks and fissures. The spontaneous occurrence of self-healing

  14. Lime Stabilization of Fine-Grained Greenlandic Sediments in Relation to Construction Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Hans Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability of the fine-grained sediments. This presentation will include results of laboratory studies of lime stabilization on a clay soil from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The result includes tests...... of the optimum lime mixture in relation to both reaction time and temperature influence....

  15. Self-healing of lime based mortars: Microscopy observations on case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; Nijland, T.G.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2011-01-01

    Lime mortars have, up to a certain extent, a self-healing capacity which may contribute to their durability. Self-healing in lime mortars consists of a process of dissolution, transport and re-precipitation of calcium compounds to heal cracks and fissures. The spontaneous occurrence of self-healing

  16. 77 FR 45715 - Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2009-0116] Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of... Lime Air Corporation fit, willing, and able, and awarding it a Commuter Air Carrier Authorization...

  17. The effect of reuse of unhairing-liming residual floats through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Key words: Unhairing-liming process, reusing, leather industry, environment, bacterial and fungal numbers. INTRODUCTION .... 4.0 x101. -: No growth. Chemical analysis of samples. Chemical analyses of sodium sulphide and lime were done for the regeneration of ULP residual liquors. While preparing ...

  18. Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Zacharopoulou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is the compilation, review and dissemination of updated scientific knowledge on lime theory and technology in the field of heritage conservation. The strong evidence of the last decade's research on the positive effect of the - not demonstrable by a chemical equation – 'key' missing link of the maturation process is highlighted. It is demonstrated that the exceptional perfor -mance characteristics of durable lime based mortars predominately rely on the capacity for rapid, efficient and extensive carbonation of the air-hardening phase of limes, in particular when matured (nanoparticle wet slaked lime putties are used; and on the chemical and mechanical stability of the strength components (principally CSHs of the hydraulic phase of limes, which is higher in their more crystalline forms of historical lime-pozzolan mixtures than in their amorphous forms of modern cements. Hence, physicochemical adhesion and cohesion bonds both at the lime matrix and at the binder/aggregate interfaces are ensured imparting minimization of cracks and durability to lime based mortars and historic masonries. The comprehensive documentation of the former leads to optimal materials and procedures to preserve our cultural heritage.

  19. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  20. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity assays of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent for lime anthracnose in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several distorted Mexican lime [Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm). Swingle] fruit, leaf, and twig samples with lime anthracnose symptoms were collected from three trees in residential areas of Brownsville, Texas. The causal fungal organism, Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds was isolated from leave...