Sample records for sod beling rolled

  1. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010

    Coleman, P. G.


    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  2. Beleženje delovnega časa z uporabo tehnologije RFID



    Za beleženje delovnega časa zaposlenih se v podjetjih in ustanovah uporabljajo različne metode. Kljub razpoložljivim sodobnih tehnologijam še vedno ponekod najdemo beleženje delovnega časa z vpisovanjem prihodov in odhodov na list papirja ali v računalniške tabele. Takšni načini niso avtomatizirani in prinašajo več slabosti kot prednosti. Na trgu obstajajo računalniško avtomatizirani sistemi za beleženje časa, a ker so ti lahko zelo dragi, se zanje manjša podjetja in ustanove odločajo le redk...

  3. Images of home in Inga Ābele's and Jaan Tätte's plays / Benedikts Kalnačs

    Kalnačs, Benedikts, 1965-


    Jaan Tätte näidendist "Ristumine peateega, ehk, Muinasjutt kuldsest kalakesest" ("The highway crossing, or, The tale of a golden fish", tuntud ka pealkirjaga "Bungee jumping" ) ja Inga Ābele näidendist "Tumedad hirved" (The dark deer")

  4. Logika vernakularne arhitekture nasproti novemu grajenemu tkivu. Bele lise prostorskega načrtovanja

    Domen Zupančič


    Full Text Available Vernakularna arhitektura je preverjena arhitektura, tako v času kot materialu in funkciji. Prikazana je sistemska napaka, ki se je pokazala ob izrednem dogodku – močni nalivi v kratkem časovnem obdobju. Načrtovanje in razvoj podeželja je proces, v katerem sodeluje množica strokovnjakov, uporabnikov prostora in ostalih uradov ter ustanov. V občini Kranjska Gora je bila komunikacija med občino, občani in strokovnim krogom intenzivna in kakovostna. Ocenjujem jo kot šolski primer pravilnega komuniciranja. Navkljub temu pa se je ob izrednem dogodku pokazalo nekaj šibkih členov v tej verigi – bele lise v matriki prostorskega načrtovanja.

  5. Simulated Impact of Land Use Dynamics on Hydrology during a 20-year-period of Beles Basin in Ethiopia

    Surur, Anwar


    Land use/cover has shown significant changes during the past three decades in Ethiopia especially in the highlands of the country. That resulted in changes in streamflows and other hydrological processes. The existing land and water resources system of the area is adversely affected due the rapid growth of population, deforestation, surface erosion and sediment transport. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of land use/cover changes in the hydrology of Beles Basin, Ethi...

  6. Metamorphoses of the main heroines of Jaan Tätte and Inga Ābele as a reflection of the century / Guna Zeltiņa

    Zeltiņa, Guna


    Jaan Tätte näidendist "Ristumine peateega, ehk, Muinasjutt kuldsest kalakesest" ("The highway crossing, or, The tale of a golden fish", tuntud ka pealkirjaga "Bungee jumping" ) ja Inga Ābele näidendist "Tumedad hirved" (The dark deer")

  7. Concentration of heavy metals n available fish species (bain, mastacembelus armatus; taki, channa punctatus and bele, glossogobius giuris) in the turag river, bangladesh

    Afrin, R.; Younus, M.D.


    This study was conducted to assess the concentration level of heavy metals in three available fish species (Bain, Mastacembelus armatus; Taki, Channa punctatus and Bele, Glossogobius giuris) of the Turag river, Bangladesh during the months from January to March, 2014. In case of bio-concentration of heavy metals in fish, the levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe ranged from 0.01-0.13 mg/kg, 0.001-0.02 mg/kg, 0.17-0.48 mg/kg, 0.30-0.74 mg/kg and 4.05-46.86 mg/kg, respectively while Hg was below detection level. These values indicate that the heavy metals were concentrated in fish flesh at a higher level than water. The highest values of Pb, Cd and Cr were found in Bain fish, Fe was found in Taki fish and Cu was found in Bele fish. Most of the heavy metals have crossed the permissible limits in fish, especially for the values of Cr, Cu and Fe. From the results of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the available fish species are harmful for their consumers. (author)

  8. Kulturens rolle

    Hasse, Cathrine


    Kulturens rolle. Herunder kulturens betydning for psykologisk teori og forskning set i lyset af den stigende globalisering og væksten i kulturmøder. Der gives eksempler fra hverdagssituationer, den pædagogiske praksis, fra indvandrerforskning, turister men også fra avisernes referater af kulturmø......Kulturens rolle. Herunder kulturens betydning for psykologisk teori og forskning set i lyset af den stigende globalisering og væksten i kulturmøder. Der gives eksempler fra hverdagssituationer, den pædagogiske praksis, fra indvandrerforskning, turister men også fra avisernes referater af...

  9. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  10. Spinal cord homogenates from SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis induce SOD1 aggregation in living cells.

    Edward Pokrishevsky

    Full Text Available Mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 can confer its misfolding on wild-type SOD1 in living cells; the propagation of misfolding can also be transmitted between cells in vitro. Recent studies identified fluorescently-tagged SOD1G85R as a promiscuous substrate that is highly prone to aggregate by a variety of templates, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we utilized several SOD1-GFP reporter proteins with G37R, G85R, or G93A mutations in SOD1. We observed that human spinal cord homogenates prepared from SOD1 familial ALS (FALS can induce significantly more intracellular reporter protein aggregation than spinal cord homogenates from sporadic ALS, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy or healthy control individuals. We also determined that the induction of reporter protein aggregation by SOD1-FALS tissue homogenates can be attenuated by incubating the cells with the SOD1 misfolding-specific antibody 3H1, or the small molecule 5-fluorouridine. Our study further implicates SOD1 as the seeding particle responsible for the spread of SOD1-FALS neurodegeneration from its initial onset site(s, and demonstrates two potential therapeutic strategies for SOD1-mediated disease. This work also comprises a medium-throughput cell-based platform of screening potential therapeutics to attenuate propagated aggregation of SOD1.

  11. Oxidized SOD1 alters proteasome activities in vitro and in the cortex of SOD1 overexpressing mice.

    Le Pecheur, Marie; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Paly, Evelyne; Farout, Luc; Friguet, Bertrand; London, Jacqueline


    Premature ageing, one of the characteristics of Down syndrome (DS), may involve oxidative stress and impairment of proteasome activity. Transgenic mice overexpressing the human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are one of the first murine models for DS and it has been shown that SOD1 overexpression might be either deleterious or beneficial. Here, we show a reduction in proteasome activities in the cortex of SOD1 transgenic mice and an associated increase in the content of oxidized SOD1 protein. As we demonstrate that in vitro oxidized SOD can inhibit purified proteasome peptidase activities, modified SOD1 might be partially responsible for proteasome inhibition shown in SOD1 transgenic mice.

  12. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    Su, Shuochen


    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  13. Ship Roll Damping Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens


    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  14. Cosmology with rolling tachyon

    Email: Abstract. We examine the possibility of rolling tachyon to play the dual role of inflaton at early epochs and dark matter at late times. We argue that enough inflation can be generated with the rolling tachyon either by invoking the large number of branes or brane world assisted inflation. However ...

  15. Origins of Rolling Friction

    Cross, Rod


    When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It…

  16. Roll force prediction of high strength steel using foil rolling theory in cold skin pass rolling

    Song, Gil Ho; Jung, Jae Chook


    Skin pass rolling is a very important process for applying a certain elongation to a strip in the cold rolling and annealing processes, which play an important role in preventing the stretching of the yield point when the material is processed. The exact prediction of the rolling force is essential for obtaining a given elongation with the steel grade and strip size. Unlike hot rolling and cold rolling, skin pass rolling is used to apply an elongation of within 2% to the strip. Under a small reduction, it is difficult to predict the rolling force because the elastic deformation behavior of the rolls is complicated and a model for predicting the rolling force has not yet been established. Nevertheless, the exact prediction of the rolling force in skin pass rolling has gained increasing importance in recent times with the rapid development of high strength steels for use in automobiles. In this study, the possibility of predicting the rolling force in skin pass rolling for producing various steel grades was examined using foil rolling theory, which is known to have similar elastic deformation behavior of rolls in the roll bite. It was found that a noncircular arc model is more accurate than a circular model in predicting the roll force of high strength steel below TS 980 MPa in skin pass rolling

  17. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    Baeteman, M.A.; Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.


    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  18. Analysis of Serum Cytokines and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of SOD1, SOD2, and CAT in Erysipelas Patients

    Charles C. Emene


    Full Text Available Increased free radical production had been documented in group A (β-hemolytic streptococcus infection cases. Comparing 71 erysipelas patients to 55 age-matched healthy individuals, we sought for CAT, SOD1, and SOD2 single polymorphism mutation (SNPs interactions with erysipelas’ predisposition and serum cytokine levels in the acute and recovery phases of erysipelas infection. Whereas female patients had a higher predisposition to erysipelas, male patients were prone to having a facial localization of the infection. The presence of SOD1 G7958, SOD2 T2734, and CAT C262 alleles was linked to erysipelas’ predisposition. T and C alleles of SOD2 T2734C individually were linked to patients with bullous and erythematous erysipelas, respectively. G and A alleles of SOD1 G7958A individually were associated with lower limbs and higher body part localizations of the infection, respectively. Serum levels of IL-1β, CCL11, IL-2Rα, CXCL9, TRAIL, PDGF-BB, and CCL4 were associated with symptoms accompanying the infection, while IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, G-CSF, and VEGF were associated with predisposition and recurrence of erysipelas. While variations of IL-1β, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, CCL5, and HGF were associated with the SOD2 T2734C SNP, variations of PDFG-BB and CCL2 were associated with the CAT C262T SNP.


    José Claudino de Lira Júnior


    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  20. Rolling at small scales

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.


    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...


    Smith, C.S.


    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  2. Person og Rolle

    Szatkowski, Janek


    Distinktionen mellem person og rolle forslås som grundlag for et præcist og anlytisk anvendeligt begreb om performativitet. Begrebet tager sigte på at beskrive enkeltindividers og gruppers kommunikation med henblik på hvordan kommunikation etableres. Performativitet gør det muligt at iagttage den...

  3. Ship Roll Motion Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens


    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  4. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1

    Margheritini, Lucia; Taraborrelli, Valeria Taraborrelli

    Margheritini and Valeria Taraborrelli( with a total of 3 day visit from the developers. Laboratory tests in irregular waves will be performed by Lucia Margheritini. The report is aimed at the first stage testing of the Rolling Cylinder wave energy device. This phase includes...

  5. S-acylation of SOD1, CCS, and a stable SOD1-CCS heterodimer in human spinal cords from ALS and non-ALS subjects.

    Antinone, Sarah E; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Ostrow, Lyle W; Roos, Raymond P; Green, William N


    Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. Here, we use the acyl resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) assay to demonstrate S-acylation of SOD1 in human post-mortem spinal cord homogenates from ALS and non-ALS subjects. Acyl-RAC further revealed that endogenous copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) is S-acylated in both human and mouse spinal cords, and in vitro in HEK293 cells. SOD1 and CCS formed a highly stable heterodimer in human spinal cord homogenates that was resistant to dissociation by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents and was not observed in vitro unless both SOD1 and CCS were overexpressed. Cysteine mutations that attenuate SOD1 maturation prevented the SOD1-CCS heterodimer formation. The degree of S-acylation was highest for SOD1-CCS heterodimers, intermediate for CCS monomers, and lowest for SOD1 monomers. Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. Furthermore, the highly stable S-acylated SOD1-CCS heterodimer may serve as a long-lived maturation intermediate in human spinal cord.

  6. Screening of a clinically and biochemically diagnosed SOD patient ...

    The disease follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and causes deficiency in the activity of sulfite oxidase, an enzyme that normally catalyzes conversion of sulfite to sulfate. Aim of the study: SOD is an underdiagnosed disorder and its diagnosis can be difficult in young infants as early clinical features and ...

  7. Rolling bearing analysis

    Harris, Tedric A


    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  8. Roll of honour

    Moxon, Suzanne


    This article gives details of the design and construction of dams selected by members of the dam construction industry for praise as feats of construction. The dams covered in the roll of honour include the dam at the Guri hydroelectric power station in Venezuela on the Caroni river, the Contra dam on the Verzrasca river in Switzerland, and the double curvature arc Ertan dam on the Yalong river in China. (UK)

  9. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation


    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  10. Successful treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis using Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD: an experimental study.

    Lefaix, J L; Delanian, S; Leplat, J J; Tricaud, Y; Martin, M; Nimrod, A; Baillet, F; Daburon, F


    To establish how far liposomal copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), respectively, reduce radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), using a well-characterized pig model of RIF permitting the design of a controlled laboratory experiment. In this model of acute localized gamma irradiation simulating accidental overexposure in humans, three groups of five large white pigs were irradiated using a collimated 192Ir source to deliver a single dose of 160 Gy onto the skin surface (100%) of the outer side of the thigh. A well-defined block of subcutaneous fibrosis involving skin and skeletal muscle developed 6 months after irradiation. One experimental group of five pigs was then injected i.m. with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Cu/Zn-SOD, twice a week for 3 weeks, and another experimental group of five was injected with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Mn-SOD, three times a week for 3 weeks. Five irradiated control pigs were injected with physiological serum. Animals were assessed for changes in the density of the palpated fibrotic block and in the dimensions of the projected cutaneous surface. Block depth was determined by ultrasound. Physical and sonographic findings were confirmed by autopsy 12-14 weeks after completing SOD injections. The density, length, width, and depth of the fibrotic block, and the areas and volume of its projected cutaneous surface were compared before treatment, 1, 3, and 6 weeks thereafter, and at autopsy, 12-14 weeks after treatment ended. The experimental animals exhibited no change in behavior and no abnormal clinical or anatomic signs. Whether they were given Cu/Zn- or Mn-SOD, significant and roughly equivalent softening and shrinking of the fibrotic block were noted in all treated animals between the first week after treatment ended and autopsy, when mean regression was 45% for length and width, 30% for depth, and 70% for area and volume. Histologic examination showed completely normal muscle and subcutaneous tissue

  11. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao


    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  12. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y


    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  13. The SOD gene family in tomato: identification, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns

    kun feng


    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutases (SODs are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum SOD-1 in the elderly

    Ren Yu'an; Lin Baoyuan


    A RIA for serum SOD-1 was performed in 168 aged subjects including 47 aged healthy subjects and 121 aged patients as well as in 35 healthy young and adult cases serving as control. The measuring results are as follows: serum SOD-1 value of 47 aged healthy subjects are 279.42 +- 89.38 μg/l, 121 aged patients are 405.10 +- 181.29 μg/l, and 35 young and adult cases are 185.80 +- 56.44 μg/l. It shows the obvious difference between the aged group and control group. It also shows the obvious difference between the aged healthy subjects and aged patients. In addition, the clinical evaluation is also discussed

  15. Defining SOD1 ALS natural history to guide therapeutic clinical trial design.

    Bali, Taha; Self, Wade; Liu, Jingxia; Siddique, Teepu; Wang, Leo H; Bird, Thomas D; Ratti, Elena; Atassi, Nazem; Boylan, Kevin B; Glass, Jonathan D; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Caress, James B; McCluskey, Leo F; Appel, Stanley H; Wymer, James P; Gibson, Summer; Zinman, Lorne; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Callaghan, Brian; McVey, April L; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Allred, Peggy; Fisher, Elena R; Lopate, Glenn; Pestronk, Alan; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Miller, Timothy M


    Understanding the natural history of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by SOD1 mutations (ALS SOD1 ) will provide key information for optimising clinical trials in this patient population. To establish an updated natural history of ALS SOD1 . Retrospective cohort study from 15 medical centres in North America evaluated records from 175 patients with ALS with genetically confirmed SOD1 mutations, cared for after the year 2000. Age of onset, survival, ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) scores and respiratory function were analysed. Patients with the A4V (Ala-Val) SOD1 mutation (SOD1 A4V ), the largest mutation population in North America with an aggressive disease progression, were distinguished from other SOD1 mutation patients (SOD1 non-A4V ) for analysis. Mean age of disease onset was 49.7±12.3 years (mean±SD) for all SOD1 patients, with no statistical significance between SOD1 A4V and SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.72, Kruskal-Wallis). Total SOD1 patient median survival was 2.7 years. Mean disease duration for all SOD1 was 4.6±6.0 and 1.4±0.7 years for SOD1 A4V . SOD1 A4V survival probability (median survival 1.2 years) was significantly decreased compared with SOD1 non-A4V (median survival 6.8 years; p<0.0001, log-rank). A statistically significant increase in ALS-FRS decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V participants (p=0.02) was observed, as well as a statistically significant increase in ALS-forced vital capacity decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.02). SOD1 A4V is an aggressive, but relatively homogeneous form of ALS. These SOD1-specific ALS natural history data will be important for the design and implementation of clinical trials in the ALS SOD1 patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  16. Roll back malaria update.


    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  17. Roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography for flexible electronics

    Maury, P.; Turkenburg, D.H.; Stroeks, N.; Giesen, P.; Barbu, I.; Meinders, E.R.; Bremen, A. van; Iosad, N.; Werf, R. van der; Onvlee, H.


    We propose a roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography tool as a way to pattern flexible PET foil with µm-resolution. As a way to overcome dimensional instability of the foil and its effect on overlay, a self-align approach was investigated, that permits to make several layers in a single lithography


    L. M. Bondarenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. About one of the causes of slip rolling is known from the second half of the 19th century, it was believed that the slip resistance appears at the place of contact due to different speeds on the arc of contact. Only in the mid-20th century it was proved that this resistance is negligible in rolling resistance. However (for some unknown reason it is ignored the fact that in practice in rolling bearings may rotate both the inner ring with a stationary outer one, and vice versa almost in equal relations. It is not taken into account the fact that the ball or roller in the rolling bearings runs the different distance along the roller path of the outer and inner bearing cages in one revolution. This fact is not taken into account in determining the calculated values for the friction coefficient of a rolling bearing reduced to the shaft. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the influence of path length on the track riding the outer and inner race of the bearing on the determination of the calculated value of the coefficient of friction of rolling bearings is given to the shaft. Methodology. The solution technique is based on the theory of plane motion of a rigid body, the theory of Hertzian contact deformation and the analytical dependencies for determination of coefficient of rolling friction. Findings. The obtained dependences on determination of rolling resistance of the balls or rollers along the bearing tracks of inner and outer bearing cages as well as path difference metering of the rolling on them allows to analytically obtain the rolling resistance and slipping for any size of bearings and different devices of bearing units. It is also possible at the design stage of rolling nodes to handle not only the design but also the content of the node. Originality. Using the analytical dependences for determination of the rolling resistance of bodies at point and line contacts, and also account for the difference in the path of the

  19. Association of the SOD2 polymorphism (Val6Ala and SOD activity with vaso-occlusive crisis and acute splenic sequestration in children with sickle cell anemia

    Isabela Cristina Cordeiro Farias


    Full Text Available The SOD2 polymorphism Val16Ala TàC influences the antioxidative response. This study investigated the association of the SOD2 polymorphism and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity with vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC and acute splenic sequestration (ASS in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. One hundred ninety-five children aged 1-9 years old were analyzed. The TC and CC genotypes were associated with lower SOD activity compared with the TT genotype (p=0.0321; p=0.0253, respectively. Furthermore, TC/CC were more frequent in patients with VOC or ASS (p=0.0285; p=0.0090, respectively. These results suggest that the SOD2 polymorphism associated with low SOD activity could be involved in SCA physiopathology.

  20. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    Sheng, Y.; Cabelli, D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.


    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O 2 - ). This behavior limits the amount of H 2 O 2 produced at high [O 2 - ]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H 2 O 2 in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O 2 - ], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn 3+ species in yeast Mn 3+ SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn 3+ species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn 3+ species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O 2 - ].

  1. Maximization of the sod peat load and treatment; Palaturpeen kuormituksen maksimointi ja kaesittely

    Erkkilae, A.; Nurmi, H.; Paappanen, T.; Frilander, P.


    The objective of this two year (1994-1995) project was to improve especially the efficiency of sod peat production, carried out using a spreading wagon, by increasing the sod peat load set for the field to value 20 kgDS/m{sup 2} (original value 10-14 kgDS/m{sup 2}), and by studying and developing a collection method for ridging and ridge processing, suitable for high-loads. The research was emphasized to laboratory tests, but some field test were also made. It was possible to increase the sod peat load most accurately to 20 kgDS/m{sup 2} by using wave-like sod peat. The drying speeds of horizontal and vertical wave-like sod peats were near to each other. The functioning of active-sod was rendered by the unevenness of the field. Production of active-sod requires less energy than production of wave-like sod. Horizontal wave-like sod was scaled using Malkov`s drying model, adjusted in cooperation with the researchers of the Russian research centre NIITP to suit better for wave-like sod peat. The best dimensions for wave were calculated for the horizontal wave-like sod using long-term weather conditions data (Pudasjaervi 1971-1990). The picking device of the ridger, developed using laboratory tests, consisted of a grid moving on the field, standing the sod up, above which there is a rotating truncheon coil which transfers the sod along the grid for further processing. The share of the fines by weight, loosened from the field during picking up the sod was 0.5 % of the sod-mass, and the losses were 11 % of the number of the sod. At the driving speed 2.9 km/h the suitable coil rotation speed was about 20 r/min, hence the rotation speed of the truncheons was twice as high as the driving speed

  2. LEDs are on a roll

    Blom, P.W.M.; Mol, A.M.B. van


    Light-emitting diodes are more efficient than conventional lighting, but high production costs limit their uptake. Organic versions that can be produced using a cheap newspaper-style 'roll-to-roll' printing process are likely to revolutionize our lighting and signage, say Paul Blom and Ton van Mol.

  3. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)


    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  4. Rolling up a Graphene Sheet

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Quintana, Mildred; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio


    Carbon Nanotubes, CNTs, have been described as rolled-up graphene layers. Matching this concept to experiments has been a great experimental challenge for it requires a method to exfoliate graphite, generate ordered and stable dangling carbon bonds, and roll up the layer without affecting the

  5. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.


    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  6. Computational design of rolling bearings

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  7. An Adaptation to Low Copper in Candida albicans Involving SOD Enzymes and the Alternative Oxidase.

    Chynna N Broxton

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is a major cytosolic cuproprotein with a small fraction residing in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS to protect against respiratory superoxide. Curiously, the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is predicted to express two cytosolic SODs including Cu/Zn containing SOD1 and manganese containing SOD3. As part of a copper starvation response, C. albicans represses SOD1 and induces the non-copper alternative SOD3. While both SOD1 and SOD3 are predicted to exist in the same cytosolic compartment, their potential role in mitochondrial oxidative stress had yet to be investigated. We show here that under copper replete conditions, a fraction of the Cu/Zn containing SOD1 localizes to the mitochondrial IMS to guard against mitochondrial superoxide. However in copper starved cells, localization of the manganese containing SOD3 is restricted to the cytosol leaving the mitochondrial IMS devoid of SOD. We observe that during copper starvation, an alternative oxidase (AOX form of respiration is induced that is not coupled to ATP synthesis but maintains mitochondrial superoxide at low levels even in the absence of IMS SOD. Surprisingly, the copper-dependent cytochrome c oxidase (COX form of respiration remains high with copper starvation. We provide evidence that repression of SOD1 during copper limitation serves to spare copper for COX and maintain COX respiration. Overall, the complex copper starvation response of C. albicans involving SOD1, SOD3 and AOX minimizes mitochondrial oxidative damage whilst maximizing COX respiration essential for fungal pathogenesis.

  8. Isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in G93A SOD1 mice overexpressing CCS protein.

    Son, Marjatta; Leary, Scot C; Romain, Nadine; Pierrel, Fabien; Winge, Dennis R; Haller, Ronald G; Elliott, Jeffrey L


    G93A SOD1 transgenic mice overexpressing CCS protein develop an accelerated disease course that is associated with enhanced mitochondrial pathology and increased mitochondrial localization of mutant SOD1. Because these results suggest an effect of mutant SOD1 on mitochondrial function, we assessed the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 and control mice. CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord demonstrates a 55% loss of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity compared with spinal cord from age-matched non-transgenic or G93A SOD1 mice. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 spinal cord shows no reduction in the activities of complex I, II, or III. Blue native gel analysis further demonstrates a marked reduction in the levels of complex IV but not of complex I, II, III, or V in spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 mice compared with non-transgenic, G93A SOD1, or CCS/WT SOD1 controls. With SDS-PAGE analysis, spinal cords from CCS/G93A SOD1 mice showed significant decreases in the levels of two structural subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, COX1 and COX5b, relative to controls. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord showed no reduction in levels of selected subunits from complexes I, II, III, or V. Heme A analyses of spinal cord further support the existence of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in CCS/G93A SOD1 mice. Collectively, these results establish that CCS/G93A SOD1 mice manifest an isolated complex IV deficiency which may underlie a substantial part of mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial cytopathy.

  9. A fused selenium-containing protein with both GPx and SOD activities

    Yu, Huijun; Ge, Yan; Wang, Ying; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoman; Zang, Tianzhu; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu; Luo, Guimin; Shen, Jiacong


    As a safeguard against oxidative stress, the balance between the main antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) was believed to be more important than any single one, for example, dual-functional SOD/CAT enzyme has been proved to have better antioxidant ability than either single enzyme. By combining traditional fusion protein technology with amino acid auxotrophic expression system, we generated a bifunctional enzyme with both GPx and SOD activities. It displayed better antioxidant ability than GPx or SOD. Such dual-functional enzymes could facilitate further studies of the cooperation of GPx and SOD and generation of better therapeutic agents

  10. Repair effects of exogenous SOD on Bacillus subtilis against gamma radiation exposure

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, E.; Fang, Liu; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhu, Jie; He, Wei; Luo, Xuegang


    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that removes free radicals from cells in many organisms. In order to further characterize these repair effects and their mechanism when subjected to radiation, Bacillus subtilis cells were exposed to gamma radiation and the cell survival rate, intracellular SOD activity, and DNA double-strand breakage were investigated. Vegetative cells of B. subtilis were irradiated by 60 Co gamma radiation at varying doses and subsequently exposed to varying levels of exogenous SOD. Standard plate-count, xanthine oxidase, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods were employed to investigate the repair effects. The results showed that the exogenous SOD could significantly improve cell survival rate and intracellular SOD activity after gamma radiation. The cell survival rate was elevated 30–87 times above levels observed in control samples. Adding exogenous SOD into gamma irradiated cells may dramatically increase intracellular SOD activity (p 60 Co γ radiation and exposed to exogenous SOD. • Adding exogenous SOD into γ-irradiated cells may dramatically increase cell survival rate. • DNA strand scission may be prevented by addition of SOD. • Exogenous SOD may have the ability to repair cell damage after γ-rays radiation

  11. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

    Dayong Ding


    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  12. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

    Sônia C. Melo


    Full Text Available Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2 of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2Δ mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet–C (UVC radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2Δ mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2Δ mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

  13. Stress and accidental defect detection on rolling mill rolls

    Auzas, J.-D.


    During the rolling mill process, rolls are submitted to high pressures that can lead to local decohesion or metallurgical changes. Both these cracks or softened areas must be detected as soon as they appear because of the risk of spalling, marks on the product, and mill wreck. These defects can be detected using the eddy current method, and particularly sensors specially developed for micro-defects detection. These sensors must be adapted to the environment of a roll grinding machine on which they must be installed. Users' schedule of conditions also require them to be attached to a wide range of eddy current generator and automatic computerized interpretation. Mill requirements for new high tech roll grades and quality lead to continuous development and improvement of the tools that will provide immediate 'go - no go' information. This paper is an update of these developments. (author)

  14. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    Staun, Jakob M.


    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL


    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  16. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  17. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.


    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  18. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    Lugt, Piet M


    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  19. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia


    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  20. ATM is required for SOD2 expression and homeostasis within the mammary gland.

    Dyer, Lisa M; Kepple, Jessica D; Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Stanton, Virginia L; Reinhard, Mary K; Backman, Lindsey R F; Streitfeld, W Scott; Babu, Nivetha Ramesh; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; McKinnon, Peter J; Brown, Kevin D


    ATM activates the NF-κB transcriptional complex in response to genotoxic and oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine if the NF-κB target gene and critical antioxidant SOD2 (MnSOD) in cultured mammary epithelium is also ATM-dependent, and what phenotypes arise from deletion of ATM and SOD2 within the mammary gland. SOD2 expression was studied in human mammary epithelial cells and MCF10A using RNAi to knockdown ATM or the NF-κB subunit RelA. To study ATM and SOD2 function in mammary glands, mouse lines containing Atm or Sod2 genes containing LoxP sites were mated with mice harboring Cre recombinase under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression, and mammary gland structure was studied using histology. SOD2 expression is ATM- and RelA-dependent, ATM knockdown renders cells sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure, and SOD mimetics partially rescue this sensitivity. Mice with germline deletion of Atm fail to develop mature mammary glands, but using a conditional knockout approach, we determined that Atm deletion significantly diminished the expression of Sod2. We also observed that these mice (termed Atm Δ/Δ ) displayed a progressive lactation defect as judged by reduced pup growth rate, aberrant lobulo-alveolar structure, diminished milk protein gene expression, and increased apoptosis within lactating glands. This phenotype appears to be linked to dysregulated Sod2 expression as mammary gland-specific deletion of Sod2 phenocopies defects observed in Atm Δ/Δ dams. We conclude that ATM is required to promote expression of SOD2 within the mammary epithelium, and that both ATM and SOD2 play a crucial role in mammary gland homeostasis.

  1. SOD1 Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation and Its Potential Implications in ALS

    Pamela Milani


    Full Text Available Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is a detoxifying enzyme localized in the cytosol, nucleus, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. The discovery that mutations in SOD1 gene cause a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS has attracted great attention, and studies to date have been mainly focused on discovering mutations in the coding region and investigation at protein level. Considering that changes in SOD1 mRNA levels have been associated with sporadic ALS (SALS, a molecular understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of SOD1 gene expression could not only unravel novel regulatory pathways that may govern cellular phenotypes and changes in diseases but also might reveal therapeutic targets and treatments. This review seeks to provide an overview of SOD1 gene structure and of the processes through which SOD1 transcription is controlled. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance to focus future researches on investigating posttranscriptional mechanisms and their relevance to ALS.

  2. Radiation damage, treatment of tumor and acute benzene toxicosis effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)

    Jiang Jiagui; Lin Xingcheng; Zhu Yuyu


    The protective effects of SOD on irradiated-mice were studied by white cell counts, determination of taurine in urine, and survival of irradiated-animals. The enzyme was protective against radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. The protective effect of SOD on patients suffered from cancer was also studied by white cell counts. The effect of SOD on white cell counts in mice of benzene toxicosis was also discussed

  3. SOD activity in cam plant kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to S02

    Zbigniew Miszalski


    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe daigremontiana CAM plants exhibit very low sensitivity to the action of sulphite dioxide. Fumigation for a week with 3 ppm SO2 leads to an increase in the dismutation rate of the oxygen radical expressed in units of SOD activity and an increase in SOD activity itself. This strong increase disappears 100 h after fumigation. A transient increase in SOD activity represents an adaptation mechanism to oxidative stress caused by SO2.

  4. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.


    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling-type tex......Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling...... layers. In these layers, extended planar dislocation boundaries are frequently found to be inclined closely to the rolling direction. The subsurface and central layers of this plate exhibit microstructures similar to those in the plate rolled with intermediate draughts. It is suggested...

  5. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes NO-dependent tyrosine residue nitration



    Full Text Available The peroxynitrite-induced nitration of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD tyrosine residue, which causes enzyme inactivation, is well established. This led to suggestions that MnSOD nitration and inactivation in vivo, detected in various diseases associated with oxidative stress and overproduction of nitric monoxide (NO, conditions which favor peroxynitrite formation, is also caused by peroxynitrite. However, our previous in vitro study demonstrated that exposure of MnSOD to NO led to NO conversion into nitrosonium (NO+ and nitroxyl (NO– species, which caused enzyme modifications and inactivation. Here it is reported that MnSOD is tyrosine nitrated upon exposure to NO, as well as that MnSOD nitration contributes to inactivation of the enzyme. Collectively, these observations provide a compelling argument supporting the generation of nitrating species in MnSOD exposed to NO and shed a new light on MnSOD tyrosine nitration and inactivation in vivo. This may represent a novel mechanism by which MnSOD protects cell from deleterious effects associated with overproduction of NO. However, extensive MnSOD modification and inactivation associated with prolonged exposure to NO will amplify the toxic effects caused by increased cell superoxide and NO levels.

  6. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

    M Assady


    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  7. A molecular chaperone activity of CCS restores the maturation of SOD1 fALS mutants.

    Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia; Banci, Lucia


    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an important metalloprotein for cellular oxidative stress defence, that is mutated in familiar variants of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (fALS). Some mutations destabilize the apo protein, leading to the formation of misfolded, toxic species. The Copper Chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) transiently interacts with SOD1 and promotes its correct maturation by transferring copper and catalyzing disulfide bond formation. By in vitro and in-cell NMR, we investigated the role of the SOD-like domain of CCS (CCS-D2). We showed that CCS-D2 forms a stable complex with zinc-bound SOD1 in human cells, that has a twofold stabilizing effect: it both prevents the accumulation of unstructured mutant SOD1 and promotes zinc binding. We further showed that CCS-D2 interacts with apo-SOD1 in vitro, suggesting that in cells CCS stabilizes mutant apo-SOD1 prior to zinc binding. Such molecular chaperone function of CCS-D2 is novel and its implications in SOD-linked fALS deserve further investigation.

  8. Structures of the G85R Variant of SOD1 in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Cao, Xiaohang; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Seetharaman, Sai V.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Strange, Richard W.; Doucette, Peter A.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Padua, Shelby; Cohlberg, Jeffrey A.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Hart, P. John (Texas-HSC); (Cal. State); (UMASS, MED); (UCLA); (Daresbury)


    Mutations in the gene encoding human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a dominant form of the progressive neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transgenic mice expressing the human G85R SOD1 variant develop paralytic symptoms concomitant with the appearance of SOD1-enriched proteinaceous inclusions in their neural tissues. The process(es) through which misfolding or aggregation of G85R SOD1 induces motor neuron toxicity is not understood. Here we present structures of the human G85R SOD1 variant determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Alterations in structure of the metal-binding loop elements relative to the wild type enzyme suggest a molecular basis for the metal ion deficiency of the G85R SOD1 protein observed in the central nervous system of transgenic mice and in purified recombinant G85R SOD1. These findings support the notion that metal-deficient and/or disulfide-reduced mutant SOD1 species contribute to toxicity in SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  9. SOD2 Activity Is not Impacted by Hyperoxia in Murine Neonatal Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells and Mice

    Anita Gupta


    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH complicates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in 25% of infants. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 is an endogenous mitochondrial antioxidant, and overexpression protects against acute lung injury in adult mice. Little is known about SOD2 in neonatal lung disease and PH. C57Bl/6 mice and isogenic SOD2+/+ and SOD2−/+ mice were placed in room air (control or 75% O2 (chronic hyperoxia, CH for 14 days. Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH was assessed by Fulton’s index. Medial wall thickness (MWT and alveolar area were assessed on formalin fixed lung sections. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC were placed in 21% or 95% O2 for 24 h. Lung and PASMC protein were analyzed for SOD2 expression and activity. Oxidative stress was measured with a mitochondrially-targeted sensor, mitoRoGFP. CH lungs have increased SOD2 expression, but unchanged activity. SOD2−/+ PASMC have decreased expression and activity at baseline, but increased SOD2 expression in hyperoxia. Hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS in SOD2+/+ and SOD2−/+ PASMC. SOD2+/+ and SOD2−/+ CH pups induced SOD2 expression, but not activity, and developed equivalent increases in RVH, MWT, and alveolar area. Since SOD2−/+ mice develop equivalent disease, this suggests other antioxidant systems may compensate for partial SOD2 expression and activity in the neonatal period during hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Comprehensive analysis to explain reduced or increased SOD1 enzymatic activity in ALS patients and their relatives.

    Keskin, Isil; Birve, Anna; Berdynski, Mariusz; Hjertkvist, Karin; Rofougaran, Reza; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Glass, Jonathan D; Marklund, Stefan L; Andersen, Peter M


    To characterise stabilities in erythrocytes of mutant SOD1 proteins, compare SOD1 enzymatic activities between patients with different genetic causes of ALS and search for underlying causes of deviant SOD1 activities in individuals lacking SOD1 mutations. Blood samples from 4072 individuals, ALS patients with or without a SOD1 mutation, family members and controls were studied. Erythrocyte SOD1 enzymatic activities normalised to haemoglobin content were determined, and effects of haemoglobin disorders on dismutation assessed. Coding SOD1 sequences were analysed by Sanger sequencing, exon copy number variations by fragment length analysis and by TaqMan Assay. Of the 44 SOD1 mutations found, 75% caused severe destabilisation of the mutant protein but in 25% it was physically stable. Mutations producing structural changes caused halved erythrocyte SOD1 activities. There were no differences in SOD1 activities between patients without a SOD1 mutation and control individuals or carriers of TBK1 mutations and C9orf72 HRE . In the low and high SOD1 activity groups no deviations were found in exon copy numbers and intron gross structures. Thalassemias and iron deficiency were associated with increased SOD1 activity/haemoglobin ratios. Adjunct erythrocyte SOD1 activity analysis reliably signals destabilising SOD1 mutations including intronic mutations that are missed by exon sequencing.

  11. Imaging of glial cell morphology, SOD1 distribution and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the ALS hSOD1G93A rat.

    Stamenković, Stefan; Dučić, Tanja; Stamenković, Vera; Kranz, Alexander; Andjus, Pavle R


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive domains of the CNS. Mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20% of familial ALS and provoke formation of intracellular aggregates and copper and zinc unbinding, leading to glial activation and neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated glial cell morphology, intracellular SOD1 distribution, and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the hSOD1 G93A transgenic rat model of ALS. Immunostaining for astrocytes, microglia and SOD1 revealed glial proliferation and progressive tissue accumulation of SOD1 in both brain regions of ALS rats starting already at the presymptomatic stage. Glial cell morphology analysis in the brainstem of ALS rats revealed astrocyte activation occurring before disease symptoms onset, followed by activation of microglia. Hippocampal ALS astrocytes exhibited an identical reactive profile, while microglial morphology was unchanged. Additionally, ALS brainstem astrocytes demonstrated progressive SOD1 accumulation in the cell body and processes, while microglial SOD1 levels were reduced and its distribution limited to distal cell processes. In the hippocampus both glial cell types exhibited SOD1 accumulation in the cell body. X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed decreased P and increased Ca, Cl, K, Ni, Cu and Zn in the brainstem, and higher levels of Cl, Ni and Cu, but lower levels of Zn in the hippocampus of symptomatic ALS rats. These results bring new insights into the glial response during disease development and progression in motor as well as in non-motor CNS structures, and indicate disturbed tissue elemental homeostasis as a prominent hallmark of disease pathology. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.


    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  13. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  14. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  15. Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control

    Yang, C.

    The results of a systematic research to solve a specific ship motion control problem, simultaneous roll damping and course keeping using the rudder are presented in this thesis. The fundamental knowledge a priori is that rudder roll damping is highly sensitive to the model uncertainty, therefore H-infinity...... theory is used to deal with the problem. The necessary mathematical tools and the H-Infinity theory as the basis of controller design are presented in Chapter 2 and 3. The mu synthesis and the D-K iteration are introduced in Chapter 3. The ship dynamics and modeling technology are discussed in Chapter 4...

  16. The effect of roll with passive segment on the planetary rolling process

    Qing-Ling Zeng


    Full Text Available In three-roll planetary rolling process, there is secondary torsion phenomenon that may lead to rolling instability. This article proposed a new idea to alleviate the secondary torsion phenomenon by dividing the secondary torsion segment out of the roll as an independent and passive one. To study the performance of the roll with passive segment, the three-dimensional finite element models of planetary rolling process using actual roll or new roll with passive segment involving elastic–plastic and thermal–mechanical coupling were established by the software ABAQUS/Explicit, and a series of analysis had been done successfully. The rolling temperature and rolling force of planetary mill were in good agreement with the measured results, which indicated that the finite element method would supply important reference merit for three-dimensional thermo-mechanical simulation of the three-roll planetary rolling process. Comparing the simulation results of the two models, the results indicated that the change in the roll structure had just a little influence on the metal deformation, temperature, and rolling force, but it lessened the secondary torsion deformation effectively and improved the outside roundness of the rolled tube slightly. The research provided a new idea for the roll design of three-roll planetary mill (PSW.

  17. TFE-induced local unfolding and fibrillation of SOD1: bridging the experiment and simulation studies.

    Kumar, Vijay; Prakash, Amresh; Pandey, Preeti; Lynn, Andrew M; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz


    Misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is involved in the neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Many studies have shown that metal-depleted, monomeric form of SOD1 displays substantial local unfolding dynamics and is the precursor for aggregation. Here, we have studied the structure and dynamics of different apo monomeric SOD1 variants associated with unfolding and aggregation in aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE) through experiments and simulation. TFE induces partially unfolded β-sheet-rich extended conformations in these SOD1 variants, which subsequently develops aggregates with fibril-like characteristics. Fibrillation was achieved more easily in disulfide-reduced monomeric SOD1 when compared with wild-type and mutant monomeric SOD1. At higher concentrations of TFE, a native-like structure with the increase in α-helical content was observed. The molecular dynamics simulation results illustrate distinct structural dynamics for different regions of SOD1 variants and show uniform local unfolding of β-strands. The strands protected by the zinc-binding and electrostatic loops were found to unfold first in 20% (v/v) TFE, leading to a partial unfolding of β-strands 4, 5, and 6 which are prone to aggregation. Our results thus shed light on the role of local unfolding and conformational dynamics in SOD1 misfolding and aggregation. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cu/Zn SOD Gene from Gynura bicolor DC.

    Xin Xu


    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant enzyme extensively existing in eukaryote, which scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays an essential role in stress tolerance of higher plants. A full-length cDNA encoding Cu/Zn SOD was cloned from leaves of Gynura bicolor DC. by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length cDNA of Cu/Zn SOD is 924 bp and has a 681 bp open reading frame encoding 227 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that belonged to the plant SOD super family. Cu/Zn SODs of the Helianthus annuus, Mikania micrantha, and Solidago canadensis var. scabra all have 86% similarity to the G. bicolor Cu/Zn SOD. Analysis of the expression of Cu/Zn SOD under different treatments revealed that Cu/Zn SOD was a stress-responsive gene, especially to 1-MCP. It indicates that the Cu/Zn SOD gene would be an important gene in the resistance to stresses and will be helpful in providing evidence for future research on underlying molecular mechanism and choosing proper postharvest treatments for G. bicolor.

  19. Overexpression of CCS in G93A-SOD1 mice leads to accelerated neurological deficits with severe mitochondrial pathology.

    Son, Marjatta; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Kawamata, Hibiki; Rajendran, Bhagya; Boyer, Philip J; Manfredi, Giovanni; Elliott, Jeffrey L


    Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been detected within spinal cord mitochondria of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, a model of familial ALS. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) provides SOD1 with copper, facilitates the conversion of immature apo-SOD1 to a mature holoform, and influences in yeast the cytosolic/mitochondrial partitioning of SOD1. To determine how CCS affects G93A-SOD1-induced disease, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing CCS and crossed them to G93A-SOD1 or wild-type SOD1 transgenic mice. Both CCS transgenic mice and CCS/wild-type-SOD1 dual transgenic mice are neurologically normal. In contrast, CCS/G93A-SOD1 dual transgenic mice develop accelerated neurological deficits, with a mean survival of 36 days, compared with 242 days for G93A-SOD1 mice. Immuno-EM and subcellular fractionation studies on the spinal cord show that G93A-SOD1 is enriched within mitochondria in the presence of CCS overexpression. Our results indicate that CCS overexpression in G93A-SOD1 mice produces severe mitochondrial pathology and accelerates disease course.

  20. Maximization and handling of sod peat loading. Final report; Palaturpeen kuormituksen maksimointi ja kaesittely. Loppuraportti

    Erkkilae, A.; Nurmi, H.; Paappanen, T.; Frilander, P.


    The objective of this two year (1994-1995) project was to improve especially the efficiency of sod peat production, carried out using spreading wagon method, by increasing the sod peat load set for the field to value 20 kgDgm{sup 2} (original value 10-14 kgDgm{sup 2}), and by studying and developing a collection method for ridging and ridge processing, suitable for high-loads. The research was emphasized to laboratory tests, but some field test were also made. Laboratory test equipment, to be mounted to peat machine simulator, were constructed, and picking-up of sod peat was tested in laboratory. It was possible to increase the sod peat load most accurately to 20 kgDgm{sup 2} by using wave-like sod peat. The picking device of the ridger consisted of a grid, standing the sod up, moving on the field. Above this there is a rotating truncheon coil which transfers the sod along the grid to further processing. The share of the fines by weight, loosened from the field during picking up of the sod was 0.5 % of the sod-mass, and the losses were 11 % of the number of the sod. At the driving speed 2.9 km/h the suitable coil rotation speed was about 20 r/min, hence the rotation speed of the truncheons was twice as high as the driving speed. A picking device, which consisted of two vertical truncheon-coils rotating into opposite directions, was constructed for collection of sod in the ridge. The operation of the device appeared to be good. While picking-up the sod in the ridge on the average 1.3 % of fines was loosened from the field with respect to the sod-mass. 41 % of the fines mixed with the ridge was sieved. The losses were on the average 3.9 % of the sod-mass. The highest measured power demand was 12 kW as the driving speed was 3.0 km/h. Collection method developed within this project, requires more field tests before commercial use

  1. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively .... rigid body rotation. The solid body rotation makes sense in the context of small Reynolds. (Re) number flows ...

  2. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Melissa S Rotunno


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoparticles Made from Co-Incubation of SOD and Glucose

    Liping Cai


    Full Text Available The attractive potential of natural superoxide dismutase (SOD in the fields of medicine and functional food is limited by its short half-life in circulation and poor permeability across the cell membrane. The nanoparticle form of SOD might overcome these limitations. However, most preparative methods have disadvantages, such as complicated operation, a variety of reagents—some of them even highly toxic—and low encapsulation efficiency or low release rate. The aim of this study is to present a simple and green approach for the preparation of SOD nanoparticles (NPs by means of co-incubation of Cu/Zn SOD with glucose. This method was designed to prepare nanoscale aggregates based on the possible inhibitory effect of Maillard reaction on heating-induced aggregation during the co-incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred during the co-incubation process. It was found that enzymatically active NPs of Cu/Zn SOD were simultaneously generated during the reaction, with an average particle size of 175.86 ± 0.71 nm, and a Zeta potential of −17.27 ± 0.59 mV, as established by the measurement of enzymatic activity, observations using field emission scanning electron microscope, and analysis of dynamic light scattering, respectively. The preparative conditions for the SOD NPs were optimized by response surface design to increase SOD activity 20.43 fold. These SOD NPs showed storage stability for 25 days and better cell uptake efficacy than natural SOD. Therefore, these NPs of SOD are expected to be a potential drug candidate or functional food factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation of nanoparticles possessing the bioactivity of the graft component protein, using the simple and green approach of co-incubation with glucose, which occurs frequently in the food industry during thermal processing.

  4. Effect of CCS on the accumulation of FALS SOD1 mutant-containing aggregates and on mitochondrial translocation of SOD1 mutants: implication of a free radical hypothesis.

    Kim, Ha Kun; Chung, Youn Wook; Chock, P Boon; Yim, Moon B


    Missense mutations of SOD1 are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through a yet-to-be identified toxic-gain-of-function. One of the proposed mechanisms involves enhanced aggregate formation. However, a recent study showed that dual transgenic mice overexpressing both G93A and CCS copper chaperone (G93A/CCS) exhibit no SOD1-positive aggregates yet show accelerated FALS symptoms with enhanced mitochondrial pathology compared to G93A mice. Using a dicistronic mRNA to simultaneously generate hSOD1 mutants, G93A, A4V and G85R, and hCCS in AAV293 cells, we revealed: (i) CCS is degraded primarily via a macroautophagy pathway. It forms a stable heterodimer with inactive G85R, and via its novel copper chaperone-independent molecular chaperone activity facilitates G85R degradation via a macroautophagy-mediated pathway. For active G93A and A4V, CCS catalyzes their maturation to form active and soluble homodimers. (ii) CCS reduces, under non-oxidative conditions, yet facilitates in the presence of H(2)O(2), mitochondrial translocation of inactive SOD1 mutants. These results, together with previous reports showing FALS SOD1 mutants enhanced free radical-generating activity, provide a mechanistic explanation for the observations with G93A/CCS dual transgenic mice and suggest that free radical generation by FALS SOD1, enhanced by CCS, may, in part, be responsible for the FALS SOD1 mutant-linked aggregation, mitochondrial translocation, and degradation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Maintenance Appointments in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M.E. Schmidt (Marie)


    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of the disrupted passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to restore a feasible rolling stock circulation. Usually, a

  6. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.


    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  7. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    Alfieri, A.; Groot, R.; Kroon, L.G.; Schrijver, A.


    Railway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling

  8. Towards roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer photonic devices

    Subbaraman, Harish; Lin, Xiaohui; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.


    Traditionally, polymer photonic devices are fabricated using clean-room processes such as photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which leads to long fabrication time, low throughput and high cost. We have utilized a novel process for fabricating polymer photonic devices using a combination of imprinting and ink jet printing methods, which provides high throughput on a variety of rigid and flexible substrates with low cost. We discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. Several metrology and instrumentation challenges involved such as availability of particulate-free high quality substrate, development and implementation of high-speed in-line and off-line inspection and diagnostic tools with adaptive control for patterned and unpatterned material films, development of reliable hardware, etc need to be addressed and overcome in order to realize a successful manufacturing process. Due to extreme resolution requirements compared to print media, the burden of software and hardware tools on the throughput also needs to be carefully determined. Moreover, the effect of web wander and variations in web speed need to accurately be determined in the design of the system hardware and software. In this paper, we show the realization of solutions for few challenges, and utilizing these solutions for developing a high-rate R2R dual stage ink-jet printer that can provide alignment accuracy of web speed of 5m/min. The development of a roll-to-roll manufacturing system for polymer photonic systems opens limitless possibilities for the deployment of high performance components in a variety of applications including communication, sensing, medicine, agriculture, energy, lighting etc.

  9. Design of a Small Scale Roll to Roll Device

    Pereira, Amon A; White, Edward; Kramer, Rebecca Krone


    In the soft robotics field, hyperelastic polymer films are used in conjunction with eutectic gallium indium to create flexible strain gages. However, rapid large scale manufacturing methods of such sensors have yet to be developed. Developing new manufacturing methods will allow for researchers to build and test new soft sensor concepts faster but also pave the way for future mass-production of these sensors for consumer or industrial consumption. One of those methods would be a Roll to...

  10. Perovskite solar cells for roll-to-roll fabrication

    Uddin Ashraf


    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cell (PSCs is considered as the game changer in emerging photovoltaics technology. The highest certified efficiency is 22% with high temperature processed (∼500 °C TiO2 based electron transport layer (ETL. High temperature process is a rudimentary hindrance towards roll-to-roll processing of PSCs on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process (<150 °C ZnO based ETL is one of the most promising candidate for large scale roll-to-roll fabrication of cells as it has nearly identical electron affinity (4.2 eV of TiO2. The mixed organic perovskite (MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 devices with Al doped ZnO (AZO ETL demonstrate average cell efficiency over 16%, which is the highest ever reported efficiency for this device configuration. The energy level alignment and related interfacial charge transport dynamics at the interface of ZnO and perovskite films and the adjacent charge transport layers are investigated. Significantly improved device stability, hysteresis free device photocurrent have been observed in MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. A systematic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency dependent capacitance spectra, surface morphology and topography characterization have been conducted to understand the role of interfacial electronic properties between perovskite and neighbouring layers in perovskite device. A standardized degradation study, interfacial electronic property and capacitive spectra analysis of aged device, have been measured to understand the enhanced device stability in mixed MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. Slow perovskite material decomposition rate and augmented device lifetime with AZO based devices have been found to be correlated with the more hydrophobic and acidic nature of AZO surface compared to pristine ZnO film.

  11. On the constant-roll inflation

    Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui


    The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.

  12. Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Liang-Liang Yin


    Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.

  13. Noziegums un sods Grama Svifta romānā "Dienas gaisma" un Fjodora Dostojevska romānā "Noziegums un sods"

    Hohlova, Marija


    Šis bakalaura darbs pēta nozieguma un soda tēmu Fjodora Dostojevska romānā "Noziegums un sods" un Grema Svifta romānā "Dienas gaisma". Darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā, kura pamatīgi aplūko nozieguma folozofiju, autore piemin integrēto pieeju nozieguma parādībai folozofijas skatījumā, kā arī analīzē nozieguma metafiziskās un socioloģiskās īpatnības uz Fjodora Dostojevska romāna "Noziegums un sods" pamata. Otrā nodaļa apraksta Fjodora Dostojevska romāna "Noziegums un sods" un Gre...

  14. Species-specific activation of Cu/Zn SOD by its CCS copper chaperone in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Gleason, Julie E; Li, Cissy X; Odeh, Hana M; Culotta, Valeria C


    Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast of important public health relevance. Virulence of C. albicans requires a copper and zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the biology of C. albicans SOD1 is poorly understood. To this end, C. albicans SOD1 activation was examined in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a eukaryotic expression system that has proven fruitful for the study of SOD1 enzymes from invertebrates, plants, and mammals. In spite of the 80% similarity between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans SOD1 molecules, C. albicans SOD1 is not active in S. cerevisiae. The SOD1 appears incapable of productive interactions with the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS1) of S. cerevisiae. C. albicans SOD1 contains a proline at position 144 predicted to dictate dependence on CCS1. By mutation of this proline, C. albicans SOD1 gained activity in S. cerevisiae, and this activity was independent of CCS1. We identified a putative CCS1 gene in C. albicans and created heterozygous and homozygous gene deletions at this locus. Loss of CCS1 resulted in loss of SOD1 activity, consistent with its role as a copper chaperone. C. albicans CCS1 also restored activity to C. albicans SOD1 expressed in S. cerevisiae. C. albicans CCS1 is well adapted for activating its partner SOD1 from C. albicans, but not SOD1 from S. cerevisiae. In spite of the high degree of homology between the SOD1 and CCS1 molecules in these two fungal species, there exists a species-specific barrier in CCS-SOD interactions which may reflect the vastly different lifestyles of the pathogenic versus the noninfectious yeast.

  15. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.


    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  16. Redox susceptibility of SOD1 mutants is associated with the differential response to CCS over-expression in vivo.

    Son, Marjatta; Fu, Qiao; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Matthews, Christina M; Elliott, Jeffrey L


    Over-expression of CCS in G93A SOD1 mice accelerates neurological disease and enhances mitochondrial pathology. We studied the effect of CCS over-expression in transgenic mice expressing G37R, G86R or L126Z SOD1 mutations in order to understand factors which influence mitochondrial dysfunction. Over-expression of CCS markedly decreased survival and produced mitochondrial vacuolation in G37R SOD1 mice but not in G86R or L126Z SOD1 mice. Moreover, CCS/G37R SOD1 spinal cord showed specific reductions in mitochondrial complex IV subunits consistent with an isolated COX deficiency, while no such reductions were detected in CCS/G86R or CCS/L126Z SOD1 mice. CCS over-expression increased the ratio of reduced to oxidized SOD1 monomers in the spinal cords of G37R SOD1 as well as G93A SOD1 mice, but did not influence the redox state of G86R or L126Z SOD1 monomers. The effects of CCS on disease are SOD1 mutation dependent and correlate with SOD1 redox susceptibility.

  17. Restoration of wet dune slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea islands : Recolonization after large-scale sod cutting

    Grootjans, AP; Everts, H; Bruin, K; Fresco, L; Grootjans, Ab P.

    The effects of sod cutting were studied in a dune area on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island of Texel. Sod cutting was carried out in a range of different dune slacks in order to restore dune slack vegetation with many endangered Red List species. Sod cutting removed approximately 96% of the soil seed

  18. Restoration of Wet Dune Slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea Islands: Recolonization After Large-Scale Sod Cutting

    Grootjans, A.P.; Everts, H.; Bruin, K.; Fresco, L.


    The effects of sod cutting were studied in a dune area on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island of Texel. Sod cutting was carried out in a range of different dune slacks in order to restore dune slack vegetation with many endangered Red List species. Sod cutting removed approximately 96% of the soil seed

  19. In yeast redistribution of Sod1 to the mitochondrial intermembrane space provides protection against respiration derived oxidative stress.

    Klöppel, Christine; Michels, Christine; Zimmer, Julia; Herrmann, Johannes M; Riemer, Jan


    The antioxidative enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) is an important cellular defence system against reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the majority of this enzyme is localized to the cytosol, about 1% of the cellular Sod1 is present in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria. These amounts of mitochondrial Sod1 are increased for certain Sod1 mutants that are linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To date, only little is known about the physiological function of mitochondrial Sod1. Here, we use the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate cells in which Sod1 is exclusively localized to the IMS. We find that IMS-localized Sod1 can functionally substitute wild type Sod1 and that it even exceeds the protective capacity of wild type Sod1 under conditions of mitochondrial ROS stress. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon expression in yeast cells the common ALS-linked mutant Sod1(G93A) becomes enriched in the mitochondrial fraction and provides an increased protection of cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. Such an effect cannot be observed for the catalytically inactive mutant Sod1(G85R). Our observations suggest that the targeting of Sod1 to the mitochondrial IMS provides an increased protection against respiration-derived ROS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of novel key residues of MnSOD enzyme and its role in ...

    avoidance mechanism and morphological changes (Flowers ... The MnSOD proteins of different species available in salinity condition with their uniprot IDs and domain information ...... relative Lycopersicon pennellii to salt-dependent oxidative.

  1. Inhibitors of SOD1 Interaction as an Approach to Slow the Progressive Spread of ALS Symptoms


    the progression of ALS caused by mutations in this protein . To accomplish this goal, we developed an assay that is based on the observation that the...force. In our assay , this force is the normal interaction that occurs when 2 individual SOD1 proteins come together to form a normal active enzyme...Using recombinant DNA, we create fusion proteins of SOD1 and each half of the luciferase enzyme. In the past year, we have characterized and optimized

  2. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Tali Gidalevitz


    Full Text Available Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles.

  3. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    Kenji Watanabe


    Full Text Available The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1 resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn seed extract (MSE contains trans-resveratrol (RSV and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1−/− fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages.

  4. Association SOD2 Polymorphism(-9C/T and Senile Cataract

    A.R. Nakhaee


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common causes of blindness around the world is cataract, which is a multifactorial eye disease and a major cause the loss lens transparency in the aging population. Oxidative stress is a major factor that often leads to cataract formation. Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS production  and antioxidant defenses, including enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. One of the defense systems against free radicals is superoxide dismutase II (Mn SOD enzyme. SOD enzyme catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anion to O2 and H2O2. Several polymorphism  have been found associated with SOD2 gene. Present study has been done to evaluaet effects of genetic polymorphism, including SOD2 C/T polymorphism in the -9 position in senile cataract patiens and normal individuals. Material and methods: in this case- control study, there are 120 patients with senile cataract and 104 healthy people. We collected 2ml of whole blood in tubes containing EDTA, and then DNA extraction was performed. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR–RFLP technique. Findings: The distribution of CC, CT, TT genotypes of SOD2 gene were 28.3%, 43.3% and 28.3% in the patient group and 24%, 48.1% and 27.9% in the healthy group, respectively. Conclusion: No significant difference in the distribution SOD2 C/T polymorphism was observed between cases and controls. 

  5. Genetic disruption of SOD1 gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs β-cell function.

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Salmon, Adam B; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Li, Mengyao; Balas, Bogdan; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Giaccari, Andrea; Reddick, Robert L; Reyna, Sara M; Weir, Gordon; Defronzo, Ralph A; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas


    Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. β-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo β-cell insulin secretion and decreased β-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow-fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to β-cell dysfunction.

  6. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  7. Decreased serum Ou/Zn sOD in children with Autism

    A.J. Russo


    Full Text Available Aim To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase concentration in autistic children and evaluate its possible relationship to GI Symptoms. Subjects and Methods Serum from 50 autistic children (31 with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectal, small bowel and/or stomach and 19 autistic children without GI disease, and 29 non autistic controls (20 age matched non autistic children with no GI disease and 9 age matched non autistic children with GI disease were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs. Results Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of autistic children were significantly lower than all non autistic controls (p < 0.0001. Serum Cu/Zn SOD of autistic children with severe GI disease was significantly lower than autistic children with no GI disease (p < 0.0001, non autistic children without GI disease (<0.0001 and non autistic children with GI disease (p = 0.0003. Discussion These results suggest an association between Cu/Zn SOD serum levels and autism, particularly autistic children with GI disease, and that the concentration of serum Cu/Zn SOD may be a useful biomarker for autistic children with severe GI disease.

  8. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    Ajamaluddin Malik


    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100% followed by testis (45%, kidney (13%, lung (11% and spleen (10%, using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%, Sus scrofa (88%, Cavia porcellus (88%, Mus musculus (88%, Macaca mulatta (87%, Pan troglodytes (87%, Homo sapiens (87%, Canis familiaris (86%, Bos taurus (86%, Pongo abelii (85% and Equus caballus (82%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and predicted structure of a putative copper-zinc SOD from the camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    Ataya, Farid S; Fouad, Dalia; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Malik, Ajamaluddin


    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  10. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD towards understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51

    Jianguo eZhu


    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release.

  11. Fluid management in roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Jain, A.; Bonnecaze, R. T.


    The key process parameters of UV roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography are identified from an analysis of the fluid, curing, and peeling dynamics. The process includes merging of droplets of imprint material, curing of the imprint material from a viscous liquid to elastic solid resist, and pattern replication and detachment of the resist from template. The time and distances on the web or rigid substrate over which these processes occur are determined as function of the physical properties of the uncured liquid, the cured solid, and the roller configuration. The upper convected Maxwell equation is used to model the viscoelastic liquid and to calculate the force on the substrate and the torque on the roller. The available exposure time is found to be the rate limiting parameter and it is O(√Rho /uo), where R is the radius of the roller, ho is minimum gap between the roller and web, and uo is the velocity of the web. The residual layer thickness of the resist should be larger than the gap between the roller and the substrate to ensure complete feature filling and optimal pattern replication. For lower residual layer thickness, the droplets may not merge to form a continuous film for pattern transfer.

  12. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene: Identificación molecular de especies de Nocardia utilizando el gen sodA.

    Sánchez-Herrera, K; Sandoval, H; Mouniee, D; Ramírez-Durán, N; Bergeron, E; Boiron, P; Sánchez-Saucedo, N; Rodríguez-Nava, V


    Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sod A gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase) has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sod A gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sod A gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp), hsp 65 (401 bp), sec A1 (494 bp), gyr B (1195 bp) and rpo B (401 bp). The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sod A genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sod A gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  13. Size and targeting to PECAM vs ICAM control endothelial delivery, internalization and protective effect of multimolecular SOD conjugates.

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muro, Silvia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Khoshnejad, Makan; Tliba, Samira; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Muzykantov, Vladimir R


    Controlled endothelial delivery of SOD may alleviate abnormal local surplus of superoxide involved in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other disease conditions. Targeting SOD to endothelial surface vs. intracellular compartments is desirable to prevent pathological effects of external vs. endogenous superoxide, respectively. Thus, SOD conjugated with antibodies to cell adhesion molecule PECAM (Ab/SOD) inhibits pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by endogenous superoxide produced in the endothelial endosomes in response to cytokines. Here we defined control of surface vs. endosomal delivery and effect of Ab/SOD, focusing on conjugate size and targeting to PECAM vs. ICAM. Ab/SOD enlargement from about 100 to 300nm enhanced amount of cell-bound SOD and protection against extracellular superoxide. In contrast, enlargement inhibited endocytosis of Ab/SOD and diminished mitigation of inflammatory signaling of endothelial superoxide. In addition to size, shape is important: endocytosis of antibody-coated spheres was more effective than that of polymorphous antibody conjugates. Further, targeting to ICAM provides higher endocytic efficacy than targeting to PECAM. ICAM-targeted Ab/SOD more effectively mitigated inflammatory signaling by intracellular superoxide in vitro and in animal models, although total uptake was inferior to that of PECAM-targeted Ab/SOD. Therefore, both geometry and targeting features of Ab/SOD conjugates control delivery to cell surface vs. endosomes for optimal protection against extracellular vs. endosomal oxidative stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining the Effect of Catechins on SOD1 Conformation and Aggregation by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Combined with Optical Spectroscopy

    Zhao, Bing; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Pi, Zifeng; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui


    The aggregation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) plays an important role in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). For the disruption of ALS progression, discovering new drugs or compounds that can prevent SOD1 aggregation is important. In this study, ESI-MS was used to investigate the interaction of catechins and SOD1. The noncovalent complex of catechins that interact with SOD1 was found and retained in the gas phase under native ESI-MS condition. The conformation changes of SOD1 after binding with catechins were also explored via traveling wave ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can stabilize SOD1 conformation against unfolding in three catechins. To further evaluate the efficacy of EGCG, we monitored the fluorescence changes of dimer E2,E2,-SOD1(apo-SOD1, E:empty) with and without ligands under denaturation conditions, and found that EGCG can inhibit apo-SOD1 aggregation. In addition, the circular dichroism spectra of the samples showed that EGCG can decrease the β-sheet content of SOD1, which can produce aggregates. These results indicated that orthogonal separation dimension in the gas-phase IM coupled with ESI-MS (ESI-IM-MS) can potentially provide insight into the interaction between SOD1 and small molecules. The advantage is that it dramatically decreases the analysis time. Meantime, optical spectroscopy techniques can be used to confirm ESI-IM-MS results. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. The real time rolling shutter

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis


    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  16. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    Krausser, P.


    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  17. ROLL OUT THE TALENT : Final project report

    Eerola, Tuomas; Tuominen, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Riitta-Liisa; Laurikainen, Marja; Mero, Niina


    The ROLL OUT THE TALENT project was born out of the desire to recognise and support the strengths of vocational students and to develop new and innovative operating models. ROLL OUT THE TALENT promoted regional cooperation between institutes and companies. The project produced operating and study path models that take into consideration the individual strengths of vocational students and the principles of lifelong learning. This is the final report of the ROLL OUT THE TALENT project, and ...

  18. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.


    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven

  19. Radiometric study of creep in ingot rolling

    Kubicek, P.; Zamyslovsky, Z.; Uherek, J.

    The radiometric study of creep during ingot rolling performed in the rolling mill of the Vitkovice Iron and Steel Works and the first results are described. Selected sites in 3 to 8 ton ingots were labelled with 2 to 3.7x10 5 Bq of 60 Co and after rolling into blocks, the transposition of the labelled sites of the ingots was investigated. The results indicate creep during rolling, local extension in certain sites under study and help to determine the inevitable bottom crop incurred in the forming. Finally, the requirements put on the radiometric apparatus for the next stages of technological research are presented. (author)


    Kaufmann, A.R.


    A method is given for quickly and efficiently hot rolling uranium metal in the upper part of the alpha phase temperature region to obtain sound bars and sheets possessing a good surface finish. The uranium metal billet is heated to a temperature in the range of 1000 deg F to 1220 deg F by immersion iii a molten lead bath. The heated billet is then passed through the rolls. The temperature is restored to the desired range between successive passes through the rolls, and the rolls are turned down approximately 0.050 inch between successive passes.

  1. Mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase (SOD2) regulates radiation resistance and radiation stress response in HeLa cells

    Hosoki, Ayaka; Yonekura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhao, Qing-Li


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the protection against radiation by SOD2. SOD2 overexpression in mitochondria enhanced the survival of HeLa S3 and T-REx HeLa cells following γ-irradiation. The levels of γH2AX significantly decreased in HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2 cells compared with those in the control cells. MitoSox TM Red assays showed that both lines of SOD2-expressing cells showed suppression of the superoxide generation in mitochondria. Furthermore, flow cytometry with a fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) revealed that the cellular levels of ROS increased in HeLa S3 cells during post-irradiation incubation, but the increase was markedly attenuated in HeLa S3/SOD2 cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, of 47,000 probe sets analyzed, 117 and 166 probes showed more than 2-fold changes after 5.5 Gy of γ-irradiation in control and HeLa S3/SOD2 cells, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed different expression profiles in irradiated control cells and irradiated SOD2-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that SOD2 protects HeLa cells against cellular effects of γ-rays through suppressing oxidative stress in irradiated cells caused by ROS generated in the mitochondria and through regulating the expression of genes which play a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Fabrication of cold-rolled bands of the alloy-ehi 702 in rolls

    Zhuchin, V.N.; Gindin, A.Sh.; Shaburov, V.E.; Vladimirov, S.M.; Sokolov, V.A.; Shavkun, V.V.; Perepelitsa, I.V.; Markov, V.V.; Naymov, E.P.; Evstaf'ev, P.P.


    The questions are discussed, connected with the manufacture of cold-rolled strip of alloy EI702 in reels from strip blanks. It has been established that in the manufacture of hot-rolled stock from EI702 slabs it is necessary to use powerful rolling equipment because of high resistance to deformation. The reel method for manufacturing EI702 alloy improves the rolled stock and increases percentage of serviceable stock, as well as the output

  3. Rolling into spatial disorientation: Simulator demonstration of the post-roll (Gillingham) illusion

    Nooij, S.A.E.; Groen, E.L.


    Introduction: Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn)


    Fitri Rokhmalia


    Full Text Available The chronic exposure of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases effected cellular influence enzymes activity SOD. This study aim to analyze the effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases against SOD and health complaint of worker in home industry petis. The method of this study was analytical observation with prospective longitudinal study with design study cross-week. Research sites of home industry petis and government Sekardangan office. The population was 2 population that were the workers of home industry petis and the administration worker of government sekardangan office in Desa Sekardangan Kabupaten Sidoarjo with some criteria that worked at male, not getting sickness asma and willing to participate in this study. Sample size had 24 persons that was taken by simple random sampling, 12 persons from each workers home industry petis and administratif worker in government sekardangan office. The analysis result shown that nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases in air effected of enzymes SOD difference before and after exposure working group and not exposed (p<0,05 using paired t-test. The effect of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases in air effected enzymes activity SOD (p<0,05 using linear regression, but health complaint was effected by enzymes activity SOD (p<0,05 using logistic regression. The conclusion of this study was exposure of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases effect increasing of enzymes activity SOD of worker at home industry petis. Otherwise, there is effect of exposure of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases to health complaints. Keywords: nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde gases, wood burning smoke, SOD, health complaints

  5. Bermudagrass sod growth and metal uptake in coal combustion by-product-amended media

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Vanags, C.P.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science


    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) include fly ash and bottom ash and are generated nationally at rates of 10{sup 8} Mg yr{sup -1}. Land applications of CCB have improved physicochemical properties of soil, yet inherent bulkiness and trace metal content of CCB often limit their use. Likewise, utilization of biosolids and manure as fertilizer can be problematic due to unfavorable nutrient ratios. A 2-yr field study evaluated environmental and technical parameters associated with CCB-organic waste utilization as growth media in turfgrass sod production. Experimental growth media formulated with CCB and organic waste and a sand-compost control mixture were uniformly spread at rates from 200 to 400 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} and sprigged with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy). Leaf clippings were collected and analyzed for total elemental content each year. In Year 2, growth media samples were collected during establishment 47 and 84 days after planting (DAP) and viable Escherichia coli organisms were quantified. At harvest (99 or 114 DAP), sod biomass and physicochemical properties of the growth media were measured. During sod propagation, micronutrient and metal content in leaf clippings varied by growth media and time. After 47 d of typical sod field management, viable E. coli pathogens were detected in only one biosolids-amended plot. No viable E. coli were measured at 84 DAP. In both years, sod biomass was greatest in media containing biosolids and fly ash. Following installation of sod, evaluations did not reveal differences by media type or application volume. Using CCB-organic waste mixes at the rates described herein is a rapid and environmentally safe method of bermudagrass sod production.

  6. Unraveling ALS due to SOD1 mutation through the combination of brain and cervical cord MRI.

    Agosta, Federica; Spinelli, Edoardo Gioele; Marjanovic, Ivan V; Stevic, Zorica; Pagani, Elisabetta; Valsasina, Paola; Salak-Djokic, Biljana; Jankovic, Milena; Lavrnic, Dragana; Kostic, Vladimir S; Filippi, Massimo


    To explore structural and functional changes of the brain and cervical cord in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to mutation in the superoxide dismutase ( SOD1 ) gene compared with sporadic ALS. Twenty patients with SOD1 ALS, 11 with sporadic ALS, and 33 healthy controls underwent clinical evaluation and brain MRI. Cortical thickness analysis, diffusion tensor MRI of the corticospinal tracts (CST) and corpus callosum, and resting-state functional connectivity were performed. Patients with ALS also underwent cervical cord MRI to evaluate cord cross-sectional area and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Patients with SOD1 ALS showed longer disease duration and slower rate of functional decline relative to those with sporadic ALS. No cortical thickness abnormalities were found in patients with ALS compared with controls. Fractional anisotropy showed that sporadic ALS patients had significant CST damage relative to both healthy controls ( p = 0.001-0.02) and SOD1-related ALS ( p = 0.05), although the latter showed alterations that were intermediate between controls and sporadic ALS. Functional hyperconnectivity of the motor cortex in the sensorimotor network was observed in patients with sporadic ALS relative to controls. Conversely, patients with SOD1 ALS showed lower cord cross-sectional area along the whole cervical cord relative to those with sporadic ALS ( p ALS showed cervical cord atrophy relative to those with sporadic ALS and a relative preservation of brain motor structural and functional networks. Neurodegeneration in SOD1 ALS is likely to occur primarily in the spinal cord. An objective and accurate estimate of spinal cord damage has potential in the future assessment of preventive SOD1 ALS therapies. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. ALS-associated mutation SOD1G93A leads to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in osteocytes.

    Wang, Huan; Yi, Jianxun; Li, Xuejun; Xiao, Yajuan; Dhakal, Kamal; Zhou, Jingsong


    While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1 G93A (G93A). Here we further provide a mechanistic understanding of the bone loss in ALS animal and cellular models. Combining mitochondrial fluorescent indicators and confocal live cell imaging, we discovered abnormalities in mitochondrial network and dynamics in primary osteocytes derived from the same ALS mouse model G93A. Those mitochondrial defects occur in ALS mice after the onset of neuromuscular symptoms, indicating that mitochondria in bone cells respond to muscle atrophy during ALS disease progression. To examine whether ALS mutation has a direct contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction independent of muscle atrophy, we evaluated mitochondrial morphology and motility in cultured osteocytes (MLO-Y4) with overexpression of mitochondrial targeted SOD1 G93A . Compared with osteocytes overexpressing the wild type SOD1 as a control, the SOD1 G93A osteocytes showed similar defects in mitochondrial network and dynamic as that of the primary osteocytes derived from the ALS mouse model. In addition, we further discovered that overexpression of SOD1 G93A enhanced the expression level of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key protein promoting mitochondrial fission activity, and reduced the expression level of optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), a key protein related to mitochondrial fusion. A specific mitochondrial fission inhibitor (Mdivi-1) partially reversed the effect of SOD1 G93A on mitochondrial network and dynamics, indicating that SOD1 G93A likely promotes

  8. Prognostic role of ‘prion-like propagation’ in SOD1-linked familial ALS: an alternative view

    Keizo eSugaya


    Full Text Available ‘Prion-like propagation’ has recently been proposed for disease spread in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Pathological SOD1 conformers are presumed to propagate via cell-to-cell transmission. In this model, the risk-based kinetics of neuronal cell loss over time appears to be represented by a sigmoidal function that reflects the kinetics of intercellular transmission. Here, we describe an alternative view of prion-like propagation in SOD1-linked ALS−its relation to disease prognosis under the protective-aggregation hypothesis. Nucleation-dependent polymerization has been widely accepted as the molecular mechanism of prion propagation. If toxic species of misfolded SOD1, as soluble oligomers, are formed as on-pathway intermediates of nucleation-dependent polymerization, further fibril extension via sequential addition of monomeric mutant SOD1 would be protective against neurodegeneration. This is because the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, which serve as precursor of nucleation and toxic species of mutant SOD1, would decline in proportion to the extent of aggregation. The nucleation process requires that native conformers exist in an unfolded state that may result from escaping the cellular protein quality control machinery. However, prion-like propagation−SOD1 aggregated form self-propagates by imposing its altered conformation on normal SOD1−appears to antagonize the protective role of aggregate growth. The cross-seeding reaction with normal SOD1 would lead to a failure to reduce the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, resulting in continuous nucleation and subsequent generation of toxic species, and influence disease prognosis. In this alternative view, the kinetics of neuronal loss appears to be represented by an exponential function, with decreasing risk reflecting the protective role of aggregate and the potential for cross-seeding reactions between

  9. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

    Akira Marine


    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  10. Stability of Seven Days Sample Storage of Erythrocyte’s SOD and Blood’s GPx

    Miswar Fattah


    Full Text Available The research was about SOD erythrocyte activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 which centrifuged at room temperature (22.5 0C and storage temperature (-80 0C, SOD activities at day-0 which centrifuged at 4 0C, SOD whole blood activities with one day incubated at 2-8 0C and GPx activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 with 2–8 0C storage temperature. Laboratory analysis were performed by using reagent from Randox Laboratories, and Hitachi 917 analyzer from Boehringer Mannheim. SOD activities were measured at 505 nm absorbance meanwhile 340 nm absorbance is used to measure GPx. Data was analyzed by using t-test method and showed that SOD activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 with room temperature centrifuged had no significant differences. Significant differences are found at day-0 with centrifuged at 4 0C and one day incubated whole blood at 2–8 0C. GPx activities at day- 3 had no significant differences. Significant differences are found at day-0,1, 5 and 7 after storage.

  11. Coal combustion by-product (CCB) utilization in turfgrass sod production

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science


    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) are produced nationwide, generating 101 Mg of waste annually. Though varied, the majority of CCB are crystalline alumino-silicate minerals. Both disposal costs of CCB and interest in alternative horticultural/agricultural production systems have increased recently. Field studies assessed the benefit of CCB and organic waste/product mixtures as supplemental soil/growth media for production of hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) sod. Growth media were applied at depths of 2 to 4 cm (200 to 400 m{sup 3}{center_dot}ha{sup -1}) and vegetatively established by sprigging. Cultural practices typical of commercial methods were employed over 99- or 114-day growth periods. Sod was monitored during these propagation cycles, then harvested, evaluated, and installed offsite in a typical lawn-establishment method. Results showed mixtures of CCB and biosolids as growth media increased yield of biomass, with both media and tissue having greater nutrient content than the control media. Volumetric water content of CCB-containing media significantly exceeded that of control media and soil included with a purchased bermudagrass sod. Once installed, sod grown on CCB-media did not differ in rooting strength from control or purchased sod. When applied as described, physicochemical characteristics of CCB-media are favorable and pose little environmental risk to soil or water resources.

  12. A Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (SOD2 Gene Polymorphism in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Flemming Pociot


    Full Text Available Interleukin I (lL-I is selectively cytotoxic to the insulin producing beta cell of pancreatic islets. This effect may be due to IL-I induced generation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Since beta cells contain low amounts of the superoxide radical scavenger enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, this may leave beta cells more susceptible to IL-I than other cell types. Genetic variation in the MnSOD locus could reflect differences in scavenger potential. We, therefore, studied possible restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs of this locus in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (100M (n= 154 and control individuals (n=178, Taql revealed a double diallelic RFLP in patients as well as in controls. No overall difference in allelic or genotype frequencies were observed between 100M patients and control individuals (p=0.11 and no significant association of any particular RFLP pattern with 100M was found. Structurally polymorphic MnSOD protein variants with altered activities have been reported. If genetic variation results in MnSOD variants with reduced activities, the MnSOD locus may still be a candidate gene for 100M susceptibility. Whether the RFLPs reported in this study reflects differences in gene expression level, protein level and/or specific activity of the protein is yet to be studied.

  13. Pengaruh variasi pemberian Snack bar ubi jalar kedelai hitam terhadap Kadar Superoksida Dismutase (SOD darah

    Fitriyono Ayustaningwarno


    Full Text Available Background: Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans is low GI, fat and calorie snack which haveantioxidant content, such as β-carotene, anthocyanin, isoflavone, and antioxidant activity, so can be an alternativesnack for patients with DM type 2. Antioxidants intake can prevent the oxidative stress that lead micro- and macrovascularcomplications in DM type 2. Antioxidant intake may preserve endogen antioxidant capacity, which is can bedetermined by analyzing SOD concentration.Objective: analyze effect variety of Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans consume to SOD concentration.Methods: experimental post-pretest research used 3 varieties of sweet potato’s color (red, yellow, and purpleinterventions. SOD concentration was analyzed by colorimetric. Statistic data was analyzed by dependent t-test andOne Way Anova.Results: No different between groups interventions Snack bar from purple, yellow or red sweet potatoes (p=0,122.Group with snack bar from purple sweet potatoes intervention has lowest SOD decreasing percentage among otherintervention groups.Conclusion: Consume snack bar form purple sweet potatoes and black soybeans can preserve SOD concentrationbetter than consume snack bar form yellow or red sweet potatoes and black soybeans

  14. Roll forming of eco-friendly stud

    Keum, Y. T.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Sim, J. K.


    In order to manufacture an eco-friendly stud, the sheared pattern is designed by the Taguchi method and expanded by the side rolls. The seven geometrical shape of sheared pattern are considered in the structural and thermal analyses to select the best functional one in terms of the durability and fire resistance of dry wall. For optimizing the size of the sheared pattern chosen, the L9 orthogonal array and smaller-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method are used. As the roll gap causes forming defects when the upper-and-lower roll type is adopted for expanding the sheared pattern, the side roll type is introduced. The stress and strain distributions obtained by the FEM simulation of roll-forming processes are utilized for the design of expanding process. The expanding process by side rolls shortens the length of expanding process and minimizes the cost of dies. Furthermore, the stud manufactured by expanding the sheared pattern of the web is an eco-friend because of the scrapless roll-forming process. In addition, compared to the conventionally roll-formed stud, the material cost is lessened about 13.6% and the weight is lightened about 15.5%.

  15. Pipe Rolling from Continuous Cast Metal

    Zhordania, I.; Chkhartishvili, I.; Lordkipanidze, J.; Melashvili, Z.; Papava, K.; Khundadze, K.


    The approach to manufacturing of high quality pipes as a result of solid and hollow billet rolling from continuous cast metal is shown. Optimal parameters of piercing, temperature of piercing and piercing rolling mill rollers speed have been experimentally established. (author)

  16. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B


    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  17. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    A. Alfieri (Arianna); R. Groot (Rutger); L.G. Kroon (Leo); A. Schrijver (Lex)


    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of

  18. Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation

    Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.


    In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.

  19. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Gładysiewicz Lech


    Full Text Available Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  20. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna


    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  1. New perspectives on constant-roll inflation

    Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro


    We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.

  2. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel


    factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated...... with a barrier material in a full roll-to-roll process using standard adhesives giving the devices excellent stability during storage and operation. The total area of processed polymer solar cell was around 60 m2 per run. The solar cells were characterised using a roll-to-roll system comprising a solar simulator...... to the cost for electricity using existing technologies the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is expected to be significantly higher than the existing technologies due to the inferior operational lifetime. The presented devices are thus competitive for consumer electronics but ill-suited for on...

  3. Mice overexpressing both non-mutated human SOD1 and mutated SOD1G93A genes: a competent experimental model for studying iron metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Anna eGajowiak


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration and loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Up to 10% of ALS cases are inherited (familial, fALS and associated with mutations, frequently in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene. Rodent transgenic models of ALS are often used to elucidate a complex pathogenesis of this disease. Of importance, both ALS patients and animals carrying mutated human SOD1 gene show symptoms of oxidative stress and iron metabolism misregulation. The aim of our study was to characterize changes in iron metabolism in one of the most commonly used models of ALS – transgenic mice overexpressing human mutated SOD1G93A gene. We analyzed the expression of iron-related genes in asymptomatic, 2-month old and symptomatic, 4-month old SOD1G93A mice. In parallel, respective age-matched mice overexpressing human non-mutated SOD1 transgene and control mice were analyzed. We demonstrate that the overexpression of both SOD1 and SOD1G93A genes account for a substantial increase in SOD1 protein levels and activity in selected tissues and that not all the changes in iron metabolism genes expression are specific for the overexpression of the mutated form of SOD1.

  4. FUS and TARDBP but not SOD1 interact in genetic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Kabashi, Edor; Bercier, Valérie; Lissouba, Alexandra; Liao, Meijiang; Brustein, Edna; Rouleau, Guy A; Drapeau, Pierre


    Mutations in the SOD1 and TARDBP genes have been commonly identified in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Recently, mutations in the Fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) were identified in familial (FALS) ALS cases and sporadic (SALS) patients. Similarly to TDP-43 (coded by TARDBP gene), FUS is an RNA binding protein. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we examined the consequences of expressing human wild-type (WT) FUS and three ALS-related mutations, as well as their interactions with TARDBP and SOD1. Knockdown of zebrafish Fus yielded a motor phenotype that could be rescued upon co-expression of wild-type human FUS. In contrast, the two most frequent ALS-related FUS mutations, R521H and R521C, unlike S57Δ, failed to rescue the knockdown phenotype, indicating loss of function. The R521H mutation caused a toxic gain of function when expressed alone, similar to the phenotype observed upon knockdown of zebrafish Fus. This phenotype was not aggravated by co-expression of both mutant human TARDBP (G348C) and FUS (R521H) or by knockdown of both zebrafish Tardbp and Fus, consistent with a common pathogenic mechanism. We also observed that WT FUS rescued the Tardbp knockdown phenotype, but not vice versa, suggesting that TARDBP acts upstream of FUS in this pathway. In addition we observed that WT SOD1 failed to rescue the phenotype observed upon overexpression of mutant TARDBP or FUS or upon knockdown of Tardbp or Fus; similarly, WT TARDBP or FUS also failed to rescue the phenotype induced by mutant SOD1 (G93A). Finally, overexpression of mutant SOD1 exacerbated the motor phenotype caused by overexpression of mutant FUS. Together our results indicate that TARDBP and FUS act in a pathogenic pathway that is independent of SOD1.

  5. FUS and TARDBP but not SOD1 interact in genetic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Edor Kabashi


    Full Text Available Mutations in the SOD1 and TARDBP genes have been commonly identified in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. Recently, mutations in the Fused in sarcoma gene (FUS were identified in familial (FALS ALS cases and sporadic (SALS patients. Similarly to TDP-43 (coded by TARDBP gene, FUS is an RNA binding protein. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio, we examined the consequences of expressing human wild-type (WT FUS and three ALS-related mutations, as well as their interactions with TARDBP and SOD1. Knockdown of zebrafish Fus yielded a motor phenotype that could be rescued upon co-expression of wild-type human FUS. In contrast, the two most frequent ALS-related FUS mutations, R521H and R521C, unlike S57Δ, failed to rescue the knockdown phenotype, indicating loss of function. The R521H mutation caused a toxic gain of function when expressed alone, similar to the phenotype observed upon knockdown of zebrafish Fus. This phenotype was not aggravated by co-expression of both mutant human TARDBP (G348C and FUS (R521H or by knockdown of both zebrafish Tardbp and Fus, consistent with a common pathogenic mechanism. We also observed that WT FUS rescued the Tardbp knockdown phenotype, but not vice versa, suggesting that TARDBP acts upstream of FUS in this pathway. In addition we observed that WT SOD1 failed to rescue the phenotype observed upon overexpression of mutant TARDBP or FUS or upon knockdown of Tardbp or Fus; similarly, WT TARDBP or FUS also failed to rescue the phenotype induced by mutant SOD1 (G93A. Finally, overexpression of mutant SOD1 exacerbated the motor phenotype caused by overexpression of mutant FUS. Together our results indicate that TARDBP and FUS act in a pathogenic pathway that is independent of SOD1.

  6. Improving enzymatic activities and thermostability of a tri-functional enzyme with SOD, catalase and cell-permeable activities.

    Luangwattananun, Piriya; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Songtawee, Napat; Bülow, Leif; Isarankura Na Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Yainoy, Sakda


    Synergistic action of major antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is known to be more effective than the action of any single enzyme. Recently, we have engineered a tri-functional enzyme, 6His-MnSOD-TAT/CAT-MnSOD (M-TAT/CM), with SOD, CAT and cell-permeable activities. The protein actively internalized into the cells and showed superior protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death over native enzymes fused with TAT. To improve its molecular size, enzymatic activity and stability, in this study, MnSOD portions of the engineered protein were replaced by CuZnSOD, which is the smallest and the most heat resistant SOD isoform. The newly engineered protein, CAT-CuZnSOD/6His-CuZnSOD-TAT (CS/S-TAT), had a 42% reduction in molecular size and an increase in SOD and CAT activities by 22% and 99%, respectively. After incubation at 70°C for 10min, the CS/S-TAT retained residual SOD activity up to 54% while SOD activity of the M-TAT/CM was completely abolished. Moreover, the protein exhibited a 5-fold improvement in half-life at 70°C. Thus, this work provides insights into the design and synthesis of a smaller but much more stable multifunctional antioxidant enzyme with ability to enter mammalian cells for further application as protective/therapeutic agent against oxidative stress-related conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi


    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ·· φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime

  8. Design and analysis of roll cage

    Angadi, Gurusangappa; Chetan, S.


    Wildlife fire fighting vehicles are used to extinguish fires in forests, in this process vehicles face falling objects like rocks, tree branches and other objects. Also due to uneven conditions of the terrain like cliff edges, uneven surfaces etc. makes the vehicle to roll over and these can cause injuries to both the driver and the operator. Roll over of a vehicle is a common incident which makes fatal injuries to the operator and also stands next to the crash accidents. In order to reduce the injury level and continuous roll over of the vehicle it is necessary to equip suitable roll cage according to standards of vehicle. In this present work roll cage for pump operator in wildfire fighting vehicle is designed and analysis is carried out in computer simulated environment when seating position of operator seated outside of the cabin. According to NFPA 1906 standards wildlife fire apparatus, Design and Test procedures that are carried out in Hyperworks maintaining SAE J1194.1983 standards. G load case, roof crush analysis and pendulum impact analysis tests are carried out on roll cage to ensure the saftey of design. These load cases are considerd to satisfy the situation faced in forest terrain. In these test procedures roll cage is analysed for stresses and deformation in various load cases. After recording results these are compared with standards mentioned in SAE J1194.1983.

  9. Import, maturation, and function of SOD1 and its copper chaperone CCS in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni


    Cu, Zn, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a ubiquitous enzyme localized in multiple cellular compartments, including mitochondria, where it concentrates in the intermembrane space (IMS). Similar to other small IMS proteins, the import and retention of SOD1 in the IMS is linked to its folding and maturation, involving the formation of critical intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds. Therefore, the cysteine residues of SOD1 play a fundamental role in its IMS localization. IMS import of SOD1 involves its copper chaperone, CCS, whose mitochondrial distribution is regulated by the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system in a redox-dependent manner: CCS promotes SOD1 maturation and retention in the IMS. The function of SOD1 in the IMS is still unknown, but it is plausible that it serves to remove superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mutations in SOD1 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whose pathologic features include mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction. Mutant SOD1 localization in the IMS is not dictated by oxygen concentration and the Mia40/Erv1 system, but is primarily dependent on aberrant protein folding and aggregation. Mutant SOD1 localization and aggregation in the IMS might cause the mitochondrial abnormalities observed in familial ALS and could play a significant role in disease pathogenesis.

  10. Misfolded SOD1 associated with motor neuron mitochondria alters mitochondrial shape and distribution prior to clinical onset.

    Christine Vande Velde

    Full Text Available Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are causative for inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A proportion of SOD1 mutant protein is misfolded onto the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria in one or more spinal cord cell types. By construction of mice in which mitochondrially targeted enhanced green fluorescent protein is selectively expressed in motor neurons, we demonstrate that axonal mitochondria of motor neurons are primary in vivo targets for misfolded SOD1. Mutant SOD1 alters axonal mitochondrial morphology and distribution, with dismutase active SOD1 causing mitochondrial clustering at the proximal side of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures within motor axons and dismutase inactive SOD1 producing aberrantly elongated axonal mitochondria beginning pre-symptomatically and increasing in severity as disease progresses. Somal mitochondria are altered by mutant SOD1, with loss of the characteristic cylindrical, networked morphology and its replacement by a less elongated, more spherical shape. These data indicate that mutant SOD1 binding to mitochondria disrupts normal mitochondrial distribution and size homeostasis as early pathogenic features of SOD1 mutant-mediated ALS.

  11. Inflationary dynamics with a smooth slow-roll to constant-roll era transition

    Odintsov, S.D. [ICREA, Passeig Luis Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Oikonomou, V.K., E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratory for Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR), Lenin Avenue 40, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we investigate the implications of having a varying second slow-roll index on the canonical scalar field inflationary dynamics. We shall be interested in cases that the second slow-roll can take small values and correspondingly large values, for limiting cases of the function that quantifies the variation of the second slow-roll index. As we demonstrate, this can naturally introduce a smooth transition between slow-roll and constant-roll eras. We discuss the theoretical implications of the mechanism we introduce and we use various illustrative examples in order to better understand the new features that the varying second slow-roll index introduces. In the examples we will present, the second slow-roll index has exponential dependence on the scalar field, and in one of these cases, the slow-roll era corresponds to a type of α-attractor inflation. Finally, we briefly discuss how the combination of slow-roll and constant-roll may lead to non-Gaussianities in the primordial perturbations.

  12. Overexpression of human SOD1 improves survival of mice susceptible to endotoxic shock

    Charchaflieh J


    Full Text Available Jean Charchaflieh,1,2 Georges I Labaze,1 Pulsar Li,1 Holly Van Remmen,3 Haekyung Lee,1 Helen Stutz,1 Arlan Richardson,3 Asher Emanuel,1 Ming Zhang1,41Department of Anesthesiology, State University of New York (SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 3Barshop Center for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 4Department of Cell Biology, State University of New York (SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, NY, USABackground: Protective effects of the antioxidant enzyme Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 against endotoxic shock have not been demonstrated in animal models. We used a murine model to investigate whether overexpression of SOD1 protects against endotoxic shock, and whether the genetic background of SOD1 affects its effective protective effects and susceptibility to endotoxic shock.Methods: Transgenic (tg mice overexpressing human SOD1 and control mice were divided into four groups based on their genetic background: (1 tg mice with mixed genetic background (tg-JAX; (2 wild-type (WT littermates of tg-JAX strain (WT-JAX; (3 tg mice with C57BL/6J background (tg-TX; (4 WT littermates of tg-TX strain (WT-TX. Activity of SOD1 in the intestine, heart, and liver of tg and control mice was confirmed using a polyacrylamide activity gel. Endotoxic shock was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Survival rates over 120 hours (mean, 95% confidence interval were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival curves.Results: Human SOD1 enzymatic activities were significantly higher in the intestine, heart, and liver of both tg strains (tg-JAX and tg-TX compared with their WT littermates (WT-JAX and WT-TX, respectively. Interestingly, the endogenous SOD1 activities in tg-JAX mice were decreased compared with their WT littermates (WT-JAX, but such aberrant changes were not

  13. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    Lindelof, Anja


    , and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music...... to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre....... Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TY - JOUR T1 - Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping...

  14. Replication of nanopits and nanopillars by roll-to-roll extrusion coating using a structured cooling roll

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten


    This paper investigates a novel, very high throughput, roll-to-roll (R2R) process for nanostructuring of polymer foils, called R2R extrusion coating. It has the potential to accelerate the integration of nanostructured materials in consumer products for a variety of applications, including optical....../height of 100 nm. The best replication was achieved in polypropylene, by running at high roller line-speed of 60 m/min, and high cooling roller temperature of 70°C. Replication in other common polymers like polyethylene and polystyrene was not possible for the parameter range used for the investigation......., technical, and functional surfaces and devices. In roll-to-roll extrusion coating, a molten polymer film is extruded through a flat die forming a melt curtain, and then laminated onto a carrier foil. The lamination occurs as the melt curtain is pressed between a cooling roller and a counter roller...

  15. Superior PSZ-SOD Gap-Fill Process Integration Using Ultra-Low Dispensation Amount in STI for 28 nm NAND Flash Memory and Beyond

    Chun Chi Lai


    Full Text Available The gap-fill performance and process of perhydropolysilazane-based inorganic spin-on dielectric (PSZ-SOD film in shallow trench isolation (STI with the ultra-low dispensation amount of PSZ-SOD solution have been investigated in this study. A PSZ-SOD film process includes liner deposition, PSZ-SOD coating, and furnace curing. For liner deposition, hydrophilic property is required to improve the contact angle and gap-fill capability of PSZ-SOD coating. Prior to PSZ-SOD coating, the additional treatment on liner surface is beneficial for the fluidity of PSZ-SOD solution. The superior film thickness uniformity and gap-fill performance of PSZ-SOD film are achieved due to the improved fluidity of PSZ-SOD solution. Following that up, the low dispensation rate of PSZ-SOD solution leads to more PSZ-SOD filling in the trenches. After PSZ-SOD coating, high thermal curing process efficiently promotes PSZ-SOD film conversion into silicon oxide. Adequate conversion from PSZ-SOD into silicon oxide further increases the etching resistance inside the trenches. Integrating the above sequence of optimized factors, void-free gap-fill and well-controlled STI recess uniformity are achieved even when the PSZ-SOD solution dispensation volume is reduced 3 to 6 times compared with conventional condition for the 28 nm node NAND flash and beyond.

  16. CuZnSOD gene expression and its relationship with anti-oxidative ...

    ... and the minimum in the LY. The proportion of gene expression was positively correlated with the anti-oxidative capacity in muscle. The expression of the CuZnSOD gene was positively correlated with meat colour and tenderness; and negatively correlated with marbling score, drip loss, cooking loss and intramuscular fat.

  17. Do Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) protect Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Active Arsenicals?

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which can be converted to water and oxygen through the action of catalase. Heterozygous mice of strain B6: 129S7-SodltmlLeb/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspr...

  18. Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mn-SOD Heterozygous Knockout Mice

    Makoto Kinoshita


    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (AHL reduces the quality of life for many elderly individuals. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, one of the antioxidant enzymes acting within the mitochondria, plays a crucial role in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS. To determine whether reduction in Mn-SOD accelerates AHL, we evaluated auditory function in Mn-SOD heterozygous knockout (HET mice and their littermate wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice by means of auditory brainstem response (ABR. Mean ABR thresholds were significantly increased at 16 months when compared to those at 4 months in both WT and HET mice, but they did not significantly differ between them at either age. The extent of hair cell loss, spiral ganglion cell density, and thickness of the stria vascularis also did not differ between WT and HET mice at either age. At 16 months, immunoreactivity of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was significantly greater in the SGC and SV in HET mice compared to WT mice, but that of 4-hydroxynonenal did not differ between them. These findings suggest that, although decrease of Mn-SOD by half may increase oxidative stress in the cochlea to some extent, it may not be sufficient to accelerate age-related cochlear damage under physiological aging process.

  19. SOD-induced changes in foraging and nesting behavior of insectivorous, cavity-nesting birds

    Kyle Apigian; Barbara Allen-Diaz


    Sudden oak death (SOD) is a tree disease caused by a recently described pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum. The disease affects dozens of plant species, but its effects are particularly pronounced in stands of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), often resulting in large stands with dead canopies and many downed trees. Such disease-...

  20. Quest for anionic MOF membranes: Continuous sod -ZMOF membrane with Co2 adsorption-driven selectivity

    Almaythalony, Bassem; Shekhah, Osama; Swaidan, Raja; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Pinnau, Ingo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    We report the fabrication of the first continuous zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) thin-film membrane. A pure phase sod-ZMOF, sodalite topology, membrane was grown and supported on a porous alumina substrate using a solvothermal

  1. Etiology and evidence of systemic acidification in SOD-affected forests of California

    Lee Klinger; Ralph Zingaro


    Pathologists investigating the widespread death of oak trees in the forest ecosystems of northern California concluded, in 2000, that the problem was due to a new plant disease, dubbed sudden oak death (SOD), which is caused by the fungal pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Since then this one organism has been the focal point of notable efforts to...

  2. Roll paper pilot. [mathematical model for predicting pilot rating of aircraft in roll task

    Naylor, F. R.; Dillow, J. D.; Hannen, R. A.


    A mathematical model for predicting the pilot rating of an aircraft in a roll task is described. The model includes: (1) the lateral-directional aircraft equations of motion; (2) a stochastic gust model; (3) a pilot model with two free parameters; and (4) a pilot rating expression that is a function of rms roll angle and the pilot lead time constant. The pilot gain and lead time constant are selected to minimize the pilot rating expression. The pilot parameters are then adjusted to provide a 20% stability margin and the adjusted pilot parameters are used to compute a roll paper pilot rating of the aircraft/gust configuration. The roll paper pilot rating was computed for 25 aircraft/gust configurations. A range of actual ratings from 2 to 9 were encountered and the roll paper pilot ratings agree quite well with the actual ratings. In addition there is good correlation between predicted and measured rms roll angle.

  3. Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft


    Lab-scale plasmonic color printing using nano-structured and subsequently metallized surfaces have been demonstrated to provide vivid colors. However, upscaling these structures for large area manufacturing is extremely challenging due to the requirement of nanometer precision of metal thickness....... In this study, we have investigated a plasmonic color meta-surface design that can be easily upscaled. We have demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of these plasmonic color surfaces by a high-speed roll-to-roll method, comprising roll-to-roll extrusion coating at 10 m min-1 creating a polymer foil having...... 100 nm deep pits of varying sub-wavelength diameter and pitch length. Subsequently this polymer foil was metallized and coated also by high-speed roll-to-roll methods. The perceived colors have high tolerance towards the thickness of the metal layer, when this thickness exceeds the depths of the pits...

  4. Rolling of molybdenum and niobium tubes on cold-rolling mill with high stiff stand

    Potapov, I N; Shejkh-Ali, A D; Filimonov, G V; Lunev, A G


    To develop the technique of tube production the process of rolling is studied and comparative evaluation of the structure formed is carried out. It is shown that billets of rods deformed by screw rolling have the improved plastic properties and are deformed on cold-rolling mill (CRM) with a high degree of reduction without defect formation. High stiff stand of the CRM permits to produce high-quality molybdenum tubes.

  5. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...... and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train...

  6. Terras: NATO õppuste roll Euroopas kasvab


    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks

  7. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    K. Sánchez-Herrera


    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  8. Oxidant production and SOD1 protein expression in single skeletal myofibers from Down syndrome mice

    Patrick M. Cowley


    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a genetic condition caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. Persons with DS exhibit pronounced muscle weakness, which also occurs in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Oxidative stress is thought to be an underlying factor in the development of DS-related pathologies including muscle dysfunction. High-levels of oxidative stress have been attributed to triplication and elevated expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; a gene located on chromosome 21. The elevated expression of SOD1 is postulated to increase production of hydrogen peroxide and cause oxidative injury and cell death. However, it is unknown whether SOD1 protein expression is associated with greater oxidant production in skeletal muscle from Ts65Dn mice. Thus, our objective was to assess levels of SOD1 expression and oxidant production in skeletal myofibers from the flexor digitorum brevis obtained from Ts65Dn and control mice. Measurements of oxidant production were obtained from myofibers loaded with 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA in the basal state and following 15 min of stimulated unloaded contraction. Ts65Dn myofibers exhibited a significant decrease in basal DCF emissions (p 0.05. Myofibers from Ts65Dn mice tended to be smaller and myonuclear domain was lower (p < 0.05. In summary, myofibers from Ts65Dn mice exhibited decreased basal DCF emissions that were coupled with elevated protein expression of SOD1. Stimulated contraction in isolated myofibers did not affect DCF emissions in either group. These findings suggest the skeletal muscle dysfunction in the adult Ts65Dn mouse is not associated with skeletal muscle oxidative stress.

  9. Disk partition function and oscillatory rolling tachyons

    Jokela, Niko; Jaervinen, Matti; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Majumder, Jaydeep


    An exact cubic open string field theory rolling tachyon solution was recently found by Kiermaier et al and Schnabl. This oscillatory solution has been argued to be related by a field redefinition to the simple exponential rolling tachyon deformation of boundary conformal theory. In the latter approach, the disk partition function takes a simple form. Out of curiosity, we compute the disk partition function for an oscillatory tachyon profile, and find that the result is nevertheless almost the same

  10. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)


    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  11. Structure directing agents induced morphology evolution and phase transition from indium-based rho- to sod-ZMOF

    Shi, Yanshu; Cairns, Amy; Liu, Yunling; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cai, Xuechao; Pang, Maolin; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    In this report, indium-based rho-and sod-ZMOFs with different morphologies and sizes were prepared. Simultaneous morphology evolution and phase transformation from porous rho-to nonporous sod-ZMOFs were reported for the first time by simply varying the concentration of structure directing agents (SDAs).

  12. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami; Deng, Shuo; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Lim, Kiat Hon; Yang, Henry; Hooi, Shing Chuan; Goh, Yaw Chong; Maciver, Sutherland K.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Yap, Celestial T.


    , and this is mediated via gelsolin's effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained

  13. Single chain variable fragment antibodies block aggregation and toxicity induced by familial ALS-linked mutant forms of SOD1.

    Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Pavlovic, John D; Koduvayur, Sujatha P; Kay, Brian K; Roos, Raymond P


    Approximately 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (known as FALS) with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and ~25% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). There is convincing evidence that mutant SOD1 (mtSOD1) kills motor neurons (MNs) because of a gain-of-function toxicity, most likely related to aggregation of mtSOD1. A number of recent reports have suggested that antibodies can be used to treat mtSOD1-induced FALS. To follow up on the use of antibodies as potential therapeutics, we generated single chain fragments of variable region antibodies (scFvs) against SOD1, and then expressed them as 'intrabodies' within a motor neuron cell line. In the present study, we describe isolation of human scFvs that interfere with mtSOD1 in vitro aggregation and toxicity. These scFvs may have therapeutic potential in sporadic ALS, as well as FALS, given that sporadic ALS may also involve abnormalities in the SOD1 protein or activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure directing agents induced morphology evolution and phase transition from indium-based rho- to sod-ZMOF

    Shi, Yanshu


    In this report, indium-based rho-and sod-ZMOFs with different morphologies and sizes were prepared. Simultaneous morphology evolution and phase transformation from porous rho-to nonporous sod-ZMOFs were reported for the first time by simply varying the concentration of structure directing agents (SDAs).

  15. Pyrimethamine significantly lowers cerebrospinal fluid Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with SOD1 mutations.

    Lange, Dale J; Shahbazi, Mona; Silani, Vincenzo; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fields, Kara G; Remanan, Rahul; Appel, Stanley H; Morelli, Claudia; Doretti, Alberto; Maderna, Luca; Messina, Stefano; Weiland, Ulrike; Marklund, Stefan L; Andersen, Peter M


    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduction prolongs survival in SOD1-transgenic animal models. Pyrimethamine produces dose-dependent SOD1 reduction in cell culture systems. A previous phase 1 trial showed pyrimethamine lowers SOD1 levels in leukocytes in patients with SOD1 mutations. This study investigated whether pyrimethamine lowered SOD1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients carrying SOD1 mutations linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS/SOD1). A multicenter (5 sites), open-label, 9-month-duration, dose-ranging study was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of pyrimethamine to lower SOD1 levels in the CSF in fALS/SOD1. All participants underwent 3 lumbar punctures, blood draw, clinical assessment of strength, motor function, quality of life, and adverse effect assessments. SOD1 levels were measured in erythrocytes and CSF. Pyrimethamine was measured in plasma and CSF. Appel ALS score, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, and McGill Quality of Life Single-Item Scale were measured at screening, visit 6, and visit 9. We enrolled 32 patients; 24 completed 6 visits (18 weeks), and 21 completed all study visits. A linear mixed effects model showed a significant reduction in CSF SOD1 at visit 6 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4-18.5) and at visit 9 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 10.5% (95% CI = 5.2-15.8). Pyrimethamine is safe and well tolerated in ALS. Pyrimethamine is capable of producing a significant reduction in total CSF SOD1 protein content in patients with ALS caused by different SOD1 mutations. Further long-term studies are warranted to assess clinical efficacy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:837-848. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  16. Roll-to-roll printed silver nanowires for increased stability of flexible ITO-free organic solar cell modules

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Roth, Bérenger; Corazza, Michael


    We report the use of roll-to-roll printed silver nanowire networks as front electrodes for fully roll-to-roll processed flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free OPV modules. We prepared devices with two types of back electrodes, a simple PEDOT:PSS back electrode and a PEDOT:PSS back electrode...

  17. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ...)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... Brazil and Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia. SUMMARY: The... Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia would be likely to lead to...

  18. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ...)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... antidumping duty investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  19. Production of Human Cu,Zn SOD with Higher Activity and Lower Toxicity in E. coli via Mutation of Free Cysteine Residues

    Kun Zhang


    Full Text Available Although, as an antioxidant enzyme, human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1 can mitigate damage to cell components caused by free radicals generated by aerobic metabolism, large-scale manufacturing and clinical use of hSOD1 are still limited by the challenge of rapid and inexpensive production of high-quality eukaryotic hSOD1 in recombinant forms. We have demonstrated previously that it is a promising strategy to increase the expression levels of soluble hSOD1 so as to increase hSOD1 yields in E. coli. In this study, a wild-type hSOD1 (wtSOD1 and three mutant SOD1s (mhSOD1s, in which free cysteines were substituted with serine, were constructed and their expression in soluble form was measured. Results show that the substitution of Cys111 (mhSOD1/C111S increased the expression of soluble hSOD1 in E. coli whereas substitution of the internal Cys6 (mhSOD1/C6S decreased it. Besides, raised levels of soluble expression led to an increase in hSOD1 yields. In addition, mhSOD1/C111S expressed at a higher soluble level showed lower toxicity and stronger whitening and antiradiation activities than those of wtSOD1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that C111S mutation in hSOD1 is an effective strategy to develop new SOD1-associated reagents and that mhSOD1/C111S is a satisfactory candidate for large-scale production.

  20. Influence of radiation damage repair inhibitor on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in different sensitive crops

    Song Daojun; Xu Dengyi; Wan Zhaoliang; He Shoulin


    The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were affected remarkably by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation and radiation damage repair inhibitor (Caf, EDTA). SOD, CAT and POD activities showed the similar change pattern in both soybean (sensitive to radiation) and Brassica napus L. (resistant to radiation) seedlings in all treatments. After reaching the maximum value, SOD activity decreased with the increase of doses. CAT activity had the same change pattern as that of SOD in soybean, while with Brassica napus L., CAT activity remained relatively steady from 300 Gy to 1000 Gy. And POD activity increased with the increase of doses. Compared with H 2 O-treatments, CaF, EDAT post-treatments obviously enhanced SOD, CAT and POD activities. With all the treatments, the three enzyme activities were higher in Brassica napus L. than those in soybean seedlings


    Emma Suryati


    Full Text Available Transformasi gen superoxide dismutase (MaSOD pada rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii menggunakan Agrobacterium tumefacient telah dilakukan secara in vitro. Transformasi gen MaSOD ke dalam genom rumput laut diharapkan dapat mengurangi cekaman oksidatif terutama yang disebabkan oleh perubahan suhu, salinitas, dan cemaran logam di perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk regenerasi rumput laut hasil introduksi gen MaSOD dan non-transgenik pada labu kultur. Regenerasi dan perbanyakan rumput laut hasil transformasi gen MaSOD dilakukan di laboratorium pada labu kultur yang diletakkan dalam “culture chamber” yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi menggunakan media kultur yang diperkaya dengan pupuk PES, Grund, Conwy, dan SSW sebagai kontrol, salinitas 20, 25, 30, 35, dan 40 g/L, pH 4, 5, 6, 7, dan 8. Intensitas cahaya antara 500-2.000 lux dengan fotoperiode terang dan gelap 8:16; 12:12; dan 16:8. Untuk merangsang pertumbuhan eksplan dilakukan pemeliharaan dengan penambahan hormon tumbuh IAA dan BAP dengan perbandingan 1:1, 1:2, dan 2:1. Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap. Evaluasi transgenik dilakukan menggunakan teknik PCR. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa sintasan yang paling tinggi diperoleh menggunakan media PES (94%, salinitas 30 g/L (90%, pH 7 (96%, intensitas cahaya pada 1.500 lux (80%, fotoperiode 12:12 (84%, komposisi ZPT dengan campuran IAA dan BAP dengan perbandingan 2:1. Hasil analisis PCR memperlihatkan K. alvarezii transgenik putatif mengandung transgen MaSOD sebanyak 78% dari hasil transformasi. Superoxide dismutase transformation (MaSOD gene of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacient has been successfully done in vitro. MaSOD genes introduced into the seaweed genome is expected to reduce oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions such as changes in temperature, salinity and metal contamination of the water. This study aimed to regenerate both the MaSOD transformed seaweed and non-transgenic in a

  2. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton


    , a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  3. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.


    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers

  4. Material-Process-Performance Relationships for Roll-to-Roll Coated PEM Electrodes

    Mauger, Scott; Neyerlin, K.C.; Stickel, Jonathan; Ulsh, Michael; More, Karren; Wood, David


    Roll-to-roll (R2R) coating is the most economical and highest throughput method for producing fuel cell electrodes. R2R coating encompasses many different methodologies to create uniform films on a moving web substrate. Here we explore two coating methods, gravure and slot die, to understand the impacts of each on film uniformity and performance.

  5. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.


    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a

  6. A Coupled Model for Work Roll Thermal Contour with Subsectional Cooling in Aluminum Strip Cold Rolling

    Shao Jian


    Full Text Available Little attention had been given to the evaluation of subsectional cooling control ability under complicated working conditions. In this paper, heat generation was calculated by using finite difference method. Strip hardening, work roll elastic deformation and elastic recovery of strip were taken into account. The mean coefficient of convective heat transfer on work roll surface was simulated by FLUENT. Calculation model had used the alternative finite difference scheme, which improved the model stability and computing speed. The simulation result shows that subsectional cooling control ability is different between different rolling passes. Positive and negative control abilities are roughly the same in the same pass. The increase of rolled length, working pressure of header and friction coefficient has positive effect on subsectional cooling control ability, and the rolling speed is on the contrary. On the beginning of the pass, when work roll surface has not reached the stable temperature, control ability of subsectional cooling is mainly affected by rolled length. The effect of mean coefficient of convective heat transfer and coefficient of friction is linear. When rolling speed is over 500 m/min, control ability of subsectional cooling becomes stable.

  7. Influences of rolling method on deformation force in cold roll-beating forming process

    Su, Yongxiang; Cui, Fengkui; Liang, Xiaoming; Li, Yan


    In process, the research object, the gear rack was selected to study the influence law of rolling method on the deformation force. By the mean of the cold roll forming finite element simulation, the variation regularity of radial and tangential deformation was analysed under different rolling methods. The variation of deformation force of the complete forming racks and the single roll during the steady state under different rolling modes was analyzed. The results show: when upbeating and down beating, radial single point average force is similar, the tangential single point average force gap is bigger, the gap of tangential single point average force is relatively large. Add itionally, the tangential force at the time of direct beating is large, and the dire ction is opposite with down beating. With directly beating, deformation force loading fast and uninstall slow. Correspondingly, with down beating, deformat ion force loading slow and uninstall fast.

  8. Research on the rolling moment in the symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling process

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, C. G.


    Research distribution the rolling moments symmetrical and asymmetrical report presents great importance both in theory and to introduce clarifications to the calculation of rolling resistance line assemblies. Clarifying individuals of metallic material deformation between the rolls single cylinder diameters act of any difference of work and analysis of advance and delay phenomena. Torque drive value for each of the rolling cylinders was done by reducing the thickness of the laminate samples, an experimental facility located in the laboratory of plastic deformation of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara. The analysis of research results show that in terms of power consumption for deformation and safety equipment in operation is rational for mills which require such a difference between the work rolls to execute about one cylinder operated.

  9. Dimensional ranges and rolling efficiency in a tandem cold rolling mill

    Larkiola, J.


    In this work, physical models and a neural network theory have been combined in order to predict the properties of a steel strip and to optimise the process parameters in cold rolling. The prediction of the deformation resistance of the material and the friction parameter is based on the physical model presented by Bland, Ford and Ellis and artificial neural network computing (ANN). The accuracy of these models has been tested and proved by using a large amount of the measured data. With the aid of these models it has been shown that (a) the small change to the relative reduction distribution can have a clear effect upon the rolling efficiency, (b) the dimensional ranges of the tandem cold roll mill can be determined and optimised and (c) the possibility to cold roll a new product of new width, strength or thickness can be determined and the parameters of the tandem cold rolling process can be optimised. (orig.) 43 refs.

  10. Biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzyme activation: implications for disease in a mouse model for ALS.

    Proescher, Jody B; Son, Marjatta; Elliott, Jeffrey L; Culotta, Valeria C


    The CCS copper chaperone is critical for maturation of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) through insertion of the copper co-factor and oxidization of an intra-subunit disulfide. The disulfide helps stabilize the SOD1 polypeptide, which can be particularly important in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) linked to misfolding of mutant SOD1. Surprisingly, however, over-expressed CCS was recently shown to greatly accelerate disease in a G93A SOD1 mouse model for ALS. Herein we show that disease in these G93A/CCS mice correlates with incomplete oxidation of the SOD1 disulfide. In the brain and spinal cord, CCS over-expression failed to enhance oxidation of the G93A SOD1 disulfide and if anything, effected some accumulation of disulfide-reduced SOD1. This effect was mirrored in culture with a C244,246S mutant of CCS that has the capacity to interact with SOD1 but can neither insert copper nor oxidize the disulfide. In spite of disulfide effects, there was no evidence for increased SOD1 aggregation. If anything, CCS over-expression prevented SOD1 misfolding in culture as monitored by detergent insolubility. This protection against SOD1 misfolding does not require SOD1 enzyme activation as the same effect was obtained with the C244,246S allele of CCS. In the G93A SOD1 mouse, CCS over-expression was likewise associated with a lack of obvious SOD1 misfolding marked by detergent insolubility. CCS over-expression accelerates SOD1-linked disease without the hallmarks of misfolding and aggregation seen in other mutant SOD1 models. These studies are the first to indicate biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzymatic activation.

  11. Effect of irradiation on sod activity and selenium content in garlic

    Xu Weimin; Zheng Anjian; Yan Jianmin; Cao Qingsui; Wu Haihong; Cao Shifeng


    The effects of irradiation at 0.1 kGy, 1.0 kGy on SOD activity and the content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium in garlic (Allium sativum L.) stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment with 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy significantly slowed the reduction of SOD activities in garlic stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C, while the treatment irradiation had no influence on the content of all kinds of selenium. But the garlic stored at 25 degree C had higher content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium than that in garlic stored at 10 degree C. (authors)

  12. Quest for anionic MOF membranes: Continuous sod -ZMOF membrane with Co2 adsorption-driven selectivity

    Almaythalony, Bassem


    We report the fabrication of the first continuous zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) thin-film membrane. A pure phase sod-ZMOF, sodalite topology, membrane was grown and supported on a porous alumina substrate using a solvothermal crystallization method. The absence of pinhole defects in the film was confirmed and supported by the occurrence of quantifiable time-lags, for all studied gases, during constant volume/variable pressure permeation tests. For both pure and mixed gas feeds, the sod-ZMOF-1 membrane exhibits favorable permeation selectivity toward carbon dioxide over relevant industrial gases such as H2, N2, and CH4, and it is mainly governed by favorable CO2 adsorption.

  13. Mutagenicity and co-mutagenicity of static magnetic field in SOD-deficient Escherichia coli

    Yoshie, Sachiko; Ikehata, Masateru; Hayakawa, Toshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Takemura, Taro; Minowa, Takashi; Hanagata, Nobutaka


    The effects of strong static magnetic fields (SMFs) on mutagenesis related to reactive oxygen species were investigated. To estimate mutagenicity of SMFs, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient Escherichia coli QC774 and its parental strain GC4468 were employed. Tester strains were exposed to 5, 10 and 13 T SMFs for 24 hr at 37 C degrees in LB medium. After exposure, mutation frequency on thymine synthesis genes was determined for evaluation of mutagenicity of SMFs exposure. In the result, no statistically significant difference in mutation frequency on thymine synthesis genes was observed between SMF-exposed cells and unexposed cells in all of magnetic flux densities. Furthermore, SMFs up to 13 T did not affect mutagenicity of plumbagine under its presence of 25 μM, respectively. It suggests that SMF did not have either mutagenicity or co-mutagenicity in SOD-deficient and its parental E. coli strains under the condition in this study. (author)

  14. Basic study on low dose radiation effect: SOD activity of immune organs and hemogram in rats

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kaneko, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeo; Nakano, Kazushiro; Edamatsu, Rei; Mori, Akitane.


    We examined the effect of low dose radiation on SOD activities of immune organs such as thymus, spleen, bone marrow in rats and hematological findings changes. Animals were exposed to radiation in a wholebody fashion, 4 hours before sacrifice. SOD activities in thymus and bone marrow cells from the rats X-ray irradiated at doses of 0.25∼0.50 Gy/10 min were enhanced in comparison with those of non-irradiated rats. The enhancement was also observed in spleen cells obtained from group of rats irradiated at 0.05 Gy/10 min. Radiation exposure with over 0.50 Gy/10 min gave rats inhibitory responses in those immune organs. The changes in homogram were not observed with γ-ray exposure of less than 0.10 Gy/10 min. (author)

  15. The effect of the spaceship carrying on the biological characters and sod activity of eggplant

    Wang Shiheng; Zhang Ya; Zhu Shuijin; Wang Yanfan


    The effects of the space shuttle carrying on the growth and biological characters of eggplant SP 1 population were studied. The results showed that the effect of space shuttle carrying on the growth and development of eggplant SP 1 were very significant on the characters such as the plant height, reproductive development, leaf size, fruit length, fruit quality and fruiting rate etc, especially on the plant development and the fruit size, and it is hopeful to select some good eggplant germplasm or cultivars from the population. The SOD activity showed that the SOD level in the mutant-1 plant was one time more than that in control plant, indicating that the space shuttle carrying may increase the expression of some genes and lead to the great change in morphological characters

  16. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora


    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

  17. Magnon inflation: slow roll with steep potentials

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blas, Diego [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Patil, Subodh P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva,24 Quai Ansermet, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland)


    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy G{sup ab}∂{sub a}V∂{sub b}V≪V{sup 2}/M{sub p}{sup 2} (where G{sub ab} is the target-space metric). They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on V because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides one particular example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for its background evolution. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization of the single-field Cuscuton models. The multi-field case introduces a new feature, however: the scalar kinetic terms define a target-space 2-form, F{sub ab}, whose antisymmetry gives new ways for slow roll to be achieved.

  18. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P


    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  19. Autonomous Supervision and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Galeazzi, Roberto

    therefore two objectives. The first is to develop methods for detection of the inception of parametric roll resonance. The second is to develop control strategies to stabilize the motion after parametric roll has started. Stabilisation of parametric roll resonance points to two possible courses of action...... strategies are then combined to stabilise parametric roll resonance within few roll cycles. Limitations on the maximum stabilisable roll angle are analysed and linked to the ii slew rate saturation and hydrodynamic stall characteristics of the fin stabilisers. The study on maximum stabilisable roll angle...... leads to the requirements for early detection. Two novel detectors are proposed, which work within a shorttime prediction horizon, and issue early warnings of parametric roll inception within few roll cycles from its onset. The main idea behind these detection schemes is that of exploiting the link...

  20. Differential effects of phytotherapic preparations in the hSOD1 Drosophila melanogaster model of ALS

    De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Talani, Giuseppe; Catelani, Tiziano; Solari, Paolo; Poddighe, Simone; Borghero, Giuseppe; Marrosu, Francesco; Sanna, Enrico; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna


    The present study was aimed at characterizing the effects of Withania somnifera (Wse) and Mucuna pruriens (Mpe) on a Drosophila melanogaster model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In particular, the effects of Wse and Mpe were assessed following feeding the flies selectively overexpressing the wild human copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-gain-of-function) in Drosophila motoneurons. Although ALS-hSOD1 mutants showed no impairment in life span, with respect to GAL4 controls, the results revealed impairment of climbing behaviour, muscle electrophysiological parameters (latency and amplitude of ePSPs) as well as thoracic ganglia mitochondrial functions. Interestingly, Wse treatment significantly increased lifespan of hSDO1 while Mpe had not effect. Conversely, both Wse and Mpe significantly rescued climbing impairment, and also latency and amplitude of ePSPs as well as failure responses to high frequency DLM stimulation. Finally, mitochondrial alterations were any more present in Wse- but not in Mpe-treated hSOD1 mutants. Hence, given the role of inflammation in the development of ALS, the high translational impact of the model, the known anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts, and the viability of their clinical use, these results suggest that the application of Wse and Mpe might represent a valuable pharmacological strategy to counteract the progression of ALS and related symptoms. PMID:28102336

  1. The Effect of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Liver of Hypercholesterolemic Rats



    Full Text Available Intracellular antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD was reported decreased in the liver and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study was conducted to observe the effect of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii powder on the profile of blood cholesterol and the level of SOD in liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats by using immunohistochemical technique. Twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into four groups; (i negative control group (A, (ii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 5% seaweed powder (B, (iii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 10% seaweed powder (C, and (iv Positive control group or hypercholesterolemia group (D. The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Hypercholesterolemia condition (> 130 mg/dl, except group A, was achieved by feeding the rats with commercial diet containing 1% cholesterol. Drinking water was given ad libitum for 40 days. The results showed that seaweed powder decreased the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride, and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL and SOD status in the liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats. The treatment of 10% seaweed powder gave better results than that of 5%. These results suggested that dietary fiber such in the seaweed powder has antioxidant activity.

  2. Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain

    Robb, Ellen L.; Winkelmolen, Lieke; Visanji, Naomi; Brotchie, Jonathan; Stuart, Jeffrey A.


    trans-Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES) is of interest for its reported protective effects in a variety of pathologies, including neurodegeneration. Many of these protective properties have been attributed to the ability of RES to reduce oxidative stress. In vitro studies have shown an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities following exposure to RES, including upregulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that is capable of reducing both oxidative stress and cell death. We sought to determine if a similar increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymes is observed with RES treatment in vivo. Three separate modes of RES delivery were utilized; in a standard diet, a high fat diet and through a subcutaneous osmotic minipump. RES given in a high fat diet proved to be effective in elevating antioxidant capacity in brain resulting in an increase in both MnSOD protein level (140%) and activity (75%). The increase in MnSOD was not due to a substantial proliferation of mitochondria, as RES treatment induced a 10% increase in mitochondrial abundance (Citrate Synthase activity). The potential neuroprotective properties of MnSOD have been well established, and we demonstrate that a dietary delivery of RES is able to increase the expression and activity of this enzyme in vivo

  3. SOD1 aggregation in ALS mice shows simplistic test tube behavior.

    Lang, Lisa; Zetterström, Per; Brännström, Thomas; Marklund, Stefan L; Danielsson, Jens; Oliveberg, Mikael


    A longstanding challenge in studies of neurodegenerative disease has been that the pathologic protein aggregates in live tissue are not amenable to structural and kinetic analysis by conventional methods. The situation is put in focus by the current progress in demarcating protein aggregation in vitro, exposing new mechanistic details that are now calling for quantitative in vivo comparison. In this study, we bridge this gap by presenting a direct comparison of the aggregation kinetics of the ALS-associated protein superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in vitro and in transgenic mice. The results based on tissue sampling by quantitative antibody assays show that the SOD1 fibrillation kinetics in vitro mirror with remarkable accuracy the spinal cord aggregate buildup and disease progression in transgenic mice. This similarity between in vitro and in vivo data suggests that, despite the complexity of live tissue, SOD1 aggregation follows robust and simplistic rules, providing new mechanistic insights into the ALS pathology and organism-level manifestation of protein aggregation phenomena in general.

  4. Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Degenerating Proprioceptive Sensory Neurons of Transgenic Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Javier Sábado


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs. Although the motor phenotype is a hallmark for ALS, there is increasing evidence that systems other than the efferent MN system can be involved. Mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene cause a proportion of familial forms of this disease. Misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 exert neurotoxicity in a noncell autonomous manner, as evidenced in studies using transgenic mouse models. Here, we used the SOD1G93A mouse model for ALS to detect, by means of conformational-specific anti-SOD1 antibodies, whether misfolded SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity extended to neuronal types other than MNs. We report that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG proprioceptive neurons accumulate misfolded SOD1 and suffer a degenerative process involving the inflammatory recruitment of macrophagic cells. Degenerating sensory axons were also detected in association with activated microglial cells in the spinal cord dorsal horn of diseased animals. As large proprioceptive DRG neurons project monosynaptically to ventral horn MNs, we hypothesise that a prion-like mechanism may be responsible for the transsynaptic propagation of SOD1 misfolding from ventral horn MNs to DRG sensory neurons.

  5. The decreasing effect of exogenous SOD on damage of mice irradiated with 5 Gy 60Co-γ rays

    Liu Fenju; Jiang Jiagui; Yi Jian


    The author presents a report on the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and the content of LPO measured in tissue of Liver, heart and brain of mice irradiated by 60 Co-γ rays 5 Gy 1, 3, 5 and 8 days after irradiation respectively. After radiation exogenous SOD was immediately i.p. injected into mice. The variation of LPO content in the above mentioned three kinds of tissue has been observed. The result of the measurement shows that after radiation at a dose of 5 Gy 60 Co-γ rays, the LPO content and SOD activity of mice organs varied with radiation time. The LPO content varied earliest in liver, while the variation of LPO content in heart and cerebrum took place 8 days after radiation, meanwhile the activity of SOD in the tissues significantly decreased in comparison with that the control group (P<0.01). After injection with SOD, the LPO content and SOD activity of the organs irradiated for different time significantly decreased and increased in comparison with that in the control group. This shows that the enzyme of SOD is of significant anti-radiation effect

  6. Enhanced tethered-flight duration and locomotor activity by overexpression of the human gene SOD1 in Drosophila motorneurons

    Agavni Petrosyan


    Full Text Available Mutation of the human gene superoxide dismutase (hSOD1 is associated with the fatal neurodegenerative disease familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease. Selective overexpression of hSOD1 in Drosophila motorneurons increases lifespan to 140% of normal. The current study was designed to determine resistance to lifespan decline and failure of sensorimotor functions by overexpressing hSOD1 in Drosophila‘s motorneurons. First, we measured the ability to maintain continuous flight and wingbeat frequency (WBF as a function of age (5 to 50 days. Flies overexpressing hSOD1 under the D42-GAL4 activator were able to sustain flight significantly longer than controls, with the largest effect observed in the middle stages of life. The hSOD1-expressed line also had, on average, slower wingbeat frequencies in late, but not early life relative to age-matched controls. Second, we examined locomotor (exploratory walking behavior in late life when flies had lost the ability to fly (age ≥ 60 d. hSOD1-expressed flies showed significantly more robust walking activity relative to controls. Findings show patterns of functional decline dissimilar to those reported for other life-extended lines, and suggest that the hSOD1 gene not only delays death but enhances sensorimotor abilities critical to survival even in late life.

  7. Deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression and lymph node metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Liu, Xiqiang; Crowe, David L; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Anxun; Muzio, Lorenzo Lo; Kolokythas, Antonia; Sheng, Shihu; Rubini, Corrado; Ye, Hui; Shi, Fei; Yu, Tianwei


    Lymph node metastasis is a critical event in the progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The identification of biomarkers associated with the metastatic process would provide critical prognostic information to facilitate clinical decision making. Previous studies showed that deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression is a frequent event in TSCC and may be associated with enhanced cell invasion. The purpose of this study is to further evaluate whether the expression level of SOD2 is correlated with the metastatic status in TSCC patients. We first examined the SOD2 expression at mRNA level on 53 TSCC and 22 normal control samples based on pooled-analysis of existing microarray datasets. To confirm our observations, we examined the expression of SOD2 at protein level on an additional TSCC patient cohort (n = 100), as well as 31 premalignant dysplasias, 15 normal tongue mucosa, and 32 lymph node metastatic diseases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The SOD2 mRNA level in primary TSCC tissue is reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the first TSCC patient cohort. The SOD2 protein level in primary TSCC tissue is also reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the second TSCC patient cohort. Deregulation of SOD2 expression is a common event in TSCC and appears to be associated with disease progression. Statistical analysis revealed that the reduced SOD2 expression in primary tumor tissue is associated with lymph node metastasis in both TSCC patient cohorts examined. Our study suggested that the deregulation of SOD2 in TSCC has potential predictive values for lymph node metastasis, and may serve as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of metastasis

  8. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo


    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1 −/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1 −/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1 −/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1 −/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1 −/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  9. A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster

    Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.


    The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID

  10. f(R) constant-roll inflation

    Motohashi, Hayato [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The previously introduced class of two-parametric phenomenological inflationary models in general relativity in which the slow-roll assumption is replaced by the more general, constant-roll condition is generalized to the case of f(R) gravity. A simple constant-roll condition is defined in the original Jordan frame, and exact expressions for a scalaron potential in the Einstein frame, for a function f(R) (in the parametric form) and for inflationary dynamics are obtained. The region of the model parameters permitted by the latest observational constraints on the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial metric perturbations generated during inflation is determined. (orig.)

  11. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending...... balanced in order to determine the added thrust term that would represent actions to maintain speed The resulting forward speed variation affects the frequency of encounter and the parametric roll resonant condition is directly influenced by this speed variation. The analysis procedure is demonstrated...... for an example containership sailing mainly in head sea condition and higher sea states. Sensitivity of the results to the added thrust model and vertical motion calculation is discussed....

  12. Ring rolling process simulation for geometry optimization

    Franchi, Rodolfo; Del Prete, Antonio; Donatiello, Iolanda; Calabrese, Maurizio


    Ring Rolling is a complex hot forming process where different rolls are involved in the production of seamless rings. Since each roll must be independently controlled, different speed laws must be set; usually, in the industrial environment, a milling curve is introduced to monitor the shape of the workpiece during the deformation in order to ensure the correct ring production. In the present paper a ring rolling process has been studied and optimized in order to obtain anular components to be used in aerospace applications. In particular, the influence of process input parameters (feed rate of the mandrel and angular speed of main roll) on geometrical features of the final ring has been evaluated. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model for HRR (Hot Ring Rolling) has been implemented in SFTC DEFORM V11. The FEM model has been used to formulate a proper optimization problem. The optimization procedure has been implemented in the commercial software DS ISight in order to find the combination of process parameters which allows to minimize the percentage error of each obtained dimension with respect to its nominal value. The software allows to find the relationship between input and output parameters applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM), by using the exact values of output parameters in the control points of the design space explored through FEM simulation. Once this relationship is known, the values of the output parameters can be calculated for each combination of the input parameters. After the calculation of the response surfaces for the selected output parameters, an optimization procedure based on Genetic Algorithms has been applied. At the end, the error between each obtained dimension and its nominal value has been minimized. The constraints imposed were the maximum values of standard deviations of the dimensions obtained for the final ring.

  13. Peripheral motor axons of SOD1(G127X) mutant mice are susceptible to activity-dependent degeneration

    Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Calin, A; Graffmo, K S


    -onset, fast-progression SOD1(G127X) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to long-lasting, high-frequency repetitive activity. Tibial nerves were stimulated at ankle in 7 to 8-month-old SOD1(G127X) mice when they were clinically indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) mice. The evoked compound muscle......-concentrations. It is possible that in SOD1(G127X) there is inadequate energy-dependent Na(+)/K(+) pumping, which may lead to a lethal Na(+) overload....

  14. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini


    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  15. Study of rolled uranium annealing process

    Cabane, G.


    The dilatometric study of rolled uranium clearly shows not only the expansions or contractions induced by stress relief or diffusion of vacancies, but also the slope variations of the cooling curves, which are the best evidence of a texture change. Under the microscope, hard-rolled sheets appear as a mixture of two distinct structures; it is also possible by intermediate annealing to prepare homogeneous sheets of either structure, i.e. twinned or untwinned. All these sheets which have similar textures, undergo at first a primary recrystallization beginning at 320 deg C, then a texture change without any apparent crystal growth, at about 430 deg C. (author) [fr

  16. Generalized slow roll for noncanonical kinetic terms

    Hu, Wayne


    We show that the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the power spectrum where the inflationary slow roll parameters are neither small nor slowly varying can be readily extended to models with noncanonical kinetic terms in the inflaton action. For example, rapid sound speed variations can arise in Dirac-Born-Infeld models with features in the warp factor leading to features in the power spectrum. Nonetheless there remains a single source function for deviations that is simply related to the power spectrum. Empirical constraints on this source function can be readily interpreted in the context of features in the inflaton potential or sound speed.

  17. Manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a role player in seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) antioxidant defense system and adaptive immune system.

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Seongdo; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Hwang, Seong Don; Lee, Jehee


    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metaloenzyme that catalyzes dismutation of the hazardous superoxide radicals into less hazardous H 2 O 2 and H 2 O. Here, we identified a homolog of MnSOD from big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaMnSOD) and characterized its structural and functional features. HaMnSOD transcript possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 672 bp which codes for a peptide of 223 amino acids. Pairwise alignment showed that HaMnSOD shared highest identity with rock bream MnSOD. Results of the phylogenetic analysis of HaMnSOD revealed a close proximity with rock bream MnSOD which was consistent with the result of homology alignment. The intense expression of HaMnSOD was observed in the ovary, followed by the heart and the brain. Further, immune related responses of HaMnSOD towards pathogenic stimulation were observed through bacterial and viral challenges. Highest HaMnSOD expression in response to stimulants Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) was observed in the late stage in the blood tissue. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay (XOD assay) indicated the ROS-scavenging ability of purified recombinant HaMnSOD (rHaMnSOD). The optimum conditions for the SOD activity of rHaMnSOD were pH 9 and the 25 °C. Collectively, the results obtained through the expressional analysis profiles and the functional assays provide insights into potential immune related and antioxidant roles of HaMnSOD in the big belly seahorse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer-aided roll pass design in rolling of airfoil shapes

    Akgerman, N.; Lahoti, G. D.; Altan, T.


    This paper describes two computer-aided design (CAD) programs developed for modeling the shape rolling process for airfoil sections. The first program, SHPROL, uses a modular upper-bound method of analysis and predicts the lateral spread, elongation, and roll torque. The second program, ROLPAS, predicts the stresses, roll separating force, the roll torque and the details of metal flow by simulating the rolling process, using the slab method of analysis. ROLPAS is an interactive program; it offers graphic display capabilities and allows the user to interact with the computer via a keyboard, CRT, and a light pen. The accuracy of the computerized models was evaluated by (a) rolling a selected airfoil shape at room temperature from 1018 steel and isothermally at high temperature from Ti-6Al-4V, and (b) comparing the experimental results with computer predictions. The comparisons indicated that the CAD systems, described here, are useful for practical engineering purposes and can be utilized in roll pass design and analysis for airfoil and similar shapes.

  19. Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.


    In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.

  20. Exposure of Mn and FeSODs, but not Cu/ZnSOD, to NO leads to nitrosonium and nitroxyl ions generation which cause enzyme modification and inactivation: an in vitro study.

    Niketíc, V; Stojanović, S; Nikolić, A; Spasić, M; Michelson, A M


    The effect of NO treatment in vitro on structural and functional alterations of Cu/Zn, Mn, and Fe type of SODs was studied. Significant difference in response to NO of Cu/ZnSOD compared to the Mn and Fe types was demonstrated. Cu/ZnSOD was shown to be stable with respect to NO: even on prolonged exposure, NO produced negligible effect on its structure and activity. In contrast, both Mn and Fe types were found to be NO-sensitive: exposure to NO led to their fast and extensive inactivation, which was accompanied by extensive structural alterations, including (in some of the samples tested) the cleavage of enzyme polypeptide chains, presumably at His residues of the enzyme metal binding sites. The generation of nitrosonium (NO+) and nitroxyl (NO-) ions in NO treated Mn and FeSODs, which produce enzyme modifications and inactivation, was demonstrated. The physiological and biomedical significance of described findings is briefly discussed.

  1. Calculation and experimental technique of determination of rolling procedure for cold-rolling tube mills

    Igoshin, V.F.; Aleshin, V.A.; Khoroshikh, Yu.G.; Bogatov, A.A.; Mizhiritskij, O.I.


    Calculation and experimental technique of determination of tube cold rolling procedure has been developed. Rolling procedure based on the usage of regression equation epsilon=1.24 psi, where psi is the relative reduction of area, delta-permissible reduction during rolling, has been tested on 08Kh18N10T steel. The effect of tube geometry, tool calibration parameters, lubrication conditions etc. on metal deformability in taking into account experimentally. The use of the technique proposed has allowed to shorten the time of mastering of the production of tubes from different steels

  2. Effect of N+ beam exposure on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and induction of Mn-SOD in Deinococcus radiodurans

    Song Daojun; Chen Ruolei; Shao Chunlin; Wu Lijun; Yu Zengliang


    Though bacteria of the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans have a high resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of many DNA-damaging agents, the mechanisms involved in the response of these bacteria to oxidative stress are poorly understood. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities produced by these bacteria were measured, and the change of SOD and CAT activities by 20 keV N + beam exposure was examined. Their activities were increased by N + beam exposure from 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 to 6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The treatment of H 2 O 2 and [CHCl 3 + CH 3 CH 2 OH] and the measurement of absorption spectrum showed that the increase in SOD activity was resulted from inducible activities of Mn-SOD in D. radiodurans AS1.633 by N + beam exposure. These results suggested that this bacteria possess inducible defense mechanisms against the deleterious effects of oxidisation

  3. EXAFS analysis of a human Cu,Zn SOD isoform focused using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis

    Chevreux, Sylviane; Roudeau, Stephane; Deves, Guillaume; Ortega, Richard [Laboratoire de Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale, CNRS UMR5084, Universite Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium, F-33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Solari, Pier Lorenzo [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, Saint-Aubin (France); Alliot, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean Louis, E-mail: ortega@cenbg.in2p3.f [FAME, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble cedex (France)


    Isoelectric point isoforms of a metalloprotein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), separated on electrophoresis gels were analyzed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mutations of this protein are involved in familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The toxicity of mutants could be relied to defects in the metallation state. Our purpose is to establish analytical protocols to study metallation state of protein isoforms such as those from CuZnSOD. We previously highlighted differences in the copper oxidation state between CuZnSOD isoforms using XANES. Here, we present the first results for EXAFS analyses performed at Cu and Zn K-edge on the majoritary expressed isoform of human CuZnSOD separated on electrophoresis gels.

  4. EXAFS analysis of a human Cu,Zn SOD isoform focused using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis

    Chevreux, Sylviane; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Roudeau, Stéphane; Deves, Guillaume; Alliot, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Ortega, Richard


    Isoelectric point isoforms of a metalloprotein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), separated on electrophoresis gels were analyzed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mutations of this protein are involved in familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The toxicity of mutants could be relied to defects in the metallation state. Our purpose is to establish analytical protocols to study metallation state of protein isoforms such as those from CuZnSOD. We previously highlighted differences in the copper oxidation state between CuZnSOD isoforms using XANES. Here, we present the first results for EXAFS analyses performed at Cu and Zn K-edge on the majoritary expressed isoform of human CuZnSOD separated on electrophoresis gels.

  5. EXAFS analysis of a human Cu,Zn SOD isoform focused using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis

    Chevreux, Sylviane; Roudeau, Stephane; Deves, Guillaume; Ortega, Richard; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Alliot, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean Louis


    Isoelectric point isoforms of a metalloprotein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), separated on electrophoresis gels were analyzed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mutations of this protein are involved in familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The toxicity of mutants could be relied to defects in the metallation state. Our purpose is to establish analytical protocols to study metallation state of protein isoforms such as those from CuZnSOD. We previously highlighted differences in the copper oxidation state between CuZnSOD isoforms using XANES. Here, we present the first results for EXAFS analyses performed at Cu and Zn K-edge on the majoritary expressed isoform of human CuZnSOD separated on electrophoresis gels.

  6. Effect of oral preparation of astragalus membranaceous on serum SOD levels in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma

    Sun Zhiyong


    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma with special reference on the serum SOD levels. Methods: Serum SOD levels were measured with RIA in 42 aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma both before and after a course of treatment with oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous (10ml b. i. d for 3 months) as well as in 35 controls. Results: The patients general condition was greatly improved after the treatment. Before treatment, the serum SOD levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous was therapeutically useful for chronic bronchial asthma in aged patients with correction of the serum SOD levels. (authors)

  7. Measurement of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras


    by the fric-tion conditions. To achieve this important informa-tion, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are re-quested. The direction of the friction stresses is changing during the rolling gap. At the entrance of the de-formation zone, the peripherical velocity...... of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll, generating frictional stresses contrary to the direction of rolling....... In a narrow area in the deformation zone, the velocity of the de-formed material is equal to the velocity of the rolls. This area or line is named “neutral line”. The posi-tion of the neutral line depends on friction, reduc-tion ratio, diameter of the rolls, and width of the sheet....


    I. A. Isaevich


    Full Text Available The way of forming of variable shape strips with rolling in non-drive waves with rounding by the movable arbor strip is analyzed. The way of rolling with derivation of speeds of deforming instruments is offered.

  9. Cytoplasmic Copper Detoxification in Salmonella Can Contribute to SodC Metalation but Is Dispensable during Systemic Infection.

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M


    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII. CopA and GolT, both inner membrane ATPases that pump copper from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, are a source of copper for CueP. Using in vitro SOD assays, we found that SodCI can also utilize CueP to acquire copper. However, both SodCI and SodCII have a significant fraction of activity independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We utilized a series of mouse competition assays to address the in vivo role of CueP-mediated SodC activation. A copA golT cueP triple mutant was equally as competitive as the wild type, suggesting that sufficient SodCI is active to defend against phagocytic superoxide independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We also confirmed that a strain containing a modified SodCII, which is capable of complementing a sodCI deletion, was fully virulent in a copA golT cueP background competed against the wild type. These competitions also address the potential impact of cytoplasmic copper toxicity within the phagosome. Our data suggest that Salmonella does not encounter inhibitory concentrations of copper during systemic infection. IMPORTANCE Salmonella is a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. In severe cases, Salmonella can cause life-threatening systemic infections, particularly in very young children, the elderly, or people who are immunocompromised. To cause disease, Salmonella must survive the hostile environment inside host

  10. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    Smietana, Michael J.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V.; Larkin, Lisa M.


    Research highlights: → Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. → Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. → Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1 -/- mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1 -/- mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm 2 ) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1 -/- compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1 -/- mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1 -/- mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1 -/- mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress

  11. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Mungan, Carl E.


    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  12. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  13. The riddles of rock and roll

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)


    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order

  14. Statistical prediction of parametric roll using FORM

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Choi, Ju-hyuck; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    Previous research has shown that the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) can be an efficient method for estimation of outcrossing rates and extreme value statistics for stationary stochastic processes. This is so also for bifurcation type of processes like parametric roll of ships. The present...

  15. Crowdsourcing rock n' roll multimedia retrieval

    Snoek, Cees G.M.; Freiburg, Bauke; Oomen, Johan; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.


    In this technical demonstration, we showcase a multimedia search engine that facilitates semantic access to archival rock n' roll concert video. The key novelty is the crowdsourcing mechanism, which relies on online users to improve, extend, and share, automatically detected results in video

  16. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  17. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms involved in roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells. While only a part of the experiments have directly involved roll-to-roll coated devices, most of the work is applicable to coated devices. The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the study of in......The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells...... will not be a commercial success. This dissertation is devoted primarily to the study of the stability of polymer solar cells, and more specifically to designing and verifying experimental techniques, procedures, and automated solutions to stability tests and characterization. The goal of the project was to expand...

  18. Effect of Rolling Resistance in Dem Models With Spherical Bodies

    Dubina Radek


    Full Text Available The rolling resistance is an artificial moment arising on the contact of two discrete elements which mimics resistance of two grains of complex shape in contact rolling relatively to each other. The paper investigates the influence of rolling resistance on behaviour of an assembly of spherical discrete elements. Besides the resistance to rolling, the contacts between spherical particles obey the Hertzian law in normal straining and Coulomb model of friction in shear.

  19. Transduced human copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-SOD (PEP-1-CCS) protects against neuronal cell death.

    Choi, Soo Hyun; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, So Young; An, Jae Jin; Lee, Sun Hwa; Choi, Hee Soon; Sohn, Eun Jung; Hwang, Seok-Il; Won, Moo Ho; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyung Joo; Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of various human diseases. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the major means by which cells counteract the deleterious effects of ROS. SOD activity is dependent upon bound copper ions supplied by its partner metallochaperone protein, copper chaperone for SOD (CCS). In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PEP-1-CCS against neuronal cell death and ischemic insults. When PEP-1-CCS was added to the culture medium of neuronal cells, it rapidly entered the cells and protected them against paraquat-induced cell death. Moreover, transduced PEP-1-CCS markedly increased endogenous SOD activity in the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that it prevented neuronal cell death in the hippocampus in response to transient forebrain ischemia. These results suggest that CCS is essential to activate SOD, and that transduction of PEP-1-CCS provides a potential strategy for therapeutic delivery in various human diseases including stroke related to SOD or ROS.

  20. Changes of blood levels of LPO, SOD and GSH-Px after endovenous laser treatment of varicose greater saphenous vein

    Han Li'na; Gu Ying; Liu Fanguang


    Objective: To investigate the changes of the blood levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) after treatment of varicose greater saphenous vein with either endovenous laser or conventional surgery (high ligation plus stripping). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with varicose greater saphenous vein were treated with endovenous laser and another 33 patients were treated with conventional surgery. Levels of LPO (serum, with TBA fluorescein), SOD (whole blood, with RIA) and GSH-Px (whole blood, with direct DTNB) were determined in these patients both before and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days after treatment. Levels in 30 controls were also measured. Results: The levels of LPO were higher and levels of SOD, GSH-Px lower in the patients than those in the controls. After either form of therapy, the levels LPO rose and levels of SOD, GSH-Px dropped immediately but gradually approached the control values by the 15 th day (slower with SOD and GSH-Px). However, the early increase of LPO levels were less and recovery sooner in the group of patients treated with laser. Conclusion: Changes of levels of LPO, SOD and GSH-Px were closely related to the degree of stress and recovery condition after the treatment

  1. Structural and biophysical properties of metal-free pathogenic SOD1 mutants A4V and G93A

    Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Strange, Richard W.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Narayana, Narendra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Hasnain, S.Samar; Hart, P. John; (Texas-HSC); (Liverpool)


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the destruction of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. A subset of ALS cases are linked to dominant mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The pathogenic SOD1 variants A4V and G93A have been the foci of multiple studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis for SOD1-linked ALS. The A4V variant is responsible for the majority of familial ALS cases in North America, causing rapidly progressing paralysis once symptoms begin and the G93A SOD1 variant is overexpressed in often studied murine models of the disease. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of metal-free A4V and of metal-bound and metal-free G93A SOD1. In the metal-free structures, the metal-binding loop elements are observed to be severely disordered, suggesting that these variants may share mechanisms of aggregation proposed previously for other pathogenic SOD1 proteins.

  2. Roll-to-Roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C


    With the prospect of extremely fast manufacture of very low cost devices, organic electronics prepared by thin film processing techniques that are compatible with roll-to-roll (R2R) methods are presently receiving an increasing interest. Several technologies using organic thin films...... research fields such as organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors, light-emitting diodes, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and electrochromic devices. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 000: 000–000, 2012...

  3. Using Light-Induced Thermocleavage in a Roll-to-Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    Krebs, Frederik C; Norrman, Kion


    We report on the use of intense visible light with a narrow spectral distribution matched to the region where the conjugated polymer material absorbs to selectively heat the active material and induce thermocleavage. We show a full roll-to-roll process, leading to complete large-area polymer solar...... ion mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and transmission/reflection UV−vis techniques....

  4. Roll-to-roll coated PBI membranes for high temperature PEM fuel cells

    Steenberg, Thomas; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Terkelsen, Carina


    We employed roll-to-roll coating in the preparation of 40 μm thick poly[2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5′bibenzimidazole] (PBI) films for fuel cells using both knife-coating (KC) and slot-die (SD) coating. The films were coated directly from a 9% (w/w) solution of PBI in dimethylacetamide onto a sacrificial...

  5. Assessment of friction between a rolling cylindrical element and a ...

    A cost-effective friction coefficient measuring technique was developed and tested. The technique involved the mounting of two sensing elements on the surface of rolls, in a manner that sought to measure simultaneously the normal and the tangential stresses during rolling. The instrumented roll termed “SGRoll” was ...

  6. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms...

  7. Lubrication in cold rolling : Numerical simulation using multigrid techniques

    Lugt, Pieter Martin


    In the cold rolling process a lubricant is applied on the rolls and/or the strip mate­rial. Due to the velocities of the rolls and the strip, part of the lubricant is sheared into the contact causing, amongst others, a reduction of the friction. In this thesis a physical-mathematical model is

  8. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.


    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  9. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.


    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  10. Chaotic travelling rolls in Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    The lateral shift of the rolls may lead to a global flow reversal of the convective motion. The chaotic travelling rolls are observed in simulations with free-slip as well as no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field. We show that the travelling rolls and the flow reversal are due to an interplay between the real and imaginary ...

  11. 14 CFR 27.493 - Braked roll conditions.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 27.493 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.493 Braked roll conditions. Under braked roll conditions with the shock absorbers in their static positions— (a) The limit...

  12. 14 CFR 23.493 - Braked roll conditions.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 23.493 Section 23.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....493 Braked roll conditions. Under braked roll conditions, with the shock absorbers and tires in their...

  13. 14 CFR 29.493 - Braked roll conditions.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 29.493 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.493 Braked roll conditions. Under braked roll conditions with the shock absorbers in their static positions— (a) The limit...

  14. Genetic biomarkers for ALS disease in transgenic SOD1(G93A mice.

    Ana C Calvo

    Full Text Available The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1(G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1(G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10 could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1(G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies.

  15. APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice present reduced neuropathic pain sensitivity.

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; LePecheur, Marie; Marcol, Wiesław; Olakowska, Edyta; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; London, Jacqueline


    There are controversies regarding pain expression in mentally disabled people, including Down syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathic pain-related behavior and peripheral nerve regeneration in mouse model of Down syndrome. Sciatic nerves of double transgenic mice, overexpressing both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes, and FVB/N wild type mice were transected and immediately resutured. Evaluation of autotomy and functional recovery was carried out during 4-week follow-up. We found markedly less severe autotomy in transgenic animals, although the onset of autotomy was significantly delayed in control mice. Interestingly, neuroma formation at the injury site was significantly more prominent in transgenic animals. Sciatic function index outcome was better in transgenic mice than in wild-type group. Histological evaluation revealed no statistically significant differences in the number of GAP-43-positive growth cones and macrophages in the distal stump of the transected nerve between groups. However, in transgenic animals, the regenerating axons were arranged more chaotically. The number of Schwann cells in the distal stump of the transected nerves was significantly lower in transgenic mice. The number of surviving motoneurons was markedly decreased in transgenic group. We measured also the atrophy of denervated muscles and found it decreased in APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice. Taken together, in this model of Down syndrome, we observed increased neuroma formation and decreased autotomy after peripheral nerve injury. Our findings suggest that APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice are less sensitive for neuropathic pain associated with neuroma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rolling Force Prediction in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on Uniform Differential Neural Network

    Fei Zhang


    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the rolling force is critical to assuring the quality of the final product in steel manufacturing. Exit thickness of plate for each pass is calculated from roll gap, mill spring, and predicted roll force. Ideal pass scheduling is dependent on a precise prediction of the roll force in each pass. This paper will introduce a concept that allows obtaining the material model parameters directly from the rolling process on an industrial scale by the uniform differential neural network. On the basis of the characteristics that the uniform distribution can fully characterize the solution space and enhance the diversity of the population, uniformity research on differential evolution operator is made to get improved crossover with uniform distribution. When its original function is transferred with a transfer function, the uniform differential evolution algorithms can quickly solve complex optimization problems. Neural network structure and weights threshold are optimized by uniform differential evolution algorithm, and a uniform differential neural network is formed to improve rolling force prediction accuracy in process control system.

  17. Roll-to-Roll Nanoforming of Metals Using Laser-Induced Superplasticity.

    Goswami, Debkalpa; Munera, Juan C; Pal, Aniket; Sadri, Behnam; Scarpetti, Caio Lui P G; Martinez, Ramses V


    This Letter describes a low-cost, scalable nanomanufacturing process that enables the continuous forming of thin metallic layers with nanoscale accuracy using roll-to-roll, laser-induced superplasticity (R2RLIS). R2RLIS uses a laser shock to induce the ultrahigh-strain-rate deformation of metallic films at room temperature into low-cost polymeric nanomolds, independently of the original grain size of the metal. This simple and inexpensive nanoforming method does not require access to cleanrooms and associated facilities, and can be easily implemented on conventional CO 2 lasers, enabling laser systems commonly used for rapid prototyping or industrial cutting and engraving to fabricate uniform and three-dimensional crystalline metallic nanostructures over large areas. Tuning the laser power during the R2RLIS process enables the control of the aspect ratio and the mechanical and optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures. This roll-to-roll technique successfully fabricates mechanically strengthened gold plasmonic nanostructures with aspect ratios as high as 5 that exhibit high oxidation resistance and strong optical field enhancements. The CO 2 laser used in R2RLIS can also integrate the fabricated nanostructures on transparent flexible substrates with robust interfacial contact. The ability to fabricate ultrasmooth metallic nanostructures using roll-to-roll manufacturing enables the large scale production, at a relatively low-cost, of flexible plasmonic devices toward emerging applications.

  18. Mechanisms of Enhanced Phrenic Long-Term Facilitation in SOD1G93A Rats

    Satriotomo, Irawan; Grebe, Ashley M.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease, causing muscle paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Effective means to preserve/restore ventilation are necessary to increase the quality and duration of life in ALS patients. At disease end-stage in a rat ALS model (SOD1G93A), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) restores phrenic nerve activity to normal levels via enhanced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Mechanisms enhancing pLTF in end-stage SOD1G93A rats are not known. Moderate AIH-induced pLTF is normally elicited via cellular mechanisms that require the following: Gq-protein-coupled 5-HT2 receptor activation, new BDNF synthesis, and MEK/ERK signaling (the Q pathway). In contrast, severe AIH elicits pLTF via a distinct mechanism that requires the following: Gs-protein-coupled adenosine 2A receptor activation, new TrkB synthesis, and PI3K/Akt signaling (the S pathway). In end-stage male SOD1G93A rats and wild-type littermates, we investigated relative Q versus S pathway contributions to enhanced pLTF via intrathecal (C4) delivery of small interfering RNAs targeting BDNF or TrkB mRNA, and MEK/ERK (U0126) or PI3 kinase/Akt (PI828) inhibitors. In anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats, moderate AIH-induced pLTF was abolished by siBDNF and UO126, but not siTrkB or PI828, demonstrating that enhanced pLTF occurs via the Q pathway. Although phrenic motor neuron numbers were decreased in end-stage SOD1G93A rats (∼30% survival; p phrenic motor neurons (p phrenic motor plasticity results from amplification of normal cellular mechanisms versus addition/substitution of alternative mechanisms. Greater understanding of mechanisms underlying phrenic motor plasticity in ALS may guide development of new therapies to preserve and/or restore breathing in ALS patients. PMID:28500219

  19. Molecular and expression analysis of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene under temperature and starvation stress in rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Yang, Jianghua; Dong, Siming; Zhu, Huanxi; Jiang, Qichen; Yang, Jiaxin


    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organs from damage by reactive oxygen species. We cloned cDNA encoding SOD activated with manganese (Mn-SOD) from the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. The full-length cDNA of Mn-SOD was 1,016 bp and had a 669 bp open reading frame encoding 222 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of B. calyciflorus Mn-SOD showed 89.1, 71.3, and 62.1 % similarity with the Mn-SOD of the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the amino acid sequences of Mn-SODs from B. calyciflorus and other organisms revealed that this rotifer is closely related to nematodes. Analysis of the mRNA expression of Mn-SOD under different conditions revealed that expression was enhanced 5.6-fold (p 0.05). Moderate starvation promoted Mn-SOD mRNA expression (p 12 < 0.01, p 36 < 0.05), which reached a maximum value (15.3 times higher than control, p 24 < 0.01) at 24 h. SOD and CAT activities also elevated at the 12 h-starved group. These results indicate that induction of Mn-SOD expression by stressors likely plays an important role in aging of B. calyciflorus.

  20. TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded human wild-type SOD1 can propagate intercellularly in a prion-like fashion.

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Grad, Leslie I; Cashman, Neil R


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, is linked to heritable mutations in genes encoding SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72, or can occur sporadically without recognized genetic mutations. Misfolded human wild-type (HuWt) SOD1 has been detected in both familial and sporadic ALS patients, despite mutations in SOD1 accounting for only 2% of total cases. We previously showed that accumulation of pathological TDP-43 or FUS coexist with misfolded HuWtSOD1 in patient motor neurons, and can trigger its misfolding in cultured cells. Here, we used immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. In this system, intercellular spread of SOD1 misfolding is not accompanied by transmission of TDP-43 or FUS pathology. Our findings argue that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of propagated misfolding of SOD1.

  1. Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Hösel, Markus


    the manufacture of completely functional devices in exceptionally high yields. Critical to the ink and process development is a carefully chosen technology transfer to industry method where first a roll coater is employed enabling contactless stack build up, followed by a small roll-to-roll coater fitted to an X...

  2. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Maria D Esteve-Gassent

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348 exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560, and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15 were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC, Decorin binding protein A (DbpA, fibronectin binding protein (BBK32, RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of

  3. Additive contributions of two manganese-cored superoxide dismutases (MnSODs to antioxidation, UV tolerance and virulence of Beauveria bassiana.

    Xue-Qin Xie

    Full Text Available The biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic fungi against arthropod pests depends on not only their virulence to target pests but tolerance to outdoor high temperature and solar UV irradiation. Two Beauveria bassiana superoxide dismutases (SODs, BbSod2 and BbSod3, were characterized as cytosolic and mitochondrial manganese-cored isoenzymes (MnSODs dominating the total SOD activity of the fungal entomopathogen under normal growth conditions. To probe their effects on the biocontrol potential of B. bassiana, ΔBbSod2, ΔBbSod3, and three hairpin RNA-interfered (RNAi mutants with the transcripts of both BbSod2 and BbSod3 being suppressed by 91-97% were constructed and assayed for various phenotypic parameters in conjunction with ΔBbSod2/BbSod2, ΔBbSod3/BbSod3 and wild-type (control strains. In normal cultures, the knockout and RNAi mutants showed significant phenotypic alterations, including delayed sporulation, reduced conidial yields, and impaired conidial quality, but little change in colony morphology. Their mycelia or conidia became much more sensitive to menadione or H(2O(2-induced oxidative stress but had little change in sensitivity to the hyperosmolarity of NaCl and the high temperature of 45°C. Accompanied with the decreased antioxidative capability, conidial tolerances to UV-A and UV-B irradiations were reduced by 16.8% and 45.4% for ΔBbSod2, 18.7% and 44.7% for ΔBbSod3, and ∼33.7% and ∼63.8% for the RNAi mutants, respectively. Their median lethal times (LT(50s against Myzus persicae apterae, which were topically inoculated under a standardized spray, were delayed by 18.8%, 14.5% and 37.1%, respectively. Remarkably, the effects of cytosolic BbSod2 and mitochondrial BbSod3 on the phenotypic parameters important for the fungal bioncontrol potential were additive, well in accordance with the decreased SOD activities and the increased superoxide levels in the knockout and RNAi mutants. Our findings highlight for the first time that

  4. Constant-roll tachyon inflation and observational constraints

    Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui; Fei, Qin


    For the constant-roll tachyon inflation, we derive the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts and the tensor to scalar ratio to the first order of epsilon1 by using the method of Bessel function approximation. The derived ns-r results are compared with the observations, we find that only the constant-roll inflation with ηH being a constant is consistent with the observations and observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be slow-roll inflation. The tachyon potential is also reconstructed for the constant-roll inflation which is consistent with the observations.

  5. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F


    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative sod gene expression analysis in C. elegans

    Vandesompele Jo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the conserved Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates many biological processes including life span, stress response, dauer diapause and metabolism. Detection of differentially expressed genes may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates these processes. Appropriate normalization is an essential prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantification of gene expression levels. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression analysis in C. elegans. Results Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes (act-1, ama-1, cdc-42, csq-1, eif-3.C, mdh-1, gpd-2, pmp-3, tba-1, Y45F10D.4, rgs-6 and unc-16 in wild-type, three Ins/IGF-1 pathway mutants, dauers and L3 stage larvae. After geNorm analysis, cdc-42, pmp-3 and Y45F10D.4 showed the most stable expression pattern and were used to normalize 5 sod expression levels. Significant differences in mRNA levels were observed for sod-1 and sod-3 in daf-2 relative to wild-type animals, whereas in dauers sod-1, sod-3, sod-4 and sod-5 are differentially expressed relative to third stage larvae. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of accurate normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The methodology used in this study is generally applicable to reliably quantify gene expression levels in the nematode C. elegans using quantitative PCR.

  7. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean


    A major goal of the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is to enable high-performance research reactors to operate with low-enriched uranium rather than the high-enriched uranium currently used. To this end, uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) represents an ideal candidate because of its stable gamma phase, low neutron caption cross section, acceptable swelling response, and predictable irradiation behavior. However, because of the complexities of the fuel design and the need for rolled monolithic U-10Mo foils, new developments in processing and fabrication are necessary. This study used a finite-element code, LS-DYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog-boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated: hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling. Simulation results demonstrated that reducing the mismatch in strength between the coupon and can material improves the quality of the rolled sheet. Bare-rolling simulation results showed a defect-free rolled coupon. The finite-element model developed and presented in this study can be used to conduct parametric studies of several process parameters (e.g., rolling speed, roll diameter, can material, and reduction).

  8. 75 FR 64246 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of...


    ...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY... certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, 67 FR 11093 (March 12, 2002...

  9. Troll, a Language for specifying Dice-rolls

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius


    Dice are used in many games, and often in fairly complex ways that make it difficult to unambiguously describe the dice-roll mechanism in plain language. Many role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, use a formalised notation for some instances of dice-rolls. This notation, once explained...... natural language to describe rolls. Even Dungeons & Dragons use formal notation only for some of the dice-roll methods used in the game. Hence, a more complete notation is in this paper proposed, and a tool for pseudo-random rolls and (nearly) exact probability calculations is described. The notation...... is called "Troll", combining the initial of the Danish word for dice ("terninger") with the English word "roll". It is a development of the language Roll described in an earlier paper. The present paper describes the most important features of Troll and its implementation....

  10. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang


    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...




    Full Text Available Rolling is a mechanical treatment, which plays an important part in the processing of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Texturing is an important phenomenon that occurs after rolling process. Preferred orientation increases the strength of the material enormously. Hence the research is focused on the rolling studies and the texture formation, which occurs after rolling process. This review mainly focuses on rolling process carried out in different alloys. It also highlights the analysis made on various rolling parameters for improving the mechanical properties. Texture studies carried on various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; particularly in nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel is discussed. Finally the need for implementation of occupational health and safety during a thermomechanical treatment is also discussed. The state of art in this field is encouraging and showing positive signs of commercializing rolled nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel after proper texture control.


    Peter Peciar


    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  13. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels


    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...... upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated...... size of the sticking region with varying contact length and pressure/reduction is experimentally verified by plane strain upsetting tests measuring the local surface deformation of the work pieces after unloading....


    Rejwana Haque


    Full Text Available DNA Cryptography can be defined as a hiding data in terms of DNA Sequence. In this paper we propose a new DNA Encryption Technique where three different types of ordering is use to make binary data into cipher text. The main stages of this encryption technique are: Key Analysis, Data and Key Arrangement, Roll in encoding, Secondary Arrangement and Shifting. Decryption process has six main steps to obtain the original binary data from the encrypted data and key. Decryption steps are: Key Analysis, Shifting, Secondary Arrangement, Key Arrangement, Roll-out decoding, Data Arrangement. Here key size is half of binary data and the key is varies from data to data so key are used as one time pad. In this paper we also discuss about the implementation from sample data and security analysis for this given method.

  15. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir


    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  16. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    Gavrilovski, Dragica; Gavrilovski, Milorad


    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  17. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  18. A Model of Active Roll Vehicle Suspension

    I. Čech


    Full Text Available This paper describes active suspension with active roll for four-wheel vehicle (bus by means of an in-series pump actuator with doubled hydropneumatic springs. It also gives full control law with no sky-craping. Lateral stiffness and solid axle geometry in the mechanical model are not neglected. Responses to lateral input as well as responses to statistical unevennesses show considerable improvement of passengers comfort and safety when cornering.

  19. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B


    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  20. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.


    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  1. Contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings

    Fernandes, PJL


    Full Text Available to the "cyclone pitting effect" also observed in gear teeth \\[1\\]. The initiation of surface cracks under rollin~sliding contact can be significantly accelerated by the presence of stress concentration sites on the contact surf... formed by rolling and rollin~sliding contact fatigue may progress to form a more severe form of damage known as flaking \\[3\\]. This results in the formation of large, irregular pits which cause rapid deterioration...

  2. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji


    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S 3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities

  3. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji


    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.

  4. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz


    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  5. Advanced age-related denervation and fiber-type grouping in skeletal muscle of SOD1 knockout mice.

    Kostrominova, Tatiana Y


    In this study skeletal muscles from 1.5- and 10-month-old Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) homozygous knockout (JLSod1(-/-)) mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (C57Bl6/129SvEv background) were compared with muscles from age- and sex-matched heterozygous (JLSod1(+/-)) littermates. The results of this study were compared with previously published data on two different strains of Sod1(-/-) mice: one from Dr. Epstein's laboratory (ELSod1(-/-); C57Bl6 background) and the other from Cephalon, Inc. (CSod1(-/-); 129/CD-1 background). Grouping of succinate dehydrogenase-positive fibers characterized muscles of Sod1(-/-) mice from all three strains. The 10-month-old Sod1(-/-)C and JL mice displayed pronounced denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle, whereas the ELSod1(-/-) mice displayed a small degree of denervation at this age, but developed accelerated age-related denervation later on. Denervation markers were up-regulated in skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice. This study is the first to show that metallothionein mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice and was mostly localized to the small atrophic muscle fibers. In conclusion, all three strains of Sod1(-/-) mice develop accelerated age-related muscle denervation, but the genetic background has significant influence on the progress of denervation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radio-sensitivity of the cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice transfected with human mutant SOD1

    Wate, Reika; Ito, Hidefumi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi


    In order to clarify the possible involvement of oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation in the onset and/or progression of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied radio-sensitivity in primary cells derived from ALS model mice expressing human mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The primary mouse cells expressed both mouse and the mutant human SOD1. The cell survival of the transgenic mice (with mutant SOD1), determined by counting cell numbers at a scheduled time after X-irradiation, is very similar to that of cells from wild type animals. The induction and repair of DNA damage in the transgenic cells, measured by single cell gel electrophoresis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis, are also similar to those of wild type cells. These results indicate that the human mutant SOD1 gene does not seem to contribute to the alteration of radio-sensitivity, at least in the fibroblastic cells used here. Although it is necessary to consider the difference in cell types between fibroblastic and neuronal cells, the present results may suggest that ionizing radiation is not primarily responsible for the onset of familial ALS with the SOD1 mutation, and that the excess risks are probably not a concern for radiation diagnosis and therapy in familial ALS patients. (author)

  7. Overexpression of survival motor neuron improves neuromuscular function and motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 mice.

    Turner, Bradley J; Alfazema, Neza; Sheean, Rebecca K; Sleigh, James N; Davies, Kay E; Horne, Malcolm K; Talbot, Kevin


    Spinal muscular atrophy results from diminished levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein in spinal motor neurons. Low levels of SMN also occur in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and genetic reduction of SMN levels exacerbates the phenotype of transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice. Here, we demonstrate that SMN protein is significantly reduced in the spinal cords of patients with sporadic ALS. To test the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS, we overexpressed SMN in 2 different strains of SOD1(G93A) mice. Neuronal overexpression of SMN significantly preserved locomotor function, rescued motor neurons, and attenuated astrogliosis in spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice. Despite this, survival was not prolonged, most likely resulting from SMN mislocalization and depletion of gems in motor neurons of symptomatic mice. Our results reveal that SMN upregulation slows locomotor deficit onset and motor neuron loss in this mouse model of ALS. However, disruption of SMN nuclear complexes by high levels of mutant SOD1, even in the presence of SMN overexpression, might limit its survival promoting effects in this specific mouse model. Studies in emerging mouse models of ALS are therefore warranted to further explore the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering of a novel tri-functional enzyme with MnSOD, catalase and cell-permeable activities.

    Luangwattananun, Piriya; Yainoy, Sakda; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Songtawee, Napat; Bülow, Leif; Ayudhya, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na; Prachayasittikul, Virapong


    Cooperative function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in protection against oxidative stress, is known to be more effective than the action of either single enzyme. Chemical conjugation of the two enzymes resulted in molecules with higher antioxidant activity and therapeutic efficacy. However, chemical methods holds several drawbacks; e.g., loss of enzymatic activity, low homogeneity, time-consuming, and the need of chemical residues removal. Yet, the conjugated enzymes have never been proven to internalize into target cells. In this study, by employing genetic and protein engineering technologies, we reported designing and production of a bi-functional protein with SOD and CAT activities for the first time. To enable cellular internalization, cell penetrating peptide from HIV-1 Tat (TAT) was incorporated. Co-expression of CAT-MnSOD and MnSOD-TAT fusion genes allowed simultaneous self-assembly of the protein sequences into a large protein complex, which is expected to contained one tetrameric structure of CAT, four tetrameric structures of MnSOD and twelve units of TAT. The protein showed cellular internalization and superior protection against paraquat-induced cell death as compared to either complex bi-functional protein without TAT or to native enzymes fused with TAT. This study not only provided an alternative strategy to produce multifunctional protein complex, but also gained an insight into the development of therapeutic agent against oxidative stress-related conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Astrocyte-neuron co-culture on microchips based on the model of SOD mutation to mimic ALS.

    Kunze, Anja; Lengacher, Sylvain; Dirren, Elisabeth; Aebischer, Patrick; Magistretti, Pierre J; Renaud, Philippe


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. ALS is believed to be a non-cell autonomous condition, as other cell types, including astrocytes, have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. Hence, to facilitate the development of therapeutics against ALS, it is crucial to better understand the interactions between astrocytes and neural cells. Furthermore, cell culture assays are needed that mimic the complexity of cell to cell communication at the same time as they provide control over the different microenvironmental parameters. Here, we aim to validate a previously developed microfluidic system for an astrocyte-neuron cell culture platform, in which astrocytes have been genetically modified to overexpress either a human wild-type (WT) or a mutated form of the super oxide dismutase enzyme 1 (SOD1). Cortical neural cells were co-cultured with infected astrocytes and studied for up to two weeks. Using our microfluidic device that prevents direct cell to cell contact, we could evaluate neural cell response in the vicinity of astrocytes. We showed that neuronal cell density was reduced by about 45% when neurons were co-cultured with SOD-mutant astrocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SOD-WT overexpressing astrocytes reduced oxidative stress on cortical neurons that were in close metabolic contact. In contrast, cortical neurons in metabolic contact with SOD-mutant astrocytes lost their synapsin protein expression after severe glutamate treatment, an indication of the toxicity potentiating effect of the SOD-mutant enzyme.

  10. ALS-linked mutant SOD1 proteins promote Aβ aggregates in ALS through direct interaction with Aβ.

    Jang, Ja-Young; Cho, Hyungmin; Park, Hye-Yoon; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Kang, Seongman


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Aggregation of ALS-linked mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a hallmark of a subset of familial ALS (fALS). Recently, intracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) is detected in motor neurons of both sporadic and familial ALS. We have previously shown that intracellular Aβ specifically interacts with G93A, an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant. However, little is known about the pathological and biological effect of this interaction in neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated that the Aβ-binding region is exposed on the SOD1 surface through the conformational changes due to misfolding of SOD1. Interestingly, we found that the intracellular aggregation of Aβ is enhanced through the direct interaction of Aβ with the Aβ-binding region exposed to misfolded SOD1. Ultimately, increased Aβ aggregation by this interaction promotes neuronal cell death. Consistent with this result, Aβ aggregates was three-fold higher in the brains of G93A transgenic mice than those of non Tg. Our study provides the first direct evidence that Aβ, an AD-linked factor, is associated to the pathogenesis of ALS and provides molecular clues to understand common aggregation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, it will provide new insights into the development of therapeutic approaches for ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of Enhanced Phrenic Long-Term Facilitation in SOD1G93A Rats.

    Nichols, Nicole L; Satriotomo, Irawan; Allen, Latoya L; Grebe, Ashley M; Mitchell, Gordon S


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease, causing muscle paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Effective means to preserve/restore ventilation are necessary to increase the quality and duration of life in ALS patients. At disease end-stage in a rat ALS model ( SOD1 G93A ), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) restores phrenic nerve activity to normal levels via enhanced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Mechanisms enhancing pLTF in end-stage SOD1 G93A rats are not known. Moderate AIH-induced pLTF is normally elicited via cellular mechanisms that require the following: G q -protein-coupled 5-HT 2 receptor activation, new BDNF synthesis, and MEK/ERK signaling (the Q pathway). In contrast, severe AIH elicits pLTF via a distinct mechanism that requires the following: G s -protein-coupled adenosine 2A receptor activation, new TrkB synthesis, and PI3K/Akt signaling (the S pathway). In end-stage male S OD1 G93A rats and wild-type littermates, we investigated relative Q versus S pathway contributions to enhanced pLTF via intrathecal (C4) delivery of small interfering RNAs targeting BDNF or TrkB mRNA, and MEK/ERK (U0126) or PI3 kinase/Akt (PI828) inhibitors. In anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats, moderate AIH-induced pLTF was abolished by siBDNF and UO126, but not siTrkB or PI828, demonstrating that enhanced pLTF occurs via the Q pathway. Although phrenic motor neuron numbers were decreased in end-stage SOD1 G93A rats (∼30% survival; p phrenic motor neurons ( p phrenic motor plasticity results from amplification of normal cellular mechanisms versus addition/substitution of alternative mechanisms. Greater understanding of mechanisms underlying phrenic motor plasticity in ALS may guide development of new therapies to preserve and/or restore breathing in ALS patients. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375834-12$15.00/0.

  12. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    Pouillot, M.


    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  13. Delayed Disease Onset and Extended Survival in the SOD1G93A Rat Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis after Suppression of Mutant SOD1 in the Motor Cortex

    Thomsen, Gretchen M.; Gowing, Genevieve; Latter, Jessica; Chen, Maximus; Vit, Jean-Philippe; Staggenborg, Kevin; Avalos, Pablo; Alkaslasi, Mor; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Likhite, Shibi; Kaspar, Brian K.


    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease with unknown etiology, characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons leading to paralysis and death typically within 3–5 years of onset. Recently, there has been remarkable progress in understanding inherited forms of ALS in which well defined mutations are known to cause the disease. Rodent models in which the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutation is overexpressed recapitulate hallmark signs of ALS in patients. Early anatomical changes in mouse models of fALS are seen in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lower motor neurons, and selective reduction of toxic mutant SOD1 in the spinal cord and muscle of these models has beneficial effects. Therefore, much of ALS research has focused on spinal motor neuron and NMJ aspects of the disease. Here we show that, in the SOD1G93A rat model of ALS, spinal motor neuron loss occurs presymptomatically and before degeneration of ventral root axons and denervation of NMJs. Although overt cell death of corticospinal motor neurons does not occur until disease endpoint, we wanted to establish whether the upper motor neuron might still play a critical role in disease progression. Surprisingly, the knockdown of mutant SOD1 in only the motor cortex of presymptomatic SOD1G93A rats through targeted delivery of AAV9–SOD1–shRNA resulted in a significant delay of disease onset, expansion of lifespan, enhanced survival of spinal motor neurons, and maintenance of NMJs. This datum suggests an early dysfunction and thus an important role of the upper motor neuron in this animal model of ALS and perhaps patients with the disease. PMID:25411487

  14. Voltage and Thermally Driven Roll-to-Roll Organic Printed Transistor Made in Ambient Air Conditions

    Pastorelli, Francesco

    of the organic semiconductor poly3hexylthiophene and the dielectric material polyvinylphenol before the gate was applied by screen printing. All the processing was realized in ambient air on a PET flexible substrate. We explore the footprint and the practically accessible geometry of such devices with a special......Resume: Organic thin film transistors offer great potential for use in flexible electronics. Much of this potential lies in the solution processability of the organic polymers enabling both roll coating and printing on flexible substrates and thus greatly reducing the material and fabrication costs....... We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20 m min−1) roll-to-roll flexographic printing of the drain and source electrode structures, with an interspace below 50 um, directly on polyester foil[1]. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by slotdie coating...

  15. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.


    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase ...... and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and showed good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded and simulated signals....... selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust...

  16. New Numerical Solution of von Karman Equation of Lengthwise Rolling

    Rudolf Pernis


    Full Text Available The calculation of average material contact pressure to rolls base on mathematical theory of rolling process given by Karman equation was solved by many authors. The solutions reported by authors are used simplifications for solution of Karman equation. The simplifications are based on two cases for approximation of the circular arch: (a by polygonal curve and (b by parabola. The contribution of the present paper for solution of two-dimensional differential equation of rolling is based on description of the circular arch by equation of a circle. The new term relative stress as nondimensional variable was defined. The result from derived mathematical models can be calculated following variables: normal contact stress distribution, front and back tensions, angle of neutral point, coefficient of the arm of rolling force, rolling force, and rolling torque during rolling process. Laboratory cold rolled experiment of CuZn30 brass material was performed. Work hardening during brass processing was calculated. Comparison of theoretical values of normal contact stress with values of normal contact stress obtained from cold rolling experiment was performed. The calculations were not concluded with roll flattening.

  17. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.


    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  18. Large-scale roll-to-roll photonic sintering of flexo printed silver nanoparticle electrodes

    Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C


    In this report we employ static and roll-to-roll (R2R) photonic sintering processes on flexo printed silver nanoparticle-based electrode structures with a heat-sensitive 60 mm thin barrier foil as a substrate. We use large area electrode structures to visualize the increased optical footprint...... as the nanoparticles are already sintered. The advantage of single exposure is the ability to produce higher R2R processing speeds without overlapping, which is shown in the form of theoretical calculations....

  19. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C


    demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy......The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We...... energies was observed....

  20. High throughput in situ scattering of roll-to-roll coated functional polymer films

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel


    The development of conjugated polymers for organic electronics and photovoltaics has relied heavily on advanced X-ray scattering techniques almost since the earliest studies in the field. Almost from the beginning, structural studies focused on how the polymers self-organize in thin films......, and the relation between chemical configuration of the polymer, structure and performance. This chapter presents the latest developments where structural analysis is applied as in situ characterization of structure formation during roll-to-roll coating of photoactive layers for solar cells....

  1. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta


    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...... included water, alcohols and chlorobenzene. Open-circuit voltages close to the expected sum of sub cell voltages were achieved, while the overall efficiency of the tandem cells was found to be limited by the low yielding back cell, which was processed from water based ink. Many of the challenges associated...

  2. Quality control of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar modules by complementary imaging methods

    Rösch, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Tanenbaum, D.M.


    We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT......), electroluminescence (ELI) and photoluminescence/reflection imaging (PLI/RI) complemented by optical imaging (OI). The combination of all high resolution images allowed us to allocate the origin of processing errors to a specific deposition process, i.e. the insufficient coverage of an electrode interlayer...

  3. Changes of serum contents of LPO, SOD after treatment with vita. E-C complex in patients with liver spot

    Li Qing; Feng Zheng


    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum contents of LPO, SOD and therapeutic efficacy after treatment with Vita. E-C complex in patients with liver spot. Methods: Serum LPO and SOD contents were measured both before and after treatment with Vita E-C complex (Vita. E l00mg, Vita. C 200mg x 3/d for 3 months) in 30 patients with liver spot as well as in 10 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum LPO contents in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls. After treatment, the LPO contents dropped markedly, being significantly lower than the values before treatment. However, the SOD contents were about the same as those in controls and changes little after treatment. Conclusion: Vita. E-C complex was of definite therapeutic value for the treatment of liver spot. (authors)

  4. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum.

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu


    The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article "Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum" [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information." [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8) with the Pfam database, "Pfam: the protein families database" [4].

  5. Overexpression of Cu-Zn SOD in Brucella abortus suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via down-regulation of Sar1 activity

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Mi; Yang, Yanling; Wu, Jing; Peng, Qisheng


    Brucella Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) is a periplasmic protein, and immunization of mice with recombinant Cu-Zn SOD protein confers protection against Brucella abortus infection. However, the role of Cu-Zn SOD during the process of Brucella infection remains unknown. Here, we report that Cu-Zn SOD is secreted into culture medium and is translocated into host cells independent of type IV secretion systems (T4SS). Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies reveal that Brucella abortus Cu-Zn SOD interacts with the small GTPase Sar1. Overexpression of Cu-Zn SOD in Brucella abortus inhibits bacterial intracellular growth by abolishing Sar1 activity in a manner independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:29515756

  6. Effect of nitrogen fertilization, grass species and cultivar on sod production on Valkeasuo peat bog - a case study

    Perttu Virkajärvi


    Full Text Available As part of a research project concerning the agricultural utilization of cut-away peat bogs, a sod production experiment was conducted at Valkeasuo, Tohmajärvi, in 1990-1993. The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of nitrogen and choice of cultivar on sod production and sod quality on peat bogs. The N fertilization rates were 50, 100 and 150kg ha-1. The Poa pratensis cultivars were ‘Conni’, ‘Cynthia’, ‘Haga’ and ‘Julia’, the Festuca rubra cultivars were ‘Center’, ‘Juliska’, ‘Koket’ and ‘Näpsä’ and the Agrostis capillaris cultivar was ‘Rasti’. Two mixtures of P. pratensis/F. rubra and one of A. capillaris/F. rubra imitated commercial sod products. Increasing of N fertilization from 50 kg up to 150 kg ha-1 a had positive effect on general the quality of sod as well as on the green cover before and after transplanting. It increased the thatch formation. The positive effect of N on the number of tillers and green cover in the year following transplanting was dependent on the species and the cultivar. Species and cultivar affected all measured variables excluding thatch formation. Generally, the P. pratensis cultivars tested suited better for sod production than cultivars of F. rubra, but there were clear differences between cultivars within species as well. Although the soil was infertile, the contents of Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn in the herbage samples were within normal range. The botanical purity was high, which supports the hypothesis that the absence of seed bank of weeds on peat bogs immediately after harvesting the peat can be utilized.

  7. The R213G polymorphism in SOD3 protects against allergic airway inflammation

    Gaurav, Rohit; Varasteh, Jason T; Weaver, Michael R


    ) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced type II innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in lungs. SOD mimetic (Mn (III) tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin) attenuated Alternaria-induced expression of IL-33 and IL-8 release in BEAS-2B cells. These results suggest that R213G SNP potentially benefits its carriers...... by resulting in high EC-SOD in airway-lining fluid, which ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by dampening the innate immune response, including IL-33/ST2-mediated changes in ILC2s....

  8. Improving the Delivery of SOD1 Antisense Oligonucleotides to Motor Neurons Using Calcium Phosphate-Lipid Nanoparticles

    Liyu Chen


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1 in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs can efficiently silence proteins with gain-of-function mutations. However, naked ASOs have a short circulation half-life and are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB warranting the use of a drug carrier for effective delivery. In this study, calcium phosphate lipid coated nanoparticles (CaP-lipid NPs were developed for delivery of SOD1 ASO to motor neurons. The most promising nanoparticle formulation (Ca/P ratio of 100:1, had a uniform spherical core–shell morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and surface charge (ζ-potential of −4.86 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of ASO was 48% and stability studies found the particle to be stable over a period of 20 days. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged ASO-loaded CaP-lipid NPs could effectively deliver SOD1-targeted ASO into a mouse motor neuron-like cell line (NSC-34 through endocytosis and significantly down-regulated SOD1 expression in HEK293 cells. The CaP-lipid NPs exhibited a pH-dependant dissociation, suggesting that that the acidification of lysosomes is the likely mechanism responsible for facilitating intracellular ASO release. To demonstrate tissue specific delivery and localization of these NPs we performed in vivo microinjections into zebrafish. Successful delivery of these NPs was confirmed for the zebrafish brain, the blood stream, and the spinal cord. These results suggest that Ca

  9. The effect of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked exogenous SOD1-G93A on electrophysiological properties and intracellular calcium in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Milošević, Milena; Bataveljić, Danijela; Nikolić, Ljiljana; Bijelić, Dunja; Andjus, Pavle


    Over 150 mutations in the SOD1 gene that encodes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20-25% of familial ALS, albeit without a known gain-of-function mechanism. ALS is also non-cell-autonomous, the interactions between motor neurons and their glial neighbours being implicated in disease progression. The aim here was to investigate the biophysical effects of the exogenous human mutant SOD1-G93A on rat astrocytes in culture. Primary cortical astrocyte cultures were treated with recombinant human apo- mSOD1-G93A vs. wild-type control (wtSOD1) and recorded by patch-clamp and calcium imaging. Results showed that exogenous mSOD1 as well as wtSOD1 induced a decrease of membrane resistance, the effect being persistent (up to 13 min) only for the mutant form. Similarly, whole-cell inward currents in astrocytes were augmented by both wt and mSOD1, but the effect was twice larger and only progressed continuously for the latter. Both forms of SOD1 also induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) activity, the effect being dependent on external Ca(2+) and again only persisted with mSOD1, becoming significantly different from wtSOD1 only at longer times (14 min). In conclusion, this study points to membrane permeability and Ca(2+) signalling as processes affected by SOD1-G93A that presents the humoral factor triggering the role of astrocytes in ALS pathophysiology.

  10. Tolerance analysis of chloroplast OsCu/Zn-SOD overexpressing rice under NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

    Qingjie Guan

    Full Text Available The 636-bp-long cDNA sequence of OsCu/Zn-SOD (AK059841 was cloned from Oryza sativa var. Longjing11 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The encoded protein comprised of 211 amino acids is highly homologous to Cu/Zn-SOD proteins from tuscacera rice and millet. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in rice, the level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression was lowest in roots and was highest in petals and during the S5 leaf stage. Moreover, the expression level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression decreased during the L5 leaf stage to maturity. The level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression, however, was increased under saline-sodic stress and NaHCO3 stress. Germination tests under 125, 150, and 175 mM NaCl revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than the non-transgenic (NT Longjing11 lines in terms of germination rate and height. Subjecting seedlings to NaHCO3 and water stress revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of SOD activity, fresh weight, root length, and height. Under simulated NaHCO3 stress, OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of survival rate (25.19% > 6.67% and yield traits (average grain weight 20.6 > 18.15 g. This study showed that OsCu/Zn-SOD gene overexpression increases the detoxification capacity of reactive oxygen species in O. sativa and reduces salt-induced oxidative damage. We also revealed the regulatory mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzyme in saline-sodic stress resistance in O. sativa. Moreover, we provided an experimental foundation for studying the mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzymes in the chloroplast.

  11. The theory and technique of yamuna body rolling.

    Suzuki, Satoshi


    [Purpose] This paper provides information about the theory and technique of Yamuna Body Rolling. In order to treat physical problems, using the specialized Yamuna Body Rolling balls, people can target superficial skin, fasciae, muscle fibers, tendons, ligaments, bones, internal organs, and the nervous system by themselves. The extraordinary effect of Yamuna Body Rolling is its multidimensional elongation of muscle fibers. In addition to the regular longitudinal elongation by the conventional stretch method, Yamuna Body Rolling enables the transversal and diagonal expansion of muscle fibers in order to move the body more dynamically. Hamstring, abdominal, and sideline routines are presented as examples for techniques of Yamuna Body Rolling. Yamuna Body Rolling can be applied to functional evaluation and therapeutic uses; therefore, it could provide many benefits in the treatment of different conditions in the medical field.

  12. Plastic anisotropy of straight and cross rolled molybdenum sheets

    Oertel, C.-G.; Huensche, I.; Skrotzki, W.; Knabl, W.; Lorich, A.; Resch, J.


    The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of molybdenum sheets produced by different rolling processes were investigated by orientation imaging in the scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. For comparable recrystallization degree of the sheets investigated, straight rolling with low reduction ratio produces α-fiber textures with a maximum at {100} . At higher rolling degrees the maximum shifts to {112} . Cross rolling increases the rotated cube component {100} . The strong differences in the texture measured are reflected in the plastic anisotropy characterized by differences in the yield stress and Lankford parameter which were measured along directions in the rolling plane at angles of 0 deg., 45 deg. and 90 deg. with the rolling direction. The Taylor-Bishop-Hill theory is used successfully to qualitatively explain the plastic anisotropy

  13. Prediction of Parametric Roll Resonance by Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network

    Míguez González, M; López Peña, F.; Díaz Casás, V.


    Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been acknowle......Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been...... acknowledged in the last few years. This work proposes a prediction system based on a multilayer perceptron (MP) neural network. The training and testing of the MP network is accomplished by feeding it with simulated data of a three degrees-of-freedom nonlinear model of a fishing vessel. The neural network...

  14. Engineering of rolled constructional microalloyed steel products

    Adamczyk, J.


    Flexibility of the microalloyed steels on manufacturing of products with high mechanical and technological properties at not exaggerated production costs, it caused of their application for different constructions and machines in many branches of economy. It is a reason of the big interest of this steel group and the improvement of metallurgical and technological processing. In the work the examples of applications of C-Mn microalloyed steels with V and N microadditions for production of long shape products of R p0.2 > 650 MPa and KCU2 > 57 Jcm -2 are presented. They are manufactured in the controlled rolling process. Moreover this work presents liquid metal treatment in ladlemann process and influence of ingots solidification conditions, controlled rolling of weldable plates with Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions which after quenching and tempering have R p0.2 > 870 MPa, KV -50 o C > 27 J and plastic strain ratio equals 1.2. This work also presents the energy saving rolling technology with controlled recrystallization (method of thermomechanical treatment) of improved Weldox 960 steel plates with Mb, Ti, V and B microadditions which have after high-temperature tempering R p0.2 > 100 MPa, KV -50 o C >90 J and plastic strain ratio is less than 1.2. The introduction of microalloyed constructional steels and the appropriate technology in the domestic industry will contribute to high-processed products with properties competitive to products manufactured in high-industrialized countries. Thanks to that it will be possible to increase the technical level as well as to reduce production costs and import. (author)

  15. Overlay accuracy on a flexible web with a roll printing process based on a roll-to-roll system.

    Chang, Jaehyuk; Lee, Sunggun; Lee, Ki Beom; Lee, Seungjun; Cho, Young Tae; Seo, Jungwoo; Lee, Sukwon; Jo, Gugrae; Lee, Ki-yong; Kong, Hyang-Shik; Kwon, Sin


    For high-quality flexible devices from printing processes based on Roll-to-Roll (R2R) systems, overlay alignment during the patterning of each functional layer poses a major challenge. The reason is because flexible substrates have a relatively low stiffness compared with rigid substrates, and they are easily deformed during web handling in the R2R system. To achieve a high overlay accuracy for a flexible substrate, it is important not only to develop web handling modules (such as web guiding, tension control, winding, and unwinding) and a precise printing tool but also to control the synchronization of each unit in the total system. A R2R web handling system and reverse offset printing process were developed in this work, and an overlay between the 1st and 2nd layers of ±5μm on a 500 mm-wide film was achieved at a σ level of 2.4 and 2.8 (x and y directions, respectively) in a continuous R2R printing process. This paper presents the components and mechanisms used in reverse offset printing based on a R2R system and the printing results including positioning accuracy and overlay alignment accuracy.

  16. Spoilers for roll control of light airplanes

    Roskam, J.; Kohlman, D. L.; Wentz, W. H.


    The paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art of roll control spoilers for light airplanes. Reasons for using spoilers on light airplanes are presented. Several classical objections to the use of spoilers of such airplanes are critically examined. It is shown that mechanically driven spoiler systems can be designed. Flight test results of a new mechanically driven spoiler on the Redhawk airplane are discussed. Tunnel data of spoilers on the new general aviation airfoil GA(W)-1 are presented. Finally, a bibliography on spoiler data is included.

  17. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg-Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. (The use of ISO 281:2007 with a fatigue limit in these calculations would result in a bearing life approaching infinity.) Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application. Rules had been developed to distinguish and compare predicted lives with those actually obtained. Based upon field and test results of 51 ball and roller bearing sets, 98 percent of these bearing sets had acceptable

  18. Entry Strategies to Indonesian Market Case: MoveaRoll

    Islam, Zahedul


    MoveRoll Oy, an internationally growing and expanding Finnish company located in Porvoo, has invented a unique technology to produce a paper roll conveyor which the company believes will revolutionise the paper roll handling industry. Moreover, after establishing itself in the Finnish market, the company has started expanding its business to countries like Sweden, USA, and China. Likewise, the process of expanding to the Russian market is currently underway and the company has recently launch...

  19. Adaptive attenuation of aliased ground roll using the shearlet transform

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hassani, Hossien; Torabi, Siyavash; Sadri, Maryam


    Attenuation of ground roll is an essential step in seismic data processing. Spatial aliasing of the ground roll may cause the overlap of the ground roll with reflections in the f-k domain. The shearlet transform is a directional and multidimensional transform that separates the events with different dips and generates subimages in different scales and directions. In this study, the shearlet transform was used adaptively to attenuate aliased and non-aliased ground roll. After defining a filtering zone, an input shot record is divided into segments. Each segment overlaps adjacent segments. To apply the shearlet transform on each segment, the subimages containing aliased and non-aliased ground roll, the locations of these events on each subimage are selected adaptively. Based on these locations, mute is applied on the selected subimages. The filtered segments are merged together, using the Hanning function, after applying the inverse shearlet transform. This adaptive process of ground roll attenuation was tested on synthetic data, and field shot records from west of Iran. Analysis of the results using the f-k spectra revealed that the non-aliased and most of the aliased ground roll were attenuated using the proposed adaptive attenuation procedure. Also, we applied this method on shot records of a 2D land survey, and the data sets before and after ground roll attenuation were stacked and compared. The stacked section after ground roll attenuation contained less linear ground roll noise and more continuous reflections in comparison with the stacked section before the ground roll attenuation. The proposed method has some drawbacks such as more run time in comparison with traditional methods such as f-k filtering and reduced performance when the dip and frequency content of aliased ground roll are the same as those of the reflections.

  20. Effect of rolling reduction on the development of rolling and recrystallization textures in Al-Mg alloys

    Endou, S; Inagaki, H [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)


    In order to investigate the effect of Mg content on the development of the rolling textures in Al pure Al, Al-3% Mg alloy and Al-5% Mg alloy were cold rolled by varying rolling reductions up to 97%. Their rolling textures were investigated by the orientation distribution function analysis. The extent of work hardening introduced by cold rolling was estimated by the hardness measurements. It was found that, at all rolling reductions, the main orientations of the rolling textures depended strongly on the Mg content. In pure Al, {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle was always the main orientation, whereas {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle was most strong in the Al-3%Mg alloy. In the Al-5% Mg alloy, the development of both {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strongly suppressed, whereas {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle developed remarkably. In pure Al, most of the texture development occurred at the later half of work hardening, i.e. at rolling reductions above 70%. With increasing Mg content, rolling texture tended to develop already at lower rolling reductions. Dynamic recovery, which occurred at very high rolling reductions, suppressed the development of the rolling textures. All these results strongly suggested that the formation of dislocation cell structures and shear banding are origins of the formation of these rolling textures. On annealing these specimens at 450 C for 30 min, recrystallization textures developed only in specimens having strong rolling textures, i. e. in the specimens cold rolled more than 70%. {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle developed only in pure Al and in the Al-3% Mg ally, in which {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strong in the rolling textures. Recrystallization textures of the Al-5% Mg alloy was wather random. Its main orientation, {l

  1. Superhydrophobic Properties of Nanotextured Polypropylene Foils Fabricated by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

    Telecka, Agnieszka; Murthy, Swathi; Sun, Ling


    etching with different processing gas flow rates. We provide a systematic study of the wetting properties for the fabricated surfaces and show that a controlled texture stretching effect in the R2R-EC process is instrumental to yield the superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles approaching 160......° and droplet roll-off angles below 10°....

  2. Thermal Characteristics of Plastic Film Tension in Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printed Electronics

    Kui He


    Full Text Available In the printing section of a roll-to-roll gravure printed electronics machine, the plastic film tension is directly associated with the product quality. The temperature distribution of the plastic film in the printing section is non-uniform, because of the higher drying temperature and the lower room temperature. Furthermore, the drying temperature and the room temperature are not constants in industrial production. As the plastic film is sensitive to temperature, the temperature of the plastic film will affects the web tension in the printing section. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of the plastic film tension in roll-to-roll gravure printed electronics are studied in order to help to improve the product quality. First, the tension model including the factor of temperature is derived based on the law of mass conservation. Then, some simulations and experiments are carried out in order to in-depth research the effects of the drying temperature and room temperature based on the relations between system inputs and outputs. The results show that the drying temperature and room temperature have significant influences on the web tension. The research on the thermal characteristics of plastic film tension would benefit the tension control accuracy for further study.

  3. Self-Aligned Metal Electrodes in Fully Roll-to-Roll Processed Organic Transistors

    Marja Vilkman


    Full Text Available We demonstrate the production of organic bottom gate transistors with self-aligned electrodes, using only continuous roll-to-roll (R2R techniques. The self-alignment allows accurate <5 µm layer-to-layer registration, which is usually a challenge in high-speed R2R environments as the standard registration methods are limited to the millimeter range—or, at best, to tens of µm if online cameras and automatic web control are utilized. The improved registration enables minimizing the overlap between the source/drain electrodes and the gate electrode, which is essential for minimizing the parasitic capacitance. The complete process is a combination of several techniques, including evaporation, reverse gravure, flexography, lift-off, UV exposure and development methods—all transferred to a continuous R2R pilot line. Altogether, approximately 80 meters of devices consisting of thousands of transistors were manufactured in a roll-to-roll fashion. Finally, a cost analysis is presented in order to ascertain the main costs and to predict whether the process would be feasible for the industrial production of organic transistors.

  4. Development of an aerostatic bearing system for roll-to-roll printed electronics

    Chen, Shasha; Chen, Weihai; Liu, Jingmeng; Chen, Wenjie; Jin, Yan


    Roll-to-roll printed electronics is proved to be an effective way to fabricate electrical devices on various substrates. High precision overlay alignment plays a key role to create multi-layer electrical devices. Multiple rollers are adopted to support and transport the substrate web. In order to eliminate the negative effect of the machining error and assembling error of the roller, a whole roll-to-roll system including two aerostatic bearing devices with arrayed restrictors is proposed in this paper. Different to the conventional roller, the aerostatic bearing device can create a layer of air film between the web and the device to realize non-contact support and transport. Based on simplified Navier–Stokes equations, the theoretical model of the air film is established. Moreover, the pressure distribution of the whole flow field and single restrictor in different positions are modeled by conducting numerical simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. The load capacity curves and stiffness curves are generated to provide guidance for optimizing the structure of the device. A prototype of the aerostatic bearing system is set up and the experiment tests are carried out. For the proposed aerostatic bearing roller with a diameter of 100 mm and length of 200 mm, the experimental results show the aerostatic bearing method can achieve the position accuracy in a range of 1 μm in the vertical direction of the web, which is much better than that using existing methods.

  5. Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis

    Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Yonghwan


    The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF), and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude- Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.

  6. Development of a Minimally Actuated Jumping-Rolling Robot

    Thanhtam Ho


    Full Text Available This paper presents development of a hybrid mobile robot in order to take advantage of both rolling and jumping locomotion on the ground. According to the unique design of the mechanism, the robot is able to execute both jumping and rolling skilfully by using only one DC motor. Changing the centre of gravity enables rolling of the robot and storage of energy is utilized for jumping. Mechanism design and control logic are validated by computer simulation. Simulation results show that the robot can jump nearly 1.3 times its diameter and roll at the speed of 3.3 times its diameter per second.

  7. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....

  8. An advanced dissymmetric rolling model for online regulation

    Cao, Trong-Son


    Roll-bite model is employed to predict the rolling force, torque as well as to estimate the forward slip for preset or online regulation at industrial rolling mills. The rolling process is often dissymmetric in terms of work-rolls rotation speeds and diameters as well as the friction conditions at upper and lower contact surfaces between work-rolls and the strip. The roll-bite model thus must be able to account for these dissymmetries and in the same time has to be accurate and fast enough for online applications. In the present study, a new method, namely Adapted Discretization Slab Method (ADSM) is proposed to obtain a robust roll-bite model, which can take into account the aforementioned dissymmetries and has a very short response time, lower than one millisecond. This model is based on the slab method, with an adaptive discretization and a global Newton-Raphson procedure to improve the convergence speed. The model was validated by comparing with other dissymmetric models proposed in the literature, as well as Finite Element simulations and industrial pilot trials. Furthermore, back-calculation tool was also constructed for friction management for both offline and online applications. With very short CPU time, the ADSM-based model is thus attractive for all online applications, both for cold and hot rolling.

  9. Rolled-up nanotechnology: 3D photonic materials by design

    Böttner, Stefan; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.


    Rolled-up nanotechnology involves the deposition of strained material layers for subsequent release and relaxation into functional structures with applications spanning several disciplines. Originally developed for use with semiconductor materials, over the last decade the processes involved in rolled-up nanotechnology have been applied across a wide palette of materials resulting in applications (among others) in micro robotics, energy storage, electronics, and photonics. Here we highlight the key advancements and future directions in rolled-up photonics, focusing on the diverse demonstrations of rolled-up three-dimensional microresonators which enable integrated sensing, micro-lasing, and out-of-plane routing of light.

  10. Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals

    Nielsen, Kim Lau


    sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...

  11. Annuitants Added to the Annuity Roll Processing System (ARPS)

    Office of Personnel Management — Small table showing the total Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) Annuitants added to the Annuity Roll Processing...

  12. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Metallic Surface by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining for Seamless Roll-to-Roll Printing

    Jin-Young So


    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal of a direct one-step method to fabricate a multi-scale superhydrophobic metallic seamless roll mold. The mold was fabricated using the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM technique for a roll-to-roll imprinting application to produce a large superhydrophobic surface. Taking advantage of the exfoliating characteristic of the metallic surface, nano-sized surface roughness was spontaneously formed while manufacturing the micro-sized structure: that is, a dual-scale hierarchical structure was easily produced in a simple one-step fabrication with a large area on the aluminum metal surface. This hierarchical structure showed superhydrophobicity without chemical coating. A roll-type seamless mold for the roll-to-roll process was fabricated through engraving the patterns on the cylindrical substrate, thereby enabling to make a continuous film with superhydrophobicity.

  13. Axial Force Analysis and Roll Contour Configuration of Four-High CVC Mill

    Guang-ming Liu


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of technical parameters on work roll axial force of four-high continuous variable crown (CVC mill, the deformation analyzing model with top roll system and strip was established based on influence function method. Then a CVC work roll curve designing scheme was proposed and it was carried out on some cold rolling mill considering the requirement of comprehensive work roll axial force minimization. The status of comprehensive work roll axial force is improved considering the rolling schedule that is beneficial to the roller bearing. Corresponding to the newly designed work roll contour, the backup roll end chamfer was designed considering comprehensive performance of interroll stress concentration, comprehensive work roll axial force, and strip shape control ability. The distribution of roll wear with newly designed backup roll contour is more even according to the field application data. The newly established roll configuration scheme is beneficial to four-high CVC mill.

  14. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    Li Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin Fuxing


    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  15. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Hofmann, Harald; Mattissen, Dorothea; Schaumann, Thomas Wilhelm [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Center of Materials Excellence, Dortmund (Germany)


    Advanced high-strength steels offer a great potential for the further development of automobile bodies-in-white due to their combined mechanical properties of high formability and strength. They represent the first choice in material selection for strength and crash-relevant parts with challenging geometries. The intensive development of multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp Steel has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex-phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled dual phase (DP) and retained austenite (RA) or transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. New continuously annealed grades of steel are being developed with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for the high demands of structural automobile components. These steels make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP steels and RA / TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (orig.)

  16. Wear of rolling element bearings in sodium

    Campbell, C.S.


    Rolling element bearings and related mechanisms are attractive for service in liquid sodium but it is not clear what minimum wear rate can be anticipated. For axially loaded angular contact bearings rotation is incompatible with pure rolling on both races and wear arises from the resulting ball spin. The initial pressure distributions and sizes of the contact ellipses can be calculated but will change with bearing wear. However, the most effective distribution for producing wear would be for the full loads to be borne on the tips of the contact areas, whose maximum length is given by examination of the race wear tracks. A calculation on such a basis should set a lower limit for the wear coefficient. Both the torque and instantaneous wear rate of a bearing will be similar functions of the integral over the contact areas of the product of contact pressure and radius from the ball spin axis. A better estimate of wear coefficient should be obtained by relating the average torque, the average wear, the initial torque and the initial wear where the conditions are known. Analysis of tests in sodium at 400 0 C of high speed steel and Stellite bearings by these methods indicates specific wear rates of the order of 10 -15 m 3 /N-m, not unduly out of line with the range of values found in conventional sliding tests

  17. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean


    This study used a finite element code, LSDYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated:  hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling.

  18. Polymorphism variant of MnSOD A16V and risk of female infertility in northern Iran

    Mostafa Pournourali


    Conclusion: It is suggested that the MnSOD A16V polymorphism may be associated with a risk of female infertility in northern Iran. More studies should be considered with a larger number of patients and controls to confirm our results.

  19. Functional and crystallographic characterization of Salmonella typhimurium Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase coded by the sodCI virulence gene

    Pesce, A; Battistoni, A; Stroppolo, ME; Polizio, F; Nardini, M; Kroll, JS; Langford, PR; O'Neill, P; Sette, M; Desideri, A; Bolognesi, M


    The functional and three-dimensional structural features of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase coded by the Salmonella typhimurium sodCI gene, have been characterized. Measurements of the catalytic rate indicate that this enzyme is the most efficient superoxide dismutase analyzed so far, a feature that may

  20. In vitro and in silico cloning of Xenopus laevis SOD2 cDNA and its phylogenetic analysis.

    Purrello, Michele; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Ragusa, Marco; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Di Pietro, Valentina; Emmanuele, Giovanni; Travali, Salvo; Scalia, Marina; Shasha, Dennis; Ferro, Alfredo


    By using the methodology of both wet and dry biology (i.e., RT-PCR and cycle sequencing, and biocomputational technology, respectively) and the data obtained through the Genome Projects, we have cloned Xenopus laevis SOD2 (MnSOD) cDNA and determined its nucleotide sequence. These data and the deduced protein primary structure were compared with all the other SOD2 nucleotide and amino acid sequences from eukaryotes and prokaryotes, published in public databases. The analysis was performed by using both Clustal W, a well known and widely used program for sequence analysis, and AntiClustAl, a new algorithm recently created and implemented by our group. Our results demonstrate a very high conservation of the enzyme amino acid sequence during evolution, which proves a close structure-function relationship. This is to be expected for very ancient molecules endowed with critical biological functions, performed through a specific structural organization. The nucleotide sequence conservation is less pronounced: this too was foreseeable, due to neutral mutations and to the species-specific codon usage. The data obtained by using AntiClustAl are comparable with those produced with Clustal W, which validates this algorithm as an important new tool for biocomputational analysis. Finally, it is noteworthy that evolutionary trees, drawn by using all the available data on SOD2 nucleotide sequences and amino acid and either Clustal W or AntiClustAl, are comparable to those obtained through phylogenetic analysis based on fossil records.

  1. Muscle Expression of SOD1G93A Triggers the Dismantlement of Neuromuscular Junction via PKC-Theta.

    Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Martini, Martina; Scicchitano, Bianca Maria; Romanello, Vanina; Boncompagni, Simona; Nicoletti, Carmine; Pietrangelo, Laura; De Panfilis, Simone; Catizone, Angela; Bouchè, Marina; Sandri, Marco; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio


    Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents the morphofunctional interface between muscle and nerve. Several chronic pathologies such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, display altered NMJ and functional denervation. However, the triggers and the molecular mechanisms underlying the dismantlement of NMJ remain unclear. Here we provide evidence that perturbation in redox signaling cascades, induced by muscle-specific accumulation of mutant SOD1 G93A in transgenic MLC/SOD1 G93A mice, is causally linked to morphological alterations of the neuromuscular presynaptic terminals, high turnover rate of acetylcholine receptor, and NMJ dismantlement. The analysis of potential molecular mechanisms that mediate the toxic activity of SOD1 G93A revealed a causal link between protein kinase Cθ (PKCθ) activation and NMJ disintegration. The study discloses the molecular mechanism that triggers functional denervation associated with the toxic activity of muscle SOD1 G93A expression and suggests the possibility of developing a new strategy to counteract age- and pathology-associated denervation based on pharmacological inhibition of PKCθ activity. Collectively, these data indicate that muscle-specific accumulation of oxidative damage can affect neuromuscular communication and induce NMJ dismantlement through a PKCθ-dependent mechanism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1105-1119.

  2. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  3. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini


    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral treatment with Cu(II)(atsm) increases mutant SOD1 in vivo but protects motor neurons and improves the phenotype of a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Roberts, Blaine R; Lim, Nastasia K H; McAllum, Erin J; Donnelly, Paul S; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip A; Turner, Bradley J; Price, Katherine A; Lim, Sin Chun; Paterson, Brett M; Hickey, James L; Rhoads, Timothy W; Williams, Jared R; Kanninen, Katja M; Hung, Lin W; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Grubman, Alexandra; Monty, Jean-Francois; Llanos, Roxana M; Kramer, David R; Mercer, Julian F B; Bush, Ashley I; Masters, Colin L; Duce, James A; Li, Qiao-Xin; Beckman, Joseph S; Barnham, Kevin J; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J


    Mutations in the metallo-protein Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans and an expression level-dependent phenotype in transgenic rodents. We show that oral treatment with the therapeutic agent diacetyl-bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) [Cu(II)(atsm)] increased the concentration of mutant SOD1 (SOD1G37R) in ALS model mice, but paradoxically improved locomotor function and survival of the mice. To determine why the mice with increased levels of mutant SOD1 had an improved phenotype, we analyzed tissues by mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed most SOD1 in the spinal cord tissue of the SOD1G37R mice was Cu deficient. Treating with Cu(II)(atsm) decreased the pool of Cu-deficient SOD1 and increased the pool of fully metallated (holo) SOD1. Tracking isotopically enriched (65)Cu(II)(atsm) confirmed the increase in holo-SOD1 involved transfer of Cu from Cu(II)(atsm) to SOD1, suggesting the improved locomotor function and survival of the Cu(II)(atsm)-treated SOD1G37R mice involved, at least in part, the ability of the compound to improve the Cu content of the mutant SOD1. This was supported by improved survival of SOD1G37R mice that expressed the human gene for the Cu uptake protein CTR1. Improving the metal content of mutant SOD1 in vivo with Cu(II)(atsm) did not decrease levels of misfolded SOD1. These outcomes indicate the metal content of SOD1 may be a greater determinant of the toxicity of the protein in mutant SOD1-associated forms of ALS than the mutations themselves. Improving the metal content of SOD1 therefore represents a valid therapeutic strategy for treating ALS caused by SOD1. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348021-11$15.00/0.

  5. Differential survival among sSOD-1* genotypes in Chinook Salmon

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Marshall , Anne R.


    Differential survival and growth were tested in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha expressing two common alleles, *–100 and *–260, at the superoxide dismutase locus (sSOD-1*). These tests were necessary to support separate studies in which the two alleles were used as genetic marks under the assumption of mark neutrality. Heterozygous adults were used to produce progeny with –100/–100, –100/–260, and –260/–260 genotypes that were reared in two natural streams and two hatcheries in the states of Washington and Oregon. The latter also were evaluated as returning adults. In general, the genotype ratios of juveniles reared at hatcheries were consistent with high survival and little or no differential survival in the hatchery. Adult returns at one hatchery were significantly different from the expected proportions, and the survival of the –260/–260 genotype was 0.56–0.89 times that of the –100/–100 genotype over four year-classes. Adult returns at a second hatchery (one year-class) were similar but not statistically significant: survival of the –260/–260genotype relative to the –100/–100 genotype was 0.76. The performance of the heterozygote group was intermediate at both hatcheries. Significant differences in growth were rarely observed among hatchery fish (one year-class of juveniles and one age-class of adult males) but were consistent with greater performance for the –100/–100 genotype. Results from two groups of juveniles reared in streams (one year-class from each stream) suggested few differences in growth, but the observed genotype ratios were significantly different from the expected ratios in one stream. Those differences were consistent with the adult data; survival for the –260/–260 genotype was 76% of that of the –100/–100 genotype. These results, which indicate nonneutrality among sSOD-1* genotypes, caused us to modify our related studies and suggest caution in the interpretation of results and analyses in

  6. An ALS-Associated Mutant SOD1 Rapidly Suppresses KCNT1 (Slack) Na+-Activated K+ Channels in Aplysia Neurons.

    Zhang, Yalan; Ni, Weiming; Horwich, Arthur L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K


    Mutations that alter levels of Slack (KCNT1) Na + -activated K + current produce devastating effects on neuronal development and neuronal function. We now find that Slack currents are rapidly suppressed by oligomers of mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are associated with motor neuron toxicity in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recorded from bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica , a model system to study neuronal excitability. We found that injection of fluorescent wild-type SOD1 (wt SOD1YFP) or monomeric mutant G85R SOD1YFP had no effect on net ionic currents measured under voltage clamp. In contrast, outward potassium currents were significantly reduced by microinjection of mutant G85R SOD1YFP that had been preincubated at 37°C or of cross-linked dimers of G85R SOD1YFP. Reduction of potassium current was also seen with multimeric G85R SOD1YFP of ∼300 kDa or >300 kDa that had been cross-linked. In current clamp recordings, microinjection of cross-linked 300 kDa increased excitability by depolarizing the resting membrane potential, and decreasing the latency of action potentials triggered by depolarization. The effect of cross-linked 300 kDa on potassium current was reduced by removing Na + from the bath solution, or by knocking down levels of Slack using siRNA. It was also prevented by pharmacological inhibition of ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) or of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but not by an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results suggest that soluble mutant SOD1 oligomers rapidly trigger a kinase pathway that regulates the activity of Na + -activated K + channels in neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Slack Na + -activated K + channels (KCNT1, K Na 1.1) regulate neuronal excitability but are also linked to cytoplasmic signaling pathways that control neuronal protein translation. Mutations that alter the amplitude of these currents have devastating effects on neuronal

  7. Correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion

    Hua Xin


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with primary liver cancer in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital between June 2014 and February 2017 were selected as liver cancer group, and healthy subjects who received physical examination in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Serum was collected from two groups of subjects to determine the contents of GP73, SOD and GPC3; liver cancer lesion and adjacent lesion were collected from liver cancer group to determine the expression of cell proliferation molecules and angiogenesis molecules. Results: Serum GP73 and GPC3 levels of liver cancer group were obviously higher than those of control group while SOD content was obviously lower than that of control group; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in adjacent lesion; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were positively correlated with serum GP73 and GPC3 levels, and negatively correlated with serum SOD level. Conclusion: The changes of GP73, SOD and GPC3 levels in the serum of patients with liver cancer are closely related to the cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion.

  8. Targeting the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio by L-arginine and SOD mimic in diabetic rat skin.

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Ferreri, Carla; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato


    Setting the correct ratio of superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) and nitric oxide ( • NO) radicals seems to be crucial in restoring disrupted redox signaling in diabetic skin and improvement of • NO physiological action for prevention and treatment of skin injuries in diabetes. In this study we examined the effects of L-arginine and manganese(II)-pentaazamacrocyclic superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic - M40403 in diabetic rat skin. Following induction of diabetes by alloxan (blood glucose level ≥12 mMol l  -1 ) non-diabetic and diabetic male Mill Hill hybrid hooded rats were divided into three subgroups: (i) control, and receiving: (ii) L-arginine, (iii) M40403. Treatment of diabetic animals started after diabetes induction and lasted for 7 days. Compared to control, lower cutaneous immuno-expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), manganese SOD (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in parallel with increased NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nitrotyrosine levels characterized diabetic skin. L-arginine and M40403 treatments normalized alloxan-induced increase in nitrotyrosine. This was accompanied by the improvement/restitution of eNOS and HO1 or MnSOD and GSH-Px protein expression levels in diabetic skin following L-arginine, i.e. SOD mimic treatments, respectively. The results indicate that L-arginine and M40403 stabilize redox balance in diabetic skin and suggest the underlying molecular mechanisms. Restitution of skin redox balance by L-arginine and M40403 may represent an effective strategy to ameliorate therapy of diabetic skin.

  9. 75 FR 77828 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...


    ...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon- quality steel...

  10. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Stevens, SS


    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  11. Conceptualizing Rolling Motion through an Extreme Case Reasoning Approach

    Hasovic, Elvedin; Mešic, Vanes; Erceg, Nataša


    In this paper we are going to show how learning about some counterintuitive aspects of rolling motion can be facilitated by combining the use of analogies with extreme case reasoning. Specifically, the intuitively comprehensible examples of "rolling" polygonal prisms are used as an analogical anchor that is supposed to help the students…

  12. Hot-rolling metals in vacuum. Information circular

    Beall, R.A.; Worthington, R.B.; Blickensderfer, R.


    The process of hot-rolling metals, alloys, and composites in vacuum is studied. First, a comprehensive review of the literature is presented, including the advantages and disadvantages of using vacuum. Next, details of hot-rolling titanium, chromium, and molybdenum-iron bimetal are given. Finally, the design of new equipment is described

  13. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)


    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  14. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  15. Estimation of Parametric Roll in a Stochastic Seaway

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena


    -degree of freedom (roll and heave) time domain model [10]. In the present paper the effect of the increased added resistance when the bow heaves and pitches down in a wave crest is introduced. Due to the resulting forward speed variation the roll resonance condition will be changed. The influence of ship speed...

  16. Study of Hydroplaning Risk on Rolling and Sliding Passenger Car

    Kumar, S.S.; Anupam, K.; Scarpas, A.; Kasbergen, C.


    Hydroplaning speed is known to vary over a range of tire slipping conditions from free rolling to completely skidding. An attempt has been made to simulate two extreme conditions of hydroplaning i.e. when the tire is completely rolling (0% slip) and a completely locked tire (100% slip). ASTM

  17. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    Mothosi, KL


    Full Text Available residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRD) surface probing technique. Preliminary results were obtained for the surface residual stress at the center of the titanium strips for the 100 and 325 mesh strips rolled at 0.1 roll gap for 20 and 50 mm set...

  18. 14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Braked roll conditions. 25.493 Section 25.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.493 Braked roll conditions. (a...

  19. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro


    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  20. Assessing the roll stability of heavy vehicles in South Africa

    Benade, R


    Full Text Available of these crashes involve heavy vehicle rollover. The regulations in the National Road Traffic Act of South Africa that govern heavy vehicle design do not directly address the roll stability of heavy vehicles. The internationally accepted method of regulating roll...

  1. Inherited variations in the SOD and GPX gene families and cancer risk.

    Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Kutikhin, Anton G


    Antioxidant defence enzymes are essential protectors of living organisms against oxidative stress. These enzymes are involved in the detoxification and decomposition of harmful chemical compounds called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are, first and foremost, a source of intracellular oxidative stress. ROS directly promote the oxidative damage of genes resulting in aberrant regulation of many vital cell processes. As a consequence, the presence of ROS can lead to genomic instability, deregulation of transcription, induction of mitogenic signal transduction pathways and replication errors, all of which may increase the risk of cancer development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant defence genes may significantly modify the functional activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for particular cancer types. In the future, these risk alleles may be utilized as genomic markers of cancer predisposition to allow for early prevention measures among carriers of these alleles. The review is devoted to common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) gene families and their impact on carcinogenesis. The predictive significance of several polymorphisms was determined, and these polymorphisms were recommended for further in-depth research.

  2. A 50 bp deletion in the SOD1 promoter lowers enzyme expression but is not associated with ALS in Sweden.

    Ingre, Caroline; Wuolikainen, Anna; Marklund, Stefan L; Birve, Anna; Press, Rayomand; Andersen, Peter M


    Mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 50 base pair (bp) deletion of SOD1 has been suggested to reduce transcription and to be associated with later disease onset in ALS. This study was aimed to reveal if the 50 bp deletion influenced SOD1 enzymatic activity, occurrence and phenotype of the disease in a Swedish ALS/control cohort. Blood samples from 512 Swedish ALS patients and 354 Swedish controls without coding SOD1 mutations were analysed for the 50 bp deletion allele. The enzymatic activity of SOD1 in erythrocytes was analysed and genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed. Results demonstrated that the genotype frequencies of the 50 bp deletion were all found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant differences were found for age of onset, disease duration or site of onset. SOD1 enzymatic activity showed a statistically significant decreasing trend in the control group, in which the allele was associated with a 5% reduction in SOD1 activity. The results suggest that the 50 bp deletion has a moderate reducing effect on SOD1 synthesis. No modulating effects, however, were found on ALS onset, phenotype and survival in the Swedish population.

  3. Fisetin Exerts Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects in Multiple Mutant hSOD1 Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Activating ERK.

    Wang, T H; Wang, S Y; Wang, X D; Jiang, H Q; Yang, Y Q; Wang, Y; Cheng, J L; Zhang, C T; Liang, W W; Feng, H L


    Oxidative stress exhibits a central role in the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease commonly found to include a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene mutation. Fisetin, a natural antioxidant, has shown benefits in varied neurodegenerative diseases. The possible effect of fisetin in ALS has not been clarified as of yet. We investigated whether fisetin affected mutant hSOD1 ALS models. Three different hSOD1-related mutant models were used: Drosophila expressing mutant hSOD1 G85R , hSOD1 G93A NSC34 cells, and transgenic mice. Fisetin treatment provided neuroprotection as demonstrated by an improved survival rate, attenuated motor impairment, reduced ROS damage and regulated redox homeostasis compared with those in controls. Furthermore, fisetin increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK and upregulated antioxidant factors, which were reversed by MEK/ERK inhibition. Finally, fisetin reduced the levels of both mutant and wild-type hSOD1 in vivo and in vitro, as well as the levels of detergent-insoluble hSOD1 proteins. The results indicate that fisetin protects cells from ROS damage and improves the pathological behaviors caused by oxidative stress in disease models related to SOD1 gene mutations probably by activating ERK, thereby providing a potential treatment for ALS. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement by a cylinder test stand and tyre rolling resistance

    A. Dávid


    Full Text Available Sometimes it is necessary to test how repair affects the properties of the car. These tests are carried out using a cylinder test stand. During the test the tyre is rolling between two cylinders of a small diameter. The question arises whether the rolling resistance of the tyre is the same as the rolling resistance when the wheel is rolling on the plane. If it is not the same what is the reliation between tyre resistances in these two cases? It is an important answer because the change of rolling resistance can affect consumption, the highest speed, engine power and other results of measurement. The paper gives the answer to these questions and describes the method of getting this information.

  5. Diagnostic capability of 100-mm roll film digitizer system

    Kono, M.; Yamasaki, K.; Ikeda, M.


    The authors recently developed a roll film digitizer system. The sampling pitch is 100 μm. a scientific image study (Barger phantom, Hawlet chart, and modulation transfer function), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study, and clinical evaluation were performed. For the ROC study, a chest phantom with simulated nodule and hairline was used. Differences in accuracy between readings of cathode ray tube (CRT) images and roll film images were not statistically significant for hairline and coin lesions, P<.05). As a clinical evaluation, eight radiologists evaluated predetermined radiologic findings on a five-point rating scale compared with original roll film images. Scores for CRT images were equal to those for the original roll film images. In conclusion, CRT images (1,000 x 1,000) were found to be sufficient for diagnostic accuracy of chest images compared with roll film images (100 x 100 mm)

  6. Spring-back of flexible roll forming bending process

    Zhang, Y; Kim, D H; Jung, D W


    Simulations are now widely used in the field of roll forming because of their convenience. Simulations provide a low cost, secure and fast analysis tool. Flexible roll forming provides the desired shapes with a one time forming process. For roll forming, the velocity of the sheet and friction are important factors to attain an ideal shape. Because it is a complicated process, simulations provide a better understanding of the roll forming process. Simulations were peformed using ABAQUS software linked to elastic-plastic modules which we developed taking into account of interactions between these fields [1]. The application of this method makes it possible to highlight the strain-stress and mechanical behaviour laws and the spring-back. Thus, the flexible roll forming and bending process can be well described by the simulation software and guide the actual machine. (paper)

  7. Parametric roll resonance monitoring using signal-based detection

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Falkenberg, Thomas


    Extreme roll motion of ships can be caused by several phenomena, one of which is parametric roll resonance. Several incidents occurred unexpectedly around the millennium and caused vast fiscal losses on large container vessels. The phenomenon is now well understood and some consider parametric roll...... algorithms in real conditions, and to evaluate the frequency of parametric roll events on the selected vessels. Detection performance is scrutinised through the validation of the detected events using owners’ standard methods, and supported by available wave radar data. Further, a bivariate statistical...... analysis of the outcome of the signal-based detectors is performed to assess the real life false alarm probability. It is shown that detection robustness and very low false warning rates are obtained. The study concludes that small parametric roll events are occurring, and that the proposed signal...

  8. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi


    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  9. Rolling motions in an inner spiral arm

    Strauss, F.M.; Poeppel, W.


    Hydrogen line observations made at low galactic latitudes for l=318degree, 326degree, 334degree, and 337degree show the presence of velocity gradients in latitude in the nearest inner spiral arm, similar to those found by other observations in different regions. Maximum velocity change is about 10 km s -1 for l=337degree. By generating synthetic line profiles constructed from a model spiral arm, several possible causes of these ''rolling motions'' were studied, such as a vertical displacement or a tilt of the arm (which failed to account for the observations) and rotation or shearing in the arm. It was futher shown that a typical arm can maintain such a motion (approx. =75 km s -1 kpc -1 ) with its own gravitational potential. The results are used to study the origin and tilt of Gould's Belt

  10. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.


    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  11. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole; Manceau, Matthieu


    connected cells were prepared with a total module active area of 96 cm2. The devices were tested for operational stability under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) and natural sunlight, and the photochemical stability of the polymer was examined using a combination of UV−vis and IR spectroscopy.......We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer...... around a 1:2 mixing ratio. Roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cell devices were prepared under ambient conditions employing solution processing in all steps including the metallic back electrode that was printed as a grid giving semitransparent solar cell devices. Solar cell modules comprising 16 serially...

  12. Roll-to-roll production of spray coated N-doped carbon nanotube electrodes for supercapacitors

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Raghavendra, Achyut J.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Parler, Samuel G.; Kaplan, James P.; Rao, Apparao M.


    Although carbon nanomaterials are being increasingly used in energy storage, there has been a lack of inexpensive, continuous, and scalable synthesis methods. Here, we present a scalable roll-to-roll (R2R) spray coating process for synthesizing randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrodes on Al foils. The coin and jellyroll type supercapacitors comprised such electrodes yield high power densities (˜700 mW/cm3) and energy densities (1 mW h/cm3) on par with Li-ion thin film batteries. These devices exhibit excellent cycle stability with no loss in performance over more than a thousand cycles. Our cost analysis shows that the R2R spray coating process can produce supercapacitors with 10 times the energy density of conventional activated carbon devices at ˜17% lower cost.

  13. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research....... The research field of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is rapidly progressing along three lines: Improvement of efficiency and stability together with the introduction of large scale production methods. All three lines are explored in this work. The thesis describes low band gap polymers and why these are needed....... Polymer of this type display broader absorption resulting in better overlap with the solar spectrum and potentially higher current density. Synthesis, characterization and device performance of three series of polymers illustrating how the absorption spectrum of polymers can be manipulated synthetically...

  14. Roll-to-roll printed resistive WORM memory on a flexible substrate

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Mattila, Tomi; Suhonen, Mika; Alastalo, Ari; Kololuoma, Terho


    The fabrication process and the operation characteristics of a fully roll-to-roll printed resistive write-once-read-many memory on a flexible substrate are presented. The low-voltage (<10 V) write operation of the memories from a high resistivity ‘0’ state to a low resistivity ‘1’ state is based on the rapid electrical sintering of bits containing silver nanoparticles. The bit ink is formulated by mixing two commercially available silver nanoparticle inks in order to tune the initial square resistance of the bits and to create a self-organized network of percolating paths. The electrical performance of the memories, including read and write characteristics, is described and the long-term stability of the less stable ‘0’ state is studied in different environmental conditions. The memories can find use in low-cost mass printing applications. (paper)

  15. Roll-to-roll printed resistive WORM memory on a flexible substrate

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Mattila, Tomi; Kololuoma, Terho; Suhonen, Mika; Alastalo, Ari


    The fabrication process and the operation characteristics of a fully roll-to-roll printed resistive write-once-read-many memory on a flexible substrate are presented. The low-voltage (memories from a high resistivity ‘0’ state to a low resistivity ‘1’ state is based on the rapid electrical sintering of bits containing silver nanoparticles. The bit ink is formulated by mixing two commercially available silver nanoparticle inks in order to tune the initial square resistance of the bits and to create a self-organized network of percolating paths. The electrical performance of the memories, including read and write characteristics, is described and the long-term stability of the less stable ‘0’ state is studied in different environmental conditions. The memories can find use in low-cost mass printing applications.

  16. Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Robust Superhydrophobic Coating on Metallic Engineering Materials.

    Dong, Shuliang; Wang, Zhenlong; Wang, Yukui; Bai, Xuelin; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Jia; Hu, PingAn


    Creating a robust superhydrophobic surface on the conventional engineering materials at mass production is of great importance for a self-cleaning, anti-icing, nonwetting surface and low flow resistance in industrial applications. Herein, we report a roll-to-roll strategy to create durable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces with designed micro-/nanoscale hierarchical structures on many conventional engineering materials by combining electrical discharge machining and coating of carbon nanoparticles, followed by oil penetration and drying. The treated surface shows good superhydrophobic properties with a static water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and slide angle of 3 ± 1°. The treated surface also exhibits good resilience and maintains the performance after being tested in various harsh conditions, including water flushing for several days, sand abrasion, scratching with sandpapers, and corrosive solution. Significantly, the superhydrophobic surfaces also show a high efficiency of self-cleaning properties even after oil contamination during applications.

  17. Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cells: Towards Low Environmental Impact and Reporting Consensus

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    The sun is by far the largest source of renewable energy available; consequently solar cells, which are able to convert light into electricity, have the technical potential to cover the global energy needs. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) on flexible plastic substrate have a low embodied energy and can...... be processed by fast roll-to-roll (R2R) methods, using earth abundant materials, and thus deliver the prospects to fulfil this potential. A strong polarization in PSC research efforts have led to diverging and non-comparable results: While very high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above 10% have been......, through R2R processing of tandem PSCs. A final focus area of the thesis is the investigation into the extrinsic variability in standard J-V characterizations done on PSCs, and towards ways to minimize it. Organic solvents are predominant process solvents used for fabricating the active layer of a PSC...

  18. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Hofmann, H. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Mattissen, D.; Schaumann, T.W. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany)


    Advanced multiphase steels offer a great potential for bodies-in-white through their combination of formability and achievable component strength levels. They are first choice for strength and crash-relevant parts of challenging geometry. The intensive development of high-strength multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled DP and RA steels. New continuously annealed grades with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for applications mainly in the field of structural automobile elements make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP and TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fortschrittliche Multiphasen-Staehle eroeffnen wegen der inzwischen erreichbaren Kombination aus Umformbarkeit und Bauteilfestigkeit ein enormes Potenzial fuer Rohkarosserien. Sie stellen eine erste Wahl dar, wenn es um Festigkeit und um Crashsicherheit geht und besondere Anforderungen an die Bauteilgeometrien gestellt werden. Bei ThyssenKrupp hat die Entwicklung hochfester Multiphasen-Staehle in Verbindung mit dem Feuerverzinken zur Realisierung von Blechhalbzeugen gefuehrt, die hervorragend formbar sind. Es werden heute feuerverzinkte Komplexphasenstaehle neben den bewaehrten kaltgewalzten Dualphasen(DP) - und Retained Austenit(RA)-Staehlen produziert. Die neuen kontinuierlich gegluehten Stahlvarianten mit Festigkeiten bis zu 1000 MPa in Kombination mit der bei Strukturbauteilen im Automobilbau geforderten Duktilitaet nutzen sowohl die klassischen Vorteile des Mikrolegierens aus und dazu die Prinzipien, die man bei DP- und TRIP-Staehlen anwendet. Eine weitere Verbesserung des Eigenschaftsprofils wird mit dem

  19. Use of sodC versus ctrA for real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Neisseria meningitidis in sterile body fluids

    Fábio Takenori Higa


    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of a newly described sodC-based real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for detecting Neisseria meningitidis in normally sterile sites, such as cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The sodC-based RT-PCR assay has an advantage over ctrA for detecting nongroupable N. meningitidis isolates, which are commonly present in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage. However, in our study, sodC-based RT-PCR was 7.5% less sensitive than ctrA. Given the public health impact of possible false-negative results due to the use of the sodC target gene alone, sodC-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis should be used with caution.

  20. Microstructural evolution in warm-rolled and cold-rolled strip cast 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets and its influence on magnetic properties

    Wang, Xianglong, E-mail:; Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail:; Li, Haoze; Wang, Guodong


    Highlights: • The experimental materials used in the study are based on strip casting. • Magnetic properties between warm rolled and cold rolled sheets are investigated. • Cold rolled 6.5% Si sheet has better magnetic properties than warm rolled sheet. • The γ and λ-fiber recrystallization textures can be optimized after cold rolling. • Cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5% Si steel thin sheets. - Abstract: 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets were usually fabricated by warm rolling. In our previous work, 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with good magnetic properties had been successfully fabricated by cold rolling based on strip casting. In the present work, the main purposes were to find out the influences of warm rolling and cold rolling on microstructures and magnetic properties of the thin sheets with the thickness of 0.2 mm, and to confirm which rolling method was more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets. The results showed that the cold rolled sheet could obtain good surface quality and flatness, while the warm rolled sheet could not. The intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture (<1 1 1>//ND) of cold rolled specimen was weaker than that of the warm rolled specimen, especially for the {1 1 1}<1 1 2> component at surface layer and {1 1 1}<1 1 0> component at center layer. After the same annealing treatment, the cold rolled specimen, which had higher stored energy and weaker intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture, could obtain smaller recrystallization grain size, weaker intensity of γ-fiber recrystallization texture and stronger intensity of λ-fiber recrystallization texture. Therefore, due to the good surface quality, smaller recrystallization grain size and optimum recrystallization texture, the cold rolled specimen possessed improved magnetic properties, and cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets.

  1. Interlaboratory indoor ageing of roll-to-roll and spin coated organic photovoltaic devices: Testing the ISOS tests

    Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Corazza, Michael; Madsen, Morten Vesterager


    to roll-to-roll production. Furthermore, the reproducibility of current–voltage (IV) measurement and preconditioning (light soaking treatments) are addressed. Additionally, the inter-comparison of the degradation rates of the samples aged under three different dark test conditions (ambient, dry/heat, damp...

  2. Flexible organic tandem solar modules with 6% efficiency: combining roll-to-roll compatible processing with high geometric fill factors

    Spyropoulos, G. D.; Kubis, P.; Li, Na


    Organic solar cell technology bears the potential for high photovoltaic performance combined with truly low-cost, high-volume processing. Here we demonstrate organic tandem solar modules on flexible substrates fabricated by fully roll-to-roll compatible processing at temperatures...

  3. All polymer photovoltaics: From small inverted devices to large roll-to-roll coated and printed solar cells

    Liu, Yao; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Zhao, Xingang


    Inverted all polymer solar cells based on a blend of a perylene diimide based polymer acceptor and a dithienosilole based polymer donor were fabricated from small area devices to roll-to-roll (R2R) coated and printed large area modules. The device performance was successfully optimized by using...

  4. 76 FR 34101 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia


    ...] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia Determinations On...-quality steel products from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. The Commission further...

  5. High-throughput roll-to-roll X-ray characterization of polymer solar cell active layers

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Menzel, Andreas


    Synchrotron-based X-rays were used to probe active materials for polymer solar cells on flexible polyester foil. The active material was coated onto a flexible 130 micron thick polyester foil using roll-to-roll differentially pumped slot-die coating and presented variation in composition, thickness...

  6. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Gholamkhass, Bobak


    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed b...

  7. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.


    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top

  8. In-vivo effects of knocking-down metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Bonifacino, Tiziana; Cattaneo, Luca; Gallia, Elena; Puliti, Aldamaria; Melone, Marcello; Provenzano, Francesca; Bossi, Simone; Musante, Ilaria; Usai, Cesare; Conti, Fiorenzo; Bonanno, Giambattista; Milanese, Marco


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder due to loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The mechanisms of neuronal death are largely unknown, thus prejudicing the successful pharmacological treatment. One major cause for MN degeneration in ALS is represented by glutamate(Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity. We have previously reported that activation of Group I metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals produces abnormal Glu release in the widely studied SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS. We also demonstrated that halving mGluR1 expression in the SOD1 G93A mouse had a positive impact on survival, disease onset, disease progression, and on a number of cellular and biochemical readouts of ALS. We generated here SOD1 G93A mice with reduced expression of mGluR5 (SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ ) by crossing the SOD1 G93A mutant mouse with the mGluR5 heterozigous Grm5 -/+ mouse. SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice showed prolonged survival probability and delayed pathology onset. These effects were associated to enhanced number of preserved MNs, decreased astrocyte and microglia activation, reduced cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration, and regularization of abnormal Glu release in the spinal cord of SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice. Unexpectedly, only male SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice showed improved motor skills during disease progression vs. SOD1 G93A mice, while SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ females did not. These results demonstrate that a lower constitutive level of mGluR5 has a significant positive impact in mice with ALS and support the idea that blocking Group I mGluRs may represent a potentially effective pharmacological approach to the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    Josef eBrandauer


    Full Text Available The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p<0.01 and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p<0.05 protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n=13-15, but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n=12-13 mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p=0.051; n=6. To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n=7-8 and AMPK α2 KD (n=7-9 mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR. Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p<0.05 and MnSOD (p<0.01 in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n=9-10. Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p<0.01 and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p<0.05. Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122 or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139 was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training.

  10. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2): is there a center in the universe of mitochondrial redox signaling?

    Zou, Xianghui; Ratti, Bianca A; O'Brien, Joseph Gerald; Lautenschlager, Sueli O; Gius, David R; Bonini, Marcelo G; Zhu, Yueming


    It is becoming increasingly clear that mitochondria drive cellular functions and in vivo phenotypes by directing the production rate and abundance of metabolites that are proposed to function as signaling molecules (Chandel 2015; Selak et al. 2005; Etchegaray and Mostoslavsky 2016). Many of these metabolites are intermediates that make up cellular metabolism, part of which occur in mitochondria (i.e. the TCA and urea cycles), while others are produced "on demand" mainly in response to alterations in the microenvironment in order to participate in the activation of acute adaptive responses (Mills et al. 2016; Go et al. 2010). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well suited for the purpose of executing rapid and transient signaling due to their short lived nature (Bae et al. 2011). Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), in particular, possesses important characteristics including diffusibility and faster reactivity with specific residues such as methionine, cysteine and selenocysteine (Bonini et al. 2014). Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that H 2 O 2 functions as a relatively specific redox signaling molecule. Even though it is now established that mtH 2 O 2 is indispensable, at least for hypoxic adaptation and energetic and/or metabolic homeostasis (Hamanaka et al. 2016; Guzy et al. 2005), the question of how H 2 O 2 is produced and regulated in the mitochondria is only partially answered. In this review, some roles of this indispensable signaling molecule in driving cellular metabolism will be discussed. In addition, we will discuss how H 2 O 2 formation in mitochondria depends on and is controlled by MnSOD. Finally, we will conclude this manuscript by highlighting why a better understanding of redox hubs in the mitochondria will likely lead to new and improved therapeutics of a number of diseases, including cancer.

  11. Peculiarities of pulse crops mineral feeding on sod-podzolic sandy soils contaminated with radionuclides

    Timofeev, S.F.; Sedukova, G.V.; Demidovich, S.A.


    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was analyzed the influence of mineral fertilizers of leguminius crops (blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) of Gelena variety and field pea (Pisum arvense) of Alex variety) on yielding capacity, grain and green mass quality, and parameters transit of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides into leguminous products. In course of the experiment there were analyzed six variants of mineral fertilizer application P30K30; P30K90; P30K120; P60K60; P60K90; and P60K120. Variant without any fertilizers was as control. Double superphosphate (46% of P2O5) and potash chloride (60% of K2O) were applied as mineral fertilizers. Research results showed that application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers on sod-podzolic sandy soils moderately supplied with phosphate and potassium made it possible to increase pea and lupine yield. The highest efficiency of application of phosphate-potassium fertilizers was in the ratio of 1 (ðá2ð×5) : 2 (ðÜ2ð×) provided. Fertilizer system did not render substantial influence on indexes of nutritive value of green mass of pea and lupine. There was marked a tendency of increasing of phosphorous in lupine grain after its application in dose of P60. Mineral fertilizer application made it possible to lower 137Cs transit from soil into lupine green mass in 2 times and seeds ÔÇô in 1,5 times. Application of potassium fertilizer in dose of 120 kg/ha proved to be the most efficient for the lowering of 137Cs accumulation in products of the analyzed crops

  12. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for two perennial, sod-based forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Rymph, Stuart J; Wade, Brett L; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H


    In northern Florida, year-round forage systems are used in dairy effluent sprayfields to reduce nitrate leaching. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentration below the rooting zone for two perennial, sod-based, triple-cropping systems over four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). The soil is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzip-samment). Effluent N rates were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Differences in N removal between a corn (Zea mays L.)-bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (CBR) and corn-perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.)-rye system (CPR) were primarily related to the performance of the perennial forages. Nitrogen removal of corn (125-170 kg ha(-1)) and rye (62-90 kg ha(-1)) was relatively stable between systems and among cycles. The greatest N removal was measured for CBR in the first cycle (408 kg ha(-1)), with the bermudagrass removing an average of 191 kg N ha(-1). In later cycles, N removal for bermudagrass declined because dry matter (DM) yield declined. Yield and N removal of perennial peanut increased over the four cycles. Nitrate N concentrations below the rooting zone were lower for CBR than CPR in the first two cycles, but differences were inconsistent in the latter two. The CBR system maintained low NO3(-)-N leaching in the first cycle when the bermudagrass was the most productive; however, it was not a sustainable system for long-term prevention of NO3(-)-N leaching due to declining bermudagrass yield in subsequent cycles. For CPR, effluent N rates > or = 500 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) have the potential to negatively affect ground water quality.

  13. Transient thermal stresses of work roll by coupled thermoelasticity

    Lai, W. B.; Chen, T. C.; Weng, C. I.


    A numerical method, based on a two-dimensional plane strain model, is developed to predict the transient responses (that include distributions of temperature, thermal deformation, and thermal stress) of work roll during strip rolling by coupled thermoelasticity. The method consists of discretizing the space domain of the problem by finite element method first, and then treating the time domain by implicit time integration techniques. In order to avoid the difficulty in analysis due to relative movement between work roll and its thermal boundary, the energy equation is formulated with respect to a fixed Eulerian reference frame. The effect of thermoelastic coupling term, that is generally disregarded in strip rolling, can be considered and assessed. The influences of some important process parameters, such as rotational speed of the roll and intensity of heat flux, on transient solutions are also included and discussed. Furthermore, since the stress history at any point of the roll in both transient and steady state could be accurately evaluated, it is available to perform the analysis of thermal fatigue for the roll by means of previous data.

  14. Evolution of fuel plate parameters during deformation in rolling

    Durazzo, M., E-mail: [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Vieira, E.; Urano de Carvalho, E.F. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianópolis (Brazil)


    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP routinely produces the nuclear fuel necessary for operating its research reactor, IEA-R1. This fuel consists of fuel plates containing U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al composites as the meat, which are fabricated by rolling. The rolling process currently deployed was developed based on information obtained from literature, which was used as a premise for defining the current manufacturing procedures, according to a methodology with an essentially empirical character. Despite the current rolling process being perfectly stable and highly reproducible, it is not well characterized and is therefore not fully known. The objective of this work is to characterize the rolling process for producing dispersion fuel plates. Results regarding the evolution of the main parameters of technological interest, after each rolling pass, are presented. Some defects that originated along the fuel plate deformation during the rolling process were characterized and discussed. The fabrication procedures for manufacturing the fuel plates are also presented. - Highlights: •Evolution of defects when manufacturing dispersion fuel plates. •Aspects of dispersion fuel plates fabrication. •What happen during the manufacturing of dispersion fuel plates? •Clarifying the deformation of fuel plates by rolling.

  15. Implication of human handling on packaged sausage rolls during sale



    Full Text Available In other to identify the implication of human handling of packaged sausage rolls after production, a microbiological safety evaluation was carried out on sausage rolls sold on street and in shops. Among the sausage rolls, gala purchased from street vendors has the highest bacterial load of 2.82 × 104 CFU/g and 4.3 × 106 spore/g of fungal load, followed by meaty with bacterial load of 1.71 × 104 CFU/g and fungal load of 1.6 × 105 spore/g and was least in rite sausage roll with 1.46 × 104 CFU/g and 1 × 105 spore/g bacterial and fungal loads respectively. Seventeen bacteria species were isolated from both street vended and shop sold sausage rolls, the isolates identified including: Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ozaenae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Moraxella catarhalis, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas anaerogenes, Aerococcus viridans and Azomonas agilis. Five fungi species were isolated from street vended sausage rolls only. The fungal species are Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium italicum and Gliocephalis spp. From this study, street vended samples have higher microbial contamination than shop sold sausage rolls due to improper handling during sales.

  16. Refinement of the microstructure of steel by cross rolling

    Tsay, Kira; Arbuz, Alexandr; Gusseynov, Nazim; Nemkaeva, Renata; Ospanov, Nurlan; Krupen'kin, Ivan


    One of the most effective ways for refinement of metal microstructure is a severe plastic deformation. The cross rolling is the one of most perspective methods of severe plastic deformation, because it allows to get the long billets, unlike equal angular pressing and other popular methods. This fact provides some industrial expectation for this method. However, deformation and motion path of the metal is very heterogeneous across the section of the rolled piece. This paper presents the finite element modeling of hot cross rolling of steel in the software package DEFORM-3D features implemented and studied the stress-strain state. An experimental study of the effect of the cross rolling on a three-roll mill on the microstructure of structural alloy steel and stainless steel AISI321 in different zones of the bar. Analysis of microsections made after rolling with high total stretch and the final pass temperature 700°C, shows the formation of equiaxial ultrafinegrain structure on the periphery of an elongated rod and “rolling” texture in the central zone. The resulting microstructure corresponds to that obtained in models of stress-strain state. Keywords: cross rolling, ultra-fine grain structure, steel.

  17. Carbohydrate-dependent binding of langerin to SodC, a cell wall glycoprotein of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Kim, Hee Jin; Brennan, Patrick J; Heaslip, Darragh; Udey, Mark C; Modlin, Robert L; Belisle, John T


    Langerhans cells participate in the immune response in leprosy by their ability to activate T cells that recognize the pathogen, Mycobacterium leprae, in a langerin-dependent manner. We hypothesized that langerin, the distinguishing C-type lectin of Langerhans cells, would recognize the highly mannosylated structures in pathogenic Mycobacterium spp. The coding region for the extracellular and neck domain of human langerin was cloned and expressed to produce a recombinant active trimeric form of human langerin (r-langerin). Binding assays performed in microtiter plates, by two-dimensional (2D) Western blotting, and by surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that r-langerin possessed carbohydrate-dependent affinity to glycoproteins in the cell wall of M. leprae. This lectin, however, yielded less binding to mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and even lower levels of binding to phosphatidylinositol mannosides. However, the superoxide dismutase C (SodC) protein of the M. leprae cell wall was identified as a langerin-reactive ligand. Tandem mass spectrometry verified the glycosylation of a recombinant form of M. leprae SodC (rSodC) produced in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Analysis of r-langerin affinity by surface plasmon resonance revealed a carbohydrate-dependent affinity of rSodC (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD] = 0.862 μM) that was 20-fold greater than for M. leprae ManLAM (KD = 18.69 μM). These data strongly suggest that a subset of the presumptively mannosylated M. leprae glycoproteins act as ligands for langerin and may facilitate the interaction of M. leprae with Langerhans cells. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. MnSOD and catalase transgenes demonstrate that protection of islets from oxidative stress does not alter cytokine toxicity.

    Chen, Hainan; Li, Xiaoyan; Epstein, Paul N


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are proposed mediators of cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We produced transgenic mice with increased beta-cell expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Expression of these antioxidants increased beta-cell ROS scavenging and improved beta-cell survival after treatment with different sources of ROS. MnSOD or catalase conferred protection against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell injury. Coexpression of MnSOD and catalase provided synergistic protection against peroxynitrite and STZ. To determine the potential effect of these antioxidants on cytokine-induced toxicity, we exposed isolated islets to a cytokine mixture, including interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma. Cytokine toxicity was measured as reduced metabolic activity after 6 days and reduced insulin secretion after 1 day. Cytokines increased ROS production, and both antioxidants were effective in reducing cytokine-induced ROS. However, MnSOD and/or catalase provided no protection against cytokine-induced injury. To understand this, the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade was investigated. Antioxidants reduced NF-kappaB activation by ROS, but none of the antioxidants altered activation by cytokines, as measured by inhibitor of kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB translocation, inducible NO synthase activation, and NO production. Our data agree with previous reports that antioxidants benefit beta-cell survival against ROS damage, but they are not consistent with reports that antioxidants reduce cytokine toxicity. ROS appear to have no role in cytokine toxicity in primary beta-cells.

  19. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami


    The actin-binding protein, gelsolin, is a well known regulator of cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanisms by which gelsolin promotes invasion are not well established. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to promote cancer cell invasion, we investigated on the hypothesis that gelsolin-induced changes in ROS levels may mediate the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells. Herein, we show that increased gelsolin enhances the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells, and this is mediated via gelsolin\\'s effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained elevation of intracellular O2 .-. Using microarray data of human colorectal cancer tissues from Gene Omnibus, we found that gelsolin gene expression positively correlates with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), an important matrix-degrading protease invovled in cancer invasion. Consistent with the in vivo evidence, we show that increased levels of O2 .- induced by gelsolin overexpression triggers the secretion of uPA. We further observed reduction in invasion and intracellular O2 .- levels in colon cancer cells, as a consequence of gelsolin knockdown using two different siRNAs. In these cells, concurrent repression of Cu/ ZnSOD restored intracellular O2 .- levels and rescued invasive capacity. Our study therefore identified gelsolin as a novel regulator of intracellular O2 .- in cancer cells via interacting with Cu/ZnSOD and inhibiting its enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings provide insight into a novel function of gelsolin in promoting tumor invasion by directly impacting the cellular redox milieu.

  20. FUS-immunoreactive inclusions are a common feature in sporadic and non-SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Deng, Han-Xiang; Zhai, Hong; Bigio, Eileen H; Yan, Jianhua; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Mishra, Manjari; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Heller, Scott; Sufit, Robert; Siddique, Nailah; Mugnaini, Enrico; Siddique, Teepu


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder of motor neuron degeneration. Most cases of ALS are sporadic (SALS), but about 5 to 10% of ALS cases are familial (FALS). Recent studies have shown that mutations in FUS are causal in approximately 4 to 5% of FALS and some apparent SALS cases. The pathogenic mechanism of the mutant FUS-mediated ALS and potential roles of FUS in non-FUS ALS remain to be investigated. Immunostaining was performed on postmortem spinal cords from 78 ALS cases, including SALS (n = 52), ALS with dementia (ALS/dementia, n = 10), and FALS (n = 16). In addition, postmortem brains or spinal cords from 22 cases with or without frontotemporal lobar degeneration were also studied. In total, 100 cases were studied. FUS-immunoreactive inclusions were observed in spinal anterior horn neurons in all SALS and FALS cases, except for those with SOD1 mutations. The FUS-containing inclusions were also immunoreactive with antibodies to TDP43, p62, and ubiquitin. A fraction of tested FUS antibodies recognized FUS inclusions, and specific antigen retrieval protocol appeared to be important for detection of the skein-like FUS inclusions. Although mutations in FUS account for only a small fraction of FALS and SALS, our data suggest that FUS protein may be a common component of the cellular inclusions in non-SOD1 ALS and some other neurodegenerative conditions, implying a shared pathogenic pathway underlying SALS, non-SOD1 FALS, ALS/dementia, and related disorders. Our data also indicate that SOD1-linked ALS may have a pathogenic pathway distinct from SALS and other types of FALS.

  1. Regression analysis of γ-ray effect on sod activity and MDA content in four vegetable leaves

    Wang Zegang; Feng Min; Hu Jianwei; Gao Yue; Lv Haiyan; Luo Shishi; Zheng Haoxian; Ma Fei; Ge Cailin


    Dynamic effects of γ-ray on SOD, POD activities and MDA content in leaves of four vegetable varieties were studied. The results were quantitatively described by the method of curve fitting and establishing mathematical model. The parameters of the formula suggested that the four vegetable varieties' sensitivity to radiation appeared as following order: Basella rubra>Lactuca sativa>Lactuca sativa spp>Brassica Chinensis. (authors)

  2. Nucleation at hardness indentations in cold rolled Al

    Xu, C.L.; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, G.L.


    Nucleation of recrystallization near hardness indentations has been investigated in slightly cold rolled high purity aluminium. Samples were cold rolled to 12% and 20% reductions in thickness and indentations were done with two different loads (500 g and 2000 g). The samples were annealed at 300 °C...... for 1 h and nuclei were identified. It is found that the indentations are preferential nucleation sites. With EBSD maps around indentation tips, the orientation relationship between nuclei and matrix is analyzed. Finally, effects of rolling reduction and indentation load on local misorientations...... and stored energy distributions and thus on nucleation are discussed....

  3. FEM analysis of hollow hub forming in rolling extrusion process

    J. Bartnicki


    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of numerical calculations of rolling extrusion process of a hollow hub. As the flanges manufacturing at both sides of the product is required, in the analyzed process of rolling extrusion, a rear bumper was implemented as additional tool limiting axial metal flow. Numerical calculations of the hub forming process were conducted basing on finite element method, applying software Deform3D and Simufact in conditions of three dimensional state of strain. The obtained satisfactory results show that it is possible to conduct the further research works of experimental character, with the application of a modernized aggregate for the rolling extrusion process PO-2.

  4. Determination of rolling resistance coefficient based on normal tyre stiffness

    Rykov, S. P.; Tarasuyk, V. N.; Koval, V. S.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Fedotov, A. I.; Fedotov, K. V.


    The purpose of the article is to develop analytical dependence of wheel rolling resistance coefficient based on the mathematical description of normal tyre stiffness. The article uses the methods of non-holonomic mechanics and plane section methods. The article shows that the abscissa of gravity center of tyre stiffness expansion by the length of the contact area is the shift of normal road response. It can be used for determining rolling resistance coefficient. When determining rolling resistance coefficient using ellipsis and power function equations, one can reduce labor costs for testing and increase assessment accuracy.

  5. Roll seat belt induced injury of the duodenum.

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H


    A case of duodenal rupture with a roll three-point seatbelt is described. It is apparently the seventh reported case of duodenal rupture in safety belt users. A female driver fell asleep, and her car went off the road, rolling forward in a ditch, slowing slightly, and then came to a sudden stop. The rupture was unusual: on the first part of duodenum, intraperitoneal, and longitudinal. The rupture mechanism is discussed, and the deficiencies of the roll seatbelt pointed out in accidents like the one described.

  6. Effect of N+ beam exposure on the activities of Mn-SOD and catalase in deinococcus radiodurans

    Song Daojun; Chen Ruolei; Wu Lifang; Li Hong; Yao JIanming; Shao Chunlin; Wu Lijun; Yu Zengliang


    Though the radiation-resistant bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans (D. radiodurans) have a high resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of many DNA-damaging agents, the mechanisms involved in the response of these bacteria to oxidative stress are poorly understood. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities produced in bacteria (D. radiodurans AS1.633) and their change caused by 20 keV N'+ beam exposure were examined. Results showed that the activities of the enzymes were increased in the case of N + beam exposure from 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 to 6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . In addition, the treatment of H 2 O 2 and [CHCl 3 + CH 3 CH 2 OH] and the measurement of absorption spectrum showed that the increase of whole SOD activity resulted from inducible activities of Mn-SOD in (a sub-type) D. radiodurans AS1.633. These results suggested that these bacteria possess inducible defense mechanisms against the deleterious effects of oxidization

  7. Measuring Neuromuscular Junction Functionality in the SOD1(G93A) Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Rizzuto, Emanuele; Pisu, Simona; Musarò, Antonio; Del Prete, Zaccaria


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to motor neuron degeneration, alteration in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle atrophy, and paralysis. To investigate the NMJ functionality in ALS we tested, in vitro, two innervated muscle types excised from SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice at the end-stage of the disease: the Soleus, a postural muscle almost completely paralyzed at that stage, and the diaphragm, which, on the contrary, is functional until death. To this aim we employed an experimental protocol that combined two types of electrical stimulation: the direct stimulation and the stimulation through the nerve. The technique we applied allowed us to determine the relevance of NMJ functionality separately from muscle contractile properties in SOD1(G93A) animal model. Functional measurements revealed that the muscle contractility of transgenic diaphragms is almost unaltered in comparison to control muscles, while transgenic Soleus muscles were severely compromised. In contrast, when stimulated via the nerve, both transgenic muscle types showed a strong decrease of the contraction force, a slowing down of the kinetic parameters, as well as alterations in the neurotransmission failure parameter. All together, these results confirm a severely impaired functionality in the SOD1(G93A) neuromuscular junctions.

  8. Wildtype motoneurons, ALS-Linked SOD1 mutation and glutamate profoundly modify astrocyte metabolism and lactate shuttling.

    Madji Hounoum, Blandine; Mavel, Sylvie; Coque, Emmanuelle; Patin, Franck; Vourc'h, Patrick; Marouillat, Sylviane; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie; Emond, Patrick; Corcia, Philippe; Andres, Christian R; Raoul, Cédric; Blasco, Hélène


    The selective degeneration of motoneuron that typifies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implicates non-cell-autonomous effects of astrocytes. However, mechanisms underlying astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity remain largely unknown. According to the determinant role of astrocyte metabolism in supporting neuronal function, we propose to explore the metabolic status of astrocytes exposed to ALS-associated conditions. We found a significant metabolic dysregulation including purine, pyrimidine, lysine, and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways in astrocytes expressing an ALS-causing mutated superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) when co-cultured with motoneurons. SOD1 astrocytes exposed to glutamate revealed a significant modification of the astrocyte metabolic fingerprint. More importantly, we observed that SOD1 mutation and glutamate impact the cellular shuttling of lactate between astrocytes and motoneurons with a decreased in extra- and intra-cellular lactate levels in astrocytes. Based on the emergent strategy of metabolomics, this work provides novel insight for understanding metabolic dysfunction of astrocytes in ALS conditions and opens the perspective of therapeutics targets through focusing on these metabolic pathways. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:592-605. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multilength Scale Patterning of Functional Layers by Roll-to-Roll Ultraviolet-Light-Assisted Nanoimprint Lithography.

    Leitgeb, Markus; Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Götz, Johannes; Liska, Robert; Belegratis, Maria R; Stadlober, Barbara


    Top-down fabrication of nanostructures with high throughput is still a challenge. We demonstrate the fast (>10 m/min) and continuous fabrication of multilength scale structures by roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography on a 250 mm wide web. The large-area nanopatterning is enabled by a multicomponent UV-curable resist system (JRcure) with viscous, mechanical, and surface properties that are tunable over a wide range to either allow for usage as polymer stamp material or as imprint resist. The adjustable elasticity and surface chemistry of the resist system enable multistep self-replication of structured resist layers. Decisive for defect-free UV-nanoimprinting in roll-to-roll is the minimization of the surface energies of stamp and resist, and the stepwise reduction of the stiffness from one layer to the next is essential for optimizing the reproduction fidelity especially for nanoscale features. Accordingly, we demonstrate the continuous replication of 3D nanostructures and the high-throughput fabrication of multilength scale resist structures resulting in flexible polyethylenetherephtalate film rolls with superhydrophobic properties. Moreover, a water-soluble UV-imprint resist (JRlift) is introduced that enables residue-free nanoimprinting in roll-to-roll. Thereby we could demonstrate high-throughput fabrication of metallic patterns with only 200 nm line width.

  10. PGC-1 silencing compounds the perturbation of mitochondrial function caused by mutant SOD1 in skeletal muscle of ALS mouse model

    Yan eQi


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a lethal neurodegenerative disease causing death of motor neurons. This study investigated the roles of energy metabolism in the pathogenesis of ALS in the SOD1(G93A transgenic mouse model. Control and SOD1(G93A mice were administered with shcontrol or shPGC-1α in combination with PBS or TZD for 8 weeks. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. ROS and fibrosis were assessed with a colorimetric kit and Sirius staining respectively. Inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA kits. The levels of tissue ROS and serum inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in SOD1(G93A mice compared to control mice, and knocking down PGC-1α drastically increased cytokine levels in both control and SOD1(G93A mice. Muscle fibrosis was much severer in SOD1(G93A mice, and worsened by silencing PGC-1α and attenuate d by TZD. The expression levels of PGC-1α, SOD1, UCP2, and cytochrome C were substantially reduced by shPGC-1α and increased by TZD in muscle of both control and SOD1(G93A mice whereas the level of NF-B was significantly elevated in SOD1(G93A mice, which was further increased by PGC-1α silencing. These data indicated that disruption of energy homeostasis would exacerbate the pathological changes caused by SOD1 mutations to promote the pathogenesis of ALS.

  11. Immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) induces partial immune protection against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice.

    Liu, Yuan; Cao, Aiping; Li, Yawen; Li, Xun; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu


    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including humans and causes toxoplasmosis. An effective vaccine could be an ideal choice for preventing and controlling toxoplasmosis. T. gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) might participate in affecting the intracellular growth of both bradyzoite and tachyzoite forms. In the present study, the TgSOD gene was used to construct a DNA vaccine (pEGFP-SOD). TgSOD gene was amplified and inserted into eukaryotic vector pEGFP-C1 and formed the DNA vaccine pEGFP-SOD. Then the BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine and those injected with pEGFP-C1, PBS or nothing were treated as controls. Four weeks after the last immunization, all mouse groups followed by challenging intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strain. Results showed higher levels of total IgG, IgG2α in the sera and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the splenocytes from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice than those unvaccinated, or inoculated with either empty plasmid vector or PBS. The proportions of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the spleen from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to control groups. In addition, the survival time of mice immunized with pEGFP-SOD was significantly prolonged as compared to the controls (p < 0.05) although all the mice died. The present study revealed that the DNA vaccine triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses, and aroused partial protective immunity against acute T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. The collective data suggests the SOD may be a potential vaccine candidate for further development.

  12. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in boar spermatozoa: purification, biochemical properties and changes in activity during semen storage (16°C) in different extenders.

    Orzołek, Aleksandra; Wysocki, Paweł; Strzeżek, Jerzy; Kordan, Władysław


    The antioxidant system in semen is composed of enzymes, low-molecular weight antioxidants and seminal plasma proteins. Loss of enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during semen preservation may cause insufficient antioxidant defense of boar spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize SOD molecular forms from spermatozoa and to describe changes in SOD activity in boar sperm during preservation at 16°C. Sperm extracts were prepared from fresh or diluted semen and used for SOD purification or activity measurement. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration was used to purify SOD molecular forms. BTS, Dilu Cell, M III and Vitasem were used as diluents for 5-day storage of semen at +16°C. The molecular form of SOD released from spermatozoa after cold shock and homogenization had a molecular weight of approximately 67kDa. The activity of the SOD form was the highest at pH 10 within the temperature range between 20 and 45°C. The enzymatic activity of form released after cold shock was inhibited by H2O2 and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; by 65 and 40%, respectively). The SOD form released by homogenization was inhibited by H2O2 and DDC (40%). The molecular form released after urea treatment was a 30kDa protein with maximum activity at 20°C and pH 10. Enzymatic activity of this form was inhibited by H2O2 by 35%, DDC by 80% and 2-mercaptoethanol by 15%. The antigenic determinants of SOD isolated from boar seminal plasma and spermatozoa were similar to each other. Susceptibility of spermatozoa to cold shock increased during storage, but the differences between extenders were statistically non-significant. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Human SOD1 ALS Mutations in a Drosophila Knock-In Model Cause Severe Phenotypes and Reveal Dosage-Sensitive Gain- and Loss-of-Function Components.

    Şahin, Aslı; Held, Aaron; Bredvik, Kirsten; Major, Paxton; Achilli, Toni-Marie; Kerson, Abigail G; Wharton, Kristi; Stilwell, Geoff; Reenan, Robert


    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and familial forms can be caused by numerous dominant mutations of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. Substantial efforts have been invested in studying SOD1-ALS transgenic animal models; yet, the molecular mechanisms by which ALS-mutant SOD1 protein acquires toxicity are not well understood. ALS-like phenotypes in animal models are highly dependent on transgene dosage. Thus, issues of whether the ALS-like phenotypes of these models stem from overexpression of mutant alleles or from aspects of the SOD1 mutation itself are not easily deconvolved. To address concerns about levels of mutant SOD1 in disease pathogenesis, we have genetically engineered four human ALS-causing SOD1 point mutations (G37R, H48R, H71Y, and G85R) into the endogenous locus of Drosophila SOD1 (dsod) via ends-out homologous recombination and analyzed the resulting molecular, biochemical, and behavioral phenotypes. Contrary to previous transgenic models, we have recapitulated ALS-like phenotypes without overexpression of the mutant protein. Drosophila carrying homozygous mutations rendering SOD1 protein enzymatically inactive (G85R, H48R, and H71Y) exhibited neurodegeneration, locomotor deficits, and shortened life span. The mutation retaining enzymatic activity (G37R) was phenotypically indistinguishable from controls. While the observed mutant dsod phenotypes were recessive, a gain-of-function component was uncovered through dosage studies and comparisons with age-matched dsod null animals, which failed to show severe locomotor defects or nerve degeneration. We conclude that the Drosophila knock-in model captures important aspects of human SOD1-based ALS and provides a powerful and useful tool for further genetic studies. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Effects of microalloying on hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steels

    Azevedo de Araujo, Ana Luiza

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been a major focus in steel development over the last decade. The premise of these types of steel is based on the potential to obtain excellent combinations of strength and ductility with low-alloy compositions by forming mixed microstructures containing retained austenite (RA). The development of heat treatments able to achieve the desired structures and properties, such as quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels, is driven by new requirements to increase vehicle fuel economy by reducing overall weight while maintaining safety and crashworthiness. Microalloying additions of niobium (Nb) and vanadium (V) in sheet products are known to provide strengthening via grain refinement and precipitation hardening and may influence RA volume fraction and transformation behavior. Additions of microalloying elements in Q&P steels have not been extensively studied to date, however. The objective of the present study was to begin to understand the potential roles of Nb and V in hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steel. For that, a common Q&P steel composition was selected as a Base alloy with 0.2C-1.5Si-2.0Mn (wt. %). Two alloys with an addition of Nb (0.02 and 0.04 wt. %) and one with an addition of V (0.06 wt. %) to the Base alloy were investigated. Both hot-rolled and cold-rolled/annealed Q&P simulations were conducted. In the hot-rolled Q&P study, thermomechanical processing was simulated via hot torsion testing in a GleebleRTM 3500, and four coiling temperatures (CT) were chosen. Microstructural evaluation (including RA measurements via electron backscattered diffraction - EBSD) and hardness measurements were performed for all alloys and coiling conditions. The analysis showed that Nb additions led to overall refinement of the prior microstructure. Maximum RA fractions were measured at the 375 °C CT, and microalloying was associated with increased RA in this condition when compared to the Base alloy. A change in

  15. Experiments on Spray from a Rolling Tire

    Radovich, Charles; Browand, Fred


    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the mechanisms and statistics of droplet production for spray emerging from a rolling tire. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire contact patch in the form of a liquid sheet of non-uniform thickness. The sheet breaks into droplets as a result of several, organized instabilities. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6, for Weber numbers of 2700, 10900 and 24400. A technique to identify and size water droplets was developed and the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000μm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800μm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with increasing Weber number as (approximately) We-1/2. Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as a function of droplet size. The spread of droplet velocities about the tire peripheral speed is strongly correlated with droplet size. The spread can be estimated by a simple physical model incorporating rigid droplets subject to gravity and drag.

  16. Multivariable control of a rolling spider drone

    Lyu, Haifeng

    The research and application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been a hot topic recently. A UAV is dened as an aircraft which is designed not to carry a human pilot or operated with remote electronic input by the flight controller. In this thesis, the design of a control system for a quadcopter named Rolling Spider Drone is conducted. The thesis work presents the design of two kinds of controllers that can control the Drone to keep it balanced and track different kinds of input trajectories. The nonlinear mathematical model for the Drone is derived by the Newton-Euler method. The rotational subsystem and translational system are derived to describe the attitude and position motion of Drone. Techniques from linear control theory are employed to linearize the highly coupled and nonlinear quadcopter plant around equilibrium points and apply the linear feedback controller to stabilize the system. The controller is a digital tracking system that deploys LQR for system stability design. Fixed gain and adaptive gain scheduled controllers are developed and compared with different LQR weights. Step references and reference trajectories involving signicant variation for the yaw angle in the xy-plane and three-dimensional spaces are tracked in the simulation. The physical implementation and an output feedback controller are considered for future work.

  17. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Takeo Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Rolling circle amplification (RCA generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  18. Eesti õpetajate roll laste internetikasutuse sotsiaalses vahendamises

    Kadri Soo


    Full Text Available Õpetajatel on oluline roll laste ettevalmistamisel internetimaailmas toimetulekuks. Artiklis analüüsitakse Eesti õpetajate tegevust 9–16aastaste laste internetikasutuse sotsiaalses vahendamises, mille mõõtmiseks kasutati kaheksat tunnust EU Kids Online’i uuringust. Tulemused näitavad, et enamik Eesti õpetajatest on õpilaste internetikasutust sotsiaalselt vahendanud: üksnes 13% lastest ei suutnud meenutada, et nad oleks õpetajatelt kunagi juhiseid või informatsiooni saanud. Peamised erinevused Eesti õpetajate tegevuses ilmnesid keele ja asula suuruse puhul. Uuring lubab väita, et eesti keelt rääkivate ja väikestest asulatest pärit laste õpetajad vahendavad laste internetitegevusi aktiivsemalt ja mitmekülgsemalt ning pakuvad internetiohtude korral rohkem nõuandeid. See, kuidas on õpetajate tegevus ja laste kokkupuude internetiohtudega omavahel seotud, erineb vanuseja keelerühmiti. Internetis kahju kogemine ei ole seotud õpetajatepoolse sotsiaalse vahendamisega.  Summary

  19. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Organic Photovoltaics – Design, Synthesis and Characterization

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole; Jørgensen, Mikkel


    In this paper we present the design and synthesis of 25 new low band gap polymers. The polymers were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy which showed optical band gaps of 2.0–0.9 eV. The polymers which were soluble enough were applied in organic photovoltaics, both small area devices with a spin...... coated active layer and in large area modules where all layers including the active layer were either roll-to-roll coated or printed. These experiments showed that the design of polymers compatible with roll-toroll coating is not straightforward and that there are various issues such as donor...

  20. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.


    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...... edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results...

  1. A botanical containing freeze dried açai pulp promotes healthy aging and reduces oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies

    Laslo, Mara; Sun, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W.; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige


    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a critical enzyme against oxidative stress, is implicated in aging and degenerative diseases. We previously showed that a nutraceutical containing freeze-dried açai pulp promotes survival of flies fed a high-fat diet or sod1 knockdown flies fed a standard diet. Here, we investigated the effect of açai supplementation initiated at the early or late young adulthood on lifespan, physiological function, and oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies. We found that Aça...

  2. Bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fabricated through simple and scalable roll-to-roll processing.

    Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Moreira, David; Bandaru, Prabhakar R; Han, InTaek; Yun, Dong-Jin


    A simple, scalable, non-lithographic, technique for fabricating durable superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, based on the fingering instabilities associated with non-Newtonian flow and shear tearing, has been developed. The high viscosity of the nanotube/elastomer paste has been exploited for the fabrication. The fabricated SH surfaces had the appearance of bristled shark skin and were robust with respect to mechanical forces. While flow instability is regarded as adverse to roll-coating processes for fabricating uniform films, we especially use the effect to create the SH surface. Along with their durability and self-cleaning capabilities, we have demonstrated drag reduction effects of the fabricated films through dynamic flow measurements.

  3. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    Sasaki, Misao; Nambu, Yasusada; Nakao, Ken-ichi.


    By means of the stochastic description of inflation, we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on the global scale, both analytically and numerically. A particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form, V(φ) ∼ V 0 - cφ 2n at φ ∼ 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find, for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (author)

  4. Optimal Portfolio Strategy under Rolling Economic Maximum Drawdown Constraints

    Xiaojian Yu


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimal portfolio strategy under the constraints of rolling economic maximum drawdown. A more practical strategy is developed by using rolling Sharpe ratio in computing the allocation proportion in contrast to existing models. Besides, another novel strategy named “REDP strategy” is further proposed, which replaces the rolling economic drawdown of the portfolio with the rolling economic drawdown of the risky asset. The simulation tests prove that REDP strategy can ensure the portfolio to satisfy the drawdown constraint and outperforms other strategies significantly. An empirical comparison research on the performances of different strategies is carried out by using the 23-year monthly data of SPTR, DJUBS, and 3-month T-bill. The investment cases of single risky asset and two risky assets are both studied in this paper. Empirical results indicate that the REDP strategy successfully controls the maximum drawdown within the given limit and performs best in both return and risk.

  5. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

    LIU Zhiquan


    Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

  6. The condition for classical slow rolling in new inflation

    Sasaki, Misao; Nambu, Yasusada; Nakao, Ken-ichi


    By means of the stochastic description of inflation we investigate the dynamics of a fixed comoving domain in a continuously inflating universe on a global scale, both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the condition for a domain to enter the classical slow rolling phase. New inflationary universe models with the potential form V(φ) ≅ V 0 -cφ 2n at φ ≅ 0 are considered. The critical value of the scalar field beyond which the field slowly rolls down the potential hill is estimated. We find that for all models under consideration, the condition for classical slow rolling is a sufficient condition for the expected amplitude of density perturbations to be smaller than unity. In other words, the density perturbation amplitude at the later Friedmann stage is always smaller than unity if the universe experienced the classical slow roll-over phase. (orig.)

  7. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an affordable and ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable Roll-Out Boom technology that provides affordability and...

  8. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    ROMAN, N.


    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  9. Force prediction in cold rolling mills by polynomial methods

    Nicu ROMAN


    Full Text Available A method for steel and aluminium strip thickness control is provided including a new technique for predictive rolling force estimation method by statistic model based on polynomial techniques.

  10. Development of dissimilar metal transition joint by hot bond rolling

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Kajimura, Haruhiko; Nagai, Takayuki; Takeda, Seiichiro.


    Metallurgically bonded transition joints which enable to connect reprocessing equipments made of superior corrosion resistant valve metals (Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti) to stainless steel piping are required for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The authors have developed dissimilar transition joints made of stainless steel and Ti-5Ta, Zr or Ti with an insert metal of Ta by the hot bond rolling process of clad bars and clad pipes, using a newly developed mill called 'rotary reduction mill'. This report presents the manufacturing process of dissimilar transition joints produced from the clad pipe with three layers by the hot bond rolling. First, the method of hot bond rolling of clad pipe is proposed. Then, the mechanical and corrosion properties of the dissimilar transition joints are evaluated in detail by carrying out various tests. Finally, the rolling properties in the clad pipe method are discussed. (author)

  11. Rolling Contact Fatigue Workshop July 26-27, 2011


    In July 2011, the Transportation Technology Center, Inc., coordinated the joint Federal Railroad Association/Association of American Railroads Workshop on Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF). The workshop was held at the Congress Plaza Hotel in Chicago, IL...

  12. Deuterium ingress at rolled joints in Embalse nuclear power plant

    Ramos Nervi, J. E.; Schroeter, F.


    Deuterium ingress model at the Rolled Joint has been extensively used for CANDU Nuclear Power Plants Operators in the Life Management of the Pressure Tubes. The importance of understanding the model is vital to avoid delayed hydride cracking at the Rolled Joint. This work reports the first step on develop the model presented on literature to be used in Argentinean CANDU 6, Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  13. Visually guided adjustments of body posture in the roll plane

    Tarnutzer, A A; Bockisch, C J; Straumann, D


    Body position relative to gravity is continuously updated to prevent falls. Therefore, the brain integrates input from the otoliths, truncal graviceptors, proprioception and vision. Without visual cues estimated direction of gravity mainly depends on otolith input and becomes more variable with increasing roll-tilt. Contrary, the discrimination threshold for object orientation shows little modulation with varying roll orientation of the visual stimulus. Providing earth-stationary visual cues,...

  14. Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets


    Materials 2 2.2 Hot Rolling 3 2.2 Sample Characterization: Microstructure and Tensile Properties 3 3. Rolling Experiments 5 3.1 High-Temperature...material systems for protective and structural applications, especially in ground vehicles. Magnesium (Mg), due to its low density (~25% that of steel ...applications, wrought Mg is difficult to produce in thin sheets because of its inherently low ductility . As a result, Mg sheet is often produced at

  15. Mathematical modeling of a process the rolling delivery

    Stepanov, Mikhail A.; Korolev, Andrey A.


    An adduced analysis of the scientific researches in a domain of the rolling equipments, also research of properties the working material. A one of perspective direction of scientific research this is mathematical modeling. That is broadly used in many scientific disciplines and especially at the technical, applied sciences. With the aid of mathematical modeling it can be study of physical properties of the researching objects and systems. A research of the rolling delivery and transporting devices realized with the aid of a construction of mathematical model of appropriate process. To be described the basic principles and conditions of a construction of mathematical models of the real objects. For example to be consider a construction of mathematical model the rolling delivery device. For a construction that is model used system of the equations, which consist of: Lagrange’s equation of a motion, describing of the law conservation of energy of a mechanical system, and the Navier - Stokes equations, which characterize of the flow of a continuous non-compressed fluid. A construction of mathematical model the rolling deliver to let determined of a total energy of device, and therefore to got the dependence upon the power of drive to a gap between of rolls. A corroborate the hypothesis about laminar the flow of a material into the rolling gap of deliver.

  16. Microstructural and mechanical responses to various rolling speeds determined in multi-pass break-down rolling of AZ31B alloy

    Jia, Weitao; Tang, Yan; Ning, Fangkun; Le, Qichi; Cui, Jianzhong


    Different rolling operations of as-cast AZ31B alloy were performed under different rolling speed (18 ∼ 72 m min‑1) and rolling pass conditions at 400 °C. Microstructural studies, tensile testing and formability evaluation relevant to each rolling operation were investigated. For 1-pass rolling, coarse average grain size (CAGS) region gradually approached the center layer as the rolling speed increased. Moreover, twins, shear bands and coarse-grain structures were the dominant components in the microstructure of plates rolled at 18, 48 and 72 m min‑1, respectively, indicating the severe deformation inhomogeneity under the high reduction per pass condition. For 2-pass rolling and 4-pass rolling, dynamic recrystallization was observed to be well and CAGS region has substantially disappeared, indicating the significant improvement in deformation uniformity and further the grain homogenization under the conditions. Microstructure uniformity degree of 2-pass rolled plates did not vary much as the rolling speed varied. On this basis, shear band distribution dominated the deformation behavior during the uniaxial tension of the 2-pass rolled plates. However, microstructure uniformity accompanied by twin distribution played a leading role in stretching the 4-pass rolled plates.

  17. High-Tc SQUID Application for Roll to Roll Metallic Contaminant Detector

    Tanaka, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Uchida, Y.; Hatsukade, Y.; Ohtani, T.; Suzuki, S.


    A sensitive eight-channel high-Tc Superconducting Interference Device (SQUID) detection system for magnetic contaminant in a lithium ion battery anode was developed. Finding ultra-small metallic foreign matter is an important issue for a manufacturer because metallic contaminants carry the risk of an internal short. When contamination occurs, the manufacturer of the product suffers a great loss from recalling the tainted product. Metallic particles with outer dimensions smaller than 100 microns cannot be detected using a conventional X-ray imaging system. Therefore, a highly sensitive detection system for small foreign matter is required. We have already developed a detection system based on a single-channel SQUID gradiometer and horizontal magnetization. For practical use, the detection width of the system should be increased to at least 65 mm by employing multiple sensors. In this paper, we present an 8-ch high-Tc SQUID roll-to-roll system for inspecting a lithium-ion battery anode with a width of 65 mm. A special microscopic type of a cryostat was developed upon which eight SQUID gradiometers were mounted. As a result, small iron particles of 35 microns on a real lithium-ion battery anode with a width of 70 mm were successfully detected. This system is practical for the detection of contaminants in a lithium ion battery anode sheet.

  18. Roll-to-roll embedded conductive structures integrated into organic photovoltaic devices

    Van de Wiel, H J; Galagan, Y; Van Lammeren, T J; De Riet, J F J; Gilot, J; Nagelkerke, M G M; Lelieveld, R H C A T; Shanmugam, S; Pagudala, A; Groen, W A; Hui, D


    Highly conductive screen printed metallic (silver) structures (current collecting grids) combined with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are a viable replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) and inkjet printed silver as transparent electrode materials. To provide successful integration into organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, screen printed silver current collecting grids should be embedded into a substrate to avoid topology issues. In this study micron-thick conductive structures are embedded and integrated into OPV devices. The embedded structures are produced roll-to-roll with optimized process settings and materials. Topology measurements show that the embedded grids are well suited for integration into OPV devices since the surface is almost without spikes and has low surface roughness. JV measurements of OPV devices with embedded structures on a polyethylene terephthalate/silicon nitride (PET/SiN) substrate show an efficiency of 2.15%, which is significantly higher than identical flexible devices with ITO (1.02%) and inkjet printed silver (1.48%). The use of embedded screen printed silver instead of ITO and inkjet printed silver in OPV devices will allow for higher efficiency devices which can be produced with larger design and process freedom. (paper)

  19. Patterned immobilization of antibodies within roll-to-roll hot embossed polymeric microfluidic channels.

    Belachew Feyssa

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the patterned immobilization of capture antibodies into a microfluidic platform fabricated by roll-to-roll (R2R hot embossing on poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA. Covalent attachment of antibodies was achieved by two sequential inkjet printing steps. First, a polyethyleneimine (PEI layer was deposited onto oxygen plasma activated PMMA foil and further cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA to provide an amine-reactive aldehyde surface (PEI-GA. This step was followed by a second deposition of antibody by overprinting on the PEI-GA patterned PMMA foil. The PEI polymer ink was first formulated to ensure stable drop formation in inkjet printing and the printed films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Anti-CRP antibody was patterned on PMMA foil by the developed method and bonded permanently with R2R hot embossed PMMA microchannels by solvent bonding lamination. The functionality of the immobilized antibody inside the microfluidic channel was evaluated by fluorescence-based sandwich immunoassay for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP. The antibody-antigen assay exhibited a good level of linearity over the range of 10 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml (R(2 = 0.991 with a calculated detection limit of 5.2 ng/ml. The developed patterning method is straightforward, rapid and provides a versatile approach for creating multiple protein patterns in a single microfluidic channel for multiplexed immunoassays.

  20. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.


    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  1. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    Dupont, Stephanie R.


    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture energies was observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Just Roll with It? Rolling Volumes vs. Discrete Issues in Open Access Library and Information Science Journals

    Jill Cirasella


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Articles in open access (OA journals can be published on a rolling basis, as they become ready, or in complete, discrete issues. This study examines the prevalence of and reasons for rolling volumes vs. discrete issues among scholarly OA library and information science (LIS journals based in the United States. METHODS A survey was distributed to journal editors, asking them about their publication model and their reasons for and satisfaction with that model. RESULTS Of the 21 responding journals, 12 publish in discrete issues, eight publish in rolling volumes, and one publishes in rolling volumes with an occasional special issue. Almost all editors, regardless of model, cited ease of workflow as a justification for their chosen publication model, suggesting that there is no single best workflow for all journals. However, while all rolling-volume editors reported being satisfied with their model, satisfaction was less universal among discrete-issue editors. DISCUSSION The unexpectedly high number of rolling-volume journals suggests that LIS journal editors are making forward-looking choices about publication models even though the topic has not been much addressed in the library literature. Further research is warranted; possibilities include expanding the study’s geographic scope, broadening the study to other disciplines, and investigating publication model trends across the entire scholarly OA universe. CONCLUSION Both because satisfaction is high among editors of rolling-volume journals and because readers and authors appreciate quick publication times, the rolling-volume model will likely become even more prevalent in coming years.

  3. Roll-to-roll DBD plasma pretreated polyethylene web for enhancement of Al coating adhesion and barrier property

    Zhang, Haibao; Li, Hua; Fang, Ming; Wang, Zhengduo; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: The images of Al coating adhesion testes for (a) untreated and (b) roll-to-roll DBD plasma treated PE. - Highlights: • Over three-months ageing a high surface energy was still existed in roll-to-roll DBD plasma-treated PE surface. • The adhesion and barrier property of Al-coated PE web were greatly improved. • The mechanism of plasma grafting to improve the properties of Al-coated PE web was found. - Abstract: In this paper the roll-to-roll atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to pre-treat polyethylene (PE) web surface before the conventional thermal evaporation aluminum (Al) was performed as a barrier layer. We emphasized the plasma environment effect based on the inlet three kinds of reactive monomers. The cross hatch test was employed to assess the Al coating adhesion; and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was used to evaluate gas barrier property. The results showed that after roll-to-roll DBD plasma treatment all Al coatings adhered strongly on PE films and were free from pinhole defects with mirror morphology. The OTR was reduced from 2673 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day for Al-coated original PE to 138 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day for Al-coated allyamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}N) modified PE. To well understand the mechanism the chemical compositions of the untreated and DBD plasma pretreated PE films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the property of surface energy the water contact angle measurement was also carried out in the DBD plasma treated samples with deionized water.

  4. Roll-to-roll DBD plasma pretreated polyethylene web for enhancement of Al coating adhesion and barrier property

    Zhang, Haibao; Li, Hua; Fang, Ming; Wang, Zhengduo; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang


    Graphical abstract: The images of Al coating adhesion testes for (a) untreated and (b) roll-to-roll DBD plasma treated PE. - Highlights: • Over three-months ageing a high surface energy was still existed in roll-to-roll DBD plasma-treated PE surface. • The adhesion and barrier property of Al-coated PE web were greatly improved. • The mechanism of plasma grafting to improve the properties of Al-coated PE web was found. - Abstract: In this paper the roll-to-roll atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to pre-treat polyethylene (PE) web surface before the conventional thermal evaporation aluminum (Al) was performed as a barrier layer. We emphasized the plasma environment effect based on the inlet three kinds of reactive monomers. The cross hatch test was employed to assess the Al coating adhesion; and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was used to evaluate gas barrier property. The results showed that after roll-to-roll DBD plasma treatment all Al coatings adhered strongly on PE films and were free from pinhole defects with mirror morphology. The OTR was reduced from 2673 cm 3 /m 2 day for Al-coated original PE to 138 cm 3 /m 2 day for Al-coated allyamine (C 3 H 7 N) modified PE. To well understand the mechanism the chemical compositions of the untreated and DBD plasma pretreated PE films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the property of surface energy the water contact angle measurement was also carried out in the DBD plasma treated samples with deionized water.

  5. Study on the clinical significance of changes of serum SOD, LPO and GSH-PX levels in patients with leukemia after chemotherapy

    Li Xiumei; He Haoming; Teng Yuexin; Zhu Guihua; Han Xiuhua


    Objective: To explore the changes of serum SOD, LPO and GSH-PX levels after chemotherapy in patients with leukemia. Methods: Levels of serum SOD were determined by RIA, LPO, GSH-PX were determined by biochemical methods in 42 cases of leukemia both before and after chemotherapy and 30 normal controls. Results: The results showed that in patients with leukemia the SOD, GSH-PX levels were significantly lower than those in normal controls (p < 0.01) and LPO levels were higher than those in normal control (p<0.01) before, six months after chemotherapy, SOD, LPO, GSH-PX levels remained abnormal in the patients with recurrence but returned to normal in patients without relapse. Conclusion: Changes in these factors are closely related to prognosis of leukemia

  6. Anti-apoptotic effects of pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), SOD or catalase on antimycin A-induced HeLa cell death.

    Han, Yong Hwan; Kim, Suhn Hee; Kim, Sung Zoo; Park, Woo Hyun


    Antimycin A (AMA) is an inhibitor of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase on AMA-induced HeLa cell death in relation to the cell cycle. Treatment with Z-VAD, SOD or catalase rescued some HeLa cells from AMA-induced apoptosis, but did not prevent the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by AMA. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with AMA significantly induced an S-phase arrest of the cell cycle at 72 h. Interestingly, Z-VAD, SOD and catalase intensified S-phase arrest in AMA-treated cells. In conclusion, treatment with Z-VAD, SOD or catalase decreased apoptotic levels in AMA-treated cells, which was associated with the enhancement of the S-phase arrest of the cell cycle in these cells.

  7. Influence of genetic variations in the SOD1 gene on the development of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated liver cirrhosis

    Schwab, Sebastian; Lehmann, Jennifer; Lutz, Philipp


    BACKGROUND: The balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species by superoxide dismutase (SOD) is crucially involved in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis. Reactive oxygen species damage cells and induce inflammation/fibrosis, but also play a critical role in immune defense...... in carriers of rs1041740. In this cohort, rs1041740 was not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a complex role of SOD1 in different processes leading to complications of liver cirrhosis. rs1041740 might be associated with the development of ascites and possibly plays a role in SBP once...... from pathogens. As both processes are involved in the development of liver cirrhosis and its complications, genetic variation of the SOD1 gene was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two SOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1041740 and rs3844942) were analyzed in 49 cirrhotic patients undergoing...

  8. Ring rolling of AW5083 large rings for the external cylinder of CMS

    S. Sgobba / EST


    Picture 1: The forged cylinder is engaged in the ring rolling plant. Picture 2: Vertical rolls allow for the reduction in the axial direction. Rolling is carried out at approx. 400 degrees C. Horizontal rolls (not shown) allow for the reduction in the radial direction. Picture 3: Handling of the ring, rolled at the internal diameter of approx. 7m, and transfer to the quenching both. All pictures have been taken during the visit of Mr. Sgobba at Dembiermont, Mobeuge (Bruxelles).


    S. M. Zhuchkov


    Full Text Available The peculiarities of the temperature changing of the roll along the length of mill at using of new technological schema of production of reinforce rolled metal of small cuts in conditions of RUP are considered.

  10. Phase transformation kinetics in rolled U-10 wt. % Mo foil: Effect of post-rolling heat treatment and prior γ-UMo grain size

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Overman, Nicole; Varga, Tamas; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet V.


    The effect of sub-eutectoid heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior in rolled U-10 wt.percent Mo (U10Mo) foils was systematically investigated. The as-cast 5 mm thick foils were initially homogenized at 900 degrees C for 48 hours and were hot rolled to 2 mm and later cold rolled down to 0.2 mm. Three starting microstructures were evaluated: (i) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm (as-rolled condition), (ii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 hour, and (iii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 1000 deg. C for 60 hours. U10Mo rolled foils went through various degrees of decomposition when subjected to the sub-eutectoid heat-treatment step and formed a lamellar microstructure through a cellular reaction mostly along the previous γ-UMo grain boundaries.

  11. Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimic, MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+), and non-SOD mimic, MnTBAP(3-), suppressed rat spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury via NF-κB pathways.

    Celic, T; Španjol, J; Bobinac, M; Tovmasyan, A; Vukelic, I; Reboucas, J S; Batinic-Haberle, I; Bobinac, D


    Herein we have demonstrated that both superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic, cationic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+)), and non-SOD mimic, anionic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(4-carboxylatophenyl)porphyrin (MnTBAP(3-)), protect against oxidative stress caused by spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion via suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pro-inflammatory pathways. Earlier reports showed that Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins were able to prevent the DNA binding of NF-κB in an aqueous system, whereas MnTBAP(3-) was not. Here, for the first time, in a complex in vivo system-animal model of spinal cord injury-a similar impact of MnTBAP(3-), at a dose identical to that of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+), was demonstrated in NF-κB downregulation. Rats were treated subcutaneously at 1.5 mg/kg starting at 30 min before ischemia/reperfusion, and then every 12 h afterward for either 48 h or 7 days. The anti-inflammatory effects of both Mn porphyrins (MnPs) were demonstrated in the spinal cord tissue at both 48 h and 7 days. The downregulation of NF-κB, a major pro-inflammatory signaling protein regulating astrocyte activation, was detected and found to correlate well with the suppression of astrogliosis (as glial fibrillary acidic protein) by both MnPs. The markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly reduced by MnPs. The favorable impact of both MnPs on motor neurons (Tarlov score and inclined plane test) was assessed. No major changes in glutathione peroxidase- and SOD-like activities were demonstrated, which implies that none of the MnPs acted as SOD mimic. Increasing amount of data on the reactivity of MnTBAP(3-) with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (.NO/HNO/ONOO(-)) suggests that RNS/MnTBAP(3-)-driven modification of NF-κB protein cysteines may be involved in its therapeutic effects. This differs from the therapeutic efficacy of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) which presumably occurs via reactive

  12. Roll-to-roll compatible organic thin film transistor manufacturing technique by printing, lamination, and laser ablation

    Hassinen, Tomi; Ruotsalainen, Teemu; Laakso, Petri; Penttilä, Raimo; Sandberg, Henrik G.O.


    We present roll-to-roll printing compatible techniques for manufacturing organic thin film transistors using two separately processed foils that are laminated together. The introduction of heat-assisted lamination opens up possibilities for material and processing combinations. The lamination of two separately processed substrates together will allow usage of pre-patterned electrodes on both substrates and materials with non-compatible solvents. Also, the surface microstructure is formed differently when laminating dry films together compared to film formation from liquid phase. Demonstrator transistors, inverters and ring oscillators were produced using lamination techniques. Finally, a roll-to-roll compatible lamination concept is proposed where also the source and drain electrodes are patterned by laser ablation. The demonstrator transistors have shown very good lifetime in air, which is contributed partly to the good material combination and partly to the enhanced interface formation in heat-assisted lamination process. - Highlights: • A roll-to-roll compatible lamination technique for printed electronics is proposed. • Laser ablation allows highly defined metal top and bottom electrodes. • Method opens up processing possibilities for incompatible materials and solvents. • Shearing forces may enhance molecular orientation and packing. • An air stable polymer transistor is demonstrated with a lifetime of years

  13. Study of deformation texture in an AZ31 magnesium alloy rolled at wide range of rolling speed and reductions

    Sanjari, M; Su, J; Kabir, A S; Yue, S; Tamimi, S; Hara, K; Utsunomiya, H; Petrov, R; Kestens, L


    The plasticity of Mg is restricted at low temperatures because: (a) only a small number of deformation mechanisms can be activated, and (b) a preferred crystallographic orientation (texture) develops in wrought alloys, especially in flat-rolled sheets. This causes problems in thin sheet processing as well as component manufacturing from the sheet. In this study, different rolling speeds from 15 to 1000 m/min were employed to warm-roll AZ31B magnesium alloy to different reductions. The results show that AZ31B sheets rolled at 15 m/min and 100 °C has fractured for reductions of more than 30% per pass. However, by increasing the rolling speed to 1000 m/min the rollability was improved significantly and the material can be rolled to reductions of more than 70% per pass. The results show that with increasing strain rate at 100°C, the splitting of basal poles was observed, indicating the activation of more contraction twins and secondary twins. (paper)

  14. Differential Motor Neuron Impairment and Axonal Regeneration in Sporadic and Familiar Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with SOD-1 Mutations: Lessons from Neurophysiology

    Bocci, Tommaso; Pecori, Chiara; Giorli, Elisa; Briscese, Lucia; Tognazzi, Silvia; Caleo, Matteo; Sartucci, Ferdinando


    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system. About 10% of cases are familial and 20% of these families have point mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) gene. SOD-1 catalyses the superoxide radical (O−2) into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The clinical neurophysiology in ALS plays a fundamental role in differential diagnosis between the familial and sporadic forms and in the assessment of its severity and progression. Sixty ALS pa...

  15. Combined proteomic and molecular approaches for cloning and characterization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD2) from garlic (Allium sativum).

    Hadji Sfaxi, Imen; Ezzine, Aymen; Coquet, Laurent; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib


    Superoxide dismutases (SODs; EC are key enzymes in the cells protection against oxidant agents. Thus, SODs play a major role in the protection of aerobic organisms against oxygen-mediated damages. Three SOD isoforms were previously identified by zymogram staining from Allium sativum bulbs. The purified Cu, Zn-SOD2 shows an antagonist effect to an anticancer drug and alleviate cytotoxicity inside tumor cells lines B16F0 (mouse melanoma cells) and PAE (porcine aortic endothelial cells). To extend the characterization of Allium SODs and their corresponding genes, a proteomic approach was applied involving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS analyses. From peptide sequence data obtained by mass spectrometry and sequences homologies, primers were defined and a cDNA fragment of 456 bp was amplified by RT-PCR. The cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame coding for 152 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity (82-87%) with sequences of Cu, Zn-SODs from other plant species. Molecular analysis was achieved by a protein 3D structural model.

  16. Carbon dioxide adsorption over zeolite-like metal organic frameworks (ZMOFs) having a sod topology: Structure and ion-exchange effect

    Chen, C.; Kim, J.; Yang, D.A.; Ahn, W.S. [Inha University, Inchon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Zeolite-like metal organic framework (ZMOF) materials having rho and sod topologies were experimentally investigated as CO{sub 2} adsorbents for the first time. As-prepared ZMOF materials showed reasonably high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities (ca. 51 and 53 mg/g(adsorbent) for rho- and sod-ZMOF, respectively) and high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity (> 20) at 298 K and 1 bar. The latter showed a higher heat of adsorption (27-45 kJ/mol). These ZMOFs exhibited better CO{sub 2} adsorption than ZIF-8, a commonly investigated zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) material having the same sod topology but in a neutral framework. Partially ion-exchanged sod-ZMOFs by alkali-metals resulted in improved CO{sub 2} adsorption performance compared with the as-prepared ZMOF. The highest CO{sub 2} adsorption was obtained with K{sup +}-exchanged sod-ZMOF (61 mg/g(adsorbent)), representing a ca. 15% increase in adsorption capacity. Complete desorption of CO{sub 2} in the K{sup +}-sod-ZMOF was attained at mild conditions (40{sup o}C, He purging), and reversible and sustainable CO{sub 2} adsorption performance was demonstrated in 5 sets of recycling runs.


    L. M. Bondarenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. There are some unresolved issues in vibration damping – the lack of engineering calculations for the vibration dampers by rolling friction; the absence of evidence of their application appropriateness. Considering this fact, the authors suggest to prove that the dampers based on rolling friction, are similar in rate of oscillation damping by hydraulic shock absorbers. At the same time, they are easier for the hydraulic design, and easily amenable to manual adjustment, both in automatic and manual mode. Methodology. Fixed techniques of practice in order to determine amplitudes of the oscillations of a shock absorber led to a predetermined result and will apply this theory in the calculation of other vibration dampers. Findings. Analysis of the formulas and graphs leads to the following conclusions and recommendations: 1 the nature of the oscillation damping at vibration dampers by rolling friction is close to their decay in the viscous resistance; 2 when conducting the necessary experiments the shock absorber rolling can be recommended as alternatives to hydraulic ones. The research results of this task will help implement the new trend in reduction of dynamic loads in vehicles. Originality. With the help of theoretical curves to determine the coefficients of rolling friction the dependences for determining the amplitudes of the oscillations in the vertical movement of cargo were obtained. At the same time, the previously proposed analytical dependence for determining the coefficient of rolling friction contains only conventional mechanical constants of the contacting bodies and there geometrical dimensions. Practical value. Due to the existing well-known disadvantages of hydraulic shock absorbers it would be logical to apply shock absorbers that are technologically convenient in manufacturing and easy to adjust the damping rate. The proposed theory can be used in the design of shock absorbers rolling as an alternative to the hydraulic

  18. Structure fields in the solidifying cast iron roll

    W.S. Wołczyński


    Full Text Available Some properties of the rolls depend on the ratio of columnar structure area to equiaxed structure area created during roll solidification. The transition is fundamental phenomenon that can be apply to characterize massive cast iron rolls produced by the casting house. As the first step of simulation, a temperature field for solidifying cast iron roll was created. The convection in the liquid is not comprised since in the first approximation, the convection does not influence the studied occurrence of the (columnar to equiaxed grains transition in the roll. The obtained temperature field allows to study the dynamics of its behavior observed in the middle of the mould thickness. This midpoint of the mould thickness was treated as an operating point for the transition. A full accumulation of the heat in the mould was postulated for the transition. Thus, a plateau at the curve was observed at the midpoint. The range of the plateau existence corresponded to the incubation period , that appeared before fully equiaxed grains formation. At the second step of simulation, behavior of the thermal gradients field was studied. Three ranges within the filed were visible: EC→EC→EC→EC→(tTECtt↔RERCtt↔a/ for the formation of columnar structure (the C – zone: ( and 0>>T&0>>=−>−=REREttGttG.The columnar structure formation was significantly slowed down during incubation period. It resulted from a competition between columnar growth and equiaxed growth expected at that period of time. The 0≈=−=RERCttGttG relationship was postulated to correspond well with the critical thermal gradient, known in the Hunt’s theory. A simulation was performed for the cast iron rolls solidifying as if in industrial condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into two zones: C and E; (the first with columnar structure and the second with fully equiaxed structure some experiments dealing with solidification were made on semi-industrial scale.

  19. Comparison of dendritic calcium transients in juvenile wild type and SOD1G93A mouse lumbar motoneurons

    Katharina Ann Quinlan


    Full Text Available Previous studies of spinal motoneurons in the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have shown alterations long before disease onset, including increased dendritic branching, increased persistent Na+ and Ca2+ currents, and impaired axonal transport. In this study dendritic Ca2+ entry was investigated using 2 photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp of juvenile (P4-11 motoneurons. Neurons were filled with both Ca2+ Green-1 and Texas Red dextrans, and line scans performed throughout. Steps were taken to account for different sources of variability, including 1 dye filling and laser penetration, 2 dendritic anatomy, and 3 the time elapsed from the start of recording. First, Ca2+ Green-1 fluorescence was normalized by Texas Red; next, neurons were reconstructed so anatomy could be evaluated; finally, time was recorded. Customized software detected the largest Ca2+ transients (area under the curve from each line scan and matched it with parameters above. Overall, larger dendritic diameter and shorter path distance from the soma were significant predictors of larger transients, while time was not significant up to 2 hours (data thereafter was dropped. However, Ca2+ transients showed additional variability. Controlling for previous factors, significant variation was found between Ca2+ signals from different processes of the same neuron in 3/7 neurons. This could reflect differential expression of Ca2+ channels, local neuromodulation or other variations. Finally, Ca2+ transients in SOD1G93A motoneurons were significantly smaller than in non-transgenic motoneurons. In conclusion, motoneuron processes show highly variable Ca2+ transients, but these transients are smaller overall SOD1G93A motoneurons.

  20. Detection of Sequence-Specific Tyrosine Nitration of Manganese SOD and SERCA in Cardiovascular Disease and Aging

    Xu, Shanqin; Ying, Jia; Jiang, Bingbing; Guo, Wei; Adachi, Takeshi; Sharov, Victor; Lazar, Harold; Menzoian, James; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Schoneich, Christian; Cohen, Richard


    Nitration of protein tyrosine residues (nY) is a marker of oxidative stress and may alter the biological activity of the modified proteins. The aim of this study was to develop antibodies towards site-specific nY-modified proteins and to use histochemical and immunoblotting to demonstrate protein nitration in tissues. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies towards peptides with known nY sites in MnSOD nY-34 and of two adjacent nY in the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2 di-nY-294,295) were developed. Kidneys from rats infused with angiotensin II with known MnSOD nY and aorta from atherosclerotic rabbits and aging rat skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum with known SERCA di-nY were used for positive controls. Staining for MnSOD nY-34 was most intense in distal renal tubules and collecting ducts. Staining of atherosclerotic aorta for SERCA2 di-nY was most intense in atherosclerotic plaques. Aging rat skeletal muscle and atherosclerotic aorta and cardiac atrium from human diabetic patients also stained positively. Staining was decreased by sodium dithionite that chemically reduces nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, and the antigenic nY-peptide blocked staining for each respective nY site, but not for the other. As previously demonstrated, immunoblotting failed to detect these modified proteins in whole tissue lysates, but did when the proteins were concentrated. Immunohistochemical staining for specific nY-modified tyrosine residues offers the ability to assess the effects of oxidant stress associated with pathological conditions on individual proteins whose function may be affected in specific tissue sites.

  1. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and nitrate tolerance – comparison of nitroglycerin and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in Mn-SOD+/- mice

    Stalleicken Dirk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic therapy with nitroglycerin (GTN results in a rapid development of nitrate tolerance which is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. According to recent studies, mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative inactivation of the organic nitrate bioactivating enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2 play an important role for the development of nitrate and cross-tolerance. Methods Tolerance was induced by infusion of wild type (WT and heterozygous manganese superoxide dismutase mice (Mn-SOD+/- with ethanolic solution of GTN (12.5 μg/min/kg for 4 d. For comparison, the tolerance-free pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN, 17.5 μg/min/kg for 4 d was infused in DMSO. Vascular reactivity was measured by isometric tension studies of isolated aortic rings. ROS formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2 activity was measured in isolated heart mitochondria. Results Chronic GTN infusion lead to impaired vascular responses to GTN and acetylcholine (ACh, increased the ROS formation in mitochondria and decreased ALDH-2 activity in Mn-SOD+/- mice. In contrast, PETN infusion did not increase mitochondrial ROS formation, did not decrease ALDH-2 activity and accordingly did not lead to tolerance and cross-tolerance in Mn-SOD+/- mice. PETN but not GTN increased heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in EA.hy 926 cells and bilirubin efficiently scavenged GTN-derived ROS. Conclusion Chronic GTN infusion stimulates mitochondrial ROS production which is an important mechanism leading to tolerance and cross-tolerance. The tetranitrate PETN is devoid of mitochondrial oxidative stress induction and according to the present animal study as well as numerous previous clinical studies can be used without limitations due to tolerance and cross-tolerance.

  2. Seeking homeostasis: Temporal trends in respiration, oxidation, and calcium in SOD1 G93A Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis mice

    Cameron W Irvin


    Full Text Available Impairments in mitochondria, oxidative regulation, and calcium homeostasis have been well documented in numerous amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS experimental models, especially in the superoxide dismutase 1 glycine 93 to alanine (SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse. However, the timing of these deficiencies has been debatable. In a systematic review of 45 articles, we examine experimental measurements of cellular respiration, mitochondrial mechanisms, oxidative markers, and calcium regulation. We evaluate the quantitative magnitude and statistical temporal trend of these aggregated assessments in high transgene copy SOD1 G93A mice compared to wild type mice. Analysis of overall trends reveals cellular respiration, intracellular ATP, and corresponding mitochondrial elements (Cox, cytochrome c, complex I, enzyme activity are depressed for the entire lifespan of the SOD1 G93A mouse. Oxidant markers (H2O2, 8OH2’dG, MDA are initially similar to wild type but are double that of wild type by the time of symptom onset despite early post-natal elevation of protective heat shock proteins. All aspects of calcium regulation show early disturbances, although a notable and likely compensatory convergence to near wild type levels appears to occur between 40-80 days (pre-onset, followed by a post-onset elevation in intracellular calcium. The identified temporal trends and compensatory fluctuations provide evidence that the cause of ALS may lay within failed homeostatic regulation, itself, rather than any one particular perturbing event or cellular mechanism. We discuss the vulnerabilities of motoneurons to regulatory instability and possible hypotheses regarding failed regulation and its potential treatment in ALS.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Bexarotene in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Riancho, Javier; Ruiz-Soto, María; Berciano, María T.; Berciano, José; Lafarga, Miguel


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive weakness and muscle atrophy related to the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs) without a curative treatment. There is experimental evidence suggesting that retinoids may be involved in ALS pathogenesis. Bexarotene (Bxt) is a retinoid-X receptor agonist used in the treatment of cutaneous lymphoma with a favorable safety profile whose effects have been recently investigated in other neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyze the potential therapeutic effect of Bxt in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Mice were treated with Bxt or vehicle five times per week from day 60 onward. Survival, weight, and neuromuscular function studies together with histological and biochemical analyses were performed. Bxt significantly delayed motor function deterioration, ameliorated the loss of body weight, and extended mice survival up to 30% of the symptomatic period. Histological analyses of the lumbosacral spinal cord revealed that Bxt markedly delayed the early motor-neuron degeneration occurring at presymptomatic stages in ALS-transgenic mice. Bxt treatment contributed to preserve the MN homeostasis in the SOD1G93A mice. Particularly, it reduced the neuronal loss and the chromatolytic response, induced nucleolar hypertrophy, decreased the formation of ubiquitylated inclusions, and modulated the lysosomal response. As an agonist of the retinoic-X receptor (RXR) pathway, Bxt notably increased the nuclear expression of the RXRα throughout transcriptionally active euchromatin domains. Bxt also contributed to protect the MN environment by reducing reactive astrogliosis and preserving perisomatic synapsis. Overall, these neuroprotective effects suggest that treatment with Bxt could be useful in ALS, particularly in those cases related to SOD1 mutations. PMID:26190974

  4. 75 FR 32160 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...


    ...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...-quality steel products from Brazil. See Agreement Suspending the Countervailing Duty Investigation on Hot... duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil. See Initiation...

  5. Actividad antiinflamatoria de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD), purificada de la especie Allium sativum (ajo)

    Soberón, Mercedes; Suárez, Silvia; Arnao, Inés; Guija, Emilio; Troncoso, Luzmila; Rojas, Luis; Saldaña, Ítalo; Cordero, Adriana


    Objetivos: Demostrar la actividad antiinflamatoria de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) purificada de Allium sativum (ajo). Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM Material biológico: Ratas y Allium sativum. Principales medidas de resultados: Muestra de ajo triturada con tampón fosfato 50 mM pH 7,4, incubada 40 minutos y filtrada; fue sometida a extracción con cloroformo:etanol 1:1 (v/v). Se descartó la fase acuosa. ...

  6. Acute intermittent hypoxia induced phrenic long-term facilitation despite increased SOD1 expression in a rat model of ALS.

    Nichols, Nicole L; Satriotomo, Irawan; Harrigan, Daniel J; Mitchell, Gordon S


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death. Since most ALS patients succumb to ventilatory failure from loss of respiratory motor neurons, any effective ALS treatment must preserve and/or restore breathing capacity. In rats over-expressing mutated super-oxide dismutase-1 (SOD1(G93A)), the capacity to increase phrenic motor output is decreased at disease end-stage, suggesting imminent ventilatory failure. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity with potential to restore phrenic motor output in clinical disorders that compromise breathing. Since pLTF requires NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, it is blocked by NADPH oxidase inhibition and SOD mimetics in normal rats. Thus, we hypothesized that SOD1(G93A) (mutant; MT) rats do not express AIH-induced pLTF due to over-expression of active mutant superoxide dismutase-1. AIH-induced pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF were assessed in young, pre-symptomatic and end-stage anesthetized MT rats and age-matched wild-type littermates. Contrary to predictions, pLTF and XII LTF were observed in MT rats at all ages; at end-stage, pLTF was actually enhanced. SOD1 levels were elevated in young and pre-symptomatic MT rats, yet superoxide accumulation in putative phrenic motor neurons (assessed with dihydroethidium) was unchanged; however, superoxide accumulation significantly decreased at end-stage. Thus, compensatory mechanisms appear to maintain ROS homoeostasis until late in disease progression, preserving AIH-induced respiratory plasticity. Following intrathecal injections of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 600 μM; 12 μL), pLTF was abolished in pre-symptomatic, but not end-stage MT rats, demonstrating that pLTF is NADPH oxidase dependent in pre-symptomatic, but NADPH oxidase independent in end-stage MT rats. Mechanisms

  7. Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements

    M. V. Chugunov


    Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and

  8. Multilayer Steel Materials Deformation Resistance and Roll Force Measurement

    A. G. Kolesnikov


    Full Text Available To create new types of cars, raise their reliability, gain operational life, and decrease in metal consumption of products it is necessary to improve mechanical, physical, and also special properties of the constructional materials applied in mechanical engineering. Presently, there are intensive researches and developments under way to create materials with ultrafine-grained structure (the sizes of grains in their crystal lattice make less than 1 micron in one of the measurements.BMSTU developed a manufacturing technology of multilayer steel sheets with steady ultrafine-grained structure based on the multiple hot rolling of billet as a composition consisting of the alternating metal sheets. A principled condition for implementation of such technology is existence of different crystallographic modifications in the adjoining sheets of the composition at specified temperature of rolling.Power parameters of rolling are important technical characteristics of the process. Usually, to determine a deformation resistance value when rolling the diverse multilayer materials, is used the actual resistance value averaging in relation to the components of the composition. The aim of this work is a comparative analysis of known calculated dependences with experimental data when rolling the 100-layer samples. Objects of research were the 100-layer compositions based on the alternating layers of steel 08H18N10 and U8.Experimental samples represented the vacuumized capsules with height, width, and length of 53 mm x 53 mm x 200 mm, respectively, in which there were the 100-layer packs from sheets, each of 0.5 mm, based on the composition of steels (U8+08H18N10. Rolling was made on the double-high mill with rolls of 160 mm in diameter during 19 passes to the thickness of 7 mm with the speed of 0,1 m/s. Relative sinking in each pass was accepted to be equal 10±2,5%. Rolling forces were measured by the strain-gauging method using the measuring cells, located under

  9. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D


    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  10. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    Maydannik, Philipp S.; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C.; Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka; Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui


    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20 nm thickness Al 2 O 3 diffusion barrier layers on 500 mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105 °C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20 nm Al 2 O 3 films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38 °C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument ( −4  g/m 2 day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25 m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ∼5 × 10 −6 g/m 2 day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate

  11. Flow behavior of polymers during the roll-to-roll hot embossing process

    Deng, Yujun; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Lin, Zhongqin


    The roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing process is a recent advancement in the micro hot embossing process and is capable of continuously fabricating micro/nano-structures on polymers, with a high efficiency and a high throughput. However, the fast forming of the R2R hot embossing process limits the time for material flow and results in complicated flow behavior in the polymers. This study presents a fundamental investigation into the flow behavior of polymers and aims towards the comprehensive understanding of the R2R hot embossing process. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model based on the viscoelastic model of polymers is established and validated for the fabrication of micro-pyramids using the R2R hot embossing process. The deformation and recovery of micro-pyramids on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film are analyzed in the filling stage and the demolding stage, respectively. Firstly, in the analysis of the filling stage, the temperature distribution on the PVC film is discussed. A large temperature gradient is observed along the thickness direction of the PVC film and the temperature of the top surface is found to be higher than that of the bottom surface, due to the poor thermal conductivity of PVC. In addition, creep strains are demonstrated to depend highly on the temperature and are also observed to concentrate on the top layer of the PVC film because of high local temperature. In the demolding stage, the recovery of the embossed micro-pyramids is obvious. The cooling process is shown to be efficient for the reduction of recovery, especially when the mold temperature is high. In conclusion, this research advances the understanding of the flow behavior of polymers in the R2R hot embossing process and might help in the development of the highly accurate and highly efficient fabrication of microstructures on polymers. (paper)

  12. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail:; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)


    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20 nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500 mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105 °C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38 °C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25 m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ∼5 × 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  13. Characterization of printed planar electromagnetic coils using digital extrusion and roll-to-roll flexographic processes

    Rickard, Scott

    Electromagnets are a crucial component in a wide range of more complex electrical devices due to their ability to turn electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. The trend for electronics becoming smaller and lighter has led to increased interest in using flat, planar electromagnetic coils, which have been shown to perform better at scaled down sizes. The two-dimensional geometry of a planar electromagnetic coil yields itself to be produced by a roll-to-roll additive manufacturing process. The emergence of the printed electronics field, which uses traditional printing processes to pattern functional inks, has led to new methods of mass-producing basic electrical components. The ability to print a planar electromagnetic coil using printed electronics could rival the traditional subtractive and semi-subtractive PCB process of manufacturing. The ability to print lightweight planar electromagnetic coils on flexible substrates could lead to their inclusion into intelligent packaging applications and could have specific use in actuating devices, transformers, and electromagnetic induction applications such as energy harvesting or wireless charging. In attempts to better understand the limitations of printing planar electromagnetic coils, the effect that the design parameters of the planar coils have on the achievable magnetic field strength were researched. A comparison between prototyping methods of digital extrusion and manufacturing scale flexographic printing are presented, discussing consistency in the printed coils and their performance in generating magnetic fields. A method to predict the performance of these planar coils is introduced to allow for design within required needs of an application. Results from the research include a demonstration of a printed coil being used in a flat speaker design, working off of actuating principles.

  14. Modelling of drawing and rolling of high carbon flat wires

    Bobadilla, C.; Persem, N.; Foissey, S.


    In order to meet customer requirements, it is necessary to develop new flat wires with a high tensile strength and a high width/thickness ratio. These products are manufactured from wire rod. The first step is to draw the wire until we have the required mechanical properties and required surface area of the section. After this, the wire is rolled from a round to a rectangular section. During the flat rolling process it can be reduced by more than 50%. Then the wire is exposed to a high level of stress during this process. Modelling allows us to predetermine this stress level, taking into account the final dimensions and the mechanical properties, thus optimising both rolling and drawing process. Forge2005 was used in order to simulate these processes. The aim of this study is to determine the value of residual stresses after drawing and so to optimise rolling. Indeed, the highest stress values are reached at this step of the process by changing the section of the wire from a round to a rectangular one. In order to evaluate the stress value accuracy for high strain levels, a behaviour law has been identified. This is a result of tensile tests carried out at each step of the drawing process. Finally, a multi-axial damage criterion was implemented using Forge2005. The optimisation of the rolling is directly linked to the minimisation of this criterion

  15. Phenomena of Foamed Concrete under Rolling of Aircraft Wheels

    Jiang, Chun-shui; Yao, Hong-yu; Xiao, Xian-bo; Kong, Xiang-jun; Shi, Ya-jie


    Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS) is an effective technique to reduce hazards associated with aircraft overrunning runway. In order to ascertain phenomena of the foamed concrete used for EMAS under rolling of aircraft wheel, a specially designed experimental setup was built which employed Boeing 737 aircraft wheels bearing actual vertical loads to roll through the foamed concrete. A number of experiments were conducted upon this setup. It is discovered that the wheel rolls the concrete in a pure rolling manner and crushes the concrete downwards, instead of crushing it forward, as long as the concrete is not higher than the wheel axle. The concrete is compressed into powder in-situ by the wheel and then is brought to bottom of the wheel. The powder under the wheel is loose and thus is not able to sustain wheel braking. It is also found that after being rolled by the wheel the concrete exhibits either of two states, i.e. either 'crushed through' whole thickness of the concrete or 'crushed halfway', depending on combination of strength of the concrete, thickness of the concrete, vertical load the wheel carries, tire dimension and tire pressure. A new EMAS design concept is developed that if an EMAS design results in the 'crushed through' state for the main gears while the 'crushed halfway' state for the nose gear, the arresting bed would be optimal to accommodate the large difference in strength between the nose gear and the main gear of an aircraft.

  16. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of behaviour of particles moving in blood vessels under the rolling massage

    Hou-Hui, Yi; Cai-Feng, Wang; Xiao-Feng, Yang; Hua-Bing, Li


    The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. New progress of FEM simulation and AI application in rolling at RAL

    Liu Xianghua; Wang Guodong; Zhao Kun


    New progresses on FEM simulation and AI application in rolling have been achieved at RAL recently. The existence and uniqueness of the extreme point of total functional for rolling problem has been proved. Different rolling processes, such as H-beam rolling, ribbing strip rolling, slab sizing, have been solved by our in-house FEM software package. The simulation results have been put into production use to improve the precision of math models. The Artificial Neural Network has been used to predict rolling force, coiling temperature, microstructure and properties of the rolled products. An expert system for deviation diagnoses of strip thickness has been developed for industry use. Synergetic Artificial Intelligence has also been applied to rolling scheduling. We are making continuous efforts to develop AI applications for rolling line co-operating in China steel industry. (author)

  18. The effect of rolling draughts on texture and microstructure in aluminium

    Mishin, Oleg; Juul Jensen, D.; Bay, B.


    The texture gradients and microstructural variations are investigated in commercially pure aluminium plates 40% cold-rolled either with small draughts or with intermediate draughts. In these two samples, different textures are observed near the quarter thickness layer. A pronounced shear texture...... is found in the sample rolled with small draughts, while a rolling texture is observed in the sample rolled with intermediate draughts. Also, significant differences were found in the rolled microstrucrures near the quarter thickness. After rolling with intermediate draughts, extended dislocation...... boundaries preferentially aligned at an angle of about 25-45o to the rolling direction are observed in the longitudinal section. After rolling with small draughts, extended dislocation boundaries are preferentially aligned closer to the rolling direction. These results are discribed and discussed....

  19. Experimental and theoretical study on minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling.

    Tang, Delin; Liu, Xianghua; Song, Meng; Yu, Hailiang


    Parts produced by microforming are becoming ever smaller. Similarly, the foils required in micro-machines are becoming ever thinner. The asymmetric rolling technique is capable of producing foils that are thinner than those produced by the conventional rolling technique. The difference between asymmetric rolling and conventional rolling is the 'cross-shear' zone. However, the influence of the cross-shear zone on the minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling is still uncertain. In this paper, we report experiments designed to understand this critical influencing factor on the minimum achievable thickness in asymmetric rolling. Results showed that the minimum achievable thickness of rolled foils produced by asymmetric rolling with a rolling speed ratio of 1.3 can be reduced to about 30% of that possible by conventional rolling technique. Furthermore, the minimum achievable thickness during asymmetric rolling could be correlated to the cross-shear ratio, which, in turn, could be related to the rolling speed ratio. From the experimental results, a formula to calculate the minimum achievable thickness was established, considering the parameters cross-shear ratio, friction coefficient, work roll radius, etc. in asymmetric rolling.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study on minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling.

    Delin Tang

    Full Text Available Parts produced by microforming are becoming ever smaller. Similarly, the foils required in micro-machines are becoming ever thinner. The asymmetric rolling technique is capable of producing foils that are thinner than those produced by the conventional rolling technique. The difference between asymmetric rolling and conventional rolling is the 'cross-shear' zone. However, the influence of the cross-shear zone on the minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling is still uncertain. In this paper, we report experiments designed to understand this critical influencing factor on the minimum achievable thickness in asymmetric rolling. Results showed that the minimum achievable thickness of rolled foils produced by asymmetric rolling with a rolling speed ratio of 1.3 can be reduced to about 30% of that possible by conventional rolling technique. Furthermore, the minimum achievable thickness during asymmetric rolling could be correlated to the cross-shear ratio, which, in turn, could be related to the rolling speed ratio. From the experimental results, a formula to calculate the minimum achievable thickness was established, considering the parameters cross-shear ratio, friction coefficient, work roll radius, etc. in asymmetric rolling.

  1. Comparing the functional components, SOD-like activities, antimutagenicity, and nutrient compositions of Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus mushrooms

    Nae-Cherng Yang


    Full Text Available Many species of the genus Phellinus possess beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immune-enhancing, and antimutagenic effects. Phenolic compounds and polysaccharides are two kinds of bioactive compounds; however, few studies have compared the differences between Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus in their functional components, functional activities, and nutrient compositions. Herein, the proximate compositions and microelements of the fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were determined. The fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were extracted by boiling water [water extract of P. igniarius (WEPI and P. linteus (WEPL]. The contents of total phenolics and polysaccharides, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD-like and antimutagenic activities of WEPI and WEPL, were compared. We found that WEPI was rich in phenolics and polysaccharides and had higher SOD-like activity than WEPL. Nutrient compositions were mainly different in minerals, whereas anitmutagenicity was similar. All of these results suggested that P. igniarius has greater potential for the development of antioxidant and immunomodulating food products than P. linteus.

  2. Quercetin Protects Primary Human Osteoblasts Exposed to Cigarette Smoke through Activation of the Antioxidative Enzymes HO-1 and SOD-1

    Karl F. Braun


    Full Text Available Smokers frequently suffer from impaired fracture healing often due to poor bone quality and stability. Cigarette smoking harms bone cells and their homeostasis by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Quercetin, a naturally occurring antioxidant, can protect osteoblasts from the toxic effects of smoking. Human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM rapidly produced ROS and their viability decreased concentration- and time-dependently. Co-, pre- and postincubation with Quercetin dose-dependently improved their viability. Quercetin increased the expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes heme-oxygenase- (HO- 1 and superoxide-dismutase- (SOD- 1. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abolished the protective effect of Quercetin. Our results demonstrate that CSM damages human osteoblasts by accumulation of ROS. Quercetin can diminish this damage by scavenging the radicals and by upregulating the expression of HO-1 and SOD-1. Thus, a dietary supplementation with Quercetin could improve bone matter, stability and even fracture healing in smokers.

  3. Design and Rolling Analysis of a Novel Deformable Polyhedron Robot

    Yaobin Tian


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new rolling robot is proposed. The mechanism of the robot consists of eight links with three degrees of freedom (DOFs. The shape of each link of the robot is an equilateral triangle. The robot realizes its direction switching function by deforming into different modes of planar parallelogram mechanisms (PPM. In any deterministic mode, the robot can roll on the ground. The motion of the robot is studied based on the kinematic and zero moment point (ZMP analyses. Though the robot has three DOFs, we show that it can realize flexible mobility via direction switching and rolling functions with two DOFs and one DOF, respectively. A prototype robot was manufactured. A series of simulations and experiments done using this prototype is reported, verifying the feasibility of the design.

  4. Optical scattering from rough-rolled aluminum surfaces.

    Rönnelid, M; Adsten, M; Lindström, T; Nostell, P; Wäckelgård, E


    Bidirectional, angular resolved scatterometry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using rolled aluminum as reflectors in solar thermal collectors and solar cells. Two types of rolled aluminum with different surface roughnesses were investigated. The results show that the smoother of the two samples [rms height, (0.20 ? 0.02) mum] can be used as a nonimaging, concentrating reflector with moderate reflection losses compared with those of optically smooth aluminum reflectors. The sample with the rougher surface [rms height, (0.6 ? 0.1) mum] is not suitable as a concentrating element but can be used as planar reflectors. The orientation of the rolling grooves is then of importance for minimizing reflection losses in the system.

  5. Roll-up of validation results to a target application.

    Hills, Richard Guy


    Suites of experiments are preformed over a validation hierarchy to test computational simulation models for complex applications. Experiments within the hierarchy can be performed at different conditions and configurations than those for an intended application, with each experiment testing only part of the physics relevant for the application. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology to roll-up validation results to an application, and to assess the impact the validation hierarchy design has on the roll-up results. The roll-up is accomplished through the development of a meta-model that relates validation measurements throughout a hierarchy to the desired response quantities for the target application. The meta-model is developed using the computation simulation models for the experiments and the application. The meta-model approach is applied to a series of example transport problems that represent complete and incomplete coverage of the physics of the target application by the validation experiments.

  6. Simulation of Bimetallic Bush Hot Rolling Bonding Process

    Yaqin Tian


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional model of bimetallic bush was established including the drive roller and the core roller. The model adopted the appropriate interface assumptions. Based on the bonding properties of bimetallic bush the hot rolling process was analyzed. The optimum reduction ratio of 28% is obtained by using the finite element simulation software MARC on the assumption of the bonding conditions. The stress-strain distribution of three dimensions was research assumptions to interface deformation of rolling. At the same time, based on the numerical simulation, the minimum reduction ratio 20% is obtained by using a double metal composite bush rolling new technology from the experiment research. The simulation error is not more than 8%.

  7. Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearings Based on EWT and KDEC

    Mingtao Ge


    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel fault diagnosis method that is based on empirical wavelet transform (EWT and kernel density estimation classifier (KDEC, which can well diagnose fault type of the rolling element bearings. With the proposed fault diagnosis method, the vibration signal of rolling element bearing was firstly decomposed into a series of F modes by EWT, and the root mean square, kurtosis, and skewness of the F modes were computed and combined into the feature vector. According to the characteristics of kernel density estimation, a classifier based on kernel density estimation and mutual information was proposed. Then, the feature vectors were input into the KDEC for training and testing. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method can effectively identify three different operative conditions of rolling element bearings, and the accuracy rates was higher than support vector machine (SVM classifier and back-propagation (BP neural network classifier.

  8. Primary glia expressing the G93A-SOD1 mutation present a neuroinflammatory phenotype and provide a cellular system for studies of glial inflammation

    Qi Min


    Full Text Available Abstract Detailed study of glial inflammation has been hindered by lack of cell culture systems that spontaneously demonstrate the "neuroinflammatory phenotype". Mice expressing a glycine → alanine substitution in cytosolic Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (G93A-SOD1 associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS demonstrate age-dependent neuroinflammation associated with broad-spectrum cytokine, eicosanoid and oxidant production. In order to more precisely study the cellular mechanisms underlying glial activation in the G93A-SOD1 mouse, primary astrocytes were cultured from 7 day mouse neonates. At this age, G93A-SOD1 mice demonstrated no in vivo hallmarks of neuroinflammation. Nonetheless astrocytes cultured from G93A-SOD1 (but not wild-type human SOD1-expressing transgenic mouse pups demonstrated a significant elevation in either the basal or the tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα-stimulated levels of proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and •NO (indexed by nitrite release into the culture medium; and protein carbonyl products. Specific cytokine- and TNFα death-receptor-associated components were similarly upregulated in cultured G93A-SOD1 cells as assessed by multiprobe ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs for their mRNA transcripts. Thus, endogenous glial expression of G93A-SOD1 produces a metastable condition in which glia are more prone to enter an activated neuroinflammatory state associated with broad-spectrum increased production of paracrine-acting substances. These findings support a role for active glial involvement in ALS and may provide a useful cell culture tool for the study of glial inflammation.

  9. Hot Roll Bonding of Aluminum to Twin-Roll Cast (TRC) Magnesium and Its Subsequent Deformation Behavior

    Saleh, H.; Schmidtchen, M.; Kawalla, R.


    In an experiment in which twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloy and commercial purity aluminum (AA 1050) sheets were bonded by hot rolling as Al/Mg/Al laminate composites, it was found that increasing the preheating temperatures up to 400 °C enhances the bonding strength of composites. Further increases in the preheating temperatures accelerate the magnesium oxide growth and thus reduce the bonding strength. The influence of the reduction ratio on the bonding properties was also studied, whereby it was observed that increasing the rolling reduction led to an increase in the bonding strength. The experimental results show that the optimum bonding strength can be obtained at rolling temperatures of 375-400 °C with a 50-60% reduction in thickness. On the other hand, the subsequent deformation behavior of composite was assessed using plane strain compression and deep drawing tests. We demonstrate that the composites produced using the optimum roll bonding conditions exhibited sufficient bonding during subsequent deformation and did not reveal any debonding at the bonding interface.

  10. Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki; Jeong, Soon-Wook; Cho, Woon-Jo


    We have investigated the characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO) electrode grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a specially designed roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering system for use in flexible optoelectronics. It was found that both electrical and optical properties of the flexible IZO electrode were critically dependent on the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio during the roll-to-roll sputtering process. At optimized conditions (constant working pressure of 3 mTorr, Ar/O 2 flow ratio of Ar at only 30 sccm, DC power 800 W and rolling speed at 0.1 cm/s) the flexible IZO electrode exhibits a sheet resistance of 17.25 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of 89.45% at 550 nm wavelength. Due to the low PET substrate temperature, which is effectively maintained by cooling drum system, all IZO electrodes showed an amorphous structure regardless of the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio. Furthermore, the IZO electrodes grown at optimized condition exhibited superior flexibility than the conventional amorphous ITO electrodes due to its stable amorphous structure. This indicates that the RTR sputter grown IZO electrode is a promising flexible electrode that can substitute for the conventional ITO electrode, due to its low resistance, high transparency, superior flexibility and fast preparation by the RTR process.

  11. Influence exerted by the shape of the surfaces of working roll barrels upon the course of the MEFASS (Metal Forming Aided by Shear Stresses rolling process

    Świątoniowski A.


    Full Text Available The essential aspect of the MEFASS rolling process is introducing the cyclic axial counter movement of the rolls transverse to the direction of rolling in the course of a band pass through a rolling gap. The effect of a change in the way of deformation obtained in this manner makes it possible to set in one roll pass a deformation several times larger than it is possible in a conventional process. In this paper, upon the basis of the computer model of the MES process, supported by experimental research, the analysis of the influence exerted by the shape of the surface of roll barrels upon the distribution of the intensity of stresses σi and deformations εi in the section of the band being rolled, and also upon the kinematic and force parameters of the process.

  12. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux under Rolling Motion

    Hwang, Jinseok; Lee, Yeongun; Park, Gooncherl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim to this paper may be summarized as follows: identify the flow regime compare with existing void-quality relationship and void fraction at OAF derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to annular flow criterion, develop and evaluate the correlation for accurate prediction of CHF ratio under rolling motion. Experimentally measured CHF results from the previous study were not well-predicted by existing CHF correlations developed for wide range of pressure under rolling motion in vertical tube. Specifically, existing correlations do not account for the dynamic motion parameter, such as tangential and centrifugal force. This study reviewed some existing correlation and experimental studies related to reduction and enhancement of CHF and heat transfer and flow behavior under heaving and rolling motion, and developed a CHF ratio correlation for upward flow vertical tube under rolling motion. Based upon dimensionless groups, equations and interpolation factor, an empirical CHF correlation has been developed which is consistent with experimental data for uniformly heated tubes internally cooled by R-134 under rolling motion. Flow regime was determined through the prediction method for annular flow. Non-dimensional number and function were decided by CHF mechanism of each region. Interaction of LFD and DNB regions is taken into account by means of power interpolation which is reflected void fraction at OAF. The suggested correlation predicted the CHF Ratio with reasonable accuracy, showing an average error of -0.59 and 2.51% for RMS. Rolling motion can affect bubble motion and liquid film behavior complexly by combination of tangential and centrifugal forces and mass flow than heaving motion. Through a search of literature and a comparison of previous CHF ratio results, this work can contribute to the study of boiling heat transfer and CHF for the purpose of enhancement or reduction the CHF of dynamic motion system, such as marine reactor.


    N. V. Khalipova


    Full Text Available Purpose. Interaction of system’s elements of "carriage–track" modelling requires consideration of various criteria, it also requires analysis of many uncertainty and randomness factors’ influence on the basic parameters to ensure optimal or rational parameters of the system. The researching of interactions’ process requires new theoretical approaches to formulation of objectives, based on a generalization of existing modeling approaches. The purpose of this work is development of interaction models between track and rolling stock based on multiple structures of objects. Methodology. Dedicated and formed the main evaluation criteria of dynamic interaction between track and rolling stock optimization - quality assurance and safety of transportation process, improving of their efficiency and reducing of prime cost’s. Based on vector optimization methods, proposed model of rolling stock and track’s elements interaction. For the synthesis of the model used mathematical machine of multiple objects structures. Findings. Generalized approaches to modeling in the interaction of rolling stock and track for different structural elements of the system under different exploitation conditions. This theoretical approach demonstrated on the examples of modeling of passenger and freight cars with track under different exploitation conditions. Originality. Proposed theoretical approach to the problem of track and rolling stock interaction, based on a synthesis of existing models by using of multiple objects structures. Practical value. Using of proposed model allows to structure key data and rational parameters of rolling stock and track interaction’s modeling and to formulate optimal and rational parameters of the system, to determine the effective exploitation parameters and measurement system for rational use of infrastructure.

  14. Research for rolling effects on flow pattern of gas-water flow in horizontal tubes

    Luan Feng; Yan Changqi


    The flow pattern transition of two-phase flow is caused by the inertial force resulted from rolling and incline of horizontal tubes under rolling state. an experimental study on the flow patterns of gas-water flow was carried out in horizontal tubes under rolling state, which rolling period is 15 second and rolling angle is 10 degrees, and a pattern flow picture is shown. It was found that there are two flow patterns in one rolling period under some gas flux and water flux. (authors)

  15. Analysis of Residual Stress and Deformation of Rolling Strengthen Crankshaft Fillet

    Han Shaojun


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of crankshaft fillet rolling process, used ANSYS finite element analysis software to conduct the elastic-plastic mechanical simulation of crankshaft rolling process, and gained the variation law of the residual stress and plastic deformation in the radial path of the fillet under different rolling laps and rolling pressure. Established the relationship between the rolling pressure and the plastic deformation and residual stress of the fillet, and provided theoretical support for the evaluation and detection of the crankshaft rolling quality.

  16. Note: A 1-m Foucault pendulum rolling on a ball

    Salva, H. R.; Benavides, R. E.; Venturino, J. A.; Cuscueta, D. J.; Ghilarducci, A. A.


    We have built a short Foucault pendulum of 1-m length. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity to elliptical trajectories from other longer pendula. The design was a semi-rigid pendulum that rolls over a small ball. The measurements of the movements (azimuth and elliptical trajectory) were done by an optical method. The resulting pendulum works in a medium satisfactory way due to problems of the correct choice of the mass of the bob together with the diameter of the supporting ball. It is also important to keep the rolling surface very clean.

  17. An electrically injected rolled-up semiconductor tube laser

    Dastjerdi, M. H. T.; Djavid, M.; Mi, Z., E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0E9 (Canada)


    We have demonstrated electrically injected rolled-up semiconductor tube lasers, which are formed when a coherently strained InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure is selectively released from the underlying InP substrate. The device exhibits strong coherent emission in the wavelength range of ∼1.5 μm. A lasing threshold of ∼1.05 mA is measured for a rolled-up tube with a diameter of ∼5 μm and wall thickness of ∼140 nm at 80 K. The Purcell factor is estimated to be ∼4.3.

  18. Bubble departure diameter in narrow rectangular channel under rolling condition

    Xie, T.; Chen, B.; Yan, X.; Xu, J.; Huang, Y.; Xiao, Z. [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)


    Forced convective subcooled boiling flow experiments were conducted in a vertical upward narrow rectangular channel under rolling motion. A high-speed digital video camera was used to capture the dynamics of the bubble nucleation process. Bubble departure diameters were obtained from the images. A bubble departure model based on force balance analysis was proposed to predict the bubble departure size under rolling condition by considering the additional centrifugal, tangential and Coriolis force. The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data within the averaged relative deviation of 5%. (author)

  19. Regularities of recrystallization in rolled Zr single crystals

    Isaenkova, M; Perlovich, Yu; Fesenko, V; Krymskaya, O; Krapivka, N; Thu, S S


    Experiments by rolled single crystals give a more visible conception of the operating mechanisms of plastic deformation and the following recrystallization, than experiments by polycrystals. Studies by usage of X-ray diffraction methods were conducted by Zr single crystals. It was revealed, that regions of the α-Zr matrix, deformed mainly by twinning, are characterized with decreased tendency to recrystallization. Orientations of recrystallized α-Zr grains correspond to “slopes” of maxima in the rolling texture, where the level of crystalline lattice distortion is maximal and the number of recrystallization nuclei is most of all. (paper)

  20. The study and fabrication of DLC micropattern on roll mold

    Kwon, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Dong; Park, Yeong Min; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Jin Kon; Kim, Tae Gyu


    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is becoming a promising protective coating layers due to its superior properties. In this study, instead of protective coating, DLC film was applied as the only component for micropattern then etched with lithography and lift-off process selectively. Furthermore, DLC film has been fabricated on aluminum roll mold. Then UV curing resin was applied to form the pattern on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The dimension and formation of the DLC micropattern on roll mold were analyzed. Moreover, the Raman spectroscopic of nitrogen-doped DLC film was analyzed.