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Sample records for socs1 small interfering

  1. Induction of CML28-specific cytotoxic T cell responses using co-transfected dendritic cells with CML28 DNA vaccine and SOCS1 small interfering RNA expression vector

    Zhou Hongsheng; Zhang Donghua; Wang Yaya; Dai Ming; Zhang Lu; Liu Wenli; Liu Dan; Tan Huo; Huang Zhenqian

    2006-01-01

    CML28 is an attractive target for antigen-specific immunotherapy. SOCS1 represents an inhibitory control mechanism for DC antigen presentation and the magnitude of adaptive immunity. In this study, we evaluated the potential for inducing CML28-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses by dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccination. We constructed a CML28 DNA vaccine and a SOCS1 siRNA vector and then cotransfect monocyte-derived DCs. Flow cytometry analysis showed gene silencing of SOCS1 resulted in higher expressions of costimulative moleculars in DCs. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) indicated downregulation of SOCS1 stronger capability to stimulate proliferation of responder cell in DCs. The CTL assay revealed transfected DCs effectively induced autologous CML28-specific CTL responses and the lytic activities induced by SOCS1-silenced DCs were significantly higher compared with those induced by SOCS1-expressing DCs. These results in our study indicates gene silencing of SOCS1 remarkably enhanced the cytotoxicity efficiency of CML28 DNA vaccine in DCs

  2. Pulmonary administration of small interfering RNA : The route to go?

    Ruigrok, Mitchel; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), which is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, researchers have been studying the therapeutic potential of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to treat diseases that are characterized by excessive gene expression. Excessive gene

  3. (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA

    Effective inhibition of specific gene by adenoassociated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA. ... To perform functional tests on siRNA, which was expressed by the viral vector, recombinant AAVs, coding for siRNA against exogenous gene, EGFP, and endogenous gene, p53, were established and ...

  4. Molecular Basis for the Immunostimulatory Potency of Small Interfering RNAs

    Mouldy Sioud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs represent a new class of antigene agents, which has emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomics and might serve as a potent therapeutic approach. However, several studies have showed that they could trigger several bystander effects, including immune activation and inhibition of unintended target genes. Although activation of innate immunity by siRNAs might be beneficial for therapy in some instances, uncontrolled activation can be toxic, and is therefore a major challenging problem. Interestingly, replacement of uridines in siRNA sequences with their 2′-modified counterparts abrogated siRNA bystander effects. Here we highlight these important findings that are expected to facilitate the rational design of siRNAs that avoid the induction of bystander effects.

  5. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    Dragoni, Luca; Cesana, Alberto; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Morbidelli, Massimo; Lupi, Monica; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D’Incalci, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells. (paper)

  6. Intratracheal Administration of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Fas Reduces Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Costamagna, Andrea; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Civiletti, Federica; Vizio, Barbara; Bosco, Ornella; Martin Conte, Erica L; Frati, Giacomo; Delsedime, Luisa; Lupia, Enrico; Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, V Marco

    2016-08-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Fas-mediated apoptosis is one of the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Fas gene expression in lungs by intratracheal administration of small interfering RNA could reduce lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an ex vivo model reproducing the procedural sequence of lung transplantation. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. C57/BL6 mice weighing 28-30 g. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in lungs isolated from mice, 48 hours after treatment with intratracheal small interfering RNA targeting Fas, control small interfering RNA, or vehicle. Isolated lungs were exposed to 6 hours of cold ischemia (4°C), followed by 2 hours of warm (37°C) reperfusion with a solution containing 10% of fresh whole blood and mechanical ventilation with constant low driving pressure. Fas gene expression was significantly silenced at the level of messenger RNA and protein after ischemia-reperfusion in lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas compared with lungs treated with control small interfering RNA or vehicle. Silencing of Fas gene expression resulted in reduced edema formation (bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration and lung histology) and improvement in lung compliance. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of pulmonary cell apoptosis of lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas, which did not affect cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Fas expression silencing in the lung by small interfering RNA is effective against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This approach represents a potential innovative strategy of organ preservation before lung transplantation.

  7. Evaluation of locked nucleic acid-modified small interfering RNA in vitro and in vivo

    Mook, Olaf R.; Baas, Frank; de Wissel, Marit B.; Fluiter, Kees

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference has become widely used as an experimental tool to study gene function. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) may have great potential for the treatment of diseases. Recently, it was shown that siRNA can be used to mediate gene silencing in mouse models. Locally administered

  8. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  9. Incorporation of osteogenic and angiogenic small interfering RNAs into chitosan sponge for bone tissue engineering

    Jia S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sen Jia,1,* Xinjie Yang,1,* Wen Song,2,* Lei Wang,1 Kaixiu Fang,3 Zhiqiang Hu,1,4 Zihui Yang,1 Chun Shan,1 Delin Lei,1 Bin Lu1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, 3Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology, No 113 Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed to this paper equally and are considered to be joint first authors Abstract: Engineered bone substitutes are being extensively explored in response to growing demand. However, the angiogenesis that occurs during bone formation is often overlooked in scaffold design. In this novel study, we incorporated two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, ie, small interfering RNA targets casein kinase 2 interaction protein 1 (siCkip-1 and small interfering RNA targets soluble VEGF receptor 1 (siFlt-1, which can promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, into a chitosan sponge. This scaffold could maintain siRNAs for over 2 weeks in neutral phosphate-buffered saline and degraded rapidly in the presence of lysozyme. The chitosan sponge with siCkip-1 and siFlt-1 in vitro bioactivity was investigated using mesenchymal stem cells. Target genes were significantly suppressed, and osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly upregulated. Alizarin Red staining revealed that mineralization of the extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced by dual transfection. Further analysis by immunofluorescence confirmed that the siRNA-modified scaffold simultaneously improved the expression of osteocalcin and von Willebrand factor. In vivo testing in a skull critical-size defect model showed marked bone regeneration in rats treated with siCkip-1 and siFlt-1. In conclusion, chitosan sponge containing osteogenic and

  10. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  11. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  12. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  13. Advances in targeted delivery of small interfering RNA using simple bioconjugates

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Kjems, Jørgen; Sorensen, Kristine Rothaus

    2014-01-01

    with a targeting moiety, in a simple bioconjugate construct. We discuss the use of different types of targeting moieties, as well as the different conjugation strategies employed for preparing these bioconjugate constructs that deliver the siRNA to target cells. We focus especially on the in-built or passive......Introduction: Development of drugs based on RNA interference by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been progressing slowly due to a number of challenges associated with the in vivo behavior of siRNA. A central problem is controlling siRNA delivery to specific cell types. Here, we review existing...... literature on one type of strategy for solving the issue of cell-specific delivery of siRNA, namely delivering the siRNA as part of simple bioconjugate constructs. Areas covered: This review presents current experience from strategies aimed at targeting siRNA to specific cell types, by associating the siRNA...

  14. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    Miele E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelina Miele,1,* Gian Paolo Spinelli,2,* Ermanno Miele,3 Enzo Di Fabrizio,3,6 Elisabetta Ferretti,4 Silverio Tomao,2 Alberto Gulino,1,5 1Department of Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, 4Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 5Center for Life Nanoscience, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy, 6BIONEM lab, University of Magna Graecia, Campus S. Venuta, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current

  15. Ligand-targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs to malignant cells and tissues.

    Thomas, Mini; Kularatne, Sumith A; Qi, Longwu; Kleindl, Paul; Leamon, Christopher P; Hansen, Michael J; Low, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Potential clinical applications of small interfering RNA (siRNA) are hampered primarily by delivery issues. We have successfully addressed the delivery problems associated with off-site targeting of highly toxic chemotherapeutic agents by attaching the drugs to tumor-specific ligands that will carry the attached cargo into the desired cancer cell. Indeed, several such tumor-targeted drugs are currently undergoing human clinical trials. We now show that efficient targeting of siRNA to malignant cells and tissues can be achieved by covalent conjugation of small-molecular-weight, high-affinity ligands, such as folic acid and DUPA (2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)-ureido] pentanedioic acid), to siRNA. The former ligand binds a folate receptor that is overexpressed on a variety of cancers, whereas the latter ligand binds to prostate-specific membrane antigen that is overexpressed specifically on prostate cancers and the neovasculature of all solid tumors. Using these ligands, we show remarkable receptor-mediated targeting of siRNA to cancer tissues in vitro and in vivo.

  16. A novel albumin nanocomplex containing both small interfering RNA and gold nanorods for synergetic anticancer therapy

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Hwang, Hai-Jin; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au nanorods per BSA complex and were successively functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies to facilitate active targeting. The synergetic therapeutic activity originating from the two components effectively induced cell death (~80% reduction in viability compared with control cells) in target breast cancer cells after a single dose of laser irradiation. Intracellular SREB nanocomplex decomposition by proteolytic enzymes resulted in simultaneous RNA interference and thermal ablation, thus leading to apoptosis in the targeted cancer cells. Moreover, these therapeutic effects were sustained for approximately 72 hours. The intrinsic biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and potent in vitro anticancer properties of these SREB nanocomplexes indicate that they have great therapeutic potential for in vivo targeted cancer therapy, in addition to other areas of nanomedicine.Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au

  17. Effective plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA delivery to diseased human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Slanina, H; Schmutzler, M; Christodoulides, M; Kim, K S; Schubert-Unkmeir, A

    2012-01-01

    Expression of exogenous DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro is significantly affected by the particular delivery system utilized. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA and siRNA into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and meningioma cells, which constitute the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a target of meningitis-causing pathogens. Chemical transfection methods and various lipofection reagents including Lipofectamin™, FuGene™, or jetPRIME®, as well as physical transfection methods and electroporation techniques were applied. To monitor the transfection efficiencies, HBMEC and meningioma cells were transfected with the reporter plasmid pTagGFP2-actin vector, and efficiency of transfection was estimated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We established protocols based on electroporation using Cell Line Nucleofector® Kit V with the Amaxa® Nucleofector® II system from Lonza and the Neon® Transfection system from Invitrogen resulting in up to 41 and 82% green fluorescent protein-positive HBMEC, respectively. Optimal transfection solutions, pulse programs and length were evaluated. We furthermore demonstrated that lipofection is an efficient method to transfect meningioma cells with a transfection efficiency of about 81%. Finally, we applied the successful electroporation protocols to deliver synthetic siRNA to HBMEC and analyzed the role of the actin-binding protein cortactin in Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Development of a software tool and criteria evaluation for efficient design of small interfering RNA

    Chaudhary, Aparna; Srivastava, Sonam; Garg, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The developed tool predicted siRNA constructs with better thermodynamic stability and total score based on positional and other criteria. → Off-target silencing below score 30 were observed for the best siRNA constructs for different genes. → Immunostimulation and cytotoxicity motifs considered and penalized in the developed tool. → Both positional and compositional criteria were observed to be important. -- Abstract: RNA interference can be used as a tool for gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The critical step in effective and specific RNAi processing is the selection of suitable constructs. Major design criteria, i.e., Reynolds's design rules, thermodynamic stability, internal repeats, immunostimulatory motifs were emphasized and implemented in the siRNA design tool. The tool provides thermodynamic stability score, GC content and a total score based on other design criteria in the output. The viability of the tool was established with different datasets. In general, the siRNA constructs produced by the tool had better thermodynamic score and positional properties. Comparable thermodynamic scores and better total scores were observed with the existing tools. Moreover, the results generated had comparable off-target silencing effect. Criteria evaluations with additional criteria were achieved in WEKA.

  19. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  20. Efficient inhibition of the formation of joint adhesions by ERK2 small interfering RNAs

    Li, Fengfeng; Ruan, Hongjiang; Fan, Cunyi; Zeng, Bingfang; Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 play very important roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. These processes lead to the formation of joint adhesions through the SMAD and MAPK pathways, in which extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2 is considered to be crucial. Based on these theories, we examined the effects of a lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ERK2 on the suppression of joint adhesion formation in vivo. The effects were assessed in vivo from different aspects including the adhesion score, histology and joint contracture angle. We found that the adhesions in the ERK2 siRNA group became soft and weak, and were easily stretched. Accordingly, the flexion contracture angles in the ERK2 siRNA group were also reduced (P < 0.05 compared with the control group). The animals appeared healthy, with no signs of impaired wound healing. In conclusion, local delivery of a lentivirus-mediated siRNA targeting ERK2 can ameliorate joint adhesion formation effectively and safely.

  1. Protection against lethal Marburg virus infection mediated by lipid encapsulated small interfering RNA.

    Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Mire, Chad E; Robbins, Marjorie; Geisbert, Joan B; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-02-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics available for treating MARV infection. Here, we present the in vitro development and in vivo evaluation of lipid-encapsulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of MARV infection. The activity of anti-MARV siRNAs was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays followed by in vitro testing against live virus. Lead candidates were tested in lethal guinea pig models of 3 different MARV strains (Angola, Ci67, Ravn). Treatment resulted in 60%-100% survival of guinea pigs infected with MARV. Although treatment with siRNA targeting other MARV messenger RNA (mRNA) had a beneficial effect, targeting the MARV NP mRNA resulted in the highest survival rates. NP-718m siRNA in lipid nanoparticles provided 100% protection against MARV strains Angola and Ci67, and 60% against Ravn. A cocktail containing NP-718m and NP-143m provided 100% protection against MARV Ravn. These data show protective efficacy against the most pathogenic Angola strain of MARV. Further development of the lipid nanoparticle technology has the potential to yield effective treatments for MARV infection.

  2. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria

    Huang, Linfeng; Jin, Jingmin; Deighan, Padraig; Kiner, Evgeny; McReynolds, Larry; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1,2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knockdown genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in E. coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, a siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes ~21 nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. Transfection of mammalian cells with siRNAs, generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene, at low nanomolar concentrations reproducibly knocks down gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes. PMID:23475073

  3. Antifibrotic effects of Smad4 small interfering RNAs in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    Li, H; Chen, J; Chen, S; Zhang, Q; Chen, S

    2011-10-01

    Muscle injuries are common musculoskeletal problems encountered in sports medicine clinics. In this study, we examined the effect of lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Smad4 on the suppression of the fibrosis in injured skeletal muscles. We found that Smad4-siRNA could efficiently knock down the expression of Smad4 in the C2C12 myoblast cells and in the contunded mice gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of mRNA level of Smad4 decreased to 11% and 49% compared to the control group, respectively, and the expression of protein level decreased to 13% and 57% respectively. Moreover, the lentivirus-mediated siRNA was stably transfected only into the skeletal muscle and not into the liver of the animals. In contunded mice gastrocnemius, the collagenous and vimentin-positive area in the Smad4 siRNA group reduced to 36% and 37% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the scrambled Smad4 siRNA-injected mice and PBS control-injected mice, the muscle function of the mice injected with lentivirus-mediated Smad4 siRNA improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength (P<0.05). The results suggest that the gene therapy of inhibiting Smad4 by lentivirus-mediated siRNA could be a useful approach to prevent scar tissue formation and improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Reconstituted influenza virus envelopes as an efficient carrier system for cellular delivery of small-interfering RNAs

    de Jonge, J; Holtrop, M; Wilschut, J; Huckriede, A

    Application of RNA interference for in vivo evaluation of gene function or for therapeutic interventions has been hampered by a lack of suitable delivery methods for small interfering RNA ( siRNA). Here, we present reconstituted viral envelopes (virosomes) derived from influenza virus as suitable

  5. SOCS-1 localizes to the microtubule organizing complex-associated 20S proteasome.

    Vuong, Bao Q; Arenzana, Teresita L; Showalter, Brian M; Losman, Julie; Chen, X Peter; Mostecki, Justin; Banks, Alexander S; Limnander, Andre; Fernandez, Neil; Rothman, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    The regulation of cytokine signaling is critical for controlling cellular proliferation and activation during an immune response. SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of Jak kinase activity and of signaling initiated by several cytokines. SOCS-1 protein levels are tightly regulated, and recent data suggest that SOCS-1 may regulate the protein levels of some signaling proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway; however, the cellular mechanism by which SOCS-1 directs proteins for degradation is unknown. In this report, SOCS-1 is found to colocalize and biochemically copurify with the microtubule organizing complex (MTOC) and its associated 20S proteasome. The SOCS-1 SH2 domain is required for the localization of SOCS-1 to the MTOC. Overexpression of SOCS-1 targets Jak1 in an SH2-dependent manner to a perinuclear distribution resembling the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome. Analysis of MTOCs fractionated from SOCS-1-deficient cells demonstrates that SOCS-1 may function redundantly to regulate the localization of Jak1 to the MTOC. Nocodazole inhibits the protein turnover of SOCS-1, demonstrating that the minus-end transport of SOCS-1 to the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome is required to regulate SOCS-1 protein levels. These data link SOCS-1 directly with the proteasome pathway and suggest another function for the SH2 domain of SOCS-1 in the regulation of Jak/STAT signaling.

  6. Delivery of small interfering RNA for inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis by hypoxia and serum deprivation

    Cho, Seung-Woo; Hartle, Lauren; Son, Sun Mi; Yang, Fan; Goldberg, Michael; Xu, Qiaobing; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) for anti-angiogenic or pro-apoptotic factors in endothelial cells (ECs) has great potential for the treatment of ischemic diseases by promoting angiogenesis or inhibiting apoptosis. Here, we report the utility of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in inhibiting EC apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). siRNA was designed and synthesized targeting tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured under in vitro hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions to simulate in vivo ischemic conditions. Two days after liposomal delivery of siRNA targeting TNFR-1 and SHP-1, significant silencing of each target (TNFR-1; 76.5% and SHP-1; 97.2%) was detected. Under serum-deprived hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions, TNF-α expression in HUVECs increased relative to normoxic (20% oxygen) and serum-containing conditions. Despite enhanced TNF-α expression, suppression of TNFR-1 or SHP-1 by siRNA delivery not only enhanced expression of angiogenic factors (KDR/Flk-1 and eNOS) and anti-apoptotic factor (Bcl-xL) but also reduced expression of a pro-apoptotic factor (Bax). Transfection of TNFR-1 or SHP-1 siRNA significantly decreased the HUVEC apoptosis while significantly enhancing HUVEC proliferation and capillary formation. The present study demonstrates that TNFR-1 and SHP-1 may be useful targets for the treatment of myocardial or hindlimb ischemia

  7. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes.

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes is able to reduce immune responses, cytotoxicity, and other side effects caused by viral vectors in clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by mass spectrometry procedures in doping controls.

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Delahaut, Philippe; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering manipulation of athletic performance via small interfering (si)RNA is an emerging field in sports drug testing. Due to the potential to principally knock down every target gene in the organism by means of the RNA interference pathway, this facet of gene doping has become a realistic scenario. In the present study, two distinct model siRNAs comprising 21 nucleotides were designed as double strands which were perfect counterparts to a sequence of the respective messenger RNA coding the muscle regulator myostatin of Rattus norvegicus. Several modified nucleotides were introduced in both the sense and the antisense strand comprising phosphothioates, 2'-O-methylation, 2'-fluoro-nucleotides, locked nucleic acids and a cholesterol tag at the 3'-end. The model siRNAs were applied to rats at 1 mg/kg (i.v.) and blood as well as urine samples were collected. After isolation of the RNA by means of a RNA purification kit, the target analytes were detected by liquid chromatography - high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Analytes were detected as modified nucleotides after alkaline hydrolysis, as intact oligonucleotide strands (top-down) and by means of denaturing SDS-PAGE analysis. The gel-separated siRNA was further subjected to in-gel hydrolysis with different RNases and subsequent identification of the fragments by untargeted LC-HRMS analysis (bottom-up, 'experimental RNomics'). Combining the results of all approaches, the identification of several 3'-truncated urinary metabolites was accomplished and target analytes were detected up to 24 h after a single administration. Simultaneously collected blood samples yielded no promising results. The methods were validated and found fit-for-purpose for doping controls. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  10. Functional specialization of the small interfering RNA pathway in response to virus infection.

    Joao Trindade Marques

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, post-transcriptional gene silencing occurs when exogenous or endogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2 in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP cofactor called Loquacious (Loqs-PD. siRNAs are then loaded onto Argonaute-2 (Ago2 by the action of Dcr-2 with another dsRBP cofactor called R2D2. Loaded Ago2 executes the destruction of target RNAs that have sequence complementarity to siRNAs. Although Dcr-2, R2D2, and Ago2 are essential for innate antiviral defense, the mechanism of virus-derived siRNA (vsiRNA biogenesis and viral target inhibition remains unclear. Here, we characterize the response mechanism mediated by siRNAs against two different RNA viruses that infect Drosophila. In both cases, we show that vsiRNAs are generated by Dcr-2 processing of dsRNA formed during viral genome replication and, to a lesser extent, viral transcription. These vsiRNAs seem to preferentially target viral polyadenylated RNA to inhibit viral replication. Loqs-PD is completely dispensable for silencing of the viruses, in contrast to its role in silencing endogenous targets. Biogenesis of vsiRNAs is independent of both Loqs-PD and R2D2. R2D2, however, is required for sorting and loading of vsiRNAs onto Ago2 and inhibition of viral RNA expression. Direct injection of viral RNA into Drosophila results in replication that is also independent of Loqs-PD. This suggests that triggering of the antiviral pathway is not related to viral mode of entry but recognition of intrinsic features of virus RNA. Our results indicate the existence of a vsiRNA pathway that is separate from the endogenous siRNA pathway and is specifically triggered by virus RNA. We speculate that this unique framework might be necessary for a prompt and efficient antiviral response.

  11. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. ► MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes can efficiently and rapidly deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm. ► Rapid delivery of siRNA is due to the membrane fusion between liposomes and plasma membrane. -- Abstract: The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24 h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine™ RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes is able to reduce immune responses, cytotoxicity, and other side effects caused by

  12. SOCS-1 Localizes to the Microtubule Organizing Complex-Associated 20S Proteasome

    Vuong, Bao Q.; Arenzana, Teresita L.; Showalter, Brian M.; Losman, Julie; Chen, X. Peter; Mostecki, Justin; Banks, Alexander S.; Limnander, Andre; Fernandes, Neil; Rothman, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of cytokine signaling is critical for controlling cellular proliferation and activation during an immune response. SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of Jak kinase activity and of signaling initiated by several cytokines. SOCS-1 protein levels are tightly regulated, and recent data suggest that SOCS-1 may regulate the protein levels of some signaling proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway; however, the cellular mechanism by which SOCS-1 directs proteins for degradation is unkno...

  13. Combinatorial delivery of small interfering RNAs reduces RNAi efficacy by selective incorporation into RISC

    Castanotto, Daniela; Sakurai, Kumi; Lingeman, Robert; Li, Haitang; Shively, Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Soifer, Harris; Gatignol, Anne; Riggs, Arthur; Rossi, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both synthetic siRNAs and expressed shRNAs compete against each other and with the endogenous microRNAs for transport and for incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The same siRNA sequences do not display competition when expressed from a microRNA backbone. We also show that TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) is one of the sensors for selection and incorporation of the guide sequence of interfering RNAs. These findings reveal that combinatorial siRNA approaches can be problematic and have important implications for the methodology of expression and use of therapeutic interfering RNAs. PMID:17660190

  14. Medicago truncatula SOC1 Genes Are Up-regulated by Environmental Cues That Promote Flowering

    Jared B. Fudge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Like Arabidopsis thaliana, the flowering of the legume Medicago truncatula is promoted by long day (LD photoperiod and vernalization. However, there are differences in the molecular mechanisms involved, with orthologs of two key Arabidopsis thaliana regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and CONSTANS (CO, being absent or not having a role in flowering time function in Medicago. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (AtSOC1, plays a key role in integrating the photoperiodic and vernalization pathways. In this study, we set out to investigate whether the Medicago SOC1 genes play a role in regulating flowering time. Three Medicago SOC1 genes were identified and characterized (MtSOC1a–MtSOC1c. All three MtSOC1 genes, when heterologously expressed, were able to promote earlier flowering of the late-flowering Arabidopsis soc1-2 mutant. The three MtSOC1 genes have different patterns of expression. However, consistent with a potential role in flowering time regulation, all three MtSOC1 genes are expressed in the shoot apex and are up-regulated in the shoot apex of plants in response to LD photoperiods and vernalization. The up-regulation of MtSOC1 genes was reduced in Medicago fta1-1 mutants, indicating that they are downstream of MtFTa1. Insertion mutant alleles of Medicago soc1b do not flower late, suggestive of functional redundancy among Medicago SOC1 genes in promoting flowering.

  15. Effect of SOCS1 overexpression on RPE cell activation by proinflammatory cytokines.

    Bazewicz, Magdalena; Draganova, Dafina; Makhoul, Maya; Chtarto, Abdel; Elmaleh, Valerie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Caspers, Laure; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) overexpression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells on their activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL-17. Retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were stably transfected with the control plasmid pIRES2-AcGFP1 or the plasmid pSOCS1-IRES2-AcGFP1. They were stimulated by IFNγ (150ng/ml), TNFα (30ng/ml) or IL-17 (100ng/ml). The levels of SOCS1 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and IκBα expression were analysed by western Blot (WB). IL-8 secretion was analysed by ELISA and expression of MHCII molecules and ICAM-1/CD54 by flow cytometry. Our data show that SOCS1 mRNA overexpression in RPE cells prevents IFNγ-induced SOCS1 mRNA increase and IFNγ-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Moreover, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits IFNγ-induced decrease of IL-8 secretion and prevents IFNγ-induced MHC II and ICAM1/CD54 upregulation. However, SOCS1 overexpression does not affect TNFα-induced IκBα degradation nor block TNFα-induced or IL-17-induced IL-8 secretion. On the contrary, IL-17-induced secretion is increased by SOCS1 overexpression. In conclusion, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits some IFNγ-mediated responses that lead to uveitis development. This notion raises the possibility that SOCS1 overexpression could be a novel target for treating non-infectious uveitis. However, some proinflammatory effects of TNFα and IL-17 stimulation on RPE are not blocked by SOCS1 overexpression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A small interfering RNA screen of genes involved in DNA repair identifies tumor-specific radiosensitization by POLQ knockdown

    Higgins, Geoff S; Prevo, Remko; Lee, Yin-Fai

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of radiotherapy treatment could be significantly improved if tumor cells could be rendered more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) without altering the sensitivity of normal tissues. However, many of the key therapeutically exploitable mechanisms that determine intrinsic tumor...... radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B......) and irradiated normal tissue cells (MRC5). Using gammaH2AX foci at 24 hours after IR, we identified several genes, such as BRCA2, Lig IV, and XRCC5, whose knockdown is known to cause increased cell radiosensitivity, thereby validating the primary screening end point. In addition, we identified POLQ (DNA...

  17. Over-expression of KdSOC1 gene affected plantlet morphogenesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Li; Chen, Jinhua; Liu, Chenglan; Zeng, Huiming; Wang, Huafang

    2017-07-17

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis. Over-expression (OE) of the KdSOC1 gene resulted in asymmetric plantlet distribution, a reduced number of plantlets, thicker leaves, and thicker vascular fibers. Higher KdPIN1 gene expression and auxin content were found in OE plant compared to those of wild-type plant leaves, which indicated possible KdSOC1 gene role in affecting auxin distribution and accumulation. KdSOC1 gene OE in DR5-GUS Arabidopsis reporting lines resulted in an abnormal auxin response pattern during different stages of somatic embryogenesis. In summary, the KdSOC1 gene OE might alter auxin distribution and accumulation along leaf margin to initiate plantlet formation and distribution, which is crucial for plasticity during plantlet formation under various environmental conditions.

  18. SOCS-1 deficiency does not prevent diet-induced insulin resistance

    Emanuelli, Brice; Macotela, Yazmin; Boucher, Jérémie

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, which inhibit cytokine and insulin signaling. Thus, reducing SOCS expression could prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Using SOCS-1 knockout mice, we...... investigated the contribution of SOCS-1 in the development of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). SOCS-1 knockout mice on HFD gained 70% more weight, displayed a 2.3-fold increase in epididymal fat pads mass and increased hepatic lipid content. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression...... of leptin and the macrophage marker CD68 in white adipose tissue and of SREBP1c and FAS in liver. HFD also induced hyperglycemia in SOCS-1 deficient mice with impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Thus, despite the role of SOCS proteins in obesity-related insulin resistance, SOCS-1 deficiency...

  19. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus

    Schrago Carlos EG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  20. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

    Silva, Tatiane F; Romanel, Elisson A C; Andrade, Roberto R S; Farinelli, Laurent; Østerås, Magne; Deluen, Cécile; Corrêa, Régis L; Schrago, Carlos E G; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2011-08-24

    In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt) long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  1. CRISPR transcript processing: a mechanism for generating a large number of small interfering RNAs

    Djordjevic Marko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR/Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated sequences is a recently discovered prokaryotic defense system against foreign DNA, including viruses and plasmids. CRISPR cassette is transcribed as a continuous transcript (pre-crRNA, which is processed by Cas proteins into small RNA molecules (crRNAs that are responsible for defense against invading viruses. Experiments in E. coli report that overexpression of cas genes generates a large number of crRNAs, from only few pre-crRNAs. Results We here develop a minimal model of CRISPR processing, which we parameterize based on available experimental data. From the model, we show that the system can generate a large amount of crRNAs, based on only a small decrease in the amount of pre-crRNAs. The relationship between the decrease of pre-crRNAs and the increase of crRNAs corresponds to strong linear amplification. Interestingly, this strong amplification crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of pre-crRNA by an unidentified nuclease. We show that overexpression of cas genes above a certain level does not result in further increase of crRNA, but that this saturation can be relieved if the rate of CRISPR transcription is increased. We furthermore show that a small increase of CRISPR transcription rate can substantially decrease the extent of cas gene activation necessary to achieve a desired amount of crRNA. Conclusions The simple mathematical model developed here is able to explain existing experimental observations on CRISPR transcript processing in Escherichia coli. The model shows that a competition between specific pre-crRNA processing and non-specific degradation determines the steady-state levels of crRNA and is responsible for strong linear amplification of crRNAs when cas genes are overexpressed. The model further shows how disappearance of only a few pre-crRNA molecules normally present in the cell can lead to a large (two

  2. Small Interfering RNA Pathway Modulates Initial Viral Infection in Midgut Epithelium of Insect after Ingestion of Virus.

    Lan, Hanhong; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Mao, Qianzhuo; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2016-01-15

    Numerous viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by insect vectors. Persistent viruses establish their initial infection in the midgut epithelium, from where they disseminate to the midgut visceral muscles. Although propagation of viruses in insect vectors can be controlled by the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral pathway, whether the siRNA pathway can control viral dissemination from the midgut epithelium is unknown. Infection by a rice virus (Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus [SRBSDV]) of its incompetent vector (the small brown planthopper [SBPH]) is restricted to the midgut epithelium. Here, we show that the siRNA pathway is triggered by SRBSDV infection in continuously cultured cells derived from the SBPH and in the midgut of the intact insect. Knockdown of the expression of the core component Dicer-2 of the siRNA pathway by RNA interference strongly increased the ability of SRBSDV to propagate in continuously cultured SBPH cells and in the midgut epithelium, allowing viral titers in the midgut epithelium to reach the threshold (1.99 × 10(9) copies of the SRBSDV P10 gene/μg of midgut RNA) needed for viral dissemination into the SBPH midgut muscles. Our results thus represent the first elucidation of the threshold for viral dissemination from the insect midgut epithelium. Silencing of Dicer-2 further facilitated the transmission of SRBSDV into rice plants by SBPHs. Taken together, our results reveal the new finding that the siRNA pathway can control the initial infection of the insect midgut epithelium by a virus, which finally affects the competence of the virus's vector. Many viral pathogens that cause significant global health and agricultural problems are transmitted via insect vectors. The first bottleneck in viral infection, the midgut epithelium, is a principal determinant of the ability of an insect species to transmit a virus. Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is restricted exclusively to the midgut epithelium of an

  3. ABMA, a small molecule that inhibits intracellular toxins and pathogens by interfering with late endosomal compartments.

    Wu, Yu; Pons, Valérie; Goudet, Amélie; Panigai, Laetitia; Fischer, Annette; Herweg, Jo-Ana; Kali, Sabrina; Davey, Robert A; Laporte, Jérôme; Bouclier, Céline; Yousfi, Rahima; Aubenque, Céline; Merer, Goulven; Gobbo, Emilie; Lopez, Roman; Gillet, Cynthia; Cojean, Sandrine; Popoff, Michel R; Clayette, Pascal; Le Grand, Roger; Boulogne, Claire; Tordo, Noël; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Loiseau, Philippe M; Rudel, Thomas; Sauvaire, Didier; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gillet, Daniel; Barbier, Julien

    2017-11-14

    Intracellular pathogenic microorganisms and toxins exploit host cell mechanisms to enter, exert their deleterious effects as well as hijack host nutrition for their development. A potential approach to treat multiple pathogen infections and that should not induce drug resistance is the use of small molecules that target host components. We identified the compound 1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine (ABMA) from a cell-based high throughput screening for its capacity to protect human cells and mice against ricin toxin without toxicity. This compound efficiently protects cells against various toxins and pathogens including viruses, intracellular bacteria and parasite. ABMA provokes Rab7-positive late endosomal compartment accumulation in mammalian cells without affecting other organelles (early endosomes, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus). As the mechanism of action of ABMA is restricted to host-endosomal compartments, it reduces cell infection by pathogens that depend on this pathway to invade cells. ABMA may represent a novel class of broad-spectrum compounds with therapeutic potential against diverse severe infectious diseases.

  4. Sensitization of human carcinoma cells to alkylating agents by small interfering RNA suppression of 3-alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase.

    Paik, Johanna; Duncan, Tod; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2005-11-15

    One of the major cytotoxic lesions generated by alkylating agents is DNA 3-alkyladenine, which can be excised by 3-alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG). Inhibition of AAG may therefore result in increased cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. To investigate this possibility, we have examined the role of AAG in protecting human tumor cells against such agents. Plasmids that express small interfering RNAs targeted to two different regions of AAG mRNA were transfected into HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and A2780-SCA ovarian carcinoma cells. Stable derivatives of both cell types with low AAG protein levels were sensitized to alkylating agents. Two HeLa cell lines with AAG protein levels reduced by at least 80% to 90% displayed a 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and the chemotherapeutic drugs temozolomide and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. These cells showed no increase in sensitivity to UV light or ionizing radiation. After treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, AAG knockdown HeLa cells were delayed in S phase but accumulated in G2-M. Our data support the hypothesis that ablation of AAG activity in human tumor cells may provide a useful strategy to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic regimens that include alkylating agents.

  5. The use of small interfering RNAs to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells

    Xu, Y.; Mirmalek-Sani, S.-H.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Oreffo, R.O.C.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in functional genomics and offers innovative approaches in the development of novel therapeutics. Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a unique cell source for tissue engineering/regeneration strategies. The current study examined the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) against human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to suppress adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells. Adipogenesis was investigated using cellular and biochemical analysis. Transient transfection with PPARγ-siRNA using a liposomal-based strategy resulted in a significant inhibition of adipogenesis in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells, compared to controls (cell, liposomal and negative siRNA). The inhibitory effect of PPARγ-siRNA was supported by testing human PPARγ mRNA and adipogenic associated genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 as well as examination of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP 3 ) expression, an adipocyte-specific marker. The current studies indicate that PPARγ-siRNA is a useful tool to study adipogenesis in human cells, with potential applications both therapeutic and in the elucidation of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the modulation of cell differentiation in human mesenchymal cells

  6. Silencing of SARS-CoV spike gene by small interfering RNA in HEK 293T cells

    Qin Zhaoling; Zhao Ping; Zhang Xiaolian; Yu Jianguo; Cao Mingmei; Zhao Lanjuan; Luan Jie; Qi Zhongtian

    2004-01-01

    Two candidate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) corresponding to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike gene were designed and in vitro transcribed to explore the possibility of silencing SARS-CoV S gene. The plasmid pEGFP-optS, which contains the codon-optimized SARS-CoV S gene and expresses spike-EGFP fusion protein (S-EGFP) as silencing target and expressing reporter, was transfected with siRNAs into HEK 293T cells. At various time points of posttransfection, the levels of S-EGFP expression and amounts of spike mRNA transcript were detected by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, Western blot, and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The results showed that the cells transfected with pEGFP-optS expressed S-EGFP fusion protein at a higher level compared with those transfected with pEGFP-S, which contains wildtype SARS-CoV spike gene sequence. The green fluorescence, mean fluorescence intensity, and SARS-CoV S RNA transcripts were found significantly reduced, and the expression of SARS-CoV S glycoprotein was strongly inhibited in those cells co-transfected with either EGFP- or S-specific siRNAs. Our findings demonstrated that the S-specific siRNAs used in this study were able to specifically and effectively inhibit SARS-CoV S glycoprotein expression in cultured cells through blocking the accumulation of S mRNA, which may provide an approach for studies on the functions of SARS-CoV S gene and development of novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV

  7. Therapeutic effects of protein kinase N3 small interfering RNA and doxorubicin combination therapy on liver and lung metastases

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Takuto; Nakamura, Mari; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Onishi, Hiraku

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that suppression of protein kinase N3 (PKN3) expression in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells results in the inhibition of tumor progression and lymph node metastasis formation. The present study investigated whether combination therapy of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PKN3 and doxorubicin (DXR) could increase therapeutic efficacy against liver and lung metastases. In vitro transfection of PKN3 siRNA into PKN3-positive MDA-MB-231, LLC, and Colon 26 cells and PKN3-negative MCF-7 cells did not inhibit cell growth and did not increase sensitivity to DXR. However, following in vivo treatment, PKN3 siRNA suppressed the growth of liver MDA-MB-231 and lung LLC and MCF-7 metastases, although combination therapy with DXR did not increase the therapeutic efficacy. By contrast, in liver MCF-7 metastases, PKN3 siRNA or DXR alone did not exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth, but their combination significantly improved therapeutic efficacy. Treatment of liver MDA-MB-231 metastases with PKN3 siRNA induced a change in vasculature structure via suppression of PKN3 mRNA expression. PKN3 siRNA may induce antitumor effects in lung and liver metastases by suppression of PKN3 expression in stroma cells, such as endothelial cells. From these findings, PKN3 siRNA alone or in combination with DXR may reduce the tumor growth of liver and lung metastases regardless of PKN3 expression in tumor cells. PMID:29098022

  8. Key KdSOC1 gene expression profiles during plantlet morphogenesis under hormone, photoperiod, and drought treatments.

    Liu, C; Zhu, C; Zeng, H M

    2016-02-11

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana utilizes plantlet formation between its zigzag leaf margins as its method of asexual reproduction. In this study, K. daigremontiana SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (KdSOC1), a key intermediate in the transition from vegetative to asexual growth, was cloned. Furthermore, its expression profiles during plantlet formation under different environmental and hormone induction conditions were analyzed. The full-KdSOC1 cDNA sequence length was 1410 bp with 70% shared homology with Carya cathayensis SOC1. The conserved domain search of KdSOC1 showed the absence of I and C domains, which might indicate novel biological functions in K. daigremontiana. The full-KdSOC1 promoter sequence was 1401 bp long and contained multiple-hormone-responsive cis-acting elements. Hormone induction assays showed that gibberellins and salicylic acid mainly regulated KdSOC1 expression. The swift change from low to high KdSOC1 expression levels during long-day induction was accompanied by the rapid emergence of plantlets. Drought stress stimulated KdSOC1 expression in leaves both with and without plantlet formation. Together, the results suggested that KdSOC1 was closely involved in environmental stimulation signal perception and the transduction of K. daigremontiana plantlet formation. Therefore, future identification of KdSOC1 functions might reveal key information that will help elucidate the transition network between embryogenesis and organogenesis during plantlet formation.

  9. Functional SOCS1 polymorphisms are associated with variation in obesity in whites

    Gylvin, T; Ek, J; Nolsøe, R.

    2009-01-01

    . A total of more than 8100 individuals were genotyped. RESULTS: Eight variations were identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) region. Two of these had allele frequencies below 1% and were not further examined. The six other variants were analysed in groups of T1D families (n = 1461 subjects) and T2D...... of both the rs33977706 and the rs243330 (-1656G > A) variants to obesity were found (p = 0.047 and p = 0.015) respectively. The rs33977706 affected both binding of a nuclear protein to and the transcriptional activity of the SOCS1 promoter, indicating a relationship between this polymorphism and gene...... regulation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrates that functional variations in the SOCS1 promoter may associate with alterations in BMI in the general white population....

  10. Synergy of SOCS-1 Inhibition and Microbial-Based Cancer Vaccines

    2013-09-01

    SH2 domain; a docking motif for interaction with tyrosine...IL‐ 4, IL‐7, IL‐15), IFN‐α, IFN‐γ, and IL‐12. While the SH2 domain targets the SOCS proteins to specific molecules within the JAK‐ STAT pathway, the...SOCS‐box functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promoting degradation of the cytokine receptor complex. SOCS1 also contains a kinase inhibitory

  11. Functional network analysis of genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis in soc1ful woody Arabidopsis plants.

    Davin, Nicolas; Edger, Patrick P; Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Schuetz, Mathias; Smets, Erik; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Schranz, Michael E; Lens, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Many plant genes are known to be involved in the development of cambium and wood, but how the expression and functional interaction of these genes determine the unique biology of wood remains largely unknown. We used the soc1ful loss of function mutant - the woodiest genotype known in the otherwise herbaceous model plant Arabidopsis - to investigate the expression and interactions of genes involved in secondary growth (wood formation). Detailed anatomical observations of the stem in combination with mRNA sequencing were used to assess transcriptome remodeling during xylogenesis in wild-type and woody soc1ful plants. To interpret the transcriptome changes, we constructed functional gene association networks of differentially expressed genes using the STRING database. This analysis revealed functionally enriched gene association hubs that are differentially expressed in herbaceous and woody tissues. In particular, we observed the differential expression of genes related to mechanical stress and jasmonate biosynthesis/signaling during wood formation in soc1ful plants that may be an effect of greater tension within woody tissues. Our results suggest that habit shifts from herbaceous to woody life forms observed in many angiosperm lineages could have evolved convergently by genetic changes that modulate the gene expression and interaction network, and thereby redeploy the conserved wood developmental program. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nonstructural Proteins Upregulate SOCS1 and SOCS3 in the Different Manner from Endogenous IFN Signaling

    Junwen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection upregulates genes of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family, which utilize a feedback loop to inhibit type I interferon dependent antiviral signaling pathway. Here, we reconstituted RSV nonstructural (NS protein expression plasmids (pNS1, pNS2, and pNS1/2 and tested whether NS1 or NS2 would trigger SOCS1 and SOCS3 protein expression. These NS proteins inhibited interferon- (IFN- α signaling through a mechanism involving the induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3, which appeared to be different from autocrine IFN dependent. NS1 induced both SOCS1 and SOCS3 upregulation, while NS2 only induced SOCS1 expression. The induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 preceded endogenous IFN-signaling activation and inhibited the IFN-inducible antiviral response as well as chemokine induction. Treatments with INF-α and NS proteins both induced SOCS1 expression; however, they had opposing effects on IFN-α-dependent antiviral gene expression. Our results indicate that NS1 and NS2, which induce the expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3, might represent an independent pathway of stimulating endogenous IFN signaling.

  13. Comparing artificial neural networks, general linear models and support vector machines in building predictive models for small interfering RNAs.

    Kyle A McQuisten

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs induce a gene knockdown effect in cells by interacting with naturally occurring RNA processing machinery. However not all siRNAs induce this effect equally. Several heterogeneous kinds of machine learning techniques and feature sets have been applied to modeling siRNAs and their abilities to induce knockdown. There is some growing agreement to which techniques produce maximally predictive models and yet there is little consensus for methods to compare among predictive models. Also, there are few comparative studies that address what the effect of choosing learning technique, feature set or cross validation approach has on finding and discriminating among predictive models.Three learning techniques were used to develop predictive models for effective siRNA sequences including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, General Linear Models (GLMs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs. Five feature mapping methods were also used to generate models of siRNA activities. The 2 factors of learning technique and feature mapping were evaluated by complete 3x5 factorial ANOVA. Overall, both learning techniques and feature mapping contributed significantly to the observed variance in predictive models, but to differing degrees for precision and accuracy as well as across different kinds and levels of model cross-validation.The methods presented here provide a robust statistical framework to compare among models developed under distinct learning techniques and feature sets for siRNAs. Further comparisons among current or future modeling approaches should apply these or other suitable statistically equivalent methods to critically evaluate the performance of proposed models. ANN and GLM techniques tend to be more sensitive to the inclusion of noisy features, but the SVM technique is more robust under large numbers of features for measures of model precision and accuracy. Features found to result in maximally predictive models are

  14. Constitutive expression of the K-domain of a Vaccinium corymbosum SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) MADS-box gene is sufficient to promote flowering in tobacco.

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Hildebrandt, Britton; Leasia, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The K-domain of a blueberry-derived SOC1 -like gene promotes flowering in tobacco without negatively impacting yield, demonstrating potential for manipulation of flowering time in horticultural crops. The SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and SOC1-likes, belonging to the MIKC(c) (type II) MADS-box gene subfamily, are major floral activators and integrators of plant flowering. Both MADS-domains and K (Keratin)-domains are highly conserved in MIKC(c)-type MADS proteins. While there are many reports on overexpression of intact MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes, few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of the K-domains. In this report, a 474-bp K-domain of Vaccinium SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) was cloned from the cDNA library of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Functional analysis of the VcSOC1-K was conducted by ectopically expressing of 35S:VcSOC1-K in tobacco. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed expression of the VcSOC1-K in T0 plants. Phenotypically, T1 transgenic plants (10 T1 plants/event) flowered sooner after seeding, and were shorter with fewer leaves at the time of flowering, than nontransgenic plants; but seed pod production of transgenic plants was not significantly affected. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the K-domain of a MIKC(c)-type MADS-box gene alone is sufficient to promote early flowering and more importantly without affecting seed production.

  15. Small interfering RNAs from bidirectional transcripts of GhMML3_A12 regulate cotton fiber development.

    Wan, Qun; Guan, Xueying; Yang, Nannan; Wu, Huaitong; Pan, Mengqiao; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Yang, Shouping; Hu, Yan; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Peiyong; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Qiong; Mei, Gaofu; Cai, Caiping; Yang, Donglei; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Wenhua; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-06-01

    Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are commonly observed in eukaryotic genomes, but only a limited number of such genes have been identified as being involved in gene regulation in plants. In this research, we investigated the function of small RNA derived from a NAT in fiber cell development. Using a map-based cloning strategy for the first time in tetraploid cotton, we cloned a naked seed mutant gene (N1 ) encoding a MYBMIXTA-like transcription factor 3 (MML3)/GhMYB25-like in chromosome A12, GhMML3_A12, that is associated with fuzz fiber development. The extremely low expression of GhMML3_A12 in N1 is associated with NAT production, driven by its 3' antisense promoter, as indicated by the promoter-driven histochemical staining assay. In addition, small RNA deep sequencing analysis suggested that the bidirectional transcriptions of GhMML3_A12 form double-stranded RNAs and generate 21-22 nt small RNAs. Therefore, in a fiber-specific manner, small RNA derived from the GhMML3_A12 locus can mediate GhMML3_A12 mRNA self-cleavage and result in the production of naked seeds followed by lint fiber inhibition in N1 plants. The present research reports the first observation of gene-mediated NATs and siRNA directly controlling fiber development in cotton. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Silencing of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by small interfering RNA enhances the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward staurosporine.

    Lee, Su-Min; Park, Sin Young; Shin, Seoung Woo; Kil, In Sup; Yang, Eun Sun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-02-01

    Staurosporine induces the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important causative role in apoptotic cell death. Recently, it was demonstrated that the control of cellular redox balance and the defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. The present report shows that silencing of IDPc expression in HeLa cells greatly enhances apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Transfection of HeLa cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly decreased activity of IDPc, enhancing the susceptibility of staurosporine-induced apoptosis reflected by DNA fragmentation, cellular redox status and the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins. These results indicate that IDPc may play an important role in regulating the apoptosis induced by staurosporine and the sensitizing effect of IDPc siRNA on the apoptotic cell death of HeLa cells offers the possibility of developing a modifier of cancer chemotherapy.

  17. [Small interfering RNA-mediated COX-2 gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity of KB/VCR cells by suppressing MDR-1 gene expression and P-glycoprotein activity].

    Mo, Xianchao; Li, Weizhong

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated COX-2 gene silencing in enhancing the chemosensitivity of KB/VCR cell lines. KB/VCR cells were trasnfected with COX-2 siRNA were examined for expressions of COX-2 and MDR-1 mRNAs with RT-PCR and for Rho-123 accumulation using flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to analyze the proliferation of the transfected KB/VCR cells. Compared with the negative and blank control groups, COX-2 siRNA transfection resulted in significant growth inhibition of KB/VCR cells exposed to vincristine (PKB/VCR cells. COX-2 gene silencing can enhance the chemosensitivity of KB/VCR cells to vincristine, the mechanism of which may involve down-regulated MDR-1 gene expression and inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity.

  18. Endogenous MCM7 microRNA cluster as a novel platform to multiplex small interfering and nucleolar RNAs for combinational HIV-1 gene therapy.

    Chung, Janet; Zhang, Jane; Li, Haitang; Ouellet, Dominique L; DiGiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

    2012-11-01

    Combinational therapy with small RNA inhibitory agents against multiple viral targets allows efficient inhibition of viral production by controlling gene expression at critical time points. Here we explore combinations of different classes of therapeutic anti-HIV-1 RNAs expressed from within the context of an intronic MCM7 (minichromosome maintenance complex component-7) platform that naturally harbors 3 microRNAs (miRNAs). We replaced the endogenous miRNAs with anti-HIV small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting HIV-1 tat and rev messages that function to induce post-transcriptional gene silencing by the RNA interference pathway, a nucleolar-localizing RNA ribozyme that targets the conserved U5 region of HIV-1 transcripts for degradation, and finally nucleolar trans-activation response (TAR) and Rev-binding element (RBE) RNA decoys designed to sequester HIV-1 Tat and Rev proteins inside the nucleolus. We demonstrate the versatility of the MCM7 platform in expressing and efficiently processing the siRNAs as miRNA mimics along with nucleolar small RNAs. Furthermore, three of the combinatorial constructs tested potently suppressed viral replication during a 1-month HIV challenge, with greater than 5-log inhibition compared with untransduced, HIV-1-infected CEM T lymphocytes. One of the most effective constructs contains an anti-HIV siRNA combined with a nucleolar-localizing U5 ribozyme and TAR decoy. This represents the first efficacious example of combining Drosha-processed siRNAs with small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP)-processed nucleolar RNA chimeras from a single intron platform for effective inhibition of viral replication. Moreover, we demonstrated enrichment/selection for cells expressing levels of the antiviral RNAs that provide optimal inhibition under the selective pressure of HIV. The combinations of si/snoRNAs represent a new paradigm for combinatorial RNA-based gene therapy applications.

  19. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Skupin, Michalina; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Ryszard; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  20. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Skupin, Michalina; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Ryszard; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  1. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Skupin, Michalina [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Sobczak, Krzysztof [Department of Gene Expression, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Zieliński, Ryszard [Department of Technology and Instrumental Analysis, Faculty of Commodity Science, Poznań University of Economics, al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Joint SAXS Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-05-23

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  2. Arabidopsis RNASE THREE LIKE2 Modulates the Expression of Protein-Coding Genes via 24-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA-Directed DNA Methylation.

    Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Hachet, Mélanie; Shamandi, Nahid; Comella, Pascale; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    RNaseIII enzymes catalyze the cleavage of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and have diverse functions in RNA maturation. Arabidopsis thaliana RNASE THREE LIKE2 (RTL2), which carries one RNaseIII and two dsRNA binding (DRB) domains, is a unique Arabidopsis RNaseIII enzyme resembling the budding yeast small interfering RNA (siRNA)-producing Dcr1 enzyme. Here, we show that RTL2 modulates the production of a subset of small RNAs and that this activity depends on both its RNaseIII and DRB domains. However, the mode of action of RTL2 differs from that of Dcr1. Whereas Dcr1 directly cleaves dsRNAs into 23-nucleotide siRNAs, RTL2 likely cleaves dsRNAs into longer molecules, which are subsequently processed into small RNAs by the DICER-LIKE enzymes. Depending on the dsRNA considered, RTL2-mediated maturation either improves (RTL2-dependent loci) or reduces (RTL2-sensitive loci) the production of small RNAs. Because the vast majority of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to transposons and intergenic regions producing 24-nucleotide siRNAs that guide DNA methylation, RTL2 depletion modifies DNA methylation in these regions. Nevertheless, 13% of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to protein-coding genes. We show that changes in 24-nucleotide siRNA levels also affect DNA methylation levels at such loci and inversely correlate with mRNA steady state levels, thus implicating RTL2 in the regulation of protein-coding gene expression. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope

    Ra, Hyejun; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Smith, Bryan R.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Kaspar, Roger L.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

  4. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells.

  5. Topical Anti-Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Small Interfering RNA with Functional Peptides Containing Sericin-Based Hydrogel for Atopic Dermatitis

    Takanori Kanazawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The small interfering RNA (siRNA is suggested to offer a novel means of treating atopic dermatitis (AD because it allows the specific silencing of genes related to AD pathogenesis. In our previous study, we found that siRNA targeted against RelA, an important nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB subdomain, with functional peptides, showed therapeutic effects in a mouse model of AD. In the present study, to develop a topical skin application against AD, we prepared a hydrogel containing anti-RelA siRNA and functional peptides and determined the intradermal permeation and the anti-AD effects in an AD mouse model. We selected the silk protein, sericin (SC, which is a versatile biocompatible biomaterial to prepare hydrogel as an aqueous gel base. We found that the siRNA was more widely delivered to the site of application in AD-induced ear skin of mice after topical application via the hydrogel containing functional peptides than via the preparation without functional peptides. In addition, the ear thickness and clinical skin severity of the AD-induced mice treated with hydrogel containing anti-RelA siRNA with functional peptides improved more than that of mice treated with the preparation formulated with negative siRNA.

  6. Methylation profiling of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CISH and SHP1 in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm.

    Zhang, Min Yue; Fung, Tsz Kin; Chen, Fang Yuan; Chim, Chor Sang

    2013-10-01

    Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling, pivotal in Philadelphia-negative (Ph-ve) myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), is negatively regulated by molecules including SOCSs, CISH and SHP1. SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 methylation have been studied in MPN with discordant results. Herein, we studied the methylation status of SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3, CISH and SHP1 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in cell lines and 45 diagnostic marrow samples of Ph-ve MPN. Moreover, we attempted to explain the discordance of methylation frequency by mapping the studied MSP primers to the respective genes. Methylation was detected in normal controls using SOCS2 MSP primers in the 3'translated exonic sequence, but not primers around the transcription start site in the 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR). SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH were completely unmethylated in primary MPN samples and cell lines. In contrast, methylation of SHP1 was detected in 8.9% primary marrow samples. Moreover, SHP1 was completely methylated in K562 cell line, leading to reversible SHP1 silencing. A review of methylation studies of SOCS1 and SOCS3 showed that spuriously high rates of SOCS methylation had been reported using MSP primers targeting CpG sites in the 3'translated exonic sequence, which is also methylated in normal controls. However, using MSP primers localized to the 5'UTR, methylation of SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 is infrequent across all studies. In summary, methylation of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH is infrequent in Ph-ve MPN. Appropriate MSP primers are important for accurate estimation of the methylation frequency. The role of SHP1 methylation in the pathogenesis of MPN warrants further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. In vivo efficacy and off-target effects of locked nucleic acid (LNA) and unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) modified siRNA and small internally segmented interfering RNA (sisiRNA) in mice bearing human tumor xenografts

    Mook, O. R. F.; Vreijling, Jeroen; Wengel, Suzy L.; Wengel, Jesper; Zhou, Chuanzheng; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Baas, Frank; Fluiter, Kees

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is hampered by poor uptake by tissues and instability in circulation. In addition, off-target effects pose a significant additional problem for therapeutic use of siRNA. Chemical modifications of siRNA have been reported to increase stability and

  8. Daily Socs1 rhythms alter with aging differentially in peripheral clocks in male Wistar rats: therapeutic effects of melatonin.

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in synchronization with the peripheral clocks regulates the temporal oscillations leading to overt rhythms. Aging leads to attenuation of such circadian regulation, accompanied by increased inflammatory mediators prevalently the cytokines. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins such as SOCS 1, 3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) negatively regulate the cytokine signaling pathway. The role of SOCS1 in aging and circadian system is obscure. We therefore studied the daily rhythms of rSocs1 mRNA expression at Zeitgeber time (ZT) -0, 6, 12 and 18 in peripheral clocks such as liver, kidney, intestine and heart of 3, 12 and 24 months (m) old male Wistar rats. Interestingly the peripheral clocks studied displayed a rhythmic rSocs1 gene expression in 3 months. In 12 months group, 12 h phase advance in liver and 12 h phase delay in kidney and heart was observed with abolition of rhythms in intestine. Aging (24 months group) resulted in a phase advance by 6 h in liver and heart with abolition of rhythms in intestine in 24 months group. Kidney was also significantly affected upon aging with significant decrease in the rSocs1 levels and abolition of rhythms. The decrease in melatonin levels with aging is associated with decreased immunity and increased oxidative stress. The exogenous administration of melatonin has been linked to play a role in re-synchronization of circadian rhythms, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing immune properties. We therefore had studied the effect of exogenous melatonin upon age induced changes in daily rSocs1 gene expression patterns. Melatonin treatment partially restored the rhythms and daily pulse (ratio of maximum:minimum levels) in liver and intestine in 12 months group. Melatonin administration resulted in a significant increase in mean 24 h rSocs1 expression in intestine and heart of 24 months group compared to that of 3 months. The melatonin administration

  9. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs and their effect on virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry.

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-qing

    2014-12-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are silencing signals in plants. Virus-resistant transgenic rootstocks developed through siRNA-mediated gene silencing may enhance virus resistance of nontransgenic scions via siRNAs transported from the transgenic rootstocks. However, convincing evidence of rootstock-to-scion movement of siRNAs of exogenous genes in woody plants is still lacking. To determine whether exogenous siRNAs can be transferred, nontransgenic sweet cherry (scions) was grafted on transgenic cherry rootstocks (TRs), which was transformed with an RNA interference (RNAi) vector expressing short hairpin RNAs of the genomic RNA3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA). Small RNA sequencing was conducted using bud tissues of TRs and those of grafted (rootstock/scion) trees, locating at about 1.2 m above the graft unions. Comparison of the siRNA profiles revealed that the PNRSV-hpRNA was efficient in producing siRNAs and eliminating PNRSV in the TRs. Furthermore, our study confirmed, for the first time, the long-distance (1.2 m) transfer of PNRSV-hpRNA-derived siRNAs from the transgenic rootstock to the nontransgenic scion in woody plants. Inoculation of nontransgenic scions with PNRSV revealed that the transferred siRNAs enhanced PNRSV resistance of the scions grafted on the TRs. Collectively, these findings provide the foundation for 'using transgenic rootstocks to produce products of nontransgenic scions in fruit trees'. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of a trans-acting small interfering RNA producing locus regulating leaf rust responsive gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Dutta, Summi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Jha, Shailendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    A novel leaf rust responsive ta-siRNA-producing locus was identified in wheat showing similarity to 28S rRNA and generated four differentially expressing ta-siRNAs by phasing which targeted stress responsive genes. Trans-acting-small interfering RNAs (Ta-siRNAs) are plant specific molecules generally involved in development and are also stress responsive. Ta-siRNAs identified in wheat till date are all responsive to abiotic stress only. Wheat cultivation is severely affected by rusts and leaf rust particularly affects grain filling. This study reports a novel ta-siRNA producing locus (TAS) in wheat which is a segment of 28S ribosomal RNA but shows differential expression during leaf rust infestation. Four small RNA libraries prepared from wheat Near Isogenic Lines were treated with leaf rust pathogen and compared with untreated controls. A TAS with the ability to generate four ta-siRNAs by phasing events was identified along with the microRNA TamiR16 as the phase initiator. The targets of the ta-siRNAs included α-gliadin, leucine rich repeat, trans-membrane proteins, glutathione-S-transferase, and fatty acid desaturase among others, which are either stress responsive genes or are essential for normal growth and development of plants. Expression of the TAS, its generated ta-siRNAs, and their target genes were profiled at five different time points after pathogen inoculation of susceptible and resistant wheat isolines and compared with mock-inoculated controls. Comparative analysis of expression unveiled differential and reciprocal relationship as well as discrete patterns between susceptible and resistant isolines. The expression profiles of the target genes of the identified ta-siRNAs advocate more towards effector triggered susceptibility favouring pathogenesis. The study helps in discerning the functions of wheat genes regulated by ta-siRNAs in response to leaf rust.

  11. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1{alpha} reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Staab, Adrian [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fleischer, Markus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Plathow, Christian [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vordermark, Dirk [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-04-15

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1{alpha} expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1{alpha} siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1{alpha}. HIF-1{alpha} protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O{sub 2} (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1{alpha}-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O{sub 2} as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  12. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1α reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Staab, Adrian; Fleischer, Markus; Wuerzburg Univ.; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Vordermark, Dirk; Halle-Wittenberg Univ.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1α expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1α siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O 2 (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1α-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O 2 as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1α-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1α-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1α-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1α-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  13. Small interfering RNA targeted to stem-loop II of the 5' untranslated region effectively inhibits expression of six HCV genotypes

    Dash Srikanta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiviral action of interferon alpha targets the 5' untranslated region (UTR used by hepatitis C virus (HCV to translate protein by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES mechanism. Although this sequence is highly conserved among different clinical strains, approximately half of chronically infected hepatitis C patients do not respond to interferon therapy. Therefore, development of small interfering RNA (siRNA targeted to the 5'UTR to inhibit IRES mediated translation may represent an alternative approach that could circumvent the problem of interferon resistance. Results Four different plasmid constructs were prepared for intracellular delivery of siRNAs targeting the stem loop II-III of HCV 5' UTR. The effect of siRNA production on IRES mediated translation was investigated using chimeric clones between the gene for green fluorescence protein (GFP and IRES sequences of six different HCV genotypes. The siRNA targeted to stem loop II effectively mediated degradation of HCV IRES mRNA and inhibited GFP expression in the case of six different HCV genotypes, where as siRNAs targeted to stem loop III did not. Furthermore, intracytoplasmic expression of siRNA into transfected Huh-7 cells efficiently degraded HCV genomic RNA and inhibited core protein expression from infectious full-length infectious clones HCV 1a and HCV 1b strains. Conclusion These in vitro studies suggest that siRNA targeted to stem-loop II is highly effective inhibiting IRES mediated translation of the major genotypes of HCV. Stem-loop II siRNA may be a good target for developing an intracellular immunization strategy based antiviral therapy to inhibit hepatitis C virus strains that are not inhibited by interferon.

  14. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    Ivyna Pau Ni Bong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05. NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05. Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01. Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM.

  15. Insights into the therapeutic potential of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α small interfering RNA in malignant melanoma delivered via folate-decorated cationic liposomes

    Chen Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjian Chen,1,* Tianpeng Zhang,2,* Baojian Wu,2 Xingwang Zhang2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Gangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Malignant melanoma (MM represents the most dangerous form of skin cancer, and its incidence is expected to rise in the coming time. However, therapy for MM is limited by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. This article aimed to develop folate-decorated cationic liposomes (fc-LPs for hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α small interfering (siRNA delivery, and to evaluate the potential of such siRNA/liposome complexes in MM therapy. HIF-1α siRNA-loaded fc-LPs (siRNA-fc-LPs were prepared by a film hydration method followed by siRNA incubation. Folate decoration of liposomes was achieved by incorporation of folate/oleic acid-diacylated oligochitosans. The resulting siRNA-fc-LPs were 95.3 nm in size with a ζ potential of 2.41 mV. The liposomal vectors exhibited excellent loading capacity and protective effect toward siRNA. The in vitro cell transfection efficiency was almost parallel to the commercially available Lipofectamine™ 2000. Moreover, the anti-melanoma activity of HIF-1α siRNA was significantly enhanced through fc-LPs. Western blot analysis and apoptosis test demonstrated that siRNA-fc-LPs substantially reduced the production of HIF-1α-associated protein and induced the apoptosis of hypoxia-tolerant melanoma cells. Our designed liposomal vectors might be applicable as siRNA delivery vehicle to systemically or topically treat MM. Keywords: malignant melanoma, HIF-1α siRNA, chitosan, cationic liposomes, gene therapy

  16. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    Bong, Ivyna Pau Ni; Ng, Ching Ching; Fakiruddin, Shaik Kamal; Lim, Moon Nian; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the fprotein expression in unctions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05). NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM. PMID:27754828

  17. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  18. Overexpression of DOSOC1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SOC1, promotes flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile.

    Ding, Lihua; Wang, Yanwen; Yu, Hao

    2013-04-01

    SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) encodes a MADS-box protein that plays an essential role in integrating multiple flowering signals to regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the model plant Arabidopsis. Although SOC1-like genes have been isolated in various angiosperms, its orthologs in Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, are so far unknown. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of flowering time control in orchids, we isolated a SOC1-like gene, DOSOC1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOSOC1 was highly expressed in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, pedicels, floral buds and open flowers. Its expression significantly increased in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, which usually occurred after 8 weeks of culture in Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. In the shoot apex at the floral transitional stage, DOSOC1 was particularly expressed in emerging floral meristems. Overexpression of DOSOC1 in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in early flowering, which was coupled with the up-regulation of two other flowering promoters, AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 and LEAFY. In addition, overexpression of DOSOC1 was able partially to complement the late-flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis soc1-2 loss-of-function mutants. Furthermore, we successfully created seven 35S:DOSOC1 transgenic Dendrobium orchid lines, which consistently exhibited earlier flowering than wild-type orchids. Our results suggest that SOC1-like genes play an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering in the Orchidaceae family, and that DOSOC1 isolated from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile could serve as an important target for genetic manipulation of flowering time in orchids.

  19. Molecular-Targeted Immunotherapeutic Strategy for Melanoma via Dual-Targeting Nanoparticles Delivering Small Interfering RNA to Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    Qian, Yuan; Qiao, Sha; Dai, Yanfeng; Xu, Guoqiang; Dai, Bolei; Lu, Lisen; Yu, Xiang; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-09-26

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. Targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs to the tumor-promoting M2-like TAMs is challenging. Here, we developed M2-like TAM dual-targeting nanoparticles (M2NPs), whose structure and function were controlled by α-peptide (a scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) targeting peptide) linked with M2pep (an M2 macrophage binding peptide). By loading anti-colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (anti-CSF-1R) small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the M2NPs, we developed a molecular-targeted immunotherapeutic approach to specifically block the survival signal of M2-like TAMs and deplete them from melanoma tumors. We confirmed the validity of SR-B1 for M2-like TAM targeting and demonstrated the synergistic effect of the two targeting units (α-peptide and M2pep) in the fusion peptide (α-M2pep). After being administered to tumor-bearing mice, M2NPs had higher affinity to M2-like TAMs than to tissue-resident macrophages in liver, spleen, and lung. Compared with control treatment groups, M2NP-based siRNA delivery resulted in a dramatic elimination of M2-like TAMs (52%), decreased tumor size (87%), and prolonged survival. Additionally, this molecular-targeted strategy inhibited immunosuppressive IL-10 and TGF-β production and increased immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-γ) expression and CD8 + T cell infiltration (2.9-fold) in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the siRNA-carrying M2NPs down-regulated expression of the exhaustion markers (PD-1 and Tim-3) on the infiltrating CD8 + T cells and stimulated their IFN-γ secretion (6.2-fold), indicating the restoration of T cell immune function. Thus, the dual-targeting property of M2NPs combined with RNA interference provides a potential strategy of molecular-targeted cancer immunotherapy for clinical application.

  20. IGF-1 induces SOCS-2 but not SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 transcription in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; Luo, Yuan; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-05-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates whereas suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) act as feedback inhibitors of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Although SOCS-2 binds the IGF-1 receptor and inhibits IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation, presently there is no clear evidence as to whether IGF-1 could induce SOCS gene expression. The current study aimed to determine whether IGF-1 could induce the transcription of SOCS in juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). We show that there is a common positive relationship between the mRNA expression of IGF-I and SOCS-2 under different nutritional statuses and stimulants, but not the mRNA expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Furthermore, rhIGF-1 treatment and transcriptional activity assay confirmed the hypothesis that IGF-1 could induce SOCS-2 expression, whereas it had no effect or even decreased the expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Overall, we obtained evidence that the transcription of SOCS-2, but not SOCS-1 or SOCS-3, could be induced by IGF signaling, suggesting that SOCS-2 serves as a feedback suppressor of the IGF-1 axis in juvenile Nile tilapia. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. LOSS OF JAK2 REGULATION VIA VHL-SOCS1 E3 UBIQUITIN HETEROCOMPLEX UNDERLIES CHUVASH POLYCYTHEMIA

    Russell, Ryan C.; Sufan, Roxana I.; Zhou, Bing; Heir, Pardeep; Bunda, Severa; Sybingco, Stephanie S.; Greer, Samantha N.; Roche, Olga; Heathcote, Samuel A.; Chow, Vinca W.K.; Boba, Lukasz M.; Richmond, Terri D.; Hickey, Michele M.; Barber, Dwayne L.; Cheresh, David A.; Simon, M. Celeste; Irwin, Meredith S.; Kim, William Y.; Ohh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is a rare congenital form of polycythemia caused by homozygous R200W and H191D mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene whose gene product is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying some of the hallmark features of CP such as hypersensitivity to erythropoietin are unclear. Here, we show that VHL directly binds suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) to form a heterodimeric E3 ligase that targets phosphorylated (p)JAK2 for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. In contrast, CP-associated VHL mutants have altered affinity for SOCS1 and fail to engage and degrade pJAK2. Systemic administration of a highly selective JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, reverses the disease phenotype in vhlR200W/R200W knock-in mice, a model that faithfully recapitulates human CP. These results reveal VHL as a SOCS1-cooperative negative regulator of JAK2 and provide compelling biochemical and preclinical evidence for JAK2- targeted therapy in CP patients. PMID:21685897

  2. Overexpression of an orchid (Dendrobium nobile SOC1/TM3-like ortholog, DnAGL19, in Arabidopsis regulates HOS1-FT expression

    Xiao-ru eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flowering in the appropriate season is critical for successful reproduction in angiosperms. The orchid species, Dendrobium nobile, requires vernalization to achieve flowering in the spring, but the underlying regulatory network has not been identified to date. The MADS-box transcription factor DnAGL19 was previously identified in a study of low-temperature treated D. nobile buds and was suggested to regulate vernalization-induced flowering. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of DnAGL9 and the MADS-box containing proteins showed that DnAGL19 is phylogenetically closely related to the SOC1-like protein from orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile, DOSOC1. The orchid clade closed to but is not included into the SOC1-1/TM3 clades associated with either eudicots or monocots, suggesting that DnAGL19 is an SOC1-1/TM3-like ortholog. DnAGL19 was found to be highly expressed in pseudobulbs, leaves, roots and axillary buds but rarely in flowers, and to be substantially upregulated in axillary buds by prolonged low-temperature treatments. Overexpression of DnAGL19 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a small but significantly reduced time to bolting, suggesting that flowering time was slightly accelerated under normal growth conditions. Consistent with this, the A. thaliana APETELA1 (AP1 gene was expressed at an earlier stage in transgenic lines than in wild type plants, while the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene was suppressed, suggesting that altered regulations on these transcription factors caused the weak promotion of flowering. HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE 1 (HOS1 was slightly activated under the same conditions, suggesting that the HOS1-FT module may be involved in the DnAGL19-related network. Under vernalization conditions, FT expression was significantly upregulated, whereas HOS1 expression in the transgenic A. thaliana has a level similar to that in wild type. Taken together, these results suggest that DnAGL19 controls the action of the

  3. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) limits NFkappaB signaling by decreasing p65 stability within the cell nucleus.

    Strebovsky, Julia; Walker, Patrick; Lang, Roland; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2011-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytoplasmic Janus kinases (Jak) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. Previously the authors surprisingly observed that SOCS1 translocated into the nucleus, which was because of the presence of a nuclear localization sequence. This report now hypothesizes that SOCS1 mediates specific functions within the nuclear compartment because it is instantly transported into the nucleus, as shown by photoactivation and live cell imaging in human HEK293 cells. The NFκB component p65 is identified as an interaction partner for SOCS1 but not for other members of the SOCS family. SOCS1 bound to p65 only within the nucleus. By means of its SOCS box domain, SOCS1 operated as a ubiquitin ligase, leading to polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of nuclear p65. Thus, SOCS1 limited prolonged p65 signaling and terminated expression of NFκB inducible genes. Using mutants that lack either nuclear translocation or a functional SOCS box, this report identifies genes that are regulated in a manner dependent on the nuclear availability of SOCS1. Data show that beyond its receptor-proximal function in Jak/STAT signaling, SOCS1 also regulates the duration of NFκB signaling within the cell nucleus, thus exerting a heretofore unrecognized function.

  4. LCM-seq reveals the crucial role of LsSOC1 in heat-promoted bolting of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Chen, Zijing; Zhao, Wensheng; Ge, Danfeng; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Luo, Chen; Wang, Shenglin; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Qian

    2018-05-17

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables. The floral transition in lettuce is accelerated under high temperatures, which can significantly decrease yields. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the floral tranition in lettuce is poorly known. Using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing, we isolated shoot apical meristem cells from the bolting-sensitive lettuce line S39 at four critical stages of development. Subsequently, we screened specifically for the flowering-related gene LsSOC1 during the floral transition through comparative transcriptomic analysis. Molecular biology, developmental biology, and biochemical tools were combined to investigate the biological function of LsSOC1 in lettuce. LsSOC1 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in a significant delay in the timing of bolting and insensitivity to high temperature, which indicated that LsSOC1 functions as an activator during heat-promoted bolting in lettuce. We determined that two heat-shock transcription factors, HsfA1e and HsfA4c, bound to the promoter of LsSOC1 to confirm that LsSOC1 played an important role in heat-promoted bolting. This study indicates that LsSOC1 plays a crucial role in the heat-promoted bolting process in lettuce. Further investigation of LsSOC1 may be useful for clarification of the bolting mechanism in lettuce. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  6. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  7. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango (Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5′ UTR and a 189 bp long 3′ UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems’ leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue –specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis. In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango. PMID:27965680

  8. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango ( Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5' UTR and a 189 bp long 3' UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems' leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue -specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis . In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango.

  9. Small interfering RNA targeted to IGF-IR delays tumor growth and induces proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Tiphanie Durfort

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and its type I receptor (IGF-IR play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD. Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- α and IFN-γ. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2'-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines.

  10. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  11. Inducible and reversible suppression of Npm1 gene expression using stably integrated small interfering RNA vector in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Wang Beibei; Lu Rui; Wang Weicheng; Jin Ying

    2006-01-01

    The tetracycline (Tc)-inducible small interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells. However, the system is infrequently utilized in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we present First application of the Tc-inducible, stably integrated plasmid-based siRNA system in mouse ES cells to down-regulate expression of Npm1, an essential gene for embryonic development. The physiological role of Npm1 in ES cells has not been defined. Our data show that the knock-down of Npm1 expression by this siRNA system was not only highly efficient, but also Tc- dose- and induction time-dependent. Particularly, the down-regulation of Npm1 expression was reversible. Importantly, suppression of Npm1 expression in ES cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Taken together, this system allows for studying gene function in a highly controlled manner, otherwise difficult to achieve in ES cells. Moreover, our results demonstrate that Npm1 is essential for ES cell proliferation

  12. Small Interfering RNA Specific for N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor 2B Offers Neuroprotection to Dopamine Neurons through Activation of MAP Kinase

    Olivia T.W. Ng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B-specific siRNA was applied in parkinsonian models. Our previous results showed that reduction in expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1, the key subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, by antisense oligos amelio-rated the motor symptoms in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rat, an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD [Lai et al.: Neurochem Int 2004;45:11-22]. To further the investigation on the efficacy of gene silencing, small interference RNA (siRNA specific for the NR2B subunit was designed and administered in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The present results show that administration of NR2B-specific siRNA decreased the number of apomorphine-induced rotations in the lesioned rats and that there was a significant reduction in NR2B proteins levels after NR2B-specific siRNA administration. Furthermore, attenuation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons was found in both the striatal and substantia nigra regions of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats that had been continuously infused with siRNA for 7 days. In addition, a significant upregulation of p-p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2; Thr202/Tyr204 and p-CREB (Ser133 in striatal neurons was found. These results suggest that application of the gene silencing targeting NR2B could be a potential treatment of PD, and they also revealed the possibility of NR2B-specific siRNA being involved in the prosurvival pathway.

  13. Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the microRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.

    Yang, Shaojun; Li, Fake; Jia, Shuangrong; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbing; Shang, Ya; Chang, Kai; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB (LTB). ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Early Secreted Antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Promotes Apoptosis of Macrophages via Targeting the MicroRNA155-SOCS1 Interaction

    Shaojun Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Methods: Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB and latent TB (LTB. Conclusion: ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.

  15. Egr2 enhances insulin resistance via JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate.

    Lu, Lin; Ye, Xinhua; Yao, Qing; Lu, Aijiao; Zhao, Zhen; Ding, Yang; Meng, Chuchen; Yu, Wenlong; Du, Yunfeng; Cheng, JinLuo

    2018-05-01

    Insulin resistance is generally responsible for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early growth response proteins-2 (Egr2) has been reported to be able to increase the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), and impair insulin signaling pathway through suppression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS), including IRS-1 and IRS-2. However, whether Egr2 is directly involved in the development of insulin resistance, and how its potential contributions to insulin resistance still remain unknown. Here, our present investigation found that the expression levels of Egr2 were up-regulated when insulin resistance occurs, and knockdown of Egr2 abolished the effect of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells induced with palmitate (PA). Importantly, inhibition of Egr2 decreased the expression of SOCS-1 as well as reduced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. And, our data indicated that silencing of Egr2 accelerated hepatic glucose uptake and reversed the impaired lipid metabolism upon insulin resistance. In summary, the present study confirms that Egr2 could deteriorate insulin resistance via the pathway of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 and may shed light on resolving insulin resistance and further the pathogenesis of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) is the mediator of progesterone's antiapoptotic action in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells as revealed by PGRMC1 small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment and functional analysis of PGRMC1 mutations.

    Peluso, John J; Romak, Jonathan; Liu, Xiufang

    2008-02-01

    Progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and its binding partner, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein (PAIRBP1) are thought to form a complex that functions as membrane receptor for P4. The present investigations confirm PGRMC1's role in this membrane receptor complex by demonstrating that depleting PGMRC1 with PGRMC1 small interfering RNA results in a 60% decline in [(3)H]P4 binding and the loss of P4's antiapoptotic action. Studies conducted on partially purified GFP-PGRMC1 fusion protein indicate that [(3)H]P4 specifically binds to PGRMC1 at a single site with an apparent K(d) of about 35 nm. In addition, experiments using various deletion mutations reveal that the entire PGRMC1 molecule is required for maximal [(3)H]P4 binding and P4 responsiveness. Analysis of the binding data also suggests that the P4 binding site is within a segment of PGRMC1 that is composed of the transmembrane domain and the initial segment of the C terminus. Interestingly, PAIRBP1 appears to bind to the C terminus between amino acids 70-130, which is distal to the putative P4 binding site. Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence that PGRMC1 is the P4 binding protein that mediates P4's antiapoptotic action. Moreover, the deletion mutation studies indicate that each domain of PGRMC1 plays an essential role in modulating PGRMC1's capacity to both bind and respond to P4. Additional studies are required to more precisely delineate the role of each PGRMC1 domain in transducing P4's antiapoptotic action.

  17. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach.

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah; Tejlmann, Sarah; Falkenberg, Emily; Van Driessche, Elize; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne; Franzyk, Henrik; Foged, Camilla

    2017-11-01

    Safety and efficacy of therapeutics based on RNA interference, e.g., small interfering RNA (siRNA), are dependent on the optimal engineering of the delivery technology, which is used for intracellular delivery of siRNA to the cytosol of target cells. We investigated the hypothesis that commonly used and poorly tolerated cationic lipids might be replaced with more efficacious and safe lipidoids as the lipid component of siRNA-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for achieving more efficient gene silencing at lower and safer doses. However, formulation design of such a complex formulation is highly challenging due to a strong interplay between several contributing factors. Hence, critical formulation variables, i.e. the lipidoid content and siRNA:lipidoid ratio, were initially identified, followed by a systematic quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space (OOS), eventually resulting in the identification of a robust, highly efficacious and safe formulation. A 17-run design of experiment with an I-optimal approach was performed to systematically assess the effect of selected variables on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. physicochemical properties (hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, siRNA encapsulation/loading) and the biological performance (in vitro gene silencing and cell viability). Model fitting of the obtained data to construct predictive models revealed non-linear relationships for all CQAs, which can be readily overlooked in one-factor-at-a-time optimization approaches. The response surface methodology further enabled the identification of an OOS that met the desired quality target product profile. The optimized lipidoid-modified LPNs revealed more than 50-fold higher in vitro gene silencing at well-tolerated doses and approx. a twofold increase in siRNA loading as compared to reference LPNs modified with the commonly used cationic lipid dioleyltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP). Thus, lipidoid-modified LPNs show highly

  18. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses JAK2/STAT3 signaling via inducing the promoter-associated histone acetylation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Xiong, Hua; Du, Wan; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Hong, Jie; Su, Wen-Yu; Tang, Jie-Ting; Wang, Ying-Chao; Lu, Rong; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling is involved in the oncogenesis of several cancers. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes and SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP1) proteins, which are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling, have been reported to have tumor suppressor functions. However, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, the mechanisms that regulate SOCS and SHP1 genes, and the cause of abnormalities in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, remain largely unknown. The present study shows that trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, leads to the hyperacetylation of histones associated with the SOCS1 and SOCS3 promoters, but not the SHP1 promoter in CRC cells. This indicates that histone modifications are involved in the regulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Moreover, upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression was achieved using TSA, which also significantly downregulated JAK2/STAT3 signaling in CRC cells. We also demonstrate that TSA suppresses the growth of CRC cells, and induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the regulation of downstream targets of JAK2/STAT3 signaling, including Bcl-2, survivin and p16(ink4a) . Therefore, our data demonstrate that TSA may induce SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression by inducing histone modifications and consequently inhibits JAK2/STAT3 signaling in CRC cells. These results also establish a mechanistic link between the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling and the anticancer action of TSA in CRC cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. associated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... disadvantages. In this study, a siRNA expression recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) was .... cleotides were designed, which contained a sense strand of p53 or ..... During MJ, Kaplitt MG, Stem MB, Eidelberg D (2001).

  20. Interfering Satellite RNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus

    Kuan-Yu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV, the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of interfering satBaMV and BaMV. Like other satRNAs, satBaMV mimics the secondary structures of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs of BaMV as a molecular pretender. However, a conserved apical hairpin stem loop (AHSL in the 5′-UTR of satBaMV was found as the key determinant for downregulating BaMV replication. In particular, two unique nucleotides (C60 and C83 in the AHSL of satBaMVs determine the satBaMV interference ability by competing for the replication machinery. Thus, transgenic plants expressing interfering satBaMV could confer resistance to BaMV, and interfering satBaMV could be used as biological-control agent. Unlike two major anti-viral mechanisms, RNA silencing and salicylic acid-mediated immunity, our findings in plants by in vivo competition assay and RNA deep sequencing suggested replication competition is involved in this transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. We propose how a single nucleotide of satBaMV can make a great change in BaMV pathogenicity and the underlying mechanism.

  1. Control over interfering memories in eating disorders.

    Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Penolazzi, Barbara; Libardi, Arianna; Genovese, Aldo; Castelli, Luigi; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that patients suffering from either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit abnormal performance in the ability to control cognitive interference in response selection. We assessed the status of cognitive control in episodic memory by addressing the ability to inhibit interfering memories. To this end, we used the retrieval-practice paradigm, which allows for measuring both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of memory practice. The latter phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), is thought to reflect an adaptive inhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing competition in memory retrieval. Twenty-seven healthy controls and 27 patients suffering from eating disorders (either AN or BN) performed a retrieval-practice paradigm and a control task addressing general reactivity and filled a self-report questionnaire on impulsivity. No differences between patients and healthy controls were observed for the beneficial effects of practice. The same pattern also emerged for RIF. However, when patients with AN and BN were analyzed separately, a clear dissociation emerged: patients with AN displayed no hint of RIF, whereas patients with BN showed an intact memory suppression performance. No group differences emerged in the control task. Our findings suggest a specific impairment in the ability to suppress interfering memories in patients with AN, thus extending current evidence of cognitive control deficits in AN to episodic memory.

  2. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  3. Peptides Interfering 3A Protein Dimerization Decrease FMDV Multiplication.

    Mónica González-Magaldi

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3A is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV replication. FMDV 3A can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2 that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. In this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. The dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the two hydrophobic α-helices, α12, impaired in vitro dimer formation of a peptide containing the two α-helices, this effect being higher with peptide α12. To assess the effect of dimer inhibition in cultured cells, the interfering peptides were N-terminally fused to a heptaarginine (R7 sequence to favor their intracellular translocation. Thus, when fused to R7, interference peptides (100 μM were able to inhibit dimerization of transiently expressed 3A, the higher inhibitions being found with peptides α1 and α12. The 3A dimerization impairment exerted by the peptides correlated with significant, specific reductions in the viral yield recovered from peptide-treated FMDV infected cells. In this case, α2 was the only peptide producing significant reductions at concentrations lower than 100 μM. Thus, dimer interface peptides constitute a tool to understand the structure-function relationship of this viral protein and point to 3A dimerization as a potential antiviral target.

  4. MAP Detector for Flash Memory Without Accessing the Interfering Cells

    Yassine, Hachem; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    the latency cost of accessing the interfering cells. Specifically, we exploit the fact that adjacent cells have common interferers by modeling the system as an appropriate hidden Markov model. Then we use the sum-product (message-passing) algorithm to compute the marginal posterior probabilities of the stored...

  5. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  6. Selection of peptides interfering with protein-protein interaction.

    Gaida, Annette; Hagemann, Urs B; Mattay, Dinah; Räuber, Christina; Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2009-01-01

    Cell physiology depends on a fine-tuned network of protein-protein interactions, and misguided interactions are often associated with various diseases. Consequently, peptides, which are able to specifically interfere with such adventitious interactions, are of high interest for analytical as well as medical purposes. One of the most abundant protein interaction domains is the coiled-coil motif, and thus provides a premier target. Coiled coils, which consist of two or more alpha-helices wrapped around each other, have one of the simplest interaction interfaces, yet they are able to confer highly specific homo- and heterotypic interactions involved in virtually any cellular process. While there are several ways to generate interfering peptides, the combination of library design with a powerful selection system seems to be one of the most effective and promising approaches. This chapter guides through all steps of such a process, starting with library options and cloning, detailing suitable selection techniques and ending with purification for further down-stream characterization. Such generated peptides will function as versatile tools to interfere with the natural function of their targets thereby illuminating their down-stream signaling and, in general, promoting understanding of factors leading to specificity and stability in protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, peptides interfering with medically relevant proteins might become important diagnostics and therapeutics.

  7. Defective interfering particles in monolayer-propagated Newcastle disease virus

    Roman, J.M.; Simon, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serially passaged in chick embryo fibroblasts (M-NDV) gives rise to defective interfering (NDV-DI) particles, while NDV passaged in embryonated eggs (E-NDV) does not. Co-infection with these particles and infectious virions results in a 99 percent reduction in yield. Interference is not due to interferon or to prevention of absorption of infectious virions and is specific for NDV. The particles mediating interference sediment at the same velocity as infectious virions. The accumulation of NDV-DI particles in monolayers but not in eggs may be a consequence of the fact that M-NDV virions are larger and probably contain more RNA, or it may reflect differences in NDV replicative processes in eggs and monolayers, or both

  8. A self-interfering clock as a "which path" witness.

    Margalit, Yair; Zhou, Zhifan; Machluf, Shimon; Rohrlich, Daniel; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-09-11

    In Einstein's general theory of relativity, time depends locally on gravity; in standard quantum theory, time is global-all clocks "tick" uniformly. We demonstrate a new tool for investigating time in the overlap of these two theories: a self-interfering clock, comprising two atomic spin states. We prepare the clock in a spatial superposition of quantum wave packets, which evolve coherently along two paths into a stable interference pattern. If we make the clock wave packets "tick" at different rates, to simulate a gravitational time lag, the clock time along each path yields "which path" information, degrading the pattern's visibility. In contrast, in standard interferometry, time cannot yield "which path" information. This proof-of-principle experiment may have implications for the study of time and general relativity and their impact on fundamental effects such as decoherence and the emergence of a classical world. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. High molecular somatostatin, an interfering factor in radioimmunoassay

    Diel, F.; Schneider, E.; Baumann, H.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclic Tyr 1 -somatostatin (Tyr 1 -SRIF) is radioiodinated by the lactoperoxidase method. Purification is achieved by Sephadex G-25 adsorption chromatography. Specific anti-SRIF serum (FA1) has been raised in rabbits. A dose response curve is obtained in the range of 5 - 5,000 pg per tube using an antiserum dilution of 1:2,000. There is little cross-reaction with linear somatostatin and none with ocytocin, (lys-, arg-) vasopressin, valinomycin, polymyxin, insulin, glucagon, human growth hormone (hGH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). For recovery tests, extraction procedures are necessary. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and polyacrylamide-disc-electrophoresis (Disc-PAGE) are performed to identify the presumed high molecular 125 I-Tyr 1 -SRIF associate. This high molecular associate may represent an interfering factor in the radioimmunoassay for cyclic SRIF. (orig./AJ) [de

  10. Characterization of a defective interfering RNA that contains a mosaic of a plant viral genome

    Morris, T.J.; Jackson, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since then, we have also discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a virus structurally related to TBSV. We proposed a thorough characterization of this unique class of symptom modulating RNAs with the overall objective of identifying viral RNA nucleotide, sequences involved in such fundamental processes as virus replication and encapsidation as well as the degree of symptom expression resulting from the viral-DI-host interaction. The proposed research focused on the molecular characterization of the DI RNAs and the helper virus. We had demonstrated that the DIs were collinear deletion mutants of the genome of a cherry strain of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). We had also shown that these low molecular weight RNAs interfered with the helper plant virus and modulated disease expression by preventing the development of a lethal necrotic disease in susceptible host plants. We also suggested that by exploring the mechanisms associated with the symptom attenuation effect, we might be able to devise novel strategies useful for engineering viral disease resistance.

  11. Memory interfering effects of chlordiazepoxide on consummatory successive negative contrast.

    Ortega, Leonardo A; Glueck, Amanda C; Daniel, Alan M; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A; White, Michelle M; Papini, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Long-Evans rats downshifted from 32% to 4% sucrose solution exhibit lower consummatory behavior during downshift trials than rats exposed only to 4% sucrose. In Experiment 1, this effect, called consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), was attenuated by administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5mg/kg, ip) before the second downshift trial (Trial 12), but was not affected when CDP was administered before the first downshift trial (Trial 11). In Experiment 2, CDP administered after Trial 11 actually enhanced the cSNC effect on Trial 12. This posttrial effect of CDP was reduced by delayed administration (Experiment 3). This CDP effect was not present in the absence of incentive downshift (Experiments 4-5), or when animals were tested with the preshift incentive (Experiment 6) or after complete recovery from cSNC (Experiment 7). The posttrial CDP effect was observed after an 8-day interval between Trials 11 and 12 (Experiment 8) and when administered after Trial 12, rather than Trial 11 (Experiment 9). Experiment 10 extended the effect to Wistar rats. Because CDP is a memory interfering drug, it was hypothesized that its posttrial administration interferes with the consolidation of the memory of the downshifted incentive, thus prolonging the mismatch between expected (32% sucrose) and obtained (4% sucrose) incentives that leads to the cSNC effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ROW (Right-of-Way) interfering construction activities management program

    Rosito, Roberta; Oliveira, Marisa; Lima, Shirley [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A significant portion of pipeline failures occurs due to external damage. This includes third party right of way (ROW) encroachment, which shall be identified and avoided. However, injuries caused by known and planned activities do happen. Construction of crossing or sharing ROW pipelines, crossing roads and bridges, neighboring buildings and excavations of any kind might put existing pipelines in risk. This paper presents how the TRANSPETRO ROW Interfering Construction Activities Management Program is implemented by a regional ROW maintenance department responsible for more than 3,000 km of pipelines, mostly in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states. This program is based on a TRANSPETRO procedure that was written after the publication of the Official Order number 125 of ANP (Oil, Gas and Biofuel Brazilian National Agency). Tasks from design review and approval to field construction supervision are performed by the staff responsible for the routine patrols and maintenance management. The ability of foreseeing risky activities is improved by expertise gained from day-to-day work on site. (author)

  13. A mathematical solution for the parameters of three interfering resonances

    Han, X.; Shen, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multiple-solution problem in determining the parameters of three interfering resonances from a fit to an experimentally measured distribution is considered from a mathematical viewpoint. It is shown that there are four numerical solutions for a fit with three coherent Breit-Wigner functions. Although explicit analytical formulae cannot be derived in this case, we provide some constraint equations between the four solutions. For the cases of nonrelativistic and relativistic Breit-Wigner forms of amplitude functions, a numerical method is provided to derive the other solutions from that already obtained, based on the obtained constraint equations. In real experimental measurements with more complicated amplitude forms similar to Breit-Wigner functions, the same method can be deduced and performed to get numerical solutions. The good agreement between the solutions found using this mathematical method and those directly from the fit verifies the correctness of the constraint equations and mathematical methodology used. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11575017, 11761141009), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856701) and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  14. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  15. A retrotransposon-driven Dicer isoform directs endogenous small interfering RNA production in mouse oocytes

    Flemr, Matyáš; Malík, Radek; Franke, V.; Nejepínská, Jana; Sedláček, Radislav; Vlahovicek, K.; Svoboda, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 4 (2013), s. 807-816 ISSN 0092-8674 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/2215; GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034; GA ČR GA204/09/0085; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011032; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200521202 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Dicer * miRNA * RNAi * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.116, year: 2013

  16. Random small interfering RNA library screen identifies siRNAs that induce human erythroleukemia cell differentiation.

    Fan, Cuiqing; Xiong, Yuan; Zhu, Ning; Lu, Yabin; Zhang, Jiewen; Wang, Song; Liang, Zicai; Shen, Yan; Chen, Meihong

    2011-03-01

    Cancers are characterized by poor differentiation. Differentiation therapy is a strategy to alleviate malignant phenotypes by inducing cancer cell differentiation. Here we carried out a combinatorial high-throughput screen with a random siRNA library on human erythroleukemia K-562 cell differentiation. Two siRNAs screened from the library were validated to be able to induce erythroid differentiation to varying degrees, determined by CD235 and globin up-regulation, GATA-2 down-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. The screen we performed here is the first trial of screening cancer differentiation-inducing agents from a random siRNA library, demonstrating that a random siRNA library can be considered as a new resource in efforts to seek new therapeutic agents for cancers. As a random siRNA library has a broad coverage for the entire genome, including known/unknown genes and protein coding/non-coding sequences, screening using a random siRNA library can be expected to greatly augment the repertoire of therapeutic siRNAs for cancers.

  17. Small Interfering RNA Targeted to ASPP2 Promotes Progression of Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Xiao-Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is vital in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR development. Apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP2 have recently been reported to participate in EMT. However, the role of ASPP2 in PVR pathogenesis has not been identified. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of ASPP2 in epiretinal membranes of PVR patients. ARPE-19 cells were transfected with ASPP2-siRNA, followed with measurement of cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, and migration ability. EMT markers and related inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines were measured by western blot or flow cytometry. Additionally, PVR rat models were induced by intravitreal injection of ARPE-19 cells transfected with ASPP2-siRNA and evaluated accordingly. Results. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed less intense expression of ASPP2 in PVR membranes. ASPP2 knockdown facilitated the proliferation and migration of RPE cells and enhanced the expression of mesenchymal markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and ZEB1. Meanwhile, ASPP2-siRNA increased EMT-related and inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, CTGF, VEGF, TNF-α, and interleukins. PVR severities were more pronounced in the rat models with ASPP2-siRNA treatment. Conclusions. ASPP2 knockdown promoted EMT of ARPE-19 cells in vitro and exacerbated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo, possibly via inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines.

  18. Misinterpreting the therapeutic effects of small interfering RNA caused by immune stimulation.

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; Ambegia, Ellen; Choi, Catherine; Yaworski, Ed; Palmer, Lorne; McClintock, Kevin; MacLachlan, Ian

    2008-10-01

    Activation of innate immunity has direct effects in modulating viral replication, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and inflammatory and other immunological processes. It is now established that unmodified siRNA can activate this innate immune response and therefore there is real potential for siRNA to elicit nonspecific therapeutic effects in a wide range of disease models. Here we demonstrate that in a murine model of influenza infection, the antiviral activity of siRNA is due primarily to immune stimulation elicited by the active siRNA duplexes and is not the result of therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) as previously reported. We show that the misinterpretation stems from the use of a particular control green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA that we identify as having unusually low immunostimulatory activity compared with the active anti-influenza siRNA. Curiously, this GFP siRNA has served as a negative control for a surprising number of groups reporting therapeutic effects of siRNA. The inert immunologic profile of the GFP sequence was unique among a broad panel of published siRNAs, all of which could elicit significant interferon induction from primary immune cells. This panel included eight active siRNAs against viral, angiogenic, and oncologic targets, the reported therapeutic efficacy of which was based on comparison with the nonimmunostimulatory GFP siRNA. These results emphasize the need for researchers to anticipate, monitor, and adequately control for siRNA-mediated immune stimulation and calls into question the interpretation of numerous published reports of therapeutic RNAi in vivo. The use of chemically modified siRNA with minimal immunostimulatory capacity will help to delineate more accurately the mechanism of action underlying such studies.

  19. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    be used to observe the knock down effect by siRNAs designed to target these reporters. One aim of this project is to verify the specific knock down effect of siRNAs in cell culture and in living fish and to establish easy-read out models for testing the effect especially in vivo. Cell culture from human...... coinjection and the assay is important in order to detect knock down by siRNA. Our experiment reveal in vivo knock down at 72 hours post injection of reporter gene and siRNA, but further dose-response experiments are required to confirm specifity....

  20. Interfering with DNA Damage Signals: Radiosensitizing Prostate Cancer Using Small Peptides

    2009-05-01

    A labam a at B irm ingham / Lister H ill Library of the H ealth S ciences on N ovem ber 7, 2008 m olpharm .aspetjournals.org D ow nloaded from...ill Library of the H ealth S ciences on N ovem ber 7, 2008 m olpharm .aspetjournals.org D ow nloaded from Results Internalization and Cytotoxicity...labam a at B irm ingham / Lister H ill Library of the H ealth S ciences on N ovem ber 7, 2008 m olpharm .aspetjournals.org D ow nloaded from Fig. 1

  1. Prevalence of interfering substances with point-of-care glucose testing in a community hospital.

    Eastham, John H; Mason, Debra; Barnes, Deborah L; Kollins, Jerry

    2009-01-15

    This study determined the prevalence of interfering substances with a glucometer using the glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone method of point-of-care glucose testing (POCGT) and identified the percentage of patients with orders for an insulin product during the interference time interval. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all inpatients with biochemically-identified interfering substances over a 12-month period. The interfering substance report identified all patients with serum uric acid concentrations greater than 10 mg/dL, hematocrit less than 20% or greater than 55%, serum total bilirubin concentrations greater than 20 mg/dL, serum acetaminophen concentrations greater than 8 mg/dL, and serum triglyceride concentrations greater than 5000 mg/dL. Of 6885 hospital admissions during the 12-month study period, 84 patients (1.2%) were identified as having interfering substances. Interfering substances were identified an average mean +/- S.D. of 4.88 +/- 15.56 days following hospital admission. Two patients had interfering substances identified in the emergency department before hospital admission. Five patients (four with total bilirubin and one with uric acid) had initial concentrations below the interference threshold. These concentrations increased during hospitalization to high enough levels to cause interference with POCGT. Since the average length of stay for the identified patients was 10.49 days, an average of 17% of the hospital stay was impacted by an interfering substance. Substances remained at interfering concentrations until the time of discharge in 30% of the patients. Over a 12-month period, interfering substance were identified in1.2% of patients admitted to a hospital. Thirty-six percent of those patients had an active order for an insulin product during the interference time interval.

  2. Intelligibility of synthetic speech in the presence of interfering speech

    Eggen, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Standard articulation tests are not always sensitive enough to discriminate between speech samples which are of high intelligibility. One can increase the sensitivity of such tests by presenting the test materials in noise. In this way, small differences in intelligibility can be magnified into

  3. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  4. Fangchinoline inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing.

    Zhitao Wan

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. However, the emergence of drug resistance has resulted in the failure of treatments in large numbers of patients and thus necessitates the development of new classes of anti-HIV drugs. In this study, more than 200 plant-derived small-molecule compounds were evaluated in a cell-based HIV-1 antiviral screen, resulting in the identification of a novel HIV-1 inhibitor (fangchinoline. Fangchinoline, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae, exhibited antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains NL4-3, LAI and BaL in MT-4 and PM1 cells with a 50% effective concentration ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 µM. Mechanism-of-action studies showed that fangchinoline did not exhibit measurable antiviral activity in TZM-b1 cells but did inhibit the production of infectious virions in HIV-1 cDNA transfected 293T cells, which suggests that the compound targets a late event in infection cycle. Furthermore, the antiviral effect of fangchinoline seems to be HIV-1 envelope-dependent, as the production of infectious HIV-1 particles packaged with a heterologous envelope, the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein, was unaffected by fangchinoline. Western blot analysis of HIV envelope proteins expressed in transfected 293T cells and in isolated virions showed that fangchinoline inhibited HIV-1 gp160 processing, resulting in reduced envelope glycoprotein incorporation into nascent virions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that fangchinoline inhibits HIV-1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing. Fangchinoline may serve as a starting point for developing a new HIV-1 therapeutic approach.

  5. Quantification of analytes affected by relevant interfering signals under quality controlled conditions

    Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J.N.; Santos, Julia R.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of organic contaminants or residues in biological samples is frequently affected by the presence of compounds producing interfering instrumental signals. This feature is responsible for the higher complexity and cost of these analyses and/or by a significant reduction of the number of studied analytes in a multi-analyte method. This work presents a methodology to estimate the impact of the interfering compounds on the quality of the analysis of complex samples, based on separative instrumental methods of analysis, aiming at supporting the inclusion of analytes affected by interfering compounds in the list of compounds analysed in the studied samples. The proposed methodology involves the study of the magnitude of the signal produced by the interfering compounds in the analysed matrix, and is applicable to analytical systems affected by interfering compounds with varying concentration in the studied matrix. The proposed methodology is based on the comparison of the signals from a representative number of examples of the studied matrix, in order to estimate the impact of the presence of such compounds on the measurement quality. The treatment of the chromatographic signals necessary to collect these data can be easily performed considering algorithms of subtraction of chromatographic signals available in most of the analytical instrumentation software. The subtraction of the interfering compounds signal from the sample signal allows the compensation of the interfering effect irrespective of the relative magnitude of the interfering and analyte signals, supporting the applicability of the same model of the method performance for a broader concentration range. The quantification of the measurement uncertainty was performed using the differential approach, which allows the estimation of the contribution of the presence of the interfering compounds to the quality of the measurement. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of

  6. Interferência de plantas daninhas no cultivo da melancia Weeds interference periods in watermelon crop

    Cleber Daniel de G Maciel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da melancia é uma atividade explorada regionalmente, sendo uma das mais importantes fontes de renda familiar de pequenos municípios do médio Paranapanema, onde mudanças significativas no processo produtivo são atualmente constatadas, passando de mão-de-obra intensiva para uso de tecnologias promissoras, como é o caso do manejo de plantas daninhas. Um experimento foi conduzido no município de Oscar Bressani (SP, em área de produção comercial, com objetivo de estudar a interferência de plantas daninhas, no cultivo da melancia, na safra 2002/2003. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições, representadas por parcelas com área útil de 18 m², contendo quatro plantas de melancia e infestação prevalecente das espécies Sidaspp, Brachiaria humidicola, Commelina benghalensise Portulaca oleracea. A infestação das plantas daninhas foi estimada através de amostragens aleatórias das parcelas utilizando-se quadro vazado de ferro com 0,5 m de lado. Os tratamentos constaram de testemunhas capinadas e sem capina e diferentes épocas de controle da infestação, de forma que a cultura foi mantida na presença ou ausência das plantas daninhas até 7; 14; 28; 56 e 63 dias após a sua emergência (DAE. A ocorrência do período inicial de convivência possível maior que o período final estabeleceu o Período Crítico de Prevenção da Interferência do 9º ao 13º dias (PCPI= 9-13 DAE. A redução média da produtividade em função da interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da melancia foi de 41,4%. As características diâmetro e espessura da casca dos frutos também foram influenciadas pela convivência com a infestação durante todo o ciclo com decréscimos, de 7,9% e 23,3%, respectivamente, em média, ao contrário do comprimento e diâmetro de ramas e do ºBrix da polpa dos frutos, onde não foram constatadas diferenças significativas.Water melon

  7. Characterization of a defective interfering RNA that contains a mosaic of a plant viral genome. Final report

    Morris, T.J.; Jackson, A.O.

    1991-12-31

    Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since then, we have also discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a virus structurally related to TBSV. We proposed a thorough characterization of this unique class of symptom modulating RNAs with the overall objective of identifying viral RNA nucleotide, sequences involved in such fundamental processes as virus replication and encapsidation as well as the degree of symptom expression resulting from the viral-DI-host interaction. The proposed research focused on the molecular characterization of the DI RNAs and the helper virus. We had demonstrated that the DIs were collinear deletion mutants of the genome of a cherry strain of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). We had also shown that these low molecular weight RNAs interfered with the helper plant virus and modulated disease expression by preventing the development of a lethal necrotic disease in susceptible host plants. We also suggested that by exploring the mechanisms associated with the symptom attenuation effect, we might be able to devise novel strategies useful for engineering viral disease resistance.

  8. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing

  9. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  10. Associative Interference in Pavlovian Conditioning: A Function of Similarity Between the Interfering and Target Associative Structures

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2008-01-01

    Three lever-press suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the role of similarity in proactive interference within first-order Pavlovian conditioning. Experiments 1a and 1b assessed the influence of stimulus complexity in proactive interference. Both experiments found greater interference when the interfering cue and target cue were composed of the same number of elements. Experiment 2 assessed the influence of context similarity in proactive interference and...

  11. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  12. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  13. Detecting and Eliminating Interfering Organic Compounds in Waters Analyzed for Isotopic Composition by Crds

    Richman, B. A.; Hsiao, G. S.; Rella, C.

    2010-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy based CRDS technology for isotopic analysis of δD and δ18O directly from liquid water has greatly increased the number and type of liquid samples analyzed. This increase has also revealed a previously unrecognized sample contamination problem. Recently West[1] and Brand[2] identified samples containing ethanol, methanol, plant extracts and other organic compounds analyzed by CRDS and other spectroscopy based techniques as yielding erroneous results for δD and δ18O (especially δD) due to spectroscopic interference. Not all organic compounds generate interference. Thus, identifying which samples are contaminated by which organic compounds is of key importance for data credibility and correction. To address this problem a new approach in the form of a software suite, ChemCorrect™, has been developed. A chemometrics component uses a spectral library of water isotopologues and interfering organic compounds to best fit the measured spectra. The best fit values provide a quantitative assay of the actual concentrations of the various species and are then evaluated to generate a visual flag indicating samples affected by organic contamination. Laboratory testing of samples spiked with known quantities of interfering organic compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and terpenes was performed. The software correctly flagged and identified type of contamination for all the spiked samples without any false positives. Furthermore the reported values were a linear function of actual concentration with an R^2>0.99 even for samples which contained multiple organic compounds. Further testing was carried out against a range of industrial chemical compounds which can contaminate ground water as well as a variety of plant derived waters and juices which were also analyzed by IRMS. The excellent results obtained give good insight into which organic compounds cause interference and which classes of plants are likely to contain interfering compounds. Finally

  14. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  15. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  16. Interfície gràfica per WPKG - distribució de programari

    Garcia Morant, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Interfície gràfica per a la gestió del programari de lliure accés per a la distribució de programari WPKG (wpkg.org). Arquitectura MVC en un entorn J2EE6 utilitzant JSF2, JPA2 i EJB 3.1. Interfaz gráfica para la gestión del software de libre acceso para la distribución de software WPKG (wpkg.org). Arquitectura MVC en un entorno J2EE6 utilizando JSF2, JPA2 y EJB 3.1.

  17. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  18. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas, E-mail: Sven.Zacharias@ul.ie [University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  19. Experimental quantum teleportation and multiphoton entanglement via interfering narrowband photon sources

    Yang Jian; Zhang Han; Peng Chengzhi; Chen Zengbing; Bao Xiaohui; Chen Shuai; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a realization of synchronization-free quantum teleportation and narrowband three-photon entanglement through interfering narrowband photon sources. Since both the single-photon and the entangled photon pair utilized are completely autonomous, it removes the requirement of high-demanding synchronization techniques in long-distance quantum communication with pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources. The frequency linewidth of the three-photon entanglement realized is on the order of several MHz, which matches the requirement of atomic ensemble based quantum memories. Such a narrowband multiphoton source will have applications in some advanced quantum communication protocols and linear optical quantum computation.

  20. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  1. R-matrix study of ionization in barium via two-photon interfering routes

    Aymar, M.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Lecomte, J. M.; Millet, M.; Lyras, A.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of part of the experimental data reported by Wang, Chen and Elliott [1,3] who studied in barium coherent control through two-color resonant interfering paths is reported. Dynamics of the two-color photoionization process, described as an adiabatic process in the rotating wave approximation, is governed by the coherent excitation of the 6s6p and 6s7p 1 P 1 intermediate states. Interference effects are found to play a minor role. The required atomic parameters are obtained from a theoretical approach based on a combination of jj-coupled eigenchannel R-matrix and Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory

  2. Small interfering RNA against transcription factor STAT6 leads to increased cholesterol synthesis in lung cancer cell lines.

    Richa Dubey

    Full Text Available STAT6 transcription factor has become a potential molecule for therapeutic intervention because it regulates broad range of cellular processes in a large variety of cell types. Although some target genes and interacting partners of STAT6 have been identified, its exact mechanism of action needs to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to further characterize the molecular interactions, networks, and functions of STAT6 by profiling the mRNA expression of STAT6 silenced human lung cells (NCI-H460 using microarrays. Our analysis revealed 273 differentially expressed genes after STAT6 silencing. Analysis of the gene expression data with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA software revealed Gene expression, Cell death, Lipid metabolism as the functions associated with highest rated network. Cholesterol biosynthesis was among the most enriched pathways in IPA as well as in PANTHER analysis. These results have been validated by real-time PCR and cholesterol assay using scrambled siRNA as a negative control. Similar findings were also observed with human type II pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells, A549. In the present study we have, for the first time, shown the inverse relationship of STAT6 with the cholesterol biosynthesis in lung cancer cells. The present findings are potentially significant to advance the understanding and design of therapeutics for the pathological conditions where both STAT6 and cholesterol biosynthesis are implicated viz. asthma, atherosclerosis etc.

  3. Effects of small interfering RNA targeting thymidylate synthase on survival of ACC3 cells from salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    Shirasaki, Takashi; Maruya, Shin-ichiro; Mizukami, Hiroki; Kakehata, Seiji; Kurotaki, Hidekachi; Yagihashi, Soroku; Shinkawa, Hideichi

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an important target for chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and high expression of TS has been associated with poor prognosis or refractory disease in several cancers including colorectal and head and neck cancer. Although TS is known to regulate cell cycles and transcription factors, its potency as a therapeutic target has not been fully explored in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). An ACC cell line (ACC3) was transfected with siRNA targeting the TS gene and inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis-associated molecules were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the in vivo effect of TS siRNA on tumor progression was assessed using a xenograft model. Our results demonstrated that ACC3 cells showed significantly higher TS expression than non-cancer cell lines and the induction of TS siRNA led to inhibition of cell proliferation. The effect was associated with an increase in p53, p21, and active caspase-3 and S-phase accumulation. We also found up-regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), a polyamine metabolic enzyme. Furthermore, treatment with TS siRNA delivered by atelocollagen showed a significant cytostatic effect through the induction of apoptosis in a xenograft model. TS may be an important therapeutic target and siRNA targeting TS may be of potential therapeutic value in ACC

  4. Small interfering RNA targeting ILK inhibits metastasis in human tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Xing, Yu; Qi, Jin; Deng, Shixiong; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Junxia

    2013-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. Accumulating evidences suggest that ILK are involved in cell–matrix interactions, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. EMT has been postulated as a prerequisite for metastasis. The reports have demonstrated that EMT was implicated in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, here we further postulate that ILK might participate in EMT of tongue cancer. We showed that ILK siRNA inhibited EMT with low N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as high E-cadherin expression in vivo and in vitro. We found that knockdown of ILK inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as changed cell morphology. We also demonstrated that ILK siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets Akt and GSK3β as well as reduced expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, we found that the tongue tumor with high metastasis capability showed higher ILK, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as lower E-cadherin expression in clinical specimens. Finally, ILK siRNA led to the suppression for tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest that ILK could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for tongue cancer. Highlights: • ILK siRNA influences cell morphology, cell cycle, migration and invasion. • ILK siRNA affects the expression of proteins associated with EMT. • ILK expression is related to EMT in clinical human tongue tumors. • ILK siRNA inhibits metastasis of the tongue cancer cells through suppressing EMT

  5. Enhancement of Gene Silencing Effect and Membrane Permeability by Peptide-Conjugated 27-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA

    Toshio Seyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different sizes of siRNAs, of which one type was 21-nucleotide (nt siRNA containing 2-nt dangling ends and the other type was 27-nt siRNA with blunt ends, were conjugated with a nuclear export signal peptide of HIV-1 Rev at the 5′-sense end. Processing by Dicer enzyme, cell membrane permeability, and RNAi efficiency of the peptide-conjugated siRNAs were examined. Dicer cleaved the peptide-conjugated 27-nt siRNA leading to the release of 21-nt siRNA, whereas the peptide-conjugated 21-nt siRNA was not cleaved. High membrane permeability and cytoplasmic localization was found in the conjugates. Moreover, the peptide-conjugated 27-nt siRNA showed increased potency of RNAi in comparison with the nonmodified 21-nt and 27-nt siRNAs, whereas the peptide-conjugated 21-nt siRNA showed decreased RNAi efficacy. This potent RNAi efficacy is probably owing to acceleration of RISC through recognition by Dicer, as well as to the improvement of cell membrane permeability and intracellular accumulation.

  6. Peptidomimetics with beta-peptoid resudies as carriers for intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA)

    Foged, Camilla

    cytometry. We conclude that simple complex formation via electrostatic interactions between siRNA and the cationic peptidomimetics is not sufficient for the delivery of siRNA to the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the cytoplasm. We are currently testing chemical conjugates of si...... prepared by mixing and characterized with respect to size and surface charge. At ratios of peptide nitrogen to siRNA phosphate (N/P) of 1 and below, particles with narrow size distributions (poly dispersity indexes lower than 0.11) ranging from approximately 100 to 350 nm were formed, and they showed...... a negative zeta potential (-24 to -31 mV). At higher N/P ratios, larger aggregates with zeta potential close to neutral were formed. However, the complexes were not able to silence the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in HeLa-cells stably expressing EGFP, which was measured by flow...

  7. Small silencing RNAs: an expanding universe.

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D

    2009-02-01

    Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, their modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected, and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats.

  8. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  9. Elimination of eight interfering radioisotopes in the determination of uranium by activation analysis with epithermic neutrons

    Requejo, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    The total or parcial elimination interfering radioisotopes in activation analysis of uranium by epithermic neutrons, has been made. It was possible to determine uranium, after chemical separation, from samples of organic and mineral matrixes, which had mercury, selenium, bromine, antimony, gold, barium, molybden and tungsten. Mineral samples were analysed giving results between 0.2 to 5.0 ppm of uranium. The same mineral were ground in agate mortar and in tungsten carbide mill. In the first sample is has been found 0.2277 +- -+ 0.0474 ppm U. The second which had tungsten, at level of 150 ppm, after radiochemical separation, it has been found 0.2465+- -+0.0326 ppm U. These results are considered statistically the same [pt

  10. Interfering Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer by CA 19-9.

    Al-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S; Tawfeeq, Ekhlas F

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to determine the possible effects of black tea consumption on the level of CA 19-9 antigen in the human body. The level of CA 19-9 was measured in 270 healthy individuals who consumed heavy amounts of black tea. About 43.3 % of involved individuals were revealed to have elevated levels of CA 19-9. Males with high values of CA 19-9 represented the greatest number of involved individuals. The cutoff value of high levels of CA 19-9 in all individuals was ranged 69-105 U/ml. Consuming heavy amounts of black tea could be considered an important interfering factor that affects the levels of CA 19-9. The cutoff or predictive value of CA 19-9 in heavy-consuming people of black tea was determined.

  11. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    J.B. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE. Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade, bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI, período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI, considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE. Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days

  12. Identification of Four New agr Quorum Sensing-Interfering Cyclodepsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium

    Louise Kjaerulff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During our search for new natural products from the marine environment, we discovered a wide range of cyclic peptides from a marine Photobacterium, closely related to P. halotolerans. The chemical fingerprint of the bacterium showed primarily non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS-like compounds, including the known pyrrothine antibiotic holomycin and a wide range of peptides, from diketopiperazines to cyclodepsipeptides of 500–900 Da. Purification of components from the pellet fraction led to the isolation and structure elucidation of four new cyclodepsipeptides, ngercheumicin F, G, H, and I. The ngercheumicins interfered with expression of virulence genes known to be controlled by the agr quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, although to a lesser extent than the previously described solonamides from the same strain of Photobacterium.

  13. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ANDALIN, AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR INTERFERING WITH CUTICLE DEPOSITION, AGAINST MOSQUITO LARVAE

    N REHIMI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Andalin, a benzoylphenylurea (BPU derivative, was evaluated on Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae. Treatment was made on newly 3rd- and 4th instar larvae for 24 h. The compound exhibited insecticidal activity and mortality occured after earlier inhibition of their development or by their inability to complete their ecdysis. Treatment resulted in a significant larvicidal effect and in a inhibition of adult emergence. Moreover, the compound disturbed growth and development since several morphological types and an increase in the duration of larval stage were observed. Histological study conducted on 4th instar larval integument, showed that Andalin caused a significant reduction in the thickness of cuticles secreted compared to controls. Thus, Andalin prevent molting in C. pipiens by interfering with cuticle deposition confirming the primary mode of action of this BPU insecticide.

  14. Two narrow bandwidth photons interfering in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system

    Wang Fuyuan; Shi Baosen; Lu Xiaosong; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have analysed in detail the quantum interference of the degenerate narrowband two-photon state by using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, in which an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium is placed in one of two interfering beams. Our results clearly show that it is possible to coherently keep the quantum state at a single photon level in the EIT process, especially when the transparent window of the EIT medium is much larger than the bandwidth of the single photon. This shows that the EIT medium is possibly a kind of memory or repeater for the narrowband photons in the areas of quantum communication and quantum computer. This kind of experiment is feasible within the current technology

  15. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  16. Study of criterion for assuring the effectiveness of cathodic protection of buried steel pipelines being interfered with alternative current

    He, X.; Jiang, G.; Qiu, Y.; Tang, H. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, G.; Jin, X.; Xiang, Z. [Huazhong Natural Gas Subsidiary of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Z. [Dwell Company Limited, PetroChina Engineering Company, Ltd, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Interference of alternative current (AC) on corrosion of X65 steel was investigated in soil. It was observed that the unfavorable effect of interfering AC was able to be effectively inhibited by increasing the direct current density of the cathodic protection (CP) system. A clear correlation was established between the CP current density and the tolerable AC current density. This led to a new criterion for assuring the effectiveness of CP of buried pipelines being interfered with AC. Field experimental results on a buried pipeline running below a 500 kV transmission line showed that the criterion could satisfactorily predict the risk of AC interfering on the CP system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  18. Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence determination of interfering elements rubidium and uranium by profile fitting

    Dhara, Sangita; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.; Misra, N. L.

    2018-06-01

    Systematic studies to assess the analytical parameters obtained in the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) determinations of interfering elements Rb and U using profile fitting are reported in the present manuscript. The X-ray lines Rb Kα and U Lα having serious spectral interference (ΔE = 218 eV), have been used as analytical lines. The intensities of these X-ray lines have been assessed using profile fitting. In order to compare the analytical results of Rb determinations in presence of U, with and without U excitation, synchrotron radiation was tuned to energy just above and below the U Labs edge. This approach shall excite both Rb Kα and U Lα simultaneously and Rb Kα selectively. Finally, the samples were also analyzed with a laboratory based TXRF spectrometer. The analytical results obtained in all these conditions were comparable. The authenticity of the results was assessed by analyzing U with respect to Rb in Rb2U(SO4)3, a standard reference material for U. The average precision obtained for TXRF determinations was below 3% (RSD, n = 3, 1σ) and the percent deviation of TXRF values from the expected values calculated on the basis of sample preparation was within 3%.

  19. Interfering with free recall of words: Detrimental effects of phonological competition.

    Fernandes, Myra A; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Priselac, Sandra; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-09-01

    We examined the effect of different distracting tasks, performed concurrently during memory retrieval, on recall of a list of words. By manipulating the type of material and processing (semantic, orthographic, and phonological) required in the distracting task, and comparing the magnitude of memory interference produced, we aimed to infer the kind of representation upon which retrieval of words depends. In Experiment 1, identifying odd digits concurrently during free recall disrupted memory, relative to a full attention condition, when the numbers were presented orthographically (e.g. nineteen), but not numerically (e.g. 19). In Experiment 2, a distracting task that required phonological-based decisions to either word or picture material produced large, but equivalent effects on recall of words. In Experiment 3, phonological-based decisions to pictures in a distracting task disrupted recall more than when the same pictures required semantically-based size estimations. In Experiment 4, a distracting task that required syllable decisions to line drawings interfered significantly with recall, while an equally difficult semantically-based color-decision task about the same line drawings, did not. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the degree of memory interference experienced during recall of words depends primarily on whether the distracting task competes for phonological representations or processes, and less on competition for semantic or orthographic or material-specific representations or processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amides are excellent mimics of phosphate internucleoside linkages and are well tolerated in short interfering RNAs.

    Mutisya, Daniel; Selvam, Chelliah; Lunstad, Benjamin D; Pallan, Pradeep S; Haas, Amanda; Leake, Devin; Egli, Martin; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an important tool in functional genomics and has an intriguing therapeutic potential. However, the current design of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is not optimal for in vivo applications. Non-ionic phosphate backbone modifications may have the potential to improve the properties of siRNAs, but are little explored in RNAi technologies. Using X-ray crystallography and RNAi activity assays, the present study demonstrates that 3'-CH2-CO-NH-5' amides are excellent replacements for phosphodiester internucleoside linkages in RNA. The crystal structure shows that amide-modified RNA forms a typical A-form duplex. The amide carbonyl group points into the major groove and assumes an orientation that is similar to the P-OP2 bond in the phosphate linkage. Amide linkages are well hydrated by tandem waters linking the carbonyl group and adjacent phosphate oxygens. Amides are tolerated at internal positions of both the guide and passenger strand of siRNAs and may increase the silencing activity when placed near the 5'-end of the passenger strand. As a result, an siRNA containing eight amide linkages is more active than the unmodified control. The results suggest that RNAi may tolerate even more extensive amide modification, which may be useful for optimization of siRNAs for in vivo applications. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Amides are excellent mimics of phosphate internucleoside linkages and are well tolerated in short interfering RNAs

    Mutisya, Daniel; Selvam, Chelliah; Lunstad, Benjamin D.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Haas, Amanda; Leake, Devin; Egli, Martin; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an important tool in functional genomics and has an intriguing therapeutic potential. However, the current design of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is not optimal for in vivo applications. Non-ionic phosphate backbone modifications may have the potential to improve the properties of siRNAs, but are little explored in RNAi technologies. Using X-ray crystallography and RNAi activity assays, the present study demonstrates that 3′-CH2-CO-NH-5′ amides are excellent replacements for phosphodiester internucleoside linkages in RNA. The crystal structure shows that amide-modified RNA forms a typical A-form duplex. The amide carbonyl group points into the major groove and assumes an orientation that is similar to the P–OP2 bond in the phosphate linkage. Amide linkages are well hydrated by tandem waters linking the carbonyl group and adjacent phosphate oxygens. Amides are tolerated at internal positions of both the guide and passenger strand of siRNAs and may increase the silencing activity when placed near the 5′-end of the passenger strand. As a result, an siRNA containing eight amide linkages is more active than the unmodified control. The results suggest that RNAi may tolerate even more extensive amide modification, which may be useful for optimization of siRNAs for in vivo applications. PMID:24813446

  3. Rosiglitazone Inhibits Adrenocortical Cancer Cell Proliferation by Interfering with the IGF-IR Intracellular Signaling

    Luconi Michaela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone (RGZ, a thiazolidinedione ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, has been recently described as possessing antitumoral properties. We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR. We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC. Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ. The analysis of the main intracellular signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K-Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 cascades reveals that RGZ rapidly interferes with the Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation which mediates IGF-I stimulated proliferation. In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

  4. Defective-interfering particles of the human parvovirus adeno-associated virus

    Laughlin, C.A.; Myers, M.W.; Risin, D.L.; Carter, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus (AAV) grown in KB cells with a helper adenovirus, produced several classes of particles defined by their buoyant density in CsCl. The predominant density classes were referred to as AAV(1.45), AAV(1.41), AAV (1.35), and AAV(1.32), respectively, where the density of the particle was written in the parentheses. The AAV(1.45) and AAV(1.41) particles which contained standard genomes were the only infectious AAV these infectious AAV particles exhibited autointerference. The ligh-density AAV(1.35) and (1.32) particles contained aberrant (deleted and/or snap-back) genomes. We report here experiments which show that the light-density AAV particles were noninfectious but interfered with the replication of AAV(1.41). The interference was intracellular and resulted in inhibition of synthesis of standard (14.5S) AAV genomes. In some cases there was also a concomitant increase in synthesis of aberrant, shorter AAV DNA. The inhibitory activity of the light-density particles was abolished by uv irradiation. These results show that the population of light AAV particles contained DI particles. The observed autointerference of AAV(1.45) or AAV(1.41) virus is postulated to be due to AAV DI particles. Replication of AAV DI genomes appeared to require the presence of replicating, standard AAV genomes. This is interpreted to mean that progeny strand replication of AAV requires an AAV-specified product, presumably the AAV capsid protein. In contrast to standard, infectious AAV, the AAV DI particles alone do not inhibit replication of the helper adenovirus

  5. Self-recognition mechanism between skin and suckers prevents octopus arms from interfering with each other.

    Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W; Hochner, Binyamin

    2014-06-02

    Controlling movements of flexible arms is a challenging task for the octopus because of the virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) [1, 2]. Octopuses simplify this control by using stereotypical motion patterns that reduce the DOFs, in the control space, to a workable few [2]. These movements are triggered by the brain and are generated by motor programs embedded in the peripheral neuromuscular system of the arm [3-5]. The hundreds of suckers along each arm have a tendency to stick to almost any object they contact [6-9]. The existence of this reflex could pose significant problems with unplanned interactions between the arms if not appropriately managed. This problem is likely to be accentuated because it is accepted that octopuses are "not aware of their arms" [10-14]. Here we report of a self-recognition mechanism that has a novel role in motor control, restraining the arms from interfering with each other. We show that the suckers of amputated arms never attach to octopus skin because a chemical in the skin inhibits the attachment reflex of the suckers. The peripheral mechanism appears to be overridden by central control because, in contrast to amputated arms, behaving octopuses sometime grab amputated arms. Surprisingly, octopuses seem to identify their own amputated arms, as they treat arms of other octopuses like food more often than their own. This self-recognition mechanism is a novel peripheral component in the embodied organization of the adaptive interactions between the octopus's brain, body, and environment [15, 16]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipose tissue conditioned media support macrophage lipid-droplet biogenesis by interfering with autophagic flux.

    Bechor, Sapir; Nachmias, Dikla; Elia, Natalie; Haim, Yulia; Vatarescu, Maayan; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Gericke, Martin; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Las, Guy; Rudich, Assaf

    2017-09-01

    Obesity promotes the biogenesis of adipose tissue (AT) foam cells (FC), which contribute to AT insulin resistance. Autophagy, an evolutionarily-conserved house-keeping process, was implicated in cellular lipid handling by either feeding and/or degrading lipid-droplets (LDs). We hypothesized that beyond phagocytosis of dead adipocytes, AT-FC biogenesis is supported by the AT microenvironment by regulating autophagy. Non-polarized ("M0") RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to AT conditioned media (AT-CM) exhibited a markedly enhanced LDs biogenesis rate compared to control cells (8.3 Vs 0.3 LDs/cells/h, p<0.005). Autophagic flux was decreased by AT-CM, and fluorescently following autophagosomes over time revealed ~20% decline in new autophagic vesicles' formation rate, and 60-70% decrease in autophagosomal growth rate, without marked alternations in the acidic lysosomal compartment. Suppressing autophagy by either targeting autophagosome formation (pharmacologically, with 3-methyladenine or genetically, with Atg12±Atg7-siRNA), decreased the rate of LD formation induced by oleic acid. Conversely, interfering with late autophago-lysosomal function, either pharmacologically with bafilomycin-A1, chloroquine or leupeptin, enhanced LD formation in macrophages without affecting LD degradation rate. Similarly enhanced LD biogenesis rate was induced by siRNA targeting Lamp-1 or the V-ATPase. Collectively, we propose that secreted products from AT interrupt late autophagosome maturation in macrophages, supporting enhanced LDs biogenesis and AT-FC formation, thereby contributing to AT dysfunction in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  8. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  9. Factors interfering with the accuracy of five blood glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals.

    Lv, Hong; Zhang, Guo-jun; Kang, Xi-xiong; Yuan, Hui; Lv, Yan-wei; Wang, Wen-wen; Randall, Rollins

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in China. Glucose control is very important in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of five glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals with a reference method, in the absence and presence of various factors that may interfere with the meters. Within-run precision of the meters was evaluated include Roche Accu-Chek Inform®, Abbott Precision PCx FreeStyle®, Bayer Contour®, J&J LifeScan SureStep Flexx®, and Nova Biomedical StatStrip®. The interference of hematocrit level, maltose, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, galactose, dopamine, and uric acid were tested in three levels of blood glucose, namely low, medium, and high concentrations. Accuracy (bias) of the meters and analytical interference by various factors were evaluated by comparing results obtained in whole blood specimens with those in plasma samples of the whole blood specimens run on the reference method. Impact of oxygen tension on above five blood glucose meters was detected. Precision was acceptable and slightly different between meters. There were no significant differences in the measurements between the meters and the reference method. The hematocrit level significantly interfered with all meters, except StatStrip. Measurements were affected to varying degrees by different substances at different glucose levels, e.g. acetaminophen and ascorbic acid (Freestyle), maltose and galactose (FreeStyle, Accu-Chek), uric acid (FreeStyle, Bayer Contour), and dopamine (Bayer Contour). The measurements with the five meters showed a good correlation with the plasma hexokinase reference method, but most were affected by the hematocrit level. Some meters also showed marked interference by other substances. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro, E-mail: soovro@yahoo.ca

    2013-06-01

    the treatments of breast cancer drugs. • Breast cancer drugs induce vasoconstriction by interfering with NO pathway. • NO donors, cGMP analogs rescue breast cancer drug induced endothelial dysfunctions.

  11. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2013-01-01

    the treatments of breast cancer drugs. • Breast cancer drugs induce vasoconstriction by interfering with NO pathway. • NO donors, cGMP analogs rescue breast cancer drug induced endothelial dysfunctions

  12. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  13. Transfection of small RNAs globally perturbs gene regulation by endogenous microRNAs

    Khan, Aly A; Betel, Doron; Miller, Martin L

    2009-01-01

    Transfection of small RNAs (such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs)) into cells typically lowers expression of many genes. Unexpectedly, increased expression of genes also occurs. We investigated whether this upregulation results from a saturation effect--that is, competiti...

  14. Amide linkages mimic phosphates in RNA interactions with proteins and are well tolerated in the guide strand of short interfering RNAs.

    Mutisya, Daniel; Hardcastle, Travis; Cheruiyot, Samwel K; Pallan, Pradeep S; Kennedy, Scott D; Egli, Martin; Kelley, Melissa L; Smith, Anja van Brabant; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-08-21

    While the use of RNA interference (RNAi) in molecular biology and functional genomics is a well-established technology, in vivo applications of synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) require chemical modifications. We recently found that amides as non-ionic replacements for phosphodiesters may be useful modifications for optimization of siRNAs. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of systematic replacement of a single phosphate with an amide linkage throughout the guide strand of siRNAs. The results show that amides are surprisingly well tolerated in the seed and central regions of the guide strand and increase the silencing activity when placed between nucleosides 10 and 12, at the catalytic site of Argonaute. A potential explanation is provided by the first crystal structure of an amide-modified RNA-DNA with Bacillus halodurans RNase H1. The structure reveals how small changes in both RNA and protein conformation allow the amide to establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these alternative binding modes may compensate for interactions lost due to the absence of a phosphodiester moiety. Our results suggest that an amide can mimic important hydrogen bonding interactions with proteins required for RNAi activity and may be a promising modification for optimization of biological properties of siRNAs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Amide linkages mimic phosphates in RNA interactions with proteins and are well tolerated in the guide strand of short interfering RNAs

    Mutisya, Daniel; Hardcastle, Travis; Cheruiyot, Samwel K.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Kennedy, Scott D.; Egli, Martin; Kelley, Melissa L.; Smith, Anja van Brabant; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-06-27

    While the use of RNA interference (RNAi) in molecular biology and functional genomics is a well-established technology, in vivo applications of synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) require chemical modifications. We recently found that amides as non-ionic replacements for phosphodiesters may be useful modifications for optimization of siRNAs. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of systematic replacement of a single phosphate with an amide linkage throughout the guide strand of siRNAs. The results show that amides are surprisingly well tolerated in the seed and central regions of the guide strand and increase the silencing activity when placed between nucleosides 10 and 12, at the catalytic site of Argonaute. A potential explanation is provided by the first crystal structure of an amide-modified RNA–DNA with Bacillus halodurans RNase H1. The structure reveals how small changes in both RNA and protein conformation allow the amide to establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these alternative binding modes may compensate for interactions lost due to the absence of a phosphodiester moiety. Our results suggest that an amide can mimic important hydrogen bonding interactions with proteins required for RNAi activity and may be a promising modification for optimization of biological properties of siRNAs.

  16. Desarrollo de panuveítis por tuberculosis en paciente con esclerosis múltiple tratado con interferón beta

    Lucía Echevarría Lucas

    2016-09-01

    Los linfocitos CD4+ T, leucocitos, macrófagos y granulocitos, con la producción de sus mediadores interferón gamma, IL-12 o TNF-α son fundamentales para controlar al Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Por ello, antes de introducir Interferón beta 1b, convendría realizar técnicas de screening, como la prueba de Mantoux o el interferon gamma release assay–(quantiferon-TB para detectar posibles tuberculosis latentes potencialmente activables.

  17. A Novel Polyaminocarboxylate Compound To Treat Murine Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Interfering with Zinc Metabolism.

    Laskaris, Paris; Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Helynck, Olivier; Jouvion, Grégory; Calera, José Antonio; du Merle, Laurence; Suzenet, Franck; Buron, Frédéric; de Sousa, Rodolphe Alves; Mansuy, Daniel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima

    2018-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus can cause pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients and is associated with a high mortality rate due to a lack of reliable treatment options. This opportunistic pathogen requires zinc in order to grow and cause disease. Novel compounds that interfere with fungal zinc metabolism may therefore be of therapeutic interest. We screened chemical libraries containing 59,223 small molecules using a resazurin assay that compared their effects on an A. fumigatus wild-type strain grown under zinc-limiting conditions and on a zinc transporter knockout strain grown under zinc-replete conditions to identify compounds affecting zinc metabolism. After a first screen, 116 molecules were selected whose inhibitory effects on fungal growth were further tested by using luminescence assays and hyphal length measurements to confirm their activity, as well as by toxicity assays on HeLa cells and mice. Six compounds were selected following a rescreening, of which two were pyrazolones, two were porphyrins, and two were polyaminocarboxylates. All three groups showed good in vitro activity, but only one of the polyaminocarboxylates was able to significantly improve the survival of immunosuppressed mice suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis. This two-tier screening approach led us to the identification of a novel small molecule with in vivo fungicidal effects and low murine toxicity that may lead to the development of new treatment options for fungal infections by administration of this compound either as a monotherapy or as part of a combination therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota Weed interference on carrot crop (Daucus carota

    M Coelho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma importante hortaliça no Brasil, cuja produtividade pode ser muito reduzida devido à interferência de plantas daninhas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar efeitos de períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cenoura cultivar "Brasília" e na comunidade de plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de períodos crescentes de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas. A comunidade de plantas daninhas foi avaliada quanto a número de indivíduos, matéria seca acumulada e frequência de ocorrência das espécies, e a cultura, quanto à produtividade comercial. As principais plantas daninhas foram Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica e Lepidium virginicum. A presença da comunidade de plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura pode acarretar perdas de 94% na produtividade, evidenciando alta suscetibilidade da cenoura à interferência das plantas daninhas. Contudo, não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, e um único controle das plantas daninhas, entre 22 e 31 dias após a semeadura, foi suficiente para garantir a produção da cultura.Carrot is an important horticultural crop in Brazil, and its productivity may be highly reduced due to weed interference. This study evaluated the effects of weed coexistence periods on carrot cultivar 'Brasilia' yield and on the weed community. The treatments were constituted of increasing weed coexistence periods or weed-free periods. The weed community was evaluated based on number of individuals, dry matter accumulation, and frequency of occurrence; while the crop was evaluated based on marketable productivity. The main weeds were Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica, and Lepidium virginicum. The presence of the weed community throughout the crop season can cause yield losses of 94%, showing high susceptibility of the carrot crop to weed interference. However, there was no critical period for

  19. Una aproximació ontològica de la interfície d’Internet i les implicacions en el disseny.

    Francesc Morera Vidal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La seva estructura d'Internet no és uniforme ni ordenada en el sentit de “prevista”, sinó que més aviat és adaptable i caòtica. El punt de contacte entre l’emissor i el receptor final de la informació digital és la interfície. La forma habitual de la interfície és la de pantalla.La interfície no ofereix una connexió neutre en cap de les dues direccions de la comunicació a la xarxa. El control de l’aparença de la interfície condicionarà aquesta comunicació. En un mitjà sincrètic com Internet, el disseny de la interfície té influència en el desplaçament dels centres de poder.

  20. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. [Interfering effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and lingustrazine on mm-LDL activating BKCa in ECV304 cell].

    Lin, L; Zheng, Y F; Qu, J H; Bao, G H

    2001-08-01

    To observe the action of minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) on BKCa in ECV304 cell and the interfering effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract powder 764-3 (30 micrograms/ml) and lingustrazine (200 micrograms/ml) on this action. The cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique was applied. mm-LDL (100 micrograms/ml) potentiated the activity of BKCa in ECV304. While 764-3 and lingustrazine abolished it. mm-LDL acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKCa and might result in the increase of electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx, thus resting cytoplasmic concentration of calcium could be elevated and endothelial dysfunction would be induced. 764-3 and lingustrazine might have the protective action through decreasing the activity of BKCa.

  2. The use of tetracycline as complexing agent for the separation of interfering elements during uranium activation analysis

    Petrauskas, R.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for uranium separation, when its determination could not be performed by non-destructive neutron activation analysis due to the presence of interfering elements. Th, Zn, Na, Ta, Fe, W, Mo, Ag and the lanthanides were considered interferents because some of these elements, via (n, γ) reactions, form the same radioisotopes produced in the fission of 235 U, or radioisotopes that emit gamma-rays with energies close to the ones emitted by 239 Np or by the fission products of 235 U. Besides they could form radioisotopes whose Compton continuum makes difficult the detection of the gamma-rays of 239 Np and the fission products of 235 U. The separation method is based on the extraction of uranium from the interfering elements using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. Adequate conditions for the separation were studied and extraction curves of uranium and interferents were obtained separately and in the presence of a solution of uranium ore from the IAEA. Separation of uranium from Na, Ag and Zn was achieved with a single extraction operation and by controlling the pH of the aqueous phase. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was used as masking agent for uranium separation from Fe, Th and lanthanides. For other elements, the separation was partial, meaning that about 11% of W, 32% of Mo and 5% of Ta were extracted together with uranium after two extraction operations (extraction and washing). Chemical separation presented a recovery of 97% for uranium. After separation an aliquot of organic phase containing uranium was irradiated for uranium and isotopic ratio 235 U/ 238 U determinations. This method was applied in the analysis of the following ores: standard S-7 (pitchblende) provided by IAEA, monazite and an ore called 'goianita' from the state of Goias (GO, Brazil). The accuracy and precision of results were discussed, and the isotopic ratio results indicated that the ores analysed present an isotopic abundance of natural uranium. (Author

  3. Small Data

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  4. Lithocholic acid is an Eph-ephrin ligand interfering with Eph-kinase activation.

    Carmine Giorgio

    Full Text Available Eph-ephrin system plays a central role in a large variety of human cancers. In fact, alterated expression and/or de-regulated function of Eph-ephrin system promotes tumorigenesis and development of a more aggressive and metastatic tumour phenotype. In particular EphA2 upregulation is correlated with tumour stage and progression and the expression of EphA2 in non-transformed cells induces malignant transformation and confers tumorigenic potential. Based on these evidences our aim was to identify small molecules able to modulate EphA2-ephrinA1 activity through an ELISA-based binding screening. We identified lithocholic acid (LCA as a competitive and reversible ligand inhibiting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction (Ki =  49 µM. Since each ephrin binds many Eph receptors, also LCA does not discriminate between different Eph-ephrin binding suggesting an interaction with a highly conserved region of Eph receptor family. Structurally related bile acids neither inhibited Eph-ephrin binding nor affected Eph phosphorylation. Conversely, LCA inhibited EphA2 phosphorylation induced by ephrinA1-Fc in PC3 and HT29 human prostate and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (IC(50  = 48 and 66 µM, respectively without affecting cell viability or other receptor tyrosine-kinase (EGFR, VEGFR, IGFR1β, IRKβ activity. LCA did not inhibit the enzymatic kinase activity of EphA2 at 100 µM (LANCE method confirming to target the Eph-ephrin protein-protein interaction. Finally, LCA inhibited cell rounding and retraction induced by EphA2 activation in PC3 cells. In conclusion, our findings identified a hit compound useful for the development of molecules targeting ephrin system. Moreover, as ephrin signalling is a key player in the intestinal cell renewal, our work could provide an interesting starting point for further investigations about the role of LCA in the intestinal homeostasis.

  5. Antiviral activity of Small interfering RNAs: Specificity testing using heterologous virus reveals interferon-related effects overlooked by conventional mismatch controls

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2006-01-01

    to the viral glycoprotein gene of the target-virus efficiently inhibited viral multiplication in infected cell cultures, while two of three corresponding mismatched siRNAs did not have this effect. This suggested specific interference, but similar results were obtained when the same siRNAs were tested against...... a heterologous virus. Further analyses revealed that the siRNAs induced a non-target-specific anti-viral effect correlating with upregulation of the interferon induced Mx gene....

  6. Knockdown of Ki-67 by dicer-substrate small interfering RNA sensitizes bladder cancer cells to curcumin-induced tumor inhibition.

    Sivakamasundari Pichu

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR. However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a large nucleolar phosphoprotein whose expression is tightly linked to cell proliferation, and curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess powerful anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the combined efficacy of curcumin and a siRNA against Ki-67 mRNA (Ki-67-7 in rat (AY-27 and human (T-24 bladder cancer cells. The anticancer effects were assessed by the determination of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Ki-67-7 (10 nM and curcumin (10 µM, when treated independently, were moderately effective. However, in their combined presence, proliferation of bladder cancer cells was profoundly (>85% inhibited; the rate of apoptosis in the combined presence of curcumin and Ki-67-7 (36% was greater than that due to Ki-67-7 (14% or curcumin (13% alone. A similar synergy between curcumin and Ki-67-7 in inducing cell cycle arrest was also observed. Western blot analysis suggested that pretreatment with Ki-67-7 sensitized bladder cancer cells to curcumin-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by p53- and p21-independent mechanisms. These data suggest that a combination of anti-Ki-67 siRNA and curcumin could be a viable treatment against the proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

  7. Efectos adversos del tratamiento con interferón alfa-2b humano recombinante y rivabirina en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C

    Mulet Pérez, Agustín; Pullés Labadié, Menelio; Gámez Escalona, Martha; Mulet Gámez, Agustín; Díaz Santos, Oscar; Infante Velázquez, Mirtha

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el tratamiento de la hepatitis crónica C continúa siendo un reto. La combinación que mejores resultados ha demostrado, es la de interferón con ribavirina, pero puede originar efectos adversos con dificultades para la adherencia al tratamiento que en ocasiones, incluso, obligan a suspenderlo. OBJETIVO: identificar las reacciones adversas del tratamiento de la combinación de interferón con ribavirina. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de una serie de 13 pacientes con hepatitis crónic...

  8. Small Data

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  9. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. An unusual cysteine VL87 affects the antibody fragment conformations without interfering with the disulfide bond formation.

    Attallah, Carolina; Aguilar, María Fernanda; Garay, A Sergio; Herrera, Fernando E; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Oggero, Marcos; Rodrigues, Daniel E

    2017-10-01

    The Cys residues are almost perfectly conserved in all antibodies. They contribute significantly to the antibody fragment stability. The relevance of two natural contiguous Cys residues of an anti-recombinant human-follicle stimulation hormone (rhFSH) in a format of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was studied. This scFv contains 5 Cys residues: V H 22 and V H 92 in the variable heavy chain (V H ) and V L 23, V L 87 and V L 88 in the variable light chain (V L ). The influence of two unusual contiguous Cys at positions V L 87 and V L 88 was studied by considering the wild type fragment and mutant variants: V L -C88S, V L -C87S, V L -C87Y. The analysis was carried out using antigen-binding ability measurement by indirect specific ELISA and a detailed molecular modeling that comprises homology methods, long molecular dynamics simulations and docking. We found that V L -C87 affected the antibody fragment stability without interfering with the disulfide bond formation. The effect of mutating the V L -C87 by a usual residue at this position like Tyr caused distant structural changes at the V H region that confers a higher mobility to the V H -CDR2 and V H -CDR3 loops improving the scFv binding to the antigen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yeast as a model host to study replication and recombination of defective interfering RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus

    Panavas, Tadas; Nagy, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) RNA associated with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a plus-strand RNA virus, requires p33 and p92 proteins of TBSV or the related Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), for replication in plants. To test if DI RNA can replicate in a model host, we coexpressed TBSV DI RNA and p33/p92 of CNV in yeast. We show evidence for replication of DI RNA in yeast, including (i) dependence on p33 and p92 for DI replication; (ii) presence of active CNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in isolated membrane-containing preparations; (iii) increasing amount of DI RNA(+) over time; (iv) accumulation of (-)stranded DI RNA; (v) presence of correct 5' and 3' ends in DI RNA; (vi) inhibition of replication by mutations in the replication enhancer; and (vii) evolution of DI RNA over time, as shown by sequence heterogeneity. We also produced evidence supporting the occurrence of DI RNA recombinants in yeast. In summary, development of yeast as a host for replication of TBSV DI RNA will facilitate studies on the roles of viral and host proteins in replication/recombination

  12. Cyclosporin A inhibits the propagation of influenza virus by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle.

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Harazaki, Kazuhiro; Inase, Naohiko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a global public health problem that causes a serious respiratory disease. Influenza virus frequently undergoes amino acid substitutions, which result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To control influenza viruses that are resistant to currently available drugs, it is essential to develop new antiviral drugs with a novel molecular target. Here, we report that cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the propagation of influenza virus in A549 cells by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle. CsA did not affect adsorption, internalization, viral RNA replication, or synthesis of viral proteins in A549 cells, but inhibited the step(s) after viral protein synthesis, such as assembly or budding. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the expression of the major CsA targets, namely cyclophilin A (CypA), cyclophilin B (CypB), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), did not inhibit influenza virus propagation. These results suggest that CsA inhibits virus propagation by mechanism(s) independent of the inhibition of the function of CypA, CypB, and Pgp. CsA may target an unknown molecule that works as a positive regulator in the propagation of influenza virus. Our findings would contribute to the development of a novel anti-influenza virus therapy and clarification of the regulatory mechanism of influenza virus multiplication.

  13. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  14. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus inhibits wound healing by interfering with host defense and repair mechanisms.

    Athanasopoulos, Athanasios N; Economopoulou, Matina; Orlova, Valeria V; Sobke, Astrid; Schneider, Darius; Weber, Holger; Augustin, Hellmut G; Eming, Sabine A; Schubert, Uwe; Linn, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter P; Hussain, Muzaffar; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Herrmann, Mathias; Preissner, Klaus T; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2006-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen interfering with host-cell functions. Impaired wound healing is often observed in S aureus-infected wounds, yet, the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we identify the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S aureus to be responsible for impaired wound healing. In a mouse wound-healing model wound closure was inhibited in the presence of wild-type S aureus and this effect was reversible when the wounds were incubated with an isogenic Eap-deficient strain. Isolated Eap also delayed wound closure. In the presence of Eap, recruitment of inflammatory cells to the wound site as well as neovascularization of the wound were prevented. In vitro, Eap significantly reduced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent leukocyte-endothelial interactions and diminished the consequent activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) in leukocytes associated with a decrease in expression of tissue factor. Moreover, Eap blocked alphav-integrin-mediated endothelial-cell migration and capillary tube formation, and neovascularization in matrigels in vivo. Collectively, the potent anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of Eap provide an underlying mechanism that may explain the impaired wound healing in S aureus-infected wounds. Eap may also serve as a lead compound for new anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic therapies in several pathologies.

  15. Effect of interfering reactions on the determination of iodine-129 concentrations in the enviroment by activation analysis

    Filistovich, V.; Nedvetskajte, T.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the interfering reactions sup(235)U(n, f) sup(129)In(n, γ)sup(130)I, sup(128)Te(n, γ)sup(129)Te, sup(129)Te(Tsub(1/2)sup(βsup(-))=69.6 min) sup(129)I(n, γ)sup(130)I and sup(127)I(3n, γ)sup(130)I on the measurements by the activation analysis method of the background sup(129)I concentrations in the environment has been investigated. The calculations have shown that these reactions may result in considerable errors. A pretreatment of samples before their irradiation in a reactor is therefore needed. It is recommended to use the destructive distillation method. A nomogram is given with the help of which it is possible to determine the optimal time for the sample irradiation in the reactor after the sup(127)I concentrations have bee nevaluated in the samples, because the considerable amount of the sup(129)I can be generated from the sup(127)I by the triple neutron capture

  16. Small hydro

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.

    1995-01-01

    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  17. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  18. Argonaute: The executor of small RNA function.

    Azlan, Azali; Dzaki, Najat; Azzam, Ghows

    2016-08-20

    The discovery of small non-coding RNAs - microRNA (miRNA), short interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) - represents one of the most exciting frontiers in biology specifically on the mechanism of gene regulation. In order to execute their functions, these small RNAs require physical interactions with their protein partners, the Argonaute (AGO) family proteins. Over the years, numerous studies have made tremendous progress on understanding the roles of AGO in gene silencing in various organisms. In this review, we summarize recent progress of AGO-mediated gene silencing and other cellular processes in which AGO proteins have been implicated with a particular focus on progress made in flies, humans and other model organisms as compliment. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Small RNA Profiling in Dengue Virus 2-Infected Aedes Mosquito Cells Reveals Viral piRNAs and Novel Host miRNAs

    Miesen, P.; Ivens, A.; Buck, A.H.; Rij, R.P. van

    2016-01-01

    In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of

  20. Cloned defective interfering influenza virus protects ferrets from pandemic 2009 influenza A virus and allows protective immunity to be established.

    Nigel J Dimmock

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1. Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes.

  1. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  2. Mecanismos efectores del interferón gamma contra la infección por Toxoplasma gondii

    Jorge Enrique Gómez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondiies un protozoario parásito de desarrollo intracelular. La enfermedad humana producida por T: gondii es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal y en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. En esta reseña, se revisan los conocimientos actuales sobre los mecanismos efectores del interferón gamma (IFN y, la principal citocina protectora contra Igondii, incluyendo los resultados que hemos obtenido en un modelo de infección in vifro de células humanas monocitarias (THPI. El IFN y protege las células humanas contra T gondii por mecanismos diferentes a aquéllos con los que protege las células de ratón. En el modelo de infección de célulasTHP1, el IFN y protege por dos mecanismos independientes. Un primer efecto es la reducción del porcentaje de células parasitadas, el cual está ligado a una disminución de la actividad PLA, parasitaria y celular. Se trata de un nuevo mecanismo efector del IFN y contra la infección toxoplásmica, diferente a los mecanismos parasiticidas y parasitostáticos previamente descritos. Un segundo efecto ocurre por interrupción del crecimiento parasitario intracelular a través de la activación de la enzima indoleamina-oxigenasa que degrada el triptófano, lo que constituye un efecto parasitostático. Contrariamente a lo que ocurre en el modelo de infección de células monocitarias de ratón, la producción de óxido nítrico (NO no juega un papel determinante en los monocitos humanos.

  3. Alcohol dysregulates corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH promoter activity by interfering with the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE.

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB. In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter.

  4. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  5. Interferência por RNA: uma nova alternativa para terapia nas doenças reumáticas RNA interference: a new alternative for rheumatic diseases therapy

    Natália Regine de França

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A interferência por RNA (RNAi é um mecanismo de silenciamento gênico pós-transcricional conservado durante a evolução. Esse mecanismo, recentemente descrito, é mediado por pequenos RNAs de fita dupla (dsRNAs capazes de reconhecer especificamente uma sequência de mRNA-alvo e mediar sua clivagem ou repressão traducional. O emprego da RNAi como uma ferramenta de terapia gênica tem sido muito estudado, especialmente em infecções virais, câncer, desordens genéticas herdadas, doenças cardiovasculares e mesmo em doenças reumáticas. Aliados aos dados do genoma humano, os conhecimentos do silenciamento gênico mediado por RNAi podem permitir a determinação funcional de praticamente qualquer gene expresso em uma célula e sua implicação para o funcionamento e homeostase celular. Vários estudos terapêuticos in vitro e in vivo em modelos de doenças autoimunes vêm sendo realizados com resultados encorajadores. As vias de quebra de tolerância e inflamação são alvos potenciais para terapia com RNAi em doenças inflamatórias e autoimunes. Nesta revisão vamos recordar os princípios básicos da RNAi e discutir os aspectos que levaram ao desenvolvimento de propostas terapêuticas baseadas em RNAi, começando pelos estudos in vitro de desenvolvimento de ferramentas e identificação de alvos, chegando até os estudos pré-clínicos de disponibilização da droga in vivo, e testes em células humanas e modelos animais de doenças autoimunes. Por fim, vamos revisar os últimos avanços da experiência clínica da terapia com RNAiRNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism preserved during evolution. This mechanism, recently described, is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs that can specifically recognize a target mRNA sequence and mediate its cleavage or translational repression. The use of RNAi as a tool for gene therapy has been extensively studied, especially in viral infections, cancer

  6. Small RNA-Mediated Epigenetic Myostatin Silencing

    Thomas C Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor that negatively regulates muscle mass and is therefore a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here we describe a novel Mstn blockade approach in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs complementary to a promoter-associated transcript induce transcriptional gene silencing (TGS in two differentiated mouse muscle cell lines. Silencing is sensitive to treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, and the silent state chromatin mark H3K9me2 is enriched at the Mstn promoter following siRNA transfection, suggesting epigenetic remodeling underlies the silencing effect. These observations suggest that long-term epigenetic silencing may be feasible for Mstn and that TGS is a promising novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders.

  7. Small talk

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  8. Small Composers

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  9. Estudo de revisão sobre a interferência de hipoglicemiantes orais no exame químico de urina

    Carolina Machado Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A diabetes mellitus (DM é uma doença que vem aumentando exponencialmente nos últimos anos de vida dos indivíduos, e uma opção de tratamento farmacológico é feito através dos hipoglicemiantes orais (HO. Em virtude de serem substâncias amplamente utilizadas e terem como principal via de excreção a urinária, este tratamento pode provocar variações nos resultados dos parâmetros urinários. Portanto, este estudo tem a finalidade de avaliar a interferência causada pelo uso de hipoglicemiantes no exame de urina. Para esta investigação, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diferentes bases de dados, selecionando os artigos pertinentes ao tema: diabetes, interferências laboratoriais e tratamento farmacológico. Os HO podem ser classificados em três grupos de acordo com o mecanismo de ação: estimuladores de insulinas pelo pâncreas, como sulfoniluréias e metiglinidas; as sensibilizadoras de insulina, são as biguanidas, as tiazolidinedionas e as redutoras da absorção de carboidratos, que são as inibidoras da alfa-glicosidase. O exame de urina é uma ferramenta complementar no controle da DM devido a sua fácil coleta e baixo custo. As classes de hipoglicemiantes orais identificados como potencialmente interferentes no exame de urina foram as biguanidas (metformina e as sulfoniluréias (tobultamida, tolazamida, glicazida, clorpropramida. Resultam em interferência nos parâmetros densidade, proteínas, glicose, cetonas e bilirrubinas, levando a um diagnóstico inadequado e um tratamento insatisfatório gerando prejuízos ao bem estar do paciente.

  10. Determinación paramétrica de los ejes de rotación de las articulaciones interfalángicas de los dedos

    Jarque Bou, Néstor; Sancho-Bru, Joaquin L.; Vergara Monedero, Margarita; Pérez González, Antonio; Roda Sales, Alba; Mestre Vicent, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en el XXI Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Mecánica, celebrado en Elche en Noviembre de 2016. Los ejes de rotación de las articulaciones interfalángicas de los dedos son aproximadamente paralelos a los pliegues de flexión. Sin embargo, los modelos biomecánicos y ergonómicos existentes suelen considerar ejes de rotación paralelos entre sí y perpendiculares a los ejes longitudinales de las falanges. Recientemente se han utilizado técnicas de resonancia magnéti...

  11. Interfering elements in activation analysis. Study of instrumental analysis possibilities for the groups: Sc-Zn, Hg-Se and As-Sb-Br

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Atalla, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups Sc-Zn, Hg-Se and As-Sb-Br represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis, since the energy values of the gamma-ray photopeaks of the radioisotopes of these elements formed by thermal neutron activation are very closely located in the spectrum. A study is presented of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique. For this purpose, artificial mixtures of the interfering elements, in varying proportions, were prepared. Radiochemical separations procedures for the above mentioned elements were also studied by means of tracers. (Author) [pt

  12. A Multifunctional Envelope-Type Nano Device Containing a pH-Sensitive Cationic Lipid for Efficient Delivery of Short Interfering RNA to Hepatocytes In Vivo.

    Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    Various types of nanoparticles have been developed with the intent of efficiently delivering short interfering RNA (siRNA) to hepatocytes to date. To achieve efficient SiRNA delivery, various aspects of the delivery processes and physical properties need to be considered. We recently developed an original lipid nanoparticle, a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) containing YSK05, a pH-sensitive cationic lipid (YSK05-MEND). The YSK05-MEND with SiRNA in its formulation showed hepatocyte-specific uptake and robust gene silencing in hepatocytes after intravenous administration. Here, we describe the procedure used in the preparation and characterization method of the YSK05-MEND.

  13. Interferência e estudo fitossociológico da comunidade infestante na cultura da beterraba transplantada = Interference and phytosociological study of weed communities on transplanted beets

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo fitossociológico e a determinação dos períodos críticos de interferência da comunidade infestante na cultura da beterraba transplantada. Os tratamentos consistiram em períodos semanais crescentes de convivênciae de controle da comunidade infestante, a partir da segunda semana após o transplante das mudas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio do número de indivíduos e da massa seca acumulada correspondente, para cada população de planta daninha e período avaliado. A cultura foi colhida 91 dias após o transplante das mudas, quando se avaliou o diâmetro transversal e a produtividade comercial das raízes. As principais plantas daninhas encontradas foram Amaranthus viridis, Coronopus didymus, Galinsoga parviflora, Nicandraphysaloides e Solanum americanum. As populações encontradas apresentaram alta similaridade entre si. O período anterior à interferência e o período total de prevenção à interferência foram 51 e 35 dias após o transplante das mudas, respectivamente. A produção da beterraba mantida no limpo foi 44,92 t ha-1, e a redução devido à interferência das plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo foi mais de 70%.The objective of this research was to study the phytosociological andcritical interference periods of weed communities on transplanted beets. The treatments consisted of increasing weekly weedy/weed-free periods, starting at the second week after seedling transplanting. The weed community was evaluated based on the number ofindividuals and their corresponding accumulated dry mass, for each weed population and evaluated period. The beets were harvested 91 days after transplanting, followed by evaluation of the cross-sectional diameter and marketable yield. The weed communitieswere composed mainly of Amaranthus viridis, Coronopus didymus, Galinsoga parviflora, Nicandra physaloides and Solanum americanum, and the populations were very similar. The period before weed

  14. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba

    Marcolini,L.W.; Carvalho,L.B.; Cruz,M.B.; Alves,P.L.C.A.; Cecílio Filho,A.B.

    2010-01-01

    A beterraba (Beta vulgaris), importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP,...

  15. Costo-efectividad del tratamiento con interferón beta en pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado de alto riesgo en Colombia

    Luis Alfonso Zarco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En 85 % de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple se presenta como manifestación inicial un primer evento desmielinizante o síndrome clínico aislado. En estos casos, el tratamiento con interferón beta retrasa hasta dos años la progresión a esclerosis múltiple. Sin embargo, en Colombia este medicamento es costoso. Objetivo. Determinar si el tratamiento del síndrome clínico aislado con interferón beta es costo-efectivo al retrasar la esclerosis múltiple en dos años. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis de costo-efectividad empleando un árbol de decisiones basado en la perspectiva del paciente y la sociedad. A partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura y de conceptos de expertos se definieron las diversas probabilidades. Los costos de la enfermedad se calcularon por medio de la revisión de historias y la aplicación de encuestas a los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. Para controlar la incertidumbre se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad mediante una simulación de Monte Carlo con mil pacientes. Resultados. El costo del tratamiento con interferón sobrepasa los Col$ 95’000.000 (US$ 50.000 por paciente durante los dos años. Aproximadamente, 80 % corresponde a los costos del medicamento. El costo de la recaída se acerca a Col$ 39’139.200 (US$ 21.744, y los costos indirectos corresponden a Col$ 10’958.400 (US$ 6.088. La tasa representativa del mercado fue de Col$ 1.800. Con el tratamiento se ganan sólo 0,06 años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD adicionales. La razón de costo-efectividad ‘incremental’ (sic. supera el umbral, incluso en el análisis de sensibilidad. Conclusión. La administración de interferón beta en pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado de alto riesgo en los primeros dos años no es costo-efectiva en Colombia.

  16. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Yoan Antonio; Arús Soler, Enrique; López Saura, Pedro; Nodarse Cuní, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales...

  17. The slicer activity of ARGONAUTE1 is required specifically for the phasing, not production, of trans-acting short interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis

    Arribas Hernandez, Laura; Marchais, Antonin; Poulsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) mediates posttranscriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAS (siRNAs). AGO1-catalyzed RNA cleavage (slicing) represses miRNA targets, but current models also highlight the roles of slicing in formation of siRNAs and siRNA-AGO1 complexes. miRNA-guided s......ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) mediates posttranscriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAS (siRNAs). AGO1-catalyzed RNA cleavage (slicing) represses miRNA targets, but current models also highlight the roles of slicing in formation of siRNAs and siRNA-AGO1 complexes. mi...... is required for assembly of active AGO1-siRNA complexes in vivo, and many AGO1-bound siRNAs are trimmed in the absence of slicer activity. Remarkably, seedlings defective in AGO1 slicer activity produce abundant siRNAs from tasiRNA loci in vivo. These siRNAs depend on RDR6 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3...

  18. L’anàlisi de mediació a través de la macro/interfície Process per a SPSS

    Juan José Fernández Muñoz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El procediment de mediació simple, o també anomenat anàlisi d’efectes directes i indirectes, està dissenyat per analitzar l’efecte d’una variable mediadora en la relació entre una variable independent o explicativa i una altra de dependent o explicada. Process és una interfície aplicada a SPSS que permet fer aquests procediments d’una manera senzilla i ràpida. L’objectiu d’aquest article és explicar de forma clara i amena com es fa una anàlisi de mediació simple amb Process, interfície/macro per a SPSS, que permeti a qualsevol investigador iniciar-se en els procediments de mediació, àmpliament estesos sobretot en ciències socials. Els resultats obtinguts mostren clarament l’existència d’un efecte indirecte sobre la satisfacció amb la formació en línia mediat a través de les actituds cap a la formació. L’ús d'aquesta eina permet de manera ràpida i amb una fàcil interpretació l’aplicació de models de mediació i la comprovació de diferents proves un cop han estat recollides les dades.

  19. FIA-automated system used to electrochemically measure nitrite and its interfering chemicals through a 1-2 DAB / Au electrode: gain of sensitivity at upper potentials

    Almeida, F. L.; dos Santos Filho, S. G.; Fontes, M. B. A.

    2013-03-01

    The measurement of nitrite and its interfering-chemicals (paracetamol, ascorbic acid and uric acid) was performed employing a Flow-injection Analysis (FIA) system, which was automated using solenoid valves and air-pump. It is very important to quantify nitrite from river water, food and biologic fluids due to its antibacterial capacity in moderated concentrations, or its toxicity for human health even at low concentrations (> 20 μmol L-1 in blood fluids). Electrodes of the electrochemical planar sensor were defined by silk-screen technology. The measuring electrode was made from gold paste covered with 1-2 cis Diaminobenzene (DAB), which allowed good selectivity, linearity, repeatability, stability and optimized gain of sensitivity at 0.5 VAg/AgCl Nafion®117 (6.93 μA mol-1 L mm-2) compared to 0.3 VAg/AgCl Nafion® 117. The reference electrode was obtained from silver/palladium paste modified with chloride and covered with Nafion® 117. The auxiliary electrode was made from platinum paste. It was noteworthy that nitrite response adds to the response of the studied interfering-chemicals and it is predominant for concentrations lower than 175 μmol L-1.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Electro-Fenton Process (EFP in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in the Presence of Cyanide, as an Interfering Agent, from Synthetic Wastewaters

    Ali Reza Rahmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromium (VI is a hazardous pollutant that enters into the environment through different industrial wastewater. Therefore, Choice a suitable method for removal of the pollutant before discharging into the environment is necessary. The aim of this work was performance evaluation of Electro-Fenton process (EFP in removal of hexavalent chromium in the presence of cyanide, as an interfering agent, from synthetic wastewaters. Methods: In this experimental study, a reactor with 1 L useful volume and 4 electrodes made ​​of iron was used. pH, initial concentration of  chromium (VI, voltage, hydrogen peroxide and cyanide concentration, as an interfering agent, were investigated in order to determine the process efficiency. Results: Results reveals that the considered parameters were affected on the efficiency of the process. In optimum condition, pH=3 and voltage=20 V, initial concentration=100 mg/L, concentration of hydrogen peroxide=50 mL/L the maximum efficiency was reached up to 97%. Cyanide Presence, in the same condition, reduced the efficiency under 50 % and also, the efficiency was decreased by changing the parameters level from optimum condition. Conclusion: Results indicate the proper efficiency of chromium (VI by EFP process; however presence of other pollutants such as cyanide can cause efficiency decrease which must be considered in the process application.

  1. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas em algodoeiro de fibra colorida 'BRS Safira' Weeds interference periods in naturally colored cotton 'BRS Safira'

    Gleibson Dionízio Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho, identificar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas no algodoeiro de fibra colorida (BRS Safira, bem como avaliar a comunidade infestante nesta cultura. O experimento foi realizado no município de Missão Velha, CE, região do Cariri, na safra 2007/2008. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: modalidades de competição (com e sem competição de plantas daninhas e período de interferência das plantas daninhas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio de dois índices fitossociológicos (Dominância relativa e Importância relativa. Os períodos iniciais de controle ou de convivência após a emergência da cultura foram 0-20; 0-40; 0-60; 0-80 dias após a emergência (DAE e 0-colheita. Os períodos de interferência foram determinados considerando-se perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; realizando-se análise de regressão pelo modelo sigmoidal de Boltzman, utilizando-se os dados de produtividade para cada modalidade de competição. Dentre as 21 espécies observadas na comunidade infestante, destacaram-se: Richardia grandiflora, Amaranthus deflexus, Eleusine indica, Merremia aegyptia, Eragrotis pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus e Waltheria indica. Os períodos críticos anteriores à interferência foram, respectivamente, 8; 14 e 20 DAE, para perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; e os períodos críticos de prevenção a interferências, foram, respectivamente, 100; 82 e 60 dias.This study aimed to determine the late-season presence of weeds in reddish brown cotton (cultivar BRS Safira and the critical times for removing weeds. The experiment was carried out in the area of Embrapa in Missão Velha-CE, Brazil, located at 7º42'07" S latitude and 39º24'18" WGr. longitude, during the 2007/2008 season. The treatments consisted of two control groups: weed-free crop during the initial period after crop emergency

  2. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication.

    Riise, C; Sheikholeslam, A

    1984-07-01

    Quantitative electromyography (EMG) was used to study, in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions, the effects of an experimental intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication. The results show that a small occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position can change the co-ordination of muscular activity during mastication. In general, there was a prolonged contraction time as well as a reduction of the activity in all the investigated elevators, especially on the side of the interference. Furthermore, after 48 h several subjects preferred to chew unilaterally. After removal of the interference, the pattern of co-ordination of muscular activity returned almost to the pre-experimental pattern within 2 weeks.

  3. Interferência de ferro na dosagem de boro no solo com azometina-H em soluções extratoras ácidas

    Ferreira Gilvan Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de métodos que permitam a extração do boro para avaliação da fertilidade do solo para a recomendação de adubação é importante, devido aos baixos teores de boro e aos altos teores de Fe na maioria dos solos brasileiros. A extração com água quente, método-referência, é trabalhosa e apresenta dificuldades operacionais. Por outro lado, soluções de CaCl2 5 mmol/L e BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L são usadas com sucesso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficiência do ácido tioglicólico na eliminação da interferência do Fe na dosagem de B do solo com azometina-H, após extrações com soluções ácidas de Mehlich-1 e HCl (50 e 100 mmol/L. Dosagem com azometina-H, com e sem ácido tioglicólico, foram feitas para oito solos de Minas Gerais e dois solos do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi utilizada como referência, a extração com BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L, com aquecimento em forno de microondas e dosagem com azometina-H; a determinação de B com azometina-H em extratos originados de soluções ácidas sofre forte interferência do Fe. A adição do ácido tioglicólico não remove esta interferência. A coloração do complexo B-azometina-H fica menos estável com a adição do ácido tioglicólico na dosagem do boro.

  4. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.

  5. Small Business Development Center

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  6. Possível interferência da antitoxina tetânica pré-existente, na vacinação antitetânica Possible interference of pre-existing tetanus antitoxin in antitetanus immunization

    Rosalvo Guidolin

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se qual a possível interferência no desenvolvimento da imunidade antitetânica ativa em cobaias e camundongos, filhos de fêmeas vacinadas contra o tétano em diferentes épocas durante o período da prenhês. Verificou-se que a vacinação das fêmeas, em gestação não interferiu, negativamente, no desenvolvimento da imunidade ativa dos animais filhos, quando submetidos à vacinação ao redor de 60 dias após o nascimento. A presença de baixos níveis de anticorpos circulantes, recebidos congenitamente, parece ter, em determinadas condições, estimulado a resposta imunitária quando, posteriormente, os animais filhos foram vacinados contra o tétano. Sugere-se que o complexo antígeno-anticorpo formado seja capaz de melhorar a resposta imunitária induzida pelo toxóide.Possibility of interference in the development of active antitetanic immunity was studied in the offspring of guinea pigs and mice whose mothers had received antitetanic vaccine during different periods of pregnancy. Vaccination of the females during pregnancy did not interfere negatively in the development of active immunity in their offspring when the latter were vaccinated about 60 days after birth. The presence of small amounts of circulating antibodies, congenitally received, seems, under certain conditions, to stimulate the immune response upon posterior vaccination against tetanus. This suggests that the acquired antigen-antibody complex heightens the immune response induced by the toxoid.

  7. Estudo da corrosão por interferência de corrente alternada em estruturas enterradas e desenvolvimento de metodologia para sua detecção

    Sergio Eduardo Abud Filho

    2015-01-01

    Dutos metálicos revestidos, enterrados e protegidos catodicamente, quando são instalados nas proximidades de linhas de transmissão e distribuição de energia elétrica, vêm apresentando problemas de corrosão, sendo esta atribuída às interferências de corrente alternada dispersas no solo. São muitos os critérios propostos na literatura para verificar se um duto está ou não sujeito a esse tipo de problema, mas tais critérios são contraditórios e ineficientes, uma vez que não levam em conta parâme...

  8. Interferência do ácido ascórbico na dosagem glicêmica - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.722

    Aline Cardoso Barbosa; Tania Cristina Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Sabe-se que exames laboratoriais estão sujeitos a fatores interferentes. A literatura científica cita interferência do ácido ascórbico em dosagens que envolvam oxirredução, como a glicêmica. Devido a isto, buscou-se avaliar o efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre a dosagem glicêmica em dois tipos de soro controle submetidos a diferentes concentrações de ácido ascórbico, variando de 2,5 a 100 mg/dL. Utilizou-se um soro controle com valores normais de glicemia e outro com valores patológicos. Observo...

  9. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite in the intercuspal position.

    Sheikholeslam, A; Riise, C

    1983-05-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite, were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results show that, during maximal and submaximal bite an occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position is able to disturb the almost symmetric pattern of muscular activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles. Further, the level of muscular activity during maximal bite decreased significantly in all muscles studied. In some subjects, the decrease of muscular activity could still be observed one week after insertion of the interfering contact. After eliminating the interference, the muscular co-ordination pattern improved and the level of muscular activity increased significantly.

  10. Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery mediates ATP-dependent RISC loading of small RNA duplexes.

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-30

    Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous small RNAs and antibacterial immunity in plants.

    Jin, Hailing

    2008-08-06

    Small RNAs are non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that control gene expression by mediating mRNA degradation, translational inhibition, or chromatin modification. Virus-derived small RNAs induce silencing of viral RNAs and are essential for antiviral defense in both animal and plant systems. The role of host endogenous small RNAs on antibacterial immunity has only recently been recognized. Host disease resistance and defense responses are achieved by activation and repression of a large array of genes. Certain endogenous small RNAs in plants, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are induced or repressed in response to pathogen attack and subsequently regulate the expression of genes involved in disease resistance and defense responses by mediating transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene silencing. Thus, these small RNAs play an important role in gene expression reprogramming in plant disease resistance and defense responses. This review focuses on the recent findings of plant endogenous small RNAs in antibacterial immunity.

  12. Small RNAs in plants: Recent development and application for crop improvement

    Ayushi eKamthan; Abira eChaudhuri; Mohan eKamthan; Asis eDatta

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) which involves sequence-specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RN...

  13. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  14. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  15. Lung cancer - small cell

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  16. Small millets, big potential

    consumption of small millets, mainly due to limited productivity, high ... for effective integration of small millets in the ... replicated in other cities. ... to micro-, small- and medium-entrepreneurs producing millet-based ... and Activities Network,.

  17. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  18. Small Business Size Standards

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  19. Interferência e naturalidade no par português-espanhol: línguas próximas, contraste e ensino de tradução

    Bruna Macedo de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, fruto de nossa pesquisa de mestrado, temos como objetivo refletir sobre a proximidade entre o português e o espanhol e seus efeitos para a tradução. Para tanto, discutiremos os conceitos de interferência e de naturalidade e observaremos como estes se apresentam na análise de nosso corpus de estudo, composto por traduções de uma receita e outras duas atividades relacionadas a tal gênero textual. Buscaremos demonstrar como esse trabalho encontra eco em nossa prática atual, na coordenação do projeto de extensão “Laboratório de Tradução da Unila”, realizado na Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (Unila. Por fim, apontaremos para a necessidade de que pesquisas que tenham como base a comparação entre essas duas línguas sejam utilizadas no ensino e na prática da tradução.

  20. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  1. The PSI/ETH small radiocarbon dating system

    Synal, H.-A.; Jacob, S.; Suter, M.

    2000-01-01

    A small and compact radiocarbon dating system has been built at PSI/ETH. The system is based on a National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) pelletron accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 550 kV. It is the first accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system that uses 1 + ions at the high-energy end of the accelerator. Interfering isobaric molecules are destroyed by collisions in the gas stripper inside the accelerator. The system has been designed to fulfill two primary goals. First, it can be used as an experimental platform to study the relevant charge exchange and molecular break up processes at low energies. Second, it is able to perform high quality radiocarbon dating measurements. A detailed system description is given and results of performance tests are discussed

  2. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Savage, Nicole J.; Krentz, Christine E.; Könemann, Tobias; Han, Taewon T.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF), such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer), for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015). We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT) plus 3 standard deviations (σ) of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that raising the

  3. S-Carvone Suppresses Cellulase-Induced Capsidiol Production in Nicotiana tabacum by Interfering with Protein Isoprenylation1[C][W

    Huchelmann, Alexandre; Gastaldo, Clément; Veinante, Mickaël; Zeng, Ying; Heintz, Dimitri; Tritsch, Denis; Schaller, Hubert; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J.; Hemmerlin, Andréa

    2014-01-01

    S-Carvone has been described as a negative regulator of mevalonic acid (MVA) production by interfering with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) activity, a key player in isoprenoid biosynthesis. The impact of this monoterpene on the production of capsidiol in Nicotiana tabacum, an assumed MVA-derived sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin produced in response to elicitation by cellulase, was investigated. As expected, capsidiol production, as well as early stages of elicitation such as hydrogen peroxide production or stimulation of 5-epi-aristolochene synthase activity, were repressed. Despite the lack of capsidiol synthesis, apparent HMGR activity was boosted. Feeding experiments using (1-13C)Glc followed by analysis of labeling patterns by 13C-NMR, confirmed an MVA-dependent biosynthesis; however, treatments with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of the MVA-independent 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) isoprenoid pathway, unexpectedly down-regulated the biosynthesis of this sesquiterpene as well. We postulated that S-carvone does not directly inhibit the production of MVA by inactivating HMGR, but possibly targets an MEP-derived isoprenoid involved in the early steps of the elicitation process. A new model is proposed in which the monoterpene blocks an MEP pathway–dependent protein geranylgeranylation necessary for the signaling cascade. The production of capsidiol was inhibited when plants were treated with some inhibitors of protein prenylation or by further monoterpenes. Moreover, S-carvone hindered isoprenylation of a prenylable GFP indicator protein expressed in N. tabacum cell lines, which can be chemically complemented with geranylgeraniol. The model was further validated using N. tabacum cell extracts or recombinant N. tabacum protein prenyltransferases expressed in Escherichia coli. Our study endorsed a reevaluation of the effect of S-carvone on plant isoprenoid metabolism. PMID:24367019

  4. Clinically unrecognized pulmonary aspiration during gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation: A potential pitfall interfering the performance of 18F-FDG PET for cancer screening

    Hsieh, Te-Chun; Wu, Yu-Chin; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Wang, Chih-Hsiu; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Sun, Shung-Shung; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We found several cases with unexpected pulmonary abnormalities on the 18 F-FDG PET scan after the gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation during a compact health check-up course, interfering the interpretations of 18 F-FDG PET scan for cancer screening. The current studies aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical relevance of this pulmonary finding. Materials and methods: From June to December 2009, 127 subjects undergoing the sequential gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation and 18 F-FDG PET scan within 48 h as part of routine health check-up were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The incidence of abnormal pulmonary findings and their SUV max of FDG were calculated and correlated with the clinical manifestations. Results: Five subjects had abnormal 18 F-FDG PET findings but pulmonary symptoms were only found in 2. The SUV max did not seem to reflect the severity of pulmonary symptoms or the need of intervention. Although the incidence of unrecognized pulmonary aspiration featuring inflammation detected by the 18 F-FDG PET scan was high (3.94%, 5/127), the incidence of events needed intervention remained low (0.79%, 1/127), similar to those previously reported literatures. Conclusions: Although higher incidence of pulmonary aspiration in this study, it probably reflects the better sensitivity of 18 F-FDG PET for inflammation. The low incidence of clinical events needed intervention may still reflect the safety of sedation used for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Proper arrangement of the sequential examinations if subjects need both gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation and 18 F-FDG PET is important to reduce the interference degrading the performance of 18 F-FDG PET in cancer screening, diagnosis or staging.

  5. Use of short interfering RNA delivered by cationic liposomes to enable efficient down-regulation of PTPN22 gene in human T lymphocytes.

    Valentina Perri

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease are T cell-dependent autoimmune endocrinopathies. The standard substitutive administration of the deficient hormones does not halt the autoimmune process; therefore, development of immunotherapies aiming to preserve the residual hormonal cells, is of crucial importance. PTPN22 C1858T mutation encoding for the R620W lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase variant, plays a potential pathophysiological role in autoimmunity. The PTPN22 encoded protein Lyp is a negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor signaling; R620W variant, leading to a gain of function with paradoxical reduced T cell activation, may represent a valid therapeutic target. We aimed to develop novel wild type PTPN22 short interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA and optimize their delivery into Jurkat T cells and PBMC by using liposomal carriers. Conformational stability, size and polydispersion of siRNA in lipoplexes was measured by CD spectroscopy and DLS. Lipoplexes internalization and toxicity evaluation was assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Their effect on Lyp expression was evaluated by means of Western Blot and confocal microscopy. Functional assays through engagement of TCR signaling were established to evaluate biological consequences of down-modulation. Both Jurkat T cells and PBMC were efficiently transfected by stable custom lipoplexes. Jurkat T cell morphology and proliferation was not affected. Lipoplexes incorporation was visualized in CD3+ but also in CD3- peripheral blood immunotypes without signs of toxicity, damage or apoptosis. Efficacy in affecting Lyp protein expression was demonstrated in both transfected Jurkat T cells and PBMC. Moreover, impairment of Lyp inhibitory activity was revealed by increase of IL-2 secretion in culture supernatants of PBMC following anti-CD3/CD28 T cell receptor-driven stimulation. The results of our study open the pathway to future trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases based

  6. The 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides of bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA harbor cis-acting elements required for both negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis.

    Wei-Yu Liao

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the negative-strand [(--strand] complement of the ∼30 kilobase, positive-strand [(+-strand] coronaviral genome is a necessary early step for genome replication. The identification of cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses, however, has been hampered due to insufficiencies in the techniques used to detect the (--strand RNA species. Here, we employed a method of head-to-tail ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to detect and quantitate the synthesis of bovine coronavirus (BCoV defective interfering (DI RNA (- strands. Furthermore, using the aforementioned techniques along with Northern blot assay, we specifically defined the cis-acting RNA elements within the 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides (nts which function in the synthesis of (-- or (+-strand BCoV DI RNA. The major findings are as follows: (i nts from -5 to -39 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are the cis-acting elements responsible for (--strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, (ii nts from -3 to -34 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are cis-acting elements required for (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, and (iii the nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1 is important, but not critical, for both (-- and (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis. These results demonstrate that the 3'-terminal 55 nts in BCoV DI RNA harbor cis-acting RNA elements required for both (-- and (+-strand DI RNA synthesis and extend our knowledge on the mechanisms of coronavirus replication. The method of head-to-tail ligation and qRT-PCR employed in the study may also be applied to identify other cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses.

  7. Depletion of polycistronic transcripts using short interfering RNAs: cDNA synthesis method affects levels of non-targeted genes determined by quantitative PCR.

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Groves, Ian J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-05-21

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are often used to deplete viral polycistronic transcripts, such as those encoded by human papillomavirus (HPV). There are conflicting data in the literature concerning how siRNAs targeting one HPV gene can affect levels of other genes in the polycistronic transcripts. We hypothesised that the conflict might be partly explained by the method of cDNA synthesis used prior to transcript quantification. We treated HPV16-positive cervical keratinocytes with siRNAs targeting the HPV16 E7 gene and used quantitative PCR to compare transcript levels of E7 with those of E6 and E2, viral genes located upstream and downstream of the target site respectively. We compared our findings from cDNA generated using oligo-dT primers alone with those from cDNA generated using a combination of random hexamer and oligo-dT primers. Our data show that when polycistronic transcripts are targeted by siRNAs, there is a period when untranslatable cleaved mRNA upstream of the siRNA binding site remains detectable by PCR, if cDNA is generated using random hexamer primers. Such false indications of mRNA abundance are avoided using oligo-dT primers. The period corresponds to the time taken for siRNA activity and degradation of the cleaved transcripts. Genes downstream of the siRNA binding site are detectable during this interval, regardless of how the cDNA is generated. These data emphasise the importance of the cDNA synthesis method used when measuring transcript abundance following siRNA depletion of polycistronic transcripts. They provide a partial explanation for erroneous reports suggesting that siRNAs targeting HPV E7 can have gene-specific effects.

  8. RISC assembly: Coordination between small RNAs and Argonaute proteins.

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Tomari, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs generally form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with their partner proteins to exert their functions. Small RNAs, including microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs, assemble with Argonaute (Ago) family proteins into the effector complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates sequence-specific target gene silencing. RISC assembly is not a simple binding between a small RNA and Ago; rather, it follows an ordered multi-step pathway that requires specific accessory factors. Some steps of RISC assembly and RISC-mediated gene silencing are dependent on or facilitated by particular intracellular platforms, suggesting their spatial regulation. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms for RISC assembly of each small RNA class and propose a revised model for the role of the chaperone machinery in the duplex-initiated RISC assembly pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  10. Small Community Training & Education

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  11. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  12. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  13. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    used and poorly tolerated cationic lipids might be replaced with more efficacious and safe lipidoids as the lipid component of siRNA-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for achieving more efficient gene silencing at lower and safer doses. However, formulation design of such a complex...... formulation is highly challenging due to a strong interplay between several contributing factors. Hence, critical formulation variables, i.e. the lipidoid content and siRNA:lipidoid ratio, were initially identified, followed by a systematic quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space (OOS......), eventually resulting in the identification of a robust, highly efficacious and safe formulation. A 17-run design of experiment with an I-optimal approach was performed to systematically assess the effect of selected variables on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. physicochemical properties...

  14. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  15. Albaconol, a Plant-Derived Small Molecule, Inhibits Macrophage Function by Suppressing NF-κB Activation and Enhancing SOCSI Expression

    Qiuyan Liu; Xiaoli Shu; Li Wang; Anna Sun; Jikai Liu; Xuetao Cao

    2008-01-01

    Discovery and functional identification of plant-derived small compounds as the immunosuppressant attract much attention these years. Albaconol is a new kind of small compound, prenylated resorcinol, isolated from the fruiting bodies of the inedible mushroom Albatrellus confluens. Our previous studies showed that albaconol can inhibit tumor cell growth and dendritic cell maturation. However, the immunomodulatory roles and the underlying mechanisms of albaconol have not been fully understood. In this study we investigated the effects of aibaconol on the proliferation and LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production of macrophages. AIbaconol, when used at a dose higher than 1.0 μg/ml, inhibited proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and could induce cellular apoptosis when used at high dosage (≥7.5 μg/ml). Furthermore, we found that albaconol used at a lower dosage without apoptosis induction could significantly inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-β and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibition of NF-κB activation and enhancement of SOCS1 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages by albaconol may contribute to the above immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory activities of aibaconoi. Our results suggest that albaconol may be a potential immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drug. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(4):271-278.

  16. More than 40% of those not taking antiseizure medication with recent seizures reported that epilepsy or its treatment interfered with their recent activities, 2010 and 2013 US National Health Interview Surveys.

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2016-09-01

    From the combined 2010 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, we estimated US national age-standardized prevalence of adults with active epilepsy who reported that a nervous system/sensory organ condition caused a limitation (e.g., walking; memory; or physical, mental, or emotional problems) and, separately, that epilepsy interfered with their activities (e.g., working, schooling, or socializing) during the 30days preceding the survey. Sixty-one percent of adults who took antiseizure medication and had recent seizures and 51% of those who took medication and had no seizures reported having limitations caused by a nervous system/sensory organ condition. Sixty-two percent of adults who took antiseizure medication and had recent seizures and 20% of those who took medication and had no seizures reported that epilepsy or its treatment interfered with their recent activities. Forty-one percent of those who did not take medication and had recent seizures also reported that epilepsy interfered with their activities. To reduce activity limitations in people with epilepsy, health and social service providers can ensure that adequate policies and practices that promote access to high quality care and social participation are in effect in organizations and communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  18. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel; Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo; Pleli, Thomas; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Piiper, Albrecht; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D 1 encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E 2 synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on different Hu

  19. Avaliação da comunicação no espectro autístico: interferência da familiaridade no desempenho de linguagem Assessing communication in the autistic spectrum: interference of familiarity in language performance

    Camila Ramos Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a interferência da familiaridade da situação de avaliação na funcionalidade da comunicação de sujeitos com diagnóstico incluído no Espectro Autístico, buscando o melhor procedimento para avaliação da comunicação desta população. MÉTODOS: Participaram da presente pesquisa 18 sujeitos com diagnóstico incluído nos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico, com idades entre três anos e 11 meses e 17 anos e 11 meses, com média etária de oito anos e nove meses (DP: 3,6 anos. Inicialmente foi realizada a filmagem da interação de cada participante com sua terapeuta em situação rotineira de avaliação (Situação Familiar, semelhante às sessões semanais de atendimento, e nas sessões seguintes foi realizada outra filmagem de cada sujeito em interação com uma fonoaudióloga não-familiar, com materiais lúdicos pré-determinados (Situação Não-Familiar. Os dados de interação foram transcritos e analisados e as variáveis foram selecionadas a partir do protocolo do Perfil Funcional da Comunicação (PFC. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre as situações demonstrou diferença apenas para quatro variáveis (23%, dentre as dezessete analisadas; três dessas mostraram resultado superior na Situação Familiar: atos comunicativos expressados por minuto, número de respostas e porcentagem de utilização da função comunicativa Não-Focalizada, e uma delas se mostrou superior na Situação Não-Familiar: porcentagem de utilização da função comunicativa Jogo. CONCLUSÃO: A interferência da familiaridade da situação comunicativa no desempenho comunicativo de sujeitos autistas é mínima, sendo que o procedimento de avaliação nos mesmos moldes da Situação Familiar mostrou-se ligeiramente melhor para a avaliação da comunicação dessa população.PURPOSE: To identify the best technique to assess the communication of autistic spectrum individuals, analyzing the interference of the familiarity of the situation

  20. SearchSmallRNA: a graphical interface tool for the assemblage of viral genomes using small RNA libraries data.

    de Andrade, Roberto R S; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2014-03-07

    Next-generation parallel sequencing (NGS) allows the identification of viral pathogens by sequencing the small RNAs of infected hosts. Thus, viral genomes may be assembled from host immune response products without prior virus enrichment, amplification or purification. However, mapping of the vast information obtained presents a bioinformatics challenge. In order to by pass the need of line command and basic bioinformatics knowledge, we develop a mapping software with a graphical interface to the assemblage of viral genomes from small RNA dataset obtained by NGS. SearchSmallRNA was developed in JAVA language version 7 using NetBeans IDE 7.1 software. The program also allows the analysis of the viral small interfering RNAs (vsRNAs) profile; providing an overview of the size distribution and other features of the vsRNAs produced in infected cells. The program performs comparisons between each read sequenced present in a library and a chosen reference genome. Reads showing Hamming distances smaller or equal to an allowed mismatched will be selected as positives and used to the assemblage of a long nucleotide genome sequence. In order to validate the software, distinct analysis using NGS dataset obtained from HIV and two plant viruses were used to reconstruct viral whole genomes. SearchSmallRNA program was able to reconstructed viral genomes using NGS of small RNA dataset with high degree of reliability so it will be a valuable tool for viruses sequencing and discovery. It is accessible and free to all research communities and has the advantage to have an easy-to-use graphical interface. SearchSmallRNA was written in Java and is freely available at http://www.microbiologia.ufrj.br/ssrna/.

  1. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  2. Small but super

    Donald, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages between large and small gas utility companies. It discusses areas of construction, gaining markets, technology advances, pricing, and customer service. The paper includes discussions from four chairmen of small utility companies whom describe their perceived position among the larger companies. It also describes methods which small companies use to unite for state and nationally significant issues to voice their opinions

  3. Small Business Procurement Event

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  4. Minijets at small x

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    Nonperturbative pomeron exchange at high energy includes minijet production. Minijets are jets whose transverse momentum is so small that they are difficult, or even impossible, to detect experimentally. At moderate Q 2 it is responsible for the small-x behaviour of νW 2 . Hence minijet production should be a feature of deep inelastic scattering at small x. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs

  5. Canadian small wind market

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  6. Small Intestine Disorders

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  7. Interferência de plantas concorrentes em arroz irrigado modificada por métodos culturais Interference of concurrent plants in flooded rice modified by cultural methods

    N.G. Fleck

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A otimização de um programa de controle de plantas daninhas depende da previsão precoce e confiável do impacto destas sobre o rendimento da cultura. Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar os efeitos de cultivares e de arranjos de plantas na perda de rendimento de grãos em arroz irrigado e identificar a variável explicativa que proporcione melhor ajuste ao modelo testado. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em campo, na estação estival de crescimento 2000/01. Os tratamentos constaram de três cultivares de arroz (BRS-38 Ligeirinho, IRGA 417 e BR-IRGA 409, dois espaçamentos entre linhas (15 e 25 cm e populações (dez e seis níveis para o primeiro e segundo experimentos, respectivamente do cultivar de arroz EEA 406, simulando infestação de arroz-vermelho. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o modelo de regressão não-linear da hipérbole retangular, ajustado de modo independente para os três fatores estudados. Os resultados do primeiro experimento foram utilizados para avaliar o ajuste dos dados ao modelo e os do segundo para validar o modelo obtido no primeiro experimento. O cultivar IRGA 417 apresentou maior habilidade competitiva com o cultivar simulador de arroz-vermelho do que os outros dois. A redução no espaçamento entre linhas aumentou a habilidade competitiva dos cultivares de arroz em relação ao cultivar concorrente. O modelo da hipérbole retangular foi apropriado para estimar perdas de rendimento de grãos de arroz irrigado por interferência de plantas concorrentes. A variável explicativa área foliar do cultivar EEA 406, em geral, apresentou equivalência à população de plantas como variável independente no modelo matemático testado.The optimization of a weed control program depends on early and reliable prediction of the impact of weeds on crop yield. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of rice cultivars and plant arrangements on flooded rice grain yield loss and to identify the explicative

  8. Small School Reform

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  9. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  10. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  11. Small States in Europe

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  12. Small x physics

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The QCD expectations concerning the small x limit of parton distributions where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the evolutions equations in the small x region, the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implantations of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L and discuss specific processes sensitive to the small x physics such as heavy quark production, deep inelastic diffraction and jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. A brief review of nuclear shadowing in the inelastic lepton nucleus scattering at small x is also presented. (author). 86 refs, 29 figs

  13. SmallSat Database

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  14. Wind: small is beautiful

    Vries, E. de

    2005-01-01

    The small wind sector (0.5-100 kW) is often overlooked but could provide decentralised energy systems. Small wind turbines have been used for homes, farms and small businesses for over 80 years (e.g. in the USA and the Netherlands), receiving a boost in the 1970s and 1980s following the 1973 oil crisis when a new generation of turbines entered the European and US markets. Bergey Windpower and Southwest Windpower from the USA are the market leaders in this sector in terms of sales volume but are still classed as medium-sized enterprises. Small turbines have the disadvantage of higher costs compared with large turbines due to higher manufacturing costs, technical factors associated with the tendency to use small turbines on relatively short towers, small production runs and a failure to keep up with the latest design developments such as cost-effective state-of-the-art frequency converters. Most small turbines are horizontal axis turbines, though vertical axis turbines are produced by some manufacturers. Examples of the systems available from European suppliers are described

  15. Períodos de interferência de Brachiaria plantaginea na cultura do milho na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul Interference periods of Brachiaria plantaginea in corn crops in Southern Rio Grande do Sul

    L. Galon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os períodos de convivência das espécies daninhas têm grande influência no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas. Desse modo, objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de competição, anterior à interferência (PAI, o crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI e o período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI de B. plantaginea sobre a cultura do milho na Região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no sistema de cultivo convencional com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em manter a cultura do milho na presença e ausência de B. plantaginea por 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias após a emergência (DAE da cultura. B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes do solo, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. Foram amostradas e analisadas 10 plantas de milho em cada unidade experimental, com vistas à avaliação da altura de plantas e da inserção da espiga (cm, do comprimento de espigas (cm, do número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira e número de grãos por espiga, além da produtividade de grãos, que foi determinada pela colheita de três linhas centrais da área útil em cada unidade experimental. Considerando 5% de tolerância na redução da produção, conclui-se que o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI foi de 27 DAE; o período que antecede a interferência (PAI, de 11 DAE; e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI, de 11 a 27 DAE.Weed control period have great influence on plant growth and crop productivity. The objective of this work was to determine the competition periods, both previous to interference and critical interference prevention of B. plantaginea on corn crop in Southern Rio Grande do Sul. The trial was conducted in a completely randomized block design, under conventional tillage system, with four replications. The treatments consisted of maintaining

  16. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  17. Small scale optics

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  18. Las actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje y su corrección: una propuesta desde la Pedagogía Attitudes interfering in learning and their correction: a proposal from the Pedagogy

    Guillermo Vallejo Portuondo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se expone acerca de la función de las actitudes en el proceso de aprendizaje y particularmente de aquellas con direccionalidad negativa, a las cuales el autor de este trabajo identifica como actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje, pues su connotación desfavorable conduce en muchos casos al fracaso académico y a la deserción universitaria. También se explica, con un enfoque determinista sistémico, el mecanismo de formación de las actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje y se establece una clasificación propiciadora de una atención mucho más precisa por parte del docente que domina la estrategia pedagógica instituida para su corrección, la cual está diseñada por el autor con los elementos teóricos y prácticos necesarios. Se impone que los profesores y en especial los universitarios, apliquen los conocimientos y técnicas para corregir las actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje, con el fin de lograr egresados más competentes.The role of attitudes in the learning process is stated, particularly of those with negative directionality, which the author of this work identifies as attitudes interfering in learning, because their unfavorable connotation leads in many cases to the academic failure and college dropout. It is also explained with a systemic deterministic approach the formation mechanism of attitudes interfering in learning, and established a classification for a more precise attention from the teacher who dominates the pedagogic strategy instituted for their correction, which is designed by the author with the necessary theoretical and practical elements. It is required that teachers and especially those from the university apply the knowledge and techniques to correct attitudes interfering in learning with the purpose of achieving more competent graduates.

  19. Efeito do espaçamento entre fileiras de amendoim rasteiro na interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura Effect of peanut crop row spacing on weed interference in the culture

    T.C.S. Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da redução do espaçamento entre fileiras nos períodos de interferência e na produtividade do amendoim rasteiro (Arachis hypogaea. O experimento foi instalado no município de Jaboticabal-SP. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos entre fileiras (80 e 90 cm, divididos em dois grupos. No primeiro, as plantas daninhas foram controladas desde a emergência até 0 (interferência constante, 30, 45, 60, 82, 97 e 112 dias depois. No segundo, as plantas daninhas conviveram com a cultura pelos mesmos períodos do grupo anterior. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área foram Digitaria sp., Xanthium strumarium, Acanthospermum hispidum e Cenchrus echinatus. Para uma perda tolerável de 5% de produtividade, o período crítico de prevenção à interferência foi dos 27 aos 76 e dos 35 aos 96 dias após a emergência para os espaçamentos de 80 e 90 cm, respectivamente; a queda de produtividade das parcelas mantidas com interferência de plantas daninhas em relação àquelas no limpo foi superior a 80%, independentemente do espaçamento.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of reducing the spacing between rows in periods of weed interference and peanut (Arachis hypogaea yield. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, Brazil. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (80 to 90 cm, divided into two groups. In the first group, the weeds were controlled since emergence up to 0 (constant interference, 30, 45, 60, 82, 97 and 112 days. In the second group, the weeds were allowed to grow with the peanut culture during the same periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with treatments in split-plots, with four repetitions. The main weeds in the area were Digitaria sp., Xanthium strumarium, Acanthospermum hispidum and Cenchrus

  20. Quantificação da interferência do cliente em projetos de grande porte : um método de modelagem utilizando dinâmica dos sistemas

    Enger, Eric Rangel

    2010-01-01

    A Dinâmica dos Sistemas vem expandindo seu leque de aplicações por diversas áreas do conhecimento humano, dentre as quais está a Administração de Empresas. Este trabalho mostra que esta disciplina pode ser utilizada como uma ferramenta que fornece subsídios para negociações post mortem de projetos de grande porte. Dentro deste âmbito, o ponto principal é avaliar qual foi a influência do comportamento do cliente no resultado final do projeto. Interferências do tipo: ingerê...

  1. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez; Enrique Arús Soler; Pedro López Saura; Hugo Nodarse Cuní

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales...

  2. Algunas variables clínicas y de laboratorio en pacientes adultos con leucemia mieloide crónica tratados con interferón alfa recombinante + citosina arabinósido

    Espinosa Martínez, Edgardo; Díaz Durán, Carmen Virginia; Ávila Cabrera, Onel; Hernández Padrón, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis Ramón; Izquierdo Cano, Lisset; Amor Vigil, Ana María; Lavaut Sánchez, Kalia; Espinosa Estrada, Edgardo; Wade Mateo, Maura; Estrada del Cueto, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    La leucemia mieloide crónica del adulto es la hemopatía maligna más frecuente dentro de los síndromes mieloproliferativos. En un estudio retrospectivo longitudinal realizado entre enero de 1985 y diciembre de 2009, se evaluaron 46 pacientes en fase crónica atendidos en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología. Todos recibieron tratamiento inicial citorreductor y posteriormente interferón ? recombinante (INF?r) + citosina arabinósido. El 41,0 % de los enfermos presentó un índice pronóstico de...

  3. The Power of Small

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  4. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  5. Analysis of small leaks

    Frisch, W.; Hofmann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with 'small leaks' are described and requirements are derived for experimental facilities and computer codes. Based on these requirements, a valuation of the existing experimental facilities and codes is presented. Facilities for integral tests in relatively large scale (ex. LOFT) are suitable for small leak test in principle, however minor changes (instrumentation, secondary side) are necessary for the evaluation of certain phenomena. The 'advanced blowdown codes' are capable of describing most of the phenomena occurring during small leak events, however a substantial amount of code development and verification is still needed. In addition, the use of transient codes in small leak analysis is demonstrated. There are some areas (neutronics feedback, influence of control system) in which the use of transient codes is possible and advantageous. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  6. [Small renal mass].

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  7. Small Bowel Bleeding

    ... pouchings in the wall of the colon), or cancer. Upper GI (esophagus, stomach, or duodenum) bleeding is most often due ... begins transmitting images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel to a ... Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  8. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    ... Surgical procedures that create a loop of small intestine where excess bacteria can grow. An example is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  9. UNDERSTANDING SMALL BUSINESS SCAMS

    MICHAEL T. SCHAPER; PAUL WEBER

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about small business scams. A scam is a form of dishonest action, based upon an invitation to participate in an activity. Victims are encouraged, mislead or induced to voluntarily interact with the perpetrator, and ultimately to willingly surrender over money, information or other valuable resources. Common forms of scams directed towards small business include phishing, false business valuations and sales, fake overpayments, f...

  10. Small test SDHW systems

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  11. Small-x physics

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Small liquid sodium leaks

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  13. Vaksvikelva small hydro

    Loe, Daniel Aarset

    2017-01-01

    Norway is in constant need of renewable energy, and hydroelectric power is still the main source. A great future potential can be found in countless small rivers scattered across the country, which could be developed through small hydro projects. In the process of converting mechanical movement - flowing water - into electric energy, about 5% turns into heat. From a power plant with an annual production of 15 GWh, this means energy enough to heat approximately 30 households is lost. In my pro...

  14. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Coffea arabica Weed effect on the initial growth of Coffea arabica

    C.M.T. Fialho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da interferência de plantas daninhas, em diferentes densidades de infestação, sobre o crescimento de plantas jovens de café arábica. Mudas de café, cultivar Mundo Novo, foram transplantadas, no estádio de quatro a cinco pares de folhas completamente expandidas, para vasos com capacidade de 25 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 4; o primeiro fator foi composto por espécies de plantas daninhas (Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea e Mucuna aterrima, e o segundo, por densidades dessas espécies (zero, dois, quatro e seis plantas por vaso, com quatro repetições. O plantio das espécies daninhas foi realizado 60 dias após o transplantio do café (0 DAT. Nesta data e no dia do encerramento do experimento, aos 90 DAT, determinaram-se a altura, a área foliar e o diâmetro do caule da planta de café, para cálculo do incremento dessas variáveis. Aos 90 DAT, determinou-se a matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular do café e das plantas daninhas e a densidade radicular do café. Utilizando esses resultados, estimou-se a razão de massa foliar, razão de massa caulinar, razão de massa radicular, razão de área foliar e a razão sistema radicular/parte aérea das plantas de café. A espécie M. aterrima foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, a área foliar, a matéria seca do caule e das folhas e o diâmetro do caule do café. Entre as gramíneas, B. plantaginea foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e densidade radicular do café. Ocorreu relação negativa entre a densidade de plantas daninhas e as variáveis de crescimento e com a razão de massa radicular e razão sistema radicular/parte aérea.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of weeds on the growth of young Arabica coffee plants, at different densities of infestation

  15. How small is a small cloud?

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  16. Horizontal Transfer of Small RNAs To and From Plants

    Lu eHan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs. sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs.

  17. Detection of protein-small molecule binding using a self-referencing external cavity laser biosensor.

    Meng Zhang; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening of protein-small molecule binding interactions using label-free optical biosensors is challenging, as the detected signals are often similar in magnitude to experimental noise. Here, we describe a novel self-referencing external cavity laser (ECL) biosensor approach that achieves high resolution and high sensitivity, while eliminating thermal noise with sub-picometer wavelength accuracy. Using the self-referencing ECL biosensor, we demonstrate detection of binding between small molecules and a variety of immobilized protein targets with binding affinities or inhibition constants in the sub-nanomolar to low micromolar range. The demonstrated ability to perform detection in the presence of several interfering compounds opens the potential for increasing the throughput of the approach. As an example application, we performed a "needle-in-the-haystack" screen for inhibitors against carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (CA II), in which known inhibitors are clearly differentiated from inactive molecules within a compound library.

  18. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  19. Small intestine diverticuli

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  20. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  1. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  2. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  3. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  4. Small Column Ion Exchange

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  5. Small - Display Cartography

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  6. Small bowel resection

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Low-fiber diet Preventing falls Small bowel resection - discharge Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge When ...

  7. Small hydrogen liquefier

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Corat, E.J.; Minucci, M.A.S.; Leite, V.S.F.O.

    1986-09-01

    In this work the deign and construction of a small hydrogen liquefier (two liters per hour maximum production) is described. The isenthalpic expansion process is used, because its construction is simple and it is generally cheaper to operate. A comparison with other liquefier processes, and considerations about their basic theory are also presented. (author) [pt

  8. Small hydroelectric power plants

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  9. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. On small clusters

    Bernardes, N.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt

  11. Small public private partnerships

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...

  12. Research using small tokamaks

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Imaging the small bowel.

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  14. Small Group Research

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  15. Small Schools, Real Gains.

    Wasley, Patricia A.; Lear, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Small school size (fewer than 400 students) makes possible success-enhancing structures and practices: strong, ongoing student/adult and home/school relationships; flat organizational structure; concentration on a few goals; ongoing, site-specific professional development; a respectful culture; and community engagement. Implementation barriers are…

  16. Small intestinal motility

    Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past year, many studies were published in which new and relevant information on small intestinal motility in humans and laboratory animals was obtained. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the reported findings are heterogeneous, some themes appear to be particularly interesting and

  17. Small hydro in Africa

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available hydro, the author has started an online database of small hydropower projects in eastern and southern Africa. The main aim of the database is to catalogue the current situation and to make that accessible to policymakers, project developers, as well...

  18. Interaction between Ebola Virus Glycoprotein and Host Toll-Like Receptor 4 Leads to Induction of Proinflammatory Cytokines and SOCS1 ▿ †

    Okumura, Atsushi; Pitha, Paula M.; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Harty, Ronald N.

    2009-01-01

    Ebola virus initially targets monocytes and macrophages, which can lead to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These inflammatory cytokines are thought to contribute to the development of circulatory shock seen in fatal Ebola virus infections. Here we report that host Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a sensor for Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) on virus-like particles (VLPs) and that resultant TLR4 signaling pathways lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and sup...

  19. SOCS1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD in the development of myeloproliferative disease by promoting the escape from external cytokine control

    Reddy, P.N.G.; Serve, H.; Brandts, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 are frequently found in acute myelogenous leukemia patients and confer poor clinical prognosis. It is unclear how leukemic blasts escape cytokine control that regulates normal hematopoiesis. We have recently demonstrated that FLT3-internal...

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote hepatocarcinoma progression: role of the S100A4-miR155-SOCS1-MMP9 axis.

    Yan, Xin-Long; Jia, Ya-Li; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Quan; Zhou, Jun-Nian; Fu, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Hai-Xu; Yuan, Hong-Feng; Li, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Lei; Xu, Ying-Chen; Wang, Jing-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Juan; Zhai, Chao; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2013-06-01

    Cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a pivotal role in modulating tumor progression. However, the interactions between liver cancer-associated MSCs (LC-MSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unreported. Here, we identified the presence of MSCs in HCC tissues. We also showed that LC-MSCs significantly enhanced tumor growth in vivo and promoted tumor sphere formation in vitro. LC-MSCs also promoted HCC metastasis in an orthotopic liver transplantation model. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis showed that S100A4 expression was significantly higher in LC-MSCs compared with liver normal MSCs (LN-MSCs) from adjacent cancer-free tissues. Importantly, the inhibition of S100A4 led to a reduction of proliferation and invasion of HCC cells, while exogenous S100A4 expression in HCC cells resulted in heavier tumors and more metastasis sites. Our results indicate that S100A4 secreted from LC-MSCs can promote HCC cell proliferation and invasion. We then found the expression of oncogenic microRNA (miR)-155 in HCC cells was significantly up-regulated by coculture with LC-MSCs and by S100A4 ectopic overexpression. The invasion-promoting effects of S100A4 were significantly attenuated by a miR-155 inhibitor. These results suggest that S100A4 exerts its effects through the regulation of miR-155 expression in HCC cells. We demonstrate that S100A4 secreted from LC-MSCs promotes the expression of miR-155, which mediates the down-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, leading to the subsequent activation of STAT3 signaling. This promotes the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 9, which results in increased tumor invasiveness. S100A4 secreted from LC-MSCs is involved in the modulation of HCC progression, and may be a potential therapeutic target. (HEPATOLOGY 2013). Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. The microRNA390/TRANS ACTING SHORT INTERFERING RNA3 module mediates lateral root growth under salt stress via the auxin pathway.

    He, Fu; Xu, Changzheng; Fu, Xiaokang; Shen, Yun; Guo, Li; Leng, Mi; Luo, Keming

    2018-05-01

    Salt-induced developmental plasticity in a plant root system strongly depends on auxin signaling. However, the molecular events underlying this process are poorly understood. MicroRNA390 (miR390), trans-acting small interference RNAs (tasiRNAs) and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) form a regulatory module involved in controlling lateral root (LR) growth. Here, we found that miR390 expression was strongly induced by exposure to salt during LR formation in poplar (Populus spp.) plants. miR390 overexpression stimulated LR development and increased salt tolerance, whereas miR390 knockdown caused by a short tandem target mimic repressed LR growth and compromised salt resistance. ARF3.1, ARF3.2, and ARF4 expression was significantly inhibited by the presence of salt, and transcript abundance was dramatically decreased in the miR390-overexpressing line but increased in the miR390-knockdown line. Constitutive expression of ARF4m harboring mutated trans-acting small interference ARF-binding sites removed the salt resistance of the miR390 overexpressors. miR390 positively regulated auxin signaling in LRs subjected to salt but ARF4 inhibited auxin signaling. Salinity stabilized the poplar Aux/IAA repressor INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17.1, and overexpression of an auxin/salt resistant form of this repressor suppressed LR growth in miR390-overexpressing and ARF4-RNAi lines in the presence of salt. Thus, the miR390/TAS3/ARFs module is a key regulator, via modulating the auxin pathway, of LR growth in poplar subjected to salt stress. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba Slender amaranth interference in table beet growth and production characteristics

    L.W. Marcolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A beterraba (Beta vulgaris, importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil, mantendo-se constante oito plantas por caixa de beterraba em convivência com 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 plantas por caixa de A. viridis. A cultura da beterraba foi muito suscetível à interferência imposta por plantas de A. viridis, tendo sua área foliar, número de folhas, massa seca de folhas, diâmetro médio da raiz e massa fresca de raízes significativamente reduzidos mesmo em baixas densidades populacionais da planta daninha; a massa fresca de raízes foi a mais sensível à interferência.Table beet (Beta vulgaris, an important vegetable cultivated in Brazil, is very susceptible to weed interference, with Amaranthus viridis being one of the main species found in horticultural areas. The objective of this research was to study the response of table beet to competition at different densities of A. viridis, based on evaluation of crop growth and production characteristics. An experiment was carried out in 0.25 m² pots in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, with 8 table beet plants per pot kept in constant coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 plants per pot of A. viridis. The table beet crop was very susceptible to interference of A. viridis, with its leaf area, number of leaves, leaf dry mass, root mean diameter and root fresh mass being significantly reduced even under low weed densities, with root fresh mass being the most sensitive to interference.

  3. Tiroiditis autoinmune inducida por interferón en pacientes con infección por virus de la hepatitis C. Interferon-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection

    José L. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió por elevación asintomática de la alanino aminotransferasa (ALT. El paciente negó ser bebedor crónico de alcohol. Se hizo el diagnóstico serológico de infección activa por hepatitis C y la biopsia de hígado reveló inflamación crónica activa. Con estos resultados, se inició tratamiento con interferón-alfa y ribavirina. Durante el tratamiento de 48 semanas, el paciente presentó anticuerpos antitiroideos positivos con variaciones en sus niveles de tirotropina (TSH y hormonas tiroideas. En el seguimiento postratamiento, el paciente continuó con hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. La tiroiditis autoinmune es una complicación frecuente del uso de interferón en pacientes con hepatitis C. En algunos casos se presenta como hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. Se debe evaluar la función tiroidea y los anticuerpos antitiroideos antes y durante el tratamiento con interferón.A 43 year old man presented with asymptomatic elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and no relevant past history. The patient denied being a chronic alcohol drinker. Work-up revealed an active hepatitis C, and liver biopsy showed active inflammation. Treatment was started with interferon-alfa and ribavirin. During the 48 weeks of treatment, the patient developed positive thyroid antibodies with varying level of thyrotropin (TSH and thyroid hormones. At follow-up after treatment, the patient continued with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common complication of using interferon in patients with hepatitis C. In some cases, it is presented as hyperthyroidism because of Graves’ disease. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies should be evaluated before and during treatment with interferon.

  4. Utilidad de los ensayos de liberación de interferón gamma para la detección de tuberculosis en población pediátrica

    Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo de liberación de interferón gamma es un método novedoso para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis aunque su utilidad es incierta en población pediátrica. Objetivo: examinar la utilidad diagnóstica del QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G®, uno de los ensayos de liberación de interferón gamma comerciales, en población pediátrica del Estado de Sonora, México. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal con 160 menores de 19 años de edad, en un hospital de Sonora, México. Se compararon tres grupos, uno de pacientes con tuberculosis activa, otro con tuberculosis latente y uno más de controles hospitalizados. Los criterios de Stegen-Toledo fueron el estándar empleado. Se usó regresión logística multivariada para evaluar la asociación entre el QFT-G® y los predictores seleccionados. Resultados: la sensibilidad del QFT-G® en la tuberculosis activa fue de 76.9% y la especificidad de 90.3%. Para la tuberculosis latente la sensibilidad fue 25.0% y la especificidad de 98.6%. El QFT-G® mostró una concordancia moderada (K = 0.574 con el estándar. También mostró asociación con la radiografía de tórax sugestiva de tuberculosis (razón de momios ajustada 4.37, IC 95%: 1.42, 13.42 y con el hecho de ser caso de tuberculosis pulmonar (razón de momios ajustada 6.15, IC 95%: 1.90, 19.92. Conclusión: el ensayo de liberación de interferón gamma es un método útil para diagnosticar tuberculosis activa y puede emplearse para descartar tuberculosis latente en población pediátrica.

  5. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  6. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  7. Small Wind Energy Systems

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

  8. Small steps for hydro

    Wicke, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The government in Peru has decided to utilise its gas reserves and restrict hydro to relatively small schemes. A number of reasons for the decision are given. In 1997, the Shell-Mobile-Bechtel-COSAPI consortium was formed and agreements were signed regarding exploiting Gas de Camisea. The country's energy needs to 2010 are being assessed. It is likely that by 2001 the whole of south Peru will be receiving gas from Camisea. The Peru situation is discussed under the headings of (i) existing capacity, (ii) growing demands, (iii) a history of hydro in Peru, (iv) electrification and SHP and (v) outlook. The future for Peru's electric energy development is bright. While most of its new power capacity will come from natural gas, the small hydros also have a part to play. A stronger commitment of national and regional political authorities to consider supplies outside the big cities is said to be needed. (UK)

  9. Small reactor operating mode

    Snell, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    There is a potential need for small reactors in the future for applications such as district heating, electricity production at remote sites, and desalination. Nuclear power can provide these at low cost and with insignificant pollution. The economies required by the small scale application, and/or the remote location, require a review of the size and location of the operating staff. Current concepts range all the way from reactors which are fully automatic, and need no local attention for days or weeks, to those with reduced local staff. In general the less dependent a reactor is on local human intervention, the greater its dependence on intrinsic safety features such as passive decay heat removal, low-stored energy and limited reactivity speed and depth in the control systems. A case study of the design and licensing of the SLOWPOKE Energy System heating reactor is presented. (author)

  10. Small angle neutron scattering

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  11. Programming in the Small

    Gersten, David B.; Langer, Steve G.

    2010-01-01

    Academic medical centers, in general, and radiation oncology research, in particular, rely heavily on custom software tools and applications. The code development is typically the responsibility of a single individual or at most a small team. Often these individuals are not professional programmers but physicists, students, and physicians. While they possess domain expertise and algorithm knowledge, they often are not fully aware of general “safe coding” practices—nor do they need the full co...

  12. Small RNA-directed epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Jixian Zhai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in epigenetics has revealed mechanisms that can heritably regulate gene function independent of genetic alterations. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of epigenetics in evolution. This is due in part to scant data on epigenetic variation among natural populations. In plants, small interfering RNA (siRNA is involved in both the initiation and maintenance of gene silencing by directing DNA methylation and/or histone methylation. Here, we report that, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a cluster of approximately 24 nt siRNAs found at high levels in the ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler could direct DNA methylation and heterochromatinization at a hAT element adjacent to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, a major repressor of flowering, whereas the same hAT element in ecotype Columbia (Col with almost identical DNA sequence, generates a set of low abundance siRNAs that do not direct these activities. We have called this hAT element MPF for Methylated region near Promoter of FLC, although de novo methylation triggered by an inverted repeat transgene at this region in Col does not alter its FLC expression. DNA methylation of the Ler allele MPF is dependent on genes in known silencing pathways, and such methylation is transmissible to Col by genetic crosses, although with varying degrees of penetrance. A genome-wide comparison of Ler and Col small RNAs identified at least 68 loci matched by a significant level of approximately 24 nt siRNAs present specifically in Ler but not Col, where nearly half of the loci are related to repeat or TE sequences. Methylation analysis revealed that 88% of the examined loci (37 out of 42 were specifically methylated in Ler but not Col, suggesting that small RNA can direct epigenetic differences between two closely related Arabidopsis ecotypes.

  13. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  14. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol em Rondônia Periods of weed interference in sunflower crop in Rondônia

    Gibran da S. Alves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol e seus efeitos sobre o diâmetro do capítulo, teor de óleo, rendimento de óleo e produtividade. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: cultivares (Embrapa 122 e Hélio 358, modalidade de competição (na presença e na ausência de plantas daninhas e períodos de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas da emergência aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 110 dias. As variáveis mensuradas foram diâmetro de capítulo, teor de óleo, rendimento de óleo e produtividade. As plantas daninhas interferem negativamente no diâmetro do capítulo, produtividade e rendimento de óleo, mas o convívio com as mesmas aumentou o teor de óleo das sementes, além de reduzir em 76,83 e 92,68% a produtividade dos cultivares Embrapa 122 e Hélio 358, respectivamente. Admitindo-se uma perda de 10% na produtividade, o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o período total de prevenção a interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção e interferência (PCPI para a cultivar Embrapa 122 foram de 16; 37 e 21 dias, respectivamente. Para o híbrido Hélio 358 o PAI, o PTPI e o PCPI foram de 24; 43 e 19 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this study was to determine the periods of weed interference in sunflower cultivation, and its effects on the head diameter, oil content, oil yield and its productivity. The experimental design was in the randomized blocks with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 2 x 2 x 5, with the following factors: cultivar (Embrapa 122 and Hélio 358, modality of competition (in the presence and absence of weeds and periods of coexistence and control of weed from the emergence until the 15, 30, 45, 60 and 110 days. The measured variables were head diameter, oil content, oil

  15. Estudo da interferência de diferentes dietas nutricionais sobre as ações antiinflamatória e analgésica do Etoricoxib (Arcóxia®)

    Bianchetti, érica Silva

    2006-01-01

    O etoricoxib (Arcóxia®) um medicamento novo posicionado para liderar a próxima geração de inibidores seletivos de COX-2 é um coxib de segunda geração potente e de ação rápida sendo motivo atualmente de muitos ensaios clínicos É o mais seletivo de COX-2 de todos os coxibs O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar em modelos in vivo a interferência sobre a atividade antiinflamatória e analgésica do etoricoxib antiinflamatório inibidor seletivo de COX-2 associado a diferentes tipos de dietas nutricion...

  16. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    2013-02-20

    .... As published, the final regulations contain two points where the word ``small'' was inadvertently... and procedure, Government procurement, Government property, Loan programs-business, Small businesses...

  17. Interferência entre espécies de planta daninha e duas cultivares de feijoeiro em duas épocas de semeadura Interference between weed species and two bean cultivars in two times of sowing

    Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de feijão, mas a interferência das plantas daninhas pode causar reduções de produtividade entre 15% e 80%, devido a fatores como cultivar de feijoeiro e espécies de plantas daninhas presentes na área. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de seis espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, em duas safras. Observou-se que as plantas eudicotiledôneas causam maior interferência na cultura, principalmente Amaranthus viridis e Raphanus raphanistrum. Todas causam perdas na produção do feijoeiro, exceto Eleusine indica, a menos competitiva. A cultivar ´Rubi´ é mais produtiva e mais competitiva que a ´Carioca´, e a maior produtividade é atingida na safra da seca. A escolha da cultivar e da data correta para a semeadura podem ser estratégias de manejo no controle de invasoras.Brazil is the world's largest producer of bean, but weed interference can cause yield losses between 15 to 80% due several factors such as bean cultivar and weed species in the area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weed species on growth and productivity of two bean cultivars, in two sowing seasons. It was observed that the dicot plants cause more interference in the crop, especially Amaranthus viridis and Raphanus raphanistrum. All cause losses in bean yield except Eleusine indica that was less competitive. The ´Rubi´ bean cultivar is more productive and competitive than ´Carioca´, and the higher production is achieved during the drought sowing season. The choice of cultivar and correct season for sowing may be management strategy as in weeds control.

  18. Structural insights into mechanisms of the small RNA methyltransferase HEN1

    Huang, Ying; Ji, Lijuan; Huang, Qichen; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Jin-Biao; (UAB); (UCR)

    2010-02-22

    RNA silencing is a conserved regulatory mechanism in fungi, plants and animals that regulates gene expression and defence against viruses and transgenes. Small silencing RNAs of {approx}20-30 nucleotides and their associated effector proteins, the Argonaute family proteins, are the central components in RNA silencing. A subset of small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, Piwi-interacting RNAs in animals and siRNAs in Drosophila, requires an additional crucial step for their maturation; that is, 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal nucleotide. A conserved S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase, HUA ENHANCER 1 (HEN1), and its homologues are responsible for this specific modification. Here we report the 3.1 {angstrom} crystal structure of full-length HEN1 from Arabidopsis in complex with a 22-nucleotide small RNA duplex and cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Highly cooperative recognition of the small RNA substrate by multiple RNA binding domains and the methyltransferase domain in HEN1 measures the length of the RNA duplex and determines the substrate specificity. Metal ion coordination by both 2' and 3' hydroxyls on the 3'-terminal nucleotide and four invariant residues in the active site of the methyltransferase domain suggests a novel Mg{sup 2+}-dependent 2'-O-methylation mechanism.

  19. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization.

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-11-13

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5' end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5' untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability.

  20. Radiolabeling small RNA with technetium-99m for visualizing cellular delivery and mouse biodistribution

    Liu Ning; Ding Hongliu; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc; Zhu Zhihong; Zhang Yumin

    2007-01-01

    To develop a noninvasive direct method for the in vivo tracking of small interfering RNA (siRNA) used in RNA interference, two 18-nucleotide oligoribonucleotides were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc-RNA). The ability of 99m Tc-RNA to track delivery was tested in cultured cells and living mice. The cellular delivery of 99m Tc-RNAs could be quantified by gamma counting and could be visualized by microautoradiography. Radiolabeled RNAs can be efficiently delivered into cells by reaching up to 3x10 5 molecules of small RNAs per cell. Moreover, RNAs were internalized with homogeneous distribution throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. In tumor-bearing mice, whole-body images and biodistribution studies showed that 99m Tc-RNAs were delivered to almost all tissues after intravenous injection. The imaging of living animals allowed noninvasive and longitudinal monitoring of the in vivo delivery of these small RNAs. In conclusion, using 99m Tc radiolabeling, the delivery of small RNAs could be measured quantitatively in cultured cells and could be noninvasively visualized in living animals using a gamma camera. The results of this study could open up a new approach for measuring the in vivo delivery of small RNAs that might further facilitate the development of siRNAs as targeted therapies

  1. Plant Responses to Pathogen Attack: Small RNAs in Focus.

    Islam, Waqar; Noman, Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Wang, Liande

    2018-02-08

    Small RNAs (sRNA) are a significant group of gene expression regulators for multiple biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, many sRNA silencing pathways produce extensive array of sRNAs with specialized roles. The evidence on record advocates for the functions of sRNAs during plant microbe interactions. Host sRNAs are reckoned as mandatory elements of plant defense. sRNAs involved in plant defense processes via different pathways include both short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) that actively regulate immunity in response to pathogenic attack via tackling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors. In response to pathogen attack, plants protect themselves with the help of sRNA-dependent immune systems. That sRNA-mediated plant defense responses play a role during infections is an established fact. However, the regulations of several sRNAs still need extensive research. In this review, we discussed the topical advancements and findings relevant to pathogen attack and plant defense mediated by sRNAs. We attempted to point out diverse sRNAs as key defenders in plant systems. It is hoped that sRNAs would be exploited as a mainstream player to achieve food security by tackling different plant diseases.

  2. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the SOX18 Transcription Factor.

    Fontaine, Frank; Overman, Jeroen; Moustaqil, Mehdi; Mamidyala, Sreeman; Salim, Angela; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Prokoph, Nina; Robertson, Avril A B; Lua, Linda; Alexandrov, Kirill; Koopman, Peter; Capon, Robert J; Sierecki, Emma; Gambin, Yann; Jauch, Ralf; Cooper, Matthew A; Zuegg, Johannes; Francois, Mathias

    2017-03-16

    Pharmacological modulation of transcription factors (TFs) has only met little success over the past four decades. This is mostly due to standard drug discovery approaches centered on blocking protein/DNA binding or interfering with post-translational modifications. Recent advances in the field of TF biology have revealed a central role of protein-protein interaction in their mode of action. In an attempt to modulate the activity of SOX18 TF, a known regulator of vascular growth in development and disease, we screened a marine extract library for potential small-molecule inhibitors. We identified two compounds, which inspired a series of synthetic SOX18 inhibitors, able to interfere with the SOX18 HMG DNA-binding domain, and to disrupt HMG-dependent protein-protein interaction with RBPJ. These compounds also perturbed SOX18 transcriptional activity in a cell-based reporter gene system. This approach may prove useful in developing a new class of anti-angiogenic compounds based on the inhibition of TF activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  4. The small library manager's handbook

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  5. Comparative analysis of the small RNA transcriptomes of Pinus contorta and Oryza sativa.

    Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Dolgosheina, Elena; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers are expected to provide important information regarding the evolution of highly conserved small regulatory RNAs. Deep sequencing provides the means to characterize and quantitatively profile small RNAs in understudied organisms such as these. Pyrosequencing of small RNAs from O. sativa revealed, as expected, approximately 21- and approximately 24-nt RNAs. The former contained known microRNAs, and the latter largely comprised intergenic-derived sequences likely representing heterochromatin siRNAs. In contrast, sequences from Pinus contorta were dominated by 21-nt small RNAs. Using a novel sequence-based clustering algorithm, we identified sequences belonging to 18 highly conserved microRNA families in P. contorta as well as numerous clusters of conserved small RNAs of unknown function. Using multiple methods, including expressed sequence folding and machine learning algorithms, we found a further 53 candidate novel microRNA families, 51 appearing specific to the P. contorta library. In addition, alignment of small RNA sequences to the O. sativa genome revealed six perfectly conserved classes of small RNA that included chloroplast transcripts and specific types of genomic repeats. The conservation of microRNAs and other small RNAs between the conifers and the angiosperms indicates that important RNA silencing processes were highly developed in the earliest spermatophytes. Genomic mapping of all sequences to the O. sativa genome can be viewed at http://microrna.bcgsc.ca/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice_build_3/.

  6. The Small Mars System

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  7. Small Business Innovations

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  8. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  9. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  10. Small mirror fusion reactors

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  11. Data: Big and Small.

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Going with small ICBMs

    Arkin, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Support for the small ICBM (SICBM) is coming from government bureaucrats, contractors, MX opponents, ''build-down'' supporters, and those who have no confidence in arms control. Despite this support, which the author sees as a failure of administration policies, the SICBM has most of the technological and basing drawbacks of the MX. Mobile and superhardening basing techniques are as questionable for the SICBM as for the MX. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the claim that their deployment will increase stability and enhance the arms control process

  13. Rolling at small scales

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  14. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Superconductivity of small particles

    Leavens, C.R.; Fenton, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Eliashberg gap equations are used to investigate the contribution of surface-phonon softening to the size dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of small metallic particles. Because of our limited quantitative knowledge of phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling in the surface region, the effect cannot be calculated with certainty. Previous calculations which agree with experiment depend on a fortuitous choice of input parameters which cannot be justified at present. For this reason the absence of any observable size effect for T/sub c/ in Pb is especially important. This null effect is obtained in Pb if the electron-phonon coupling strength is the same in the surface region as in the bulk. This assumption can be tested experimentally because it means that the energy gap of Pb should not be independent of particle size but rather should increase significantly with decreasing radius. Hence, measurement of the size dependence of the energy gap for well-characterized small particles of Pb could provide information regarding the importance of the phonon-softening mechanism, at least for Pb

  16. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  17. Longitudinal assessment of TUBB3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Class-III-beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression may be a potential predictive factor for treatment with microtubule interfering cytotoxic drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Potential changes in TUBB3 expression during chemotherapy may be of interest if future choice...... NSCLC patients stage T1-4N0-1 was treated with surgery alone without preceding chemotherapy (OP-group). Paired repeated samples were compared in order to evaluate for changes in TUBB3 expression. RESULTS: No statistically significant change in TUBB3 expression was observed between initial diagnostic...... during chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TUBB3 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry performed on diagnostic biopsies and on available subsequent resection specimens in 65 NSCLC patients stage T1-3N0-2 who received neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel (NAC-group). Another group of 53...

  18. Small intestinal transplantation.

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  19. Problems of Small Debris

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  20. Small Wind Energy Systems

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  1. Small transport aircraft technology

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  2. [Is allastrim small pox?].

    Tiexeira, L A

    2000-01-01

    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  3. Small caliber guided projectile

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  4. Tumor of small bowel

    Ruiz Lobo, Elmer Jair; Rubio Vargas, Romulo; Cecilia Hani, Albis

    2009-01-01

    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  5. Small dose... big poison.

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  6. Influência da adubação nitrogenada sobre a interferência de plantas daninhas em feijoeiro Period of weed interference in bean with nitrogen fertilizer

    Fernanda Nunes Bressanin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A competição entre plantas daninhas e o feijoeiro, principalmente por nutrientes do meio, é de extrema importância, por seu efeito na perda de produtividade da cultura. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre a extensão do período anterior à interferência (PAI, período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro cultivar 'Rubi'. A semeadura foi realizada no sistema convencional e o ensaio foi instalado em duas áreas simultâneas, tendo, em apenas uma, sido realizada adubação nitrogenada de cobertura. Dentro de cada área foram aplicados 14 tratamentos, que constaram de dois grupos; primeiro: a cultura permaneceu livre de interferência das plantas daninhas, da emergência até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias; segundo: a cultura permaneceu sob interferência, da semeadura até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Raphanus raphanistrum apresentou maior importância relativa, nas duas áreas, principalmente pelo acúmulo de matéria seca, seguido de Amaranthus deflexus. Não houve comportamento diferenciado, em relação à diversidade e à equitatividade das populações de plantas daninhas, em resposta à adubação. Na área sem uso de N em cobertura, o PAI ocorreu aos 18 dias após a emergência (DAE da cultura e o PTPI ocorreu até os 24 DAE, resultando em PCPI dos 18 aos 24 DAE; nessa área, houve redução de 58% da produção da cultura. Na área onde foi realizada a adubação nitrogenada de cobertura, o PAI ocorreu aos 38 DAE da cultura e o PTPI ocorreu aos19 DAE; nessa área, houve redução de 56% da produção da cultura. Portanto, a adubação nitrogenada de cobertura aumentou a produtividade da cultura e a favoreceu competitivamente em relação às plantas daninhas

  7. Brighter for small power plants

    Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a small tunnel drilling machine aimed at using for the construction of small hydroelectric power plants and mentions briefly some advantages economically and environmentally of both the machine and the power production solution

  8. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  9. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  10. Interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predominância de Ipomoea hederifolia na cana-soca Interference of a weed community with predominance of Ipomoea hederifolia on sugar cane ratton

    I.A.B. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos recentes da flora de plantas daninhas associada à cultura da cana-de-açúcar apontaram Ipomoea hederifolia como uma das espécies mais importantes. Em virtude disso, objetivou-se determinar o potencial de redução da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar e da qualidade do caldo em resposta à interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predomínio de I. hederifolia, bem como o período anterior à interferência (PAI. Foi instalado um experimento em Pitangueiras, SP, em que constituíram tratamentos nove períodos crescentes de convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura (0, 16, 30, 44, 69, 97, 135, 160, 188 e 229 dias após o cultivo e adubação e início da brotação - DAB. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cada tratamento em quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que o potencial de redução do número final de colmos e de produtividade foi de 34% e 46%, respectivamente. O PAI foi do início da brotação e se estendeu por 33 dias. Com o aumento do período de convivência com a comunidade infestante, houve antecipação do processo de maturação dos colmos, cujo caldo tendeu a apresentar maior valor de açúcar total recuperável (ATR. Com a redução de produtividade devido à interferência, o valor de ATR ha-1 tendeu a ser negativamente afetado.Recent surveys on weed community associated with sugar cane have pointed Ipomoea hederifolia as one of the most important species. Thus, this work aimed to determine the potential for reducing the productivity and quality of sugar cane in response to weed community interference with a predominance of I. hederifolia, and the period prior to interference (PPI. An assay was installed in Pitangueiras , Brazil, with the treatments consisting of nine periods of coexistence of the weeds with the culture (0, 16, 30, 44, 69,97, 135, 160,188 and 229 days after cultivation and fertilization and days after sprouting. The experiments were arranged in a

  11. Efeitos do contínuo de níveis de interferência contextual na aprendizagem do "putt" do golfe Effects of a contextual interference continuum on golf putting task

    Gonçalo Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A estruturação da prática motora é uma variável de aprendizagem muito estudada na área de Controle Motor e Aprendizagem, sendo, neste âmbito, o efeito de Interferência Contextual um dos pressupostos teóricos mais investigados (TANI, 2005. Tendo como suporte a hipótese de PORTER e MAGILL (2004, 2005, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o grupo com prática num contínuo de níveis Interferência Contextual alcançava melhores resultados na aprendizagem do "putt", do golfe, comparativamente com os grupos de prática por blocos, em séries e aleatória. Participaram voluntariamente 48 estudantes (24 de cada gênero do ensino superior com 21,2 ± 1,4 anos de idade, todos destros e inexperientes. Na fase de aquisição foram realizados 126 ensaios de "putt" às distâncias de 2, 2,75 e 3,5 metros do buraco. Vinte e quatro horas depois ocorreu a fase de retenção e o teste de tranferência. Na fase de retenção foram praticados 30 ensaios de forma aleatória. O teste de tranferência consistiu em 20 ensaios, 10 ensaios a 2,5 metros e 10 ensaios a 2,5 metros com 10 graus de desvio face ao centro do buraco. A análise dos resultados demonstra que não existem diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre grupos. O efeito do incremento de Interferência Contextual não foi verificado neste estudo.The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference (CI effect on learning a golf putting task. PORTER and MAGILL (2004, 2005 conducted studies where they applied a new concept of practice: the contextual interference continuum. The hypothesis is that practicing with gradual increases of CI will lead to better performance on retention and transfer tests that both the blocked and random groups. Forty undergraduate students (N = 48 were randomly assigned to one of four groups: blocked, serial, random, or increasing CI practice schedule. Participants were inexperienced with the task and were blinded to the purpose of the

  12. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.INTRODUCTION: chronic hepatitis C has reached the category of pandemic. The hepatitis C virus is the

  13. High-Level Accumulation of Exogenous Small RNAs Not Affecting Endogenous Small RNA Biogenesis and Function in Plants

    SHEN Wan-xia; Neil A Smith; ZHOU Chang-yong; WANG Ming-bo

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing is a fundamental plant defence and gene control mechanism in plants that are directed by 20-24 nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Infection of plants with viral pathogens or transformation of plants with RNA interference (RNAi) constructs is usually associated with high levels of exogenous siRNAs, but it is unclear if these siRNAs interfere with endogenous small RNA pathways and hence affect plant development. Here we provide evidence that viral satellite RNA (satRNA) infection does not affect siRNA and miRNA biogenesis or plant growth despite the extremely high level of satRNA-derived siRNAs. We generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that no longer develop the speciifc yellowing symptoms generally associated with infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat). We then used these plants to show that CMV Y-Sat infection did not cause any visible phenotypic changes in comparison to uninfected plants, despite the presence of high-level Y-Sat siRNAs. Furthermore, we showed that the accumulation of hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-derived siRNAs or miRNAs, and the level of siRNA-directed transgene silencing, are not signiifcantly affected by CMV Y-Sat infection. Taken together, our results suggest that the high levels of exogenous siRNAs associated with viral infection or RNAi-inducing transgenes do not saturate the endogenous RNA silencing machineries and have no signiifcant impact on normal plant development.

  14. THE COMPUTER AND SMALL BUSINESS.

    The place of the computer in small business is investigated with respect to what type of problems it can solve for small business and how the small...firm can acquire time on one. The decision-making process and the importance of information is discussed in relation to small business . Several...applications of computers are examined to show how the firm can use the computer in day-to-day business operations. The capabilities of a digital computer

  15. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  16. Modified Small Business Network Security

    Md. Belayet Ali; Oveget Das; Md. Shamim Hossain

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers some likely threats and effectivesteps for a secure small business. It also involves a flowchart tocomprehend the overall small business network security easilyand we identify a set of security issues and applyappropriate techniques to satisfy the correspondingsecurity requirements. In respect of all, this document isstrong enough for any small business network security.

  17. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business relating to 8(a) Business Development, HUBZone or Small Disadvantaged Business status. The SBA strongly recommends that contracting officers diligently review a bidder's small business self-certification before

  18. Período de interferência de plantas daninhas em mandioca (Manihot esculenta no noroeste do Paraná Period of weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta in northwestern Parana

    D.F. Biffe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca é uma exploração agrícola importante no Estado do Paraná. No entanto, há limitadas informações relacionadas à interferência das plantas daninhas nessa cultura. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI na cultura da mandioca (variedade Fécula Branca, nas condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná. O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos de tratamentos: com períodos crescentes na presença de plantas daninhas (PAI; e com períodos crescentes na ausência de plantas daninhas (PTPI. Foram identificadas as espécies de plantas daninhas e densidades de infestação na área e calculada a importância relativa (IR, avaliando-se também o estande da cultura e a produtividade de raízes comerciais. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área e que apresentaram os maiores valores de IR foram Cenchrus echinatus e Brachiaria decumbens. Aceitando-se uma tolerância de redução de produtividade de 5%, o PAI ajustado foi de 18 dias após o plantio da cultura, e o PTPI, de 100 dias. Concluiu-se que o PCPI da cultura para as condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná situa-se entre 18 e 100 dias após o plantio.Although cassava is a major agribusiness crop in Paraná, technical information related to weed interference in this crop is limited. This work aimed to evaluate the critical period of weed interference (PCPI in cassava (var. Fécula Branca, for local climate and soil under northwestern Paraná conditions. The experiment was constituted of two groups: the first with increasing periods of weed interference (PAI and the second with increasing periods without weed interference (PTPI. Main weed species in the area were identified and accounted for densities and relative importance (RI during the cycle; crop stand and commercial root yield were also evaluated. The highest RI values were found for Cenchrus echinatus and Brachiaria decumbens. Considering a

  19. Experiencia con las reacciones adversas asociadas con el interferón alfa 2b recombinante en hematología Experience with the adverse reactions associated with recombinant alpha 2b interferon in hematology

    Idalmis Brito Pascual

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El interferón alfa 2b es una citoquina con actividad antiviral, antiproliferativa e inmunomoduladora que ha demostrado ser eficaz para el tratamiento de enfermedades virales y neoplásicas. El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de describir la frecuencia de las reacciones adversas asociada con la administración de Heberon alfa R (interferón alfa 2b recombinante en enfermedades hematológicas. Se analizaron las características de base de los pacientes, así como la frecuencia, intensidad y relación de causalidad de los eventos reportados. Los eventos adversos más frecuentes fueron las manifestaciones del síndrome gripal que incluyó fiebre, escalofrío, astenia, mialgias, anorexia y cefalea. Estas manifestaciones son transitorias y responden al tratamiento con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos. La mayoría de los eventos fueron de intensidad leve a moderada y no requirieron la suspensión del tratamiento. En conclusión, el Heberon alfa R es un fármaco relativamente seguro para el tratamiento de trastornos hematológicosAlpha 2b interferon is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulator activity that has proved to be efficient for the treatment of viral and neoplastic diseases, This paper is aimed at describing the frequency of adverse reactions associated with the administration of alpha R Heberon (recombinant alpha 2b interferon in hematological diseases. The basic characteristics of the patients, as well as the frequency, intensity and causality relation of the reported events were analyzed. The most common adverse effects were the manifestations of the gripal syndrome that included fever, chills, astenia, myalgia, anorexia and headache. These manifestations are transitory and respond to the treatment with non-steroideal antiinflammatory drugs. Most of the events were from mild to moderate intensity and did not require the suspension of the treatment. To conclude, alpha R Heberon is a relatively safe drug

  20. Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture

    M.S. Yamauti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized

  1. Weed interference in sweet pepper in no-tillage and conventional planting systems = Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do pimentão nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

    Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is evaluate the periods of weeds interference on yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., cultivated in no-tillage and conventional systems. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in randomized blocks of a distributed split plots with four replications design. The no-tillage and conventional systems were evaluated in plots and subplots, during the seven periods of control and coexistence among sweet peppers and weeds: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 and 0–112 days after transplanting (DAT. Before weeding and harvest time, they were evaluated species, density and dry mass of weeds. In the sweet peppers crops, diameter, length, number, average fruit weight and yield were evaluated. It was observed less weeds in no-tillage than conventional system. Without competitors, these weet peppers productivity was 69.57% less in conventional than no-tillage system. The critical period of weeds interference was from 19 to 95 DAT in no-tillage system and from 11 to 100 DAT in convention tillage = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferências das plantas daninhas no pimentão (Capsicum annum L., cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto (SPD e convencional (SPC. Para isso, foi realizado um experimento em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, distribuídas no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O SPD e o SPC foram avaliados nas parcelas, e nas subparcelas, os sete períodos de controle e convivência entre as plantas daninhas e o pimentão: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 e 0–112 dias após transplantio (DAT. Antes de cada capina e na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliadas as espécies, a densidade e a matéria seca das plantas daninhas. Na cultura do pimentão foram avaliados diâmetro, comprimento, número, peso médio dos frutos e produtividade. Verificou-se menor incidência de plantas daninhas no SPD em relação ao SPC. Quando mantida livre da competição com as

  2. Exposition regarding small windmills

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  3. Formation of small sparks

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  4. Small-cell osteosarcoma

    Edeiken, J.; Raymond, A.K.; Ayala, A.G.; Benjamin, R.S.; Murray, J.A.; Carrasco, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Small-cell osteosarcoma, a subtype of osteogenic sarcoma, consists of sheets of round cells that produce an osteoid matrix. It may be confused with Ewing sarcoma if the osteoid matrix is not included in the biopsy. The distinctive radiographic features of an osteoblastic tumor and a pattern of permeative destruction will confirm the histologic diagnosis or indicate the true nature if tumor osteoid is not included in the histological sections. We add 13 patients to the 32 previously reported in the literature. Fourteen (31%) of the 45 are living and well, though three have been followed for only 2 months. The treatments have been so varied that a statistically significant evaluation cannot be developed. The radiographic features are not distinctive, but the diagnosis may be suggested when a tumor has osteoblastic features in the metaphysis and extends well down into the shaft with a pattern of permeative destruction. The radiographic features are especially important when limited biopsies reveal only sheets of round cells, thus suggesting Ewing sarcoma. The presence of an osteoid-producing tumor as evident by osteoblastic new bone formation will lead to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Research using small tokamaks

    1991-01-01

    The technical reports contained in this collection of papers on research using small tokamaks fall into four main categories, i.e., (i) experimental work (heating, stability, plasma radial profiles, fluctuations and transport, confinement, ultra-low-q tokamaks, wall physics, a.o.), (ii) diagnostics (beam probes, laser scattering, X-ray tomography, laser interferometry, electron-cyclotron absorption and emission systems), (iii) theory (strong turbulence, effects of heating on stability, plasma beta limits, wave absorption, macrostability, low-q tokamak configurations and bootstrap currents, turbulent heating, stability of vortex flows, nonlinear islands growth, plasma-drift-induced anomalous transport, ergodic divertor design, a.o.), and (iv) new technical facilities (varistors applied to establish constant current and loop voltage in HT-6M), lower-hybrid-current-drive systems for HT-6B and HT-6M, radio-frequency systems for HT-6M ICR heating experimentation, and applications of fiber optics for visible and vacuum ultraviolet radiation detection as applied to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches. A total number of 51 papers are included in the collection. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907...

  7. Small 'l' leadership.

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  9. Joint research using small tokamaks

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Del Bosco, E.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project is presented. (author)

  10. Joint research using small tokamaks

    Gryaznevich, M.P.; Bosco, E. Del; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van; He, Yexi; Hegazy, H.; Hirose, A.; Hron, M.; Kuteev, B.; Ludwig, G.O.; Nascimento, I.C.; Silva, C.; Vorobyev, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Small tokamaks have an important role in fusion research. More than 40 small tokamaks are operational. Research on small tokamaks has created a scientific basis for the scaling-up to larger tokamaks. Well-known scientific and engineering schools, which are now determining the main directions of fusion science and technology, have been established through research on small tokamaks. Combined efforts within a network of small and medium size tokamaks will further enhance the contribution of small tokamaks. A new concept of interactive coordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project, is presented

  11. Avaliação da interferência do ácido ascórbico na detecção da glicosúria Evaluation of ascorbic acid interference in the detection of glycosuria

    Jaime Murilo Fernandes Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O ácido ascórbico (vitamina C é comumente ingerido como suplemento vitamínico. É uma vitamina hidrossolúvel, excretada pela urina e pode interferir nos ensaios laboratoriais, como nas reações de oxirredução para detecção da glicosúria. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a interferência do ácido ascórbico na detecção de glicosúria pelo método de química seca por meio do uso de tiras reagentes. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Amostras de urina foram avaliadas no analisador da marca Clinitek Atlas (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., EUA. Foram selecionadas quatro amostras de urina com diferentes concentrações de glicose: 100 mg/dl, 250 mg/dl, 500 mg/dl e 1.000 mg/dl. Para cada concentração de glicose foram criadas cinco alíquotas, adicionando-se uma solução de ácido ascórbico 200 mg/dl, suficiente para obter uma concentração final de ácido ascórbico de 20 mg/dl no primeiro tubo, de 50 mg/dl no segundo tubo, de 270 mg/dl no terceiro tubo, de 1.000 mg/dl no quarto tubo e de 2.000 mg/dl no quinto tubo. Após essa adição, as amostras foram novamente avaliadas no analisador Clinitek Atlas. RESULTADOS: Nas amostras com concentração de 20 mg/dl de ácido, não se evidenciou interferência. Nas concentrações iguais e acima de 50 mg/dl, a interferência do ácido ascórbico se fez presente, sendo que o fato foi caracterizado pelos resultados falso negativos para detecção da glicose urinária. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram a interferência do ácido ascórbico no método da química seca (tiras reagentes, subestimando o nível de glicose urinária.INTRODUCTION: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is commonly used as a vitamin supplement. It is a water soluble vitamin, which is excreted through urine and may interfere in laboratory tests as well as redox reactions for urinary glucose detection. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess ascorbic acid interference in glycosuria detection by dry chemistry

  12. Análise sobre a interferência antrópica na origem dos campos do Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo

    Ricardo José Francischetti Garcia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar a importância da interferência antrópica na origem dos campos situados junto da crista da Serra do Mar, no município de São Paulo, realizou-se levantamento em diversas fontes de dados históricos que abrangessem a região, especialmente sob o aspecto de atividades econômicas, expansão urbana e vias de comunicação, como possíveis fatores de impacto sobre a vegetação. Verificou-se que a atividade de carvoarias, em meados do século XX, constituiu-se no principal fator de degradação local. Essa atividade, contudo, não é suficiente para explicar a ocorrência de campos no local, embora, possivelmente, tenha retardado a substituição natural dos campos por matas. Discute-se a importância da flora do Núcleo Curucutu para medidas de resgate histórico da flora do município de São Paulo.

  13. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications

    2001-01-01

    agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the

  14. Research using small tokamaks

    1991-05-01

    The technical reports in this document were presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting ''Research on Small Tokamaks'', September 1990, in three sessions, viz., (1) Plasma Modes, Control, and Internal Phenomena, (2) Edge Phenomena, and (3) Advanced Configurations and New Facilities. In Section (1) experiments at controlling low mode number modes, feedback control using external coils, lower-hybrid current drive for the stabilization of sawtooth activity and continuous (1,1) mode, and unmodulated and fast modulated ECRH mode stabilization experiments were reported, as well as the relation to disruptions and transport of low m,n modes and magnetic island growth; static magnetic perturbations by helical windings causing mode locking and sawtooth suppression; island widths and frequency of the m=2 tearing mode; ultra-fast cooling due to pellet injection; and, finally, some papers on advanced diagnostics, i.e., lithium-beam activated charge-exchange spectroscopy, and detection through laser scattering of discrete Alfven waves. In Section (2), experimental edge physics results from a number of machines were presented (positive biasing on HYBTOK II enhancing the radial electric field and improving confinement; lower hybrid current drive on CASTOR improving global particle confinement, good current drive efficiency in HT-6B showing stabilization of sawteeth and Mirnov oscillations), as well as diagnostic developments (multi-chord time resolved soft and ultra-soft X-ray plasma radiation detection on MT-1; measurements on electron capture cross sections in multi-charged ion-atom collisions; development of a diagnostic neutral beam on Phaedrus-T). Theoretical papers discussed the influence of sheared flow and/or active feedback on edge microstability, large edge electric fields, and two-fluid modelling of non-ambipolar scrape-off layers. Section (3) contained (i) a proposal to construct a spherical tokamak ''Proto-Eta'', (ii) an analysis of ultra-low-q and runaway

  15. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  17. Interfering Waves of Adaptation Promote Spatial Mixing

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental problem of asexual adaptation is that beneficial substitutions are not efficiently accumulated in large populations: Beneficial mutations often go extinct because they compete with one another in going to fixation. It has been argued that such clonal interference may have led...... to the evolution of sex and recombination in well-mixed populations. Here, we study clonal interference, and mechanisms of its mitigation, in an evolutionary model of spatially structured populations with uniform selection pressure. Clonal interference is much more prevalent with spatial structure than without......, due to the slow wave-like spread of beneficial mutations through space. We find that the adaptation speed of asexuals saturates when the linear habitat size exceeds a characteristic interference length, which becomes shorter with smaller migration and larger mutation rate. The limiting speed...

  18. Estado laico e interferência religiosa

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n2p279 O artigo analisa diferentes discursos que, neste momento, estão sendo formulados sobre a religião na esfera pública. Não se falará nele da religião ou das religiões, mas da maneira na qual esses temas são percebidos e discutidos na opinião pública ocidental, em particular europeia, pois essa discussão tem algo relevante para a discussão sobre o papel da religião na sociedade brasileira. Serão considerados três discursos que serão denominados respectivamente de (1 “determinismo cultural”, (2 “anti-religiosidade seletiva” e (3 “laicismo estatal”. A intenção do artigo é apontar para os erros lógicos e categoriais e para as incoerências presentes nesses discursos que dominam o atual debate sobre o lugar da religião em geral e do Islã em particular nas sociedades ocidentais.

  19. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  20. Normative Language Policy: Interface and Interfences

    Peled, Yael

    2014-01-01

    The emerging interdisciplinary work in language politics and language policy and planning studies demonstrates a rising interest among researchers in the interface between sociolinguistics, political science and philosophy. Much of the resulting cross-disciplinary work, however, tends to focus on the subject matters (politics, language) themselves…

  1. Unification, small and large

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  2. Unification, small and large

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  3. Adult small bowel obstruction.

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim

    2013-06-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  4. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the small GTPase Rab 2 are crucial for Brucella replication.

    Emilie Fugier

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus survives and replicates inside host cells within an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-derived replicative organelle named the "Brucella-containing vacuole" (BCV. Here, we developed a subcellular fractionation method to isolate BCVs and characterize for the first time the protein composition of its replicative niche. After identification of BCV membrane proteins by 2 dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we focused on two eukaryotic proteins: the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and the small GTPase Rab 2 recruited to the vacuolar membrane of Brucella. These proteins were previously described to localize on vesicular and tubular clusters (VTC and to regulate the VTC membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the Golgi. Inhibition of either GAPDH or Rab 2 expression by small interfering RNA strongly inhibited B. abortus replication. Consistent with this result, inhibition of other partners of GAPDH and Rab 2, such as COPI and PKC iota, reduced B. abortus replication. Furthermore, blockage of Rab 2 GTPase in a GDP-locked form also inhibited B. abortus replication. Bacteria did not fuse with the ER and instead remained in lysosomal-associated membrane vacuoles. These results reveal an essential role for GAPDH and the small GTPase Rab 2 in B. abortus virulence within host cells.

  5. StarScan: a web server for scanning small RNA targets from degradome sequencing data.

    Liu, Shun; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Ke-Ren; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and small interfering RNAs, play important gene regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the protein-coding and non-coding transcripts. However, computationally assigning these various sRNAs to their regulatory target genes remains technically challenging. Recently, a high-throughput degradome sequencing method was applied to identify biologically relevant sRNA cleavage sites. In this study, an integrated web-based tool, StarScan (sRNA target Scan), was developed for scanning sRNA targets using degradome sequencing data from 20 species. Given a sRNA sequence from plants or animals, our web server performs an ultrafast and exhaustive search for potential sRNA-target interactions in annotated and unannotated genomic regions. The interactions between small RNAs and target transcripts were further evaluated using a novel tool, alignScore. A novel tool, degradomeBinomTest, was developed to quantify the abundance of degradome fragments located at the 9-11th nucleotide from the sRNA 5' end. This is the first web server for discovering potential sRNA-mediated RNA cleavage events in plants and animals, which affords mechanistic insights into the regulatory roles of sRNAs. The StarScan web server is available at http://mirlab.sysu.edu.cn/starscan/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection.

    Qiao, Yongli; Shi, Jinxia; Zhai, Yi; Hou, Yingnan; Ma, Wenbo

    2015-05-05

    A broad range of parasites rely on the functions of effector proteins to subvert host immune response and facilitate disease development. The notorious Phytophthora pathogens evolved effectors with RNA silencing suppression activity to promote infection in plant hosts. Here we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) can bind to an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein containing the aspartate-glutamate-alanine-histidine-box RNA helicase domain in plants. This protein, designated PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1), regulates the accumulation of both microRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis. A null mutation of PINP1 causes embryonic lethality, and silencing of PINP1 leads to developmental defects and hypersusceptibility to Phytophthora infection. These phenotypes are reminiscent of transgenic plants expressing PSR1, supporting PINP1 as a direct virulence target of PSR1. We further demonstrate that the localization of the Dicer-like 1 protein complex is impaired in the nucleus of PINP1-silenced or PSR1-expressing cells, indicating that PINP1 may facilitate small RNA processing by affecting the assembly of dicing complexes. A similar function of PINP1 homologous genes in development and immunity was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana. These findings highlight PINP1 as a previously unidentified component of RNA silencing that regulates distinct classes of small RNAs in plants. Importantly, Phytophthora has evolved effectors to target PINP1 in order to promote infection.

  7. Activation of TRPM7 channels by small molecules under physiological conditions.

    Hofmann, T; Schäfer, S; Linseisen, M; Sytik, L; Gudermann, T; Chubanov, V

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) is a cation channel covalently linked to a protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates key cellular processes such as Mg(2+) homeostasis, motility, and proliferation. TRPM7 is involved in anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis, and tumor growth. The goal of this work was to identify small molecule activators of the TRPM7 channel and investigate their mechanism of action. We used an aequorin bioluminescence-based assay to screen for activators of the TRPM7 channel. Valid candidates were further characterized using patch clamp electrophysiology. We identified 20 drug-like compounds with various structural backbones that can activate the TRPM7 channel. Among them, the δ opioid antagonist naltriben was studied in greater detail. Naltriben's action was selective among the TRP channels tested. Naltriben activates TRPM7 currents without prior depletion of intracellular Mg(2+) even under conditions of low PIP2. Moreover, naltriben interfered with the effect of the TRPM7 inhibitor NS8593. Finally, our experiments with TRPM7 variants carrying mutations in the pore, TRP, and kinase domains indicate that the site of TRPM7 activation by this small-molecule ligand is most likely located in or near the TRP domain. In conclusion, we identified the first organic small-molecule activators of TRPM7 channels, thus providing new experimental tools to study TRPM7 function in native cellular environments.

  8. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  9. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  10. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  11. Efficient Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Technique Identifies Direct Interaction of Small Molecule Inhibitors with the Target Protein.

    Gal, Maayan; Bloch, Itai; Shechter, Nelia; Romanenko, Olga; Shir, Ofer M

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a critical role in regulating many cellular processes. Finding novel PPI inhibitors that interfere with specific binding of two proteins is considered a great challenge, mainly due to the complexity involved in characterizing multi-molecular systems and limited understanding of the physical principles governing PPIs. Here we show that the combination of virtual screening techniques, which are capable of filtering a large library of potential small molecule inhibitors, and a unique secondary screening by isothermal titration calorimetry, a label-free method capable of observing direct interactions, is an efficient tool for finding such an inhibitor. In this study we applied this strategy in a search for a small molecule capable of interfering with the interaction of the tumor-suppressor p53 and the E3-ligase MDM2. We virtually screened a library of 15 million small molecules that were filtered to a final set of 80 virtual hits. Our in vitro experimental assay, designed to validate the activity of mixtures of compounds by isothermal titration calorimetry, was used to identify an active molecule against MDM2. At the end of the process the small molecule (4S,7R)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-hydroxy-2,7-dimethyl-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-4,6,7,8 tetrahydrIoquinoline-3-carboxamide was found to bind MDM2 with a dissociation constant of ~2 µM. Following the identification of this single bioactive compound, spectroscopic measurements were used to further characterize the interaction of the small molecule with the target protein. 2D NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding region of the small molecule, and fluorescence polarization measurement confirmed that it indeed competes with p53.

  12. Thermodynamic control of small RNA-mediated gene silencing

    Kumiko eUi-Tei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs are crucial regulators of posttranscriptional gene silencing, which is referred to as RNA interference (RNAi or RNA silencing. In RNAi, siRNA loaded onto the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC downregulates target gene expression by cleaving mRNA whose sequence is perfectly complementary to the siRNA guide strand. We previously showed that highly functional siRNAs possessed the following characteristics: A or U residues at nucleotide position 1 measured from the 5’ terminal, four to seven A/Us in positions 1–7, and G or C residues at position 19. This finding indicated that an RNA strand with a thermodynamically unstable 5’ terminal is easily retained in the RISC and functions as a guide strand. In addition, it is clear that unintended genes with complementarities only in the seed region (positions 2–8 are also downregulated by off-target effects. siRNA efficiency is mainly determined by the Watson-Crick base-pairing stability formed between the siRNA seed region and target mRNA. siRNAs with a low seed-target duplex melting temperature (Tm have little or no seed-dependent off-target activity. Thus, important parts of the RNA silencing machinery may be regulated by nucleotide base-pairing thermodynamic stability. A mechanistic understanding of thermodynamic control may enable an efficient target gene-specific RNAi for functional genomics and safe therapeutic applications.

  13. High-Throughput Screening of Small Molecules Identifies Hepcidin Antagonists

    Fung, Eileen; Sugianto, Priscilla; Hsu, Jason; Damoiseaux, Robert; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Anemia of inflammation (AI) is common in patients with infection, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. Unless the underlying condition can be reversed, treatment options are limited to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents with or without intravenous iron therapy, modalities that are not always effective and can cause serious adverse effects. Hepcidin, the iron regulatory hormone, has been identified as a pathogenic factor in the development of AI. To explore new therapeutic options for AI and other iron-related disorders caused by hepcidin excess, we developed a cell-based screen to identify hepcidin antagonists. Of the 70,000 small molecules in the library, we identified 14 compounds that antagonized the hepcidin effect on ferroportin. One of these was fursultiamine, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved thiamine derivative. Fursultiamine directly interfered with hepcidin binding to its receptor, ferroportin, by blocking ferroportin C326 thiol residue essential for hepcidin binding. Consequently, fursultiamine prevented hepcidin-induced ferroportin ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in vitro and allowed continuous cellular iron export despite the presence of hepcidin, with IC50 in the submicromolar range. Thiamine, the fursultiamine metabolite, and benfotiamine, another thiamine derivative, did not interfere with the effect of hepcidin on ferroportin. Other FDA-approved thiol-reactive compounds were at least 1000-fold less potent than fursultiamine in antagonizing hepcidin. In vivo, fursultiamine did not reproducibly antagonize the effect of hepcidin on serum iron, likely because of its rapid conversion to inactive metabolites. Fursultiamine is a unique antagonist of hepcidin in vitro that could serve as a template for the development of drug candidates that inhibit the hepcidin-ferroportin interaction. PMID:23292796

  14. Modeling of weeds interference periods in bean Determinação de períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão

    M.C. Parreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effects of spacing and seeding density of common bean to the period prior to weed interference (PPI and weed period prior to economic loss (WEEPPEL. The treatments consisted of periods of coexistence between culture and the weeds, with 0 to 10, 0 to 20, 0 to 30, 0 to 40, 0 to 50, 0 to 60, 0 to 70, and 0 to 80 days and a control maintained without weeds. In addition to the periods of coexistence, there were still studies with an inter-row of 0.45 and 0.60 m, 10 and 15 plants m-1. The experimental delineation used was randomized blocks with four repetitions per treatment. The grain productivity of the culture had a reduction of 63, 50, 42 and 57% when the coexistence with the weed plants was during the entire cycle of the culture for a row spacing of 0.45 m and a seeding density of 10 and 15 plants per meter; and a row spacing of 0.60m and a seeding density of 10 and 15 plants per meter, respectively. The PPI occurred in 23, 27, 13, and 19 days after crop emergence and WEEPPEL in 10, 9, 8, and 8 days, respectively.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o período de convivência anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas (PAI e o período anterior ao dano no rendimento econômico (PADRE na cultura do feijão, em diferentes espaçamentos (0,45 e 0,60 m e densidade de plantas (10 e 15 plantas m-1. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de períodos de convivência entre a cultura e as plantas daninhas (0 a 10, 0 a 20, 0 a 30, 0 a 40, 0 a 50, 0 a 60, 0 a 70 e 0 a 80 dias, mais uma testemunha sem convívio com as plantas daninhas. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os períodos anteriores à interferência (PAI da cultura foram de 23, 27, 13 e 19 dias após emergência, e os períodos anteriores ao dano no rendimento econômico (PADRE, de 10, 9, 8 e 8 dias, para os tratamentos com espaçamento de 0,45 m e densidades de semeadura de 10 e 15 plantas m-1 e

  15. Interferência potencialmente alelopática do capim-gengibre (Paspalum maritimum em áreas de pastagens cultivadas Potentially allelopathic interference of Paspalum maritimum in cultivated pasture areas

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar se a interferência mediada por substâncias químicas está envolvida nos mecanismos que o capim-gengibre (Paspalum maritimum utiliza para invadir e formar estandes puros em áreas de pastagens cultivadas da região amazônica. Analisaram-se os efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos de extratos hidroalcoólicos de folhas e rizomas do capim-gengibre e do solo sob essa planta daninha sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia e das plantas forrageiras puerária (Pueraria phaseoloides e capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Os extratos das duas frações do capim-gengibre apresentaram alto potencial para inibir a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula de todas as plantas utilizadas como receptoras. A germinação das sementes das duas plantas daninhas foi mais intensamente inibida do que a das plantas forrageiras, para os extratos das duas frações do capim-gengibre. Para o desenvolvimento da radícula, malícia e puerária foram mais intensamente inibidas. Os efeitos inibitórios estiveram positivamente associados à concentração dos extratos, com inibições máximas verificadas na concentração de 3,0%, em todos os extratos. O solo apresentou potencial inibitório da germinação de sementes e do desenvolvimento da radícula, em nível comparado àqueles promovidos pelos extratos nas concentrações entre 0,5% e 1,5%. Esses resultados confirmam a hipótese levantada neste trabalho, de que a interferência alelopática está envolvida nos mecanismos de invasão e de formação de estandes puros do capim-gengibre.The objective of this work was to determine whether the interference mediated by chemical substances is involved in the Paspalum maritimum mechanisms to invade and form pure stands in areas of cultivated pastures of the Amazon Region. The potential allelopathic

  16. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    2013-08-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  17. The perception of small crime

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present

  18. Optimising India's small hydro resources

    Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history is given of an initiation to develop small scale hydropower projects in the Himalayas. The experience of the Indian project managers in utilising international funds from the Global Environment Facility could serve as a model for other small remote communities in the rest of the world. Lessons learned are reported. (UK)

  19. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  20. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  1. Financial management for small companies

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  2. The Perception of Small Crime

    Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2010-01-01

    Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    Savli, M.; Jamar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  4. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel

    Savli, M; Jamar, B [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-06-15

    Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

  5. What Is a Small Business?

    Jerome S. Osteryoung; Derek Newman

    1993-01-01

    This paper argues that a definition of small business is important for both research and governmental policy. A chronological history of definitions is discussed along with their limitations. A new definition of small business is advocated when a business has personal guarantees and has no public stock. This definition is measurable, meaningful, and congruent with the perceptions of the market system.

  6. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources…

  7. Introduction: innovation and small business

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  8. Suppression of wheat TaCDK8/TaWIN1 interaction negatively affects germination of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici by interfering with very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis.

    Kong, Lingyao; Chang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Wheat TaCDK8 interacts with TaWIN1 to regulate very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis required for efficient germination of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) is a devastating disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bgt infection initiates with its conidia germination on the aerial surface of wheat. In this study, we isolated the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (TaCDK8) from wheat cultivar Jing411 and found that silencing of TaCDK8 impeded Bgt germination. The biochemical and molecular-biological assays revealed that TaCDK8 interacts with and phosphorylates the wheat transcription factor wax inducer 1 (TaWIN1) to stimulate the TaWIN1-dependent transcription. Bgt conidia on the leaves of TaWIN1-silenced plants also showed reduced germination. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that knockdown of TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 resulted in decreases of wax components and cutin monomers in wheat leaves. Moreover, Bgt germination on leaves of TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 silenced plants could be fully restored by application of wild-type cuticular wax. In vitro studies demonstrated that very-long-chain aldehydes absent from the cuticular wax of the TaCDK8 or TaWIN1 silenced plants were capable of chemically stimulating Bgt germination. These results implicated that the suppression of TaCDK8/TaWIN1 interaction negatively affects Bgt germination by interfering with very-long-chain aldehyde biosynthesis required for efficient fungal germination.

  9. Phenotypic silencing of cytoplasmic genes using sequence-specific double-stranded short interfering RNA and its application in the reverse genetics of wild type negative-strand RNA viruses

    Barik Sailen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS by short interfering RNA has opened up new directions in the phenotypic mutation of cellular genes. However, its efficacy on non-nuclear genes and its effect on the interferon pathway remain unexplored. Since directed mutation of RNA genomes is not possible through conventional mutagenesis, we have tested sequence-specific 21-nucleotide long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs for their ability to silence cytoplasmic RNA genomes. Results Short dsRNAs were generated against specific mRNAs of respiratory syncytial virus, a nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA virus with a cytoplasmic life cycle. At nanomolar concentrations, the dsRNAs specifically abrogated expression of the corresponding viral proteins, and produced the expected mutant phenotype ex vivo. The dsRNAs did not induce an interferon response, and did not inhibit cellular gene expression. The ablation of the viral proteins correlated with the loss of the specific mRNAs. In contrast, viral genomic and antigenomic RNA, which are encapsidated, were not directly affected. Conclusions Synthetic inhibitory dsRNAs are effective in specific silencing of RNA genomes that are exclusively cytoplasmic and transcribed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. RNA-directed RNA gene silencing does not require cloning, expression, and mutagenesis of viral cDNA, and thus, will allow the generation of phenotypic null mutants of specific RNA viral genes under normal infection conditions and at any point in the infection cycle. This will, for the first time, permit functional genomic studies, attenuated infections, reverse genetic analysis, and studies of host-virus signaling pathways using a wild type RNA virus, unencumbered by any superinfecting virus.

  10. Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3β-CREB Signaling Pathway

    Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg−1 d−1, intragastrically were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg−1 d−1, subcutaneously injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurofilament light chain (NF-L. Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism. The GTS treatments reversed the corticosterone-induced changes in mRNA levels of BDNF and NF-L, and protein levels of BDNF NF-L, phosphor-cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133, and phosphor-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser9 in the hippocampus. These findings imply that the effect of GTS on corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior may be mediated partly through interfering with hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and reversing decrease of some plasticity-related proteins.

  11. AOX determination in industrial waste water according to EN 1485, DEV H14. Experience with high salt freights and interfering organic matter; AOX-Bestimmungen in Industrieabwaessern nach EN 1485, DEV H14 Erfahrungen mit hohen Salzfrachten und organischen Stoerstoffen

    Helmreich, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    AOX determination in industrial waste water is not always trivial on account of high salt freights or high organic loads. Interfering substances of inorganic or organic nature can cause increases or decreases of readings that often are not plausible or reproducible. In most cases the AOX enrichment step is limiting to quantitative analysis. In the present work, enrichment in two industrial waste waters was critically assessed according to EN 1485 DEV H14. In addition, experience with the enrichment method according to Dr. Lange is reported. For the elimination of high salt freights beside a low organic concentration, cleanup by means of solid-phase extraction is considered. The results suggest that the standardized procedure is not universally applicable to any type of sample. However, appropriate action can minimize flaws of enrichment and, thereby, AOX determination. (orig.) [German] Die AOX-Bestimmung aus Industrieabwaessern ist aufgrund hoher Salzfrachten oder hoher organischer Belastungen nicht immer trivial. Stoerstoffe anorganischer wie auch organischer Art koennen zu Mehr- oder Minderbefunden fuehren, die oft nicht plausibel und reproduzierbar sind. In den meisten Faellen ist der Anreicherungsschritt des AOX fuer die quantitative Analyse limitierend. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Anreicherung nach den EN 1485 DEV H14 fuer zwei Industrieabwaesser kritisch betrachtet. Zudem werden Erfahrungen mit der Anreicherungsmethode nach Dr. Lange vorgestellt. Zur Entfernung hoher Salzfrachten neben einer geringen organischen Konzentration wurde ein Clean-up mittels Festphasenextraktion betrachtet. Die Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass das genormte Verfahren nicht universell auf jeden Probentyp anwendbar ist. Durch ein gezieltes Vorgehen koennen jedoch Fehler bei der Anreicherung und damit bei der AOX-Bestimmung minimiert werden. (orig.)

  12. Small dams need better management

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  13. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  14. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  15. Morbidade e sua interferência na capacidade funcional de idosos Morbilidad y su interferencia en la capacidad funcional de personas de la tercera edad Morbidity and interference in seniors' functional ability

    Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a interferência de morbidades na capacidade funcional de idosos atendidos em serviço ambulatorial de um hospital escola, em Ribeirão Preto-SP, no período de 02/01/2001 a 30/12/2002. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se como instrumento de avaliação, o "Older Americans Resources and Services" e um questionário elaborado pelos autores deste estudo. RESULTADOS: Os dados dos 195 idosos avaliados foram analisados de forma descritiva, sendo a maioria mulheres (70,3%. A idade variou de 61 a 97 anos, com média de 76 anos. As doenças mais freqüentes foram hipertensão arterial (HAS (72,3%, dislipidemia e artrose (24,1% cada, artrite (23%, diabetes (21,5%. As que interferiram em sete ou mais atividades da vida diária (AVDs foram: AVC (82,6%, catarata (45,4%, osteoporose (35,0% e HAS (31,8%; as que interferiram em três ou mais atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVDs, foram: Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC(83,4%, catarata (61,9%; cardiopatias (55,0% e doença de Chagas (47,4%. CONCLUSÃO: As morbidades interferem na capacidade funcional dos idosos para as AVDs e AIVDs.OBJETIVO: Identificar la interferencia de morbilidades en la capacidad funcional de personas de la tercera edad atendidos en consultorios externos de un hospital docente, en Ribeirão Preto-SP, en el período comprendido entre el 02/01/2001 al 30/12/2002. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó como instrumento de evaluación el "Older Americans Resources and Services" y un cuestionario elaborado por los autores de este estudio. RESULTADOS: Los datos de las 195 personas de la tercera edad evaluados fueron analizados de forma descriptiva, siendo la mayoría mujeres (70,3%. La edad varió de 61 a 97 años, con un promedio de 76 años. Las enfermedades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (HA (72,3%, dislipidemia y artrosis (24,1% cada, artritis (23%, diabetes (21,5%. Las que interfirieron en siete o más actividades de la vida diaria (AVDs fueron: ACV (82,6%, catarata (45

  16. Stellarator fields with small PS current at small rotational transform

    Herrnegger, F.

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of the optimization concept of stellarators is the reduction of the normalized Pfirsch-Schlueter current density p arallel 2 / j p erpendikular 2 > 1/2 to a reasonable level but obeying other side conditions, e.g., concerning small bootstrap currents, good stability properties, reasonable aspect ratio, etc. This problem is addressed in the present work. Various stellarator vacuum field are given analytically for M 2, 3, 5, 10, 12 (M is the number of field period around the torus) where the PS-current density is reduced by more than a factor of ten to rather small values around 0.3 even at small i-values

  17. Editorial : entrepreneurship and small business development in small islands

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Fairbairn, Te’o I. J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the limited literature on successful small business and entrepreneurship in small islands, with a focus on Pacific and European research. It argues that the notable specific contribution of this collection is its focus on tangible examples of successful island entrepreneurship, and the specific challenges towards entrepreneurship faced by island people. This approach is micro-oriented and very close to the actual human entrepreneurs that lead and shine by exampl...

  18. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound.

    Jonathan A Kopechek

    Full Text Available RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14. Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9 or control RNA (n = 8 during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3 confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively. Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease.

  19. Small bowel volvulus in children

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  1. Small Bowel Follow-Through

    ... Small bowel follow-through uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  2. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    ... barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus, stomach, and small bowel. X-rays ... made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the ...

  3. Urban Waters Small Grants 101

    General information on Urban Waters Small Grants is provided in this document. Grantees are listed by themes, including Environmental Justice, Water Quality, Job Training and Creation, and Green Infrastructure.

  4. Small satellites and their regulation

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  5. Business Opportunities for Small Reactors

    Minato, Akio; Nishimura, Satoshi; Brown, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the market potential and identifies a number of potential paths for developing the small nuclear reactor business. There are several potential opportunities identified and evaluated. Selecting a specific approach for the business development requires additional information related to a specific market and sources of capital to support the investment. If and how a market for small nuclear plants may develop is difficult to predict because of the complexity of the economic and institutional factors that will influence such development. Key factors are; economics, safety, proliferation resistance and investment risk. The economic and political interest of any of the identified markets is also dependent on successful demonstration of the safety and reliability of small nuclear reactor. Obtaining a US-NRC Standard Design approval would be an important development step toward establishing a market for small reactors. (authors)

  6. Severe small bowel radiation enteritis

    Jaen, J.; Santos, J.A.; Carrion, J.R.; Garcia, P.

    1989-01-01

    We have during recent years observed 8 patients with serious radiation injury to the small intestine. As the cases are quite illustrative, their symptomatology is briefly reported and the treatment and possible predisposing factors are analysed. (orig./MG)

  7. Small Satellite Mechanical Design Experience

    Meyers, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The design approach used and the experience gained in the building of four small satellite payloads is explained. Specific recommendations are made and the lessons learned on the SAMPEX program are detailed.

  8. Urgent problems at small x

    Landshoff, P. V.

    1999-01-01

    Regge theory provides an excellent fit to small-x structure-function data from Q 2 = 0 right up to the highest available values, but it also teaches us that conventional approaches to perturbative evolution are incorrect

  9. Morocco - Small-Scale Fisheries

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  10. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  11. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  12. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  13. Radioactivity: ''small users, big problems''

    McDonnell, C.

    1993-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there are at least one thousand small users of radioactivity in industry, in medicine, in higher education establishments and even schools. These users of small amounts of radioactivity, covering a wide variety of forms and applications, have difficulty in disposing of their wastes. Disposal provisions for users outside the nuclear industry, the practical problems they encounter and the future developments likely are discussed. (UK)

  14. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara [ICSGP (China); Masera, Diego [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  15. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  16. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  17. Who needs a small reactor?

    Wood, Janet.

    1991-01-01

    The opportunities and problems facing small reactors were debated at the Delhi seminar. It was established that these were markets where small reactors, producing heat as well as electricity, might be of use. Small combined heat and power reactors would be more useful in district heating than would large reactors, as their optimum heat production is in line with current district heating schemes. Most process heat requirements are below 900 o C and so may be provided by small nuclear plants. Several areas in electricity supply where small and medium sized reactors could find a market were also identified. Despite good reasons for favouring nuclear plants in these markets, such as no production of carbon dioxide, no need to use expensive oil or other scarce fossil fuels and flexibility, these are, however, disincentives to potential buyers. While serial production would decrease plant costs, the lead plants would bear heavy financial risks. Currently too many options in plant design make it difficult to present the advantages of small reactor technology. Siting reactors near centres of population would be problematical. The disposal of spent fuel and radioactive wastes would create problems in developing or non-nuclear countries. Over and above all these problems, however, was that of public acceptance. Some ways of overcoming these disincentives were discussed. (author)

  18. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server (2017 release).

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2018-04-30

    Plant regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs), which include most microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), such as the phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), play important roles in regulating gene expression. Although generated from genetically distinct biogenesis pathways, these regulatory sRNAs share the same mechanisms for post-translational gene silencing and translational inhibition. psRNATarget was developed to identify plant sRNA targets by (i) analyzing complementary matching between the sRNA sequence and target mRNA sequence using a predefined scoring schema and (ii) by evaluating target site accessibility. This update enhances its analytical performance by developing a new scoring schema that is capable of discovering miRNA-mRNA interactions at higher 'recall rates' without significantly increasing total prediction output. The scoring procedure is customizable for the users to search both canonical and non-canonical targets. This update also enables transmitting and analyzing 'big' data empowered by (a) the implementation of multi-threading chunked file uploading, which can be paused and resumed, using HTML5 APIs and (b) the allocation of significantly more computing nodes to its back-end Linux cluster. The updated psRNATarget server has clear, compelling and user-friendly interfaces that enhance user experiences and present data clearly and concisely. The psRNATarget is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/.

  19. Nanoparticle assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for small molecule analytes.

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticle assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (NPs-ALDI-MS) shows remarkable characteristics and has a promising future in terms of real sample analysis. The incorporation of NPs can advance several methods including surface assisted LDI-MS, and surface enhanced LDI-MS. These methods have advanced the detection of many thermally labile and nonvolatile biomolecules. Nanoparticles circumvent the drawbacks of conventional organic matrices for the analysis of small molecules. In most cases, NPs offer a clear background without interfering peaks, absence of fragmentation of thermally labile molecules, and allow the ionization of species with weak noncovalent interactions. Furthermore, an enhancement in sensitivity and selectivity can be achieved. NPs enable straightforward analysis of target species in a complex sample. This review (with 239 refs.) covers the progress made in laser-based mass spectrometry in combination with the use of metallic NPs (such as AuNPs, AgNPs, PtNPs, and PdNPs), NPs consisting of oxides and chalcogenides, silicon-based NPs, carbon-based nanomaterials, quantum dots, and metal-organic frameworks. Graphical abstract An overview is given on nanomaterials for use in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of small molecules.

  20. New antiangiogenics in non-small cell lung cancer treatment: Vargatef™ (BIBF 1120 and beyond

    Gori B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Gori1, Serena Ricciardi1, Alberto Fulvi1, Salvatore Intagliata2, Ester Del Signore1, Filippo de Marinis11Oncological-Pulmonary Unit 1st, San Camillo Hospital, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Medical Oncology, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is a particularly aggressive cancer, the optimum management of which is still being determined. In the metastatic disease, the standard therapy is a platinum-based combination chemotherapy; however, in spite of available treatment options for patients who progress beyond first-line therapy, prognosis remains poor. Angiogenesis is a tightly regulated process which comprises a complex, complementary, and overlapping network. Inhibition of tumor-related angiogenesis has become an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Antiangiogenic strategy includes: monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and VEGF receptor (VEGFR, small molecule inhibitors of VEGF tyrosine kinase activity, VEGF Trap, and a new class named “vascular disrupting agents,” tested in ongoing clinical trials which will further define their role in the management of NSCLC. BIBF 1120 is an investigational orally administered receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has shown antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activity, inhibiting VEGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, preventing tumor growth and interfering with the angiogenesis-signaling cascade and overcoming drug resistances.Keywords: NSCLC, angiogenesis, oral antiangiogenic agents, VEGF, PDGF, FGF

  1. New Insight into Inter-kingdom Communication: Horizontal Transfer of Mobile Small RNAs.

    Zhou, Geyu; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), are conventionally regarded as critical molecular regulators of various intracellular processes. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates that sRNAs can be transferred within cells and tissues and even across species. In plants, nematodes and microbes, these mobile sRNAs can mediate inter-kingdom communication, environmental sensing, gene expression regulation, host-parasite defense and many other biological functions. Strikingly, a recent study by our group suggested that ingested plant miRNAs are transferred to blood, accumulate in tissues and regulate transcripts in consuming animals. While our and other independent groups' subsequent studies further explored the emerging field of sRNA-mediated crosstalk between species, some groups reported negative results and questioned its general applicability. Thus, further studies carefully evaluating the horizontal transfer of exogenous sRNAs and its potential biological functions are urgently required. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field of the horizontal transfer of mobile sRNAs, suggest its future directions and key points for examination and discuss its potential mechanisms and application prospects in nutrition, agriculture and medicine.

  2. New Insight into Inter-kingdom Communication: Horizontal Transfer of Mobile Small RNAs

    Xi Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs, are conventionally regarded as critical molecular regulators of various intracellular processes. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates that sRNAs can be transferred within cells and tissues and even across species. In plants, nematodes and microbes, these mobile sRNAs can mediate inter-kingdom communication, environmental sensing, gene expression regulation, host-parasite defense and many other biological functions. Strikingly, a recent study by our group suggested that ingested plant miRNAs are transferred to blood, accumulate in tissues and regulate transcripts in consuming animals. While our and other independent groups’ subsequent studies further explored the emerging field of sRNA-mediated crosstalk between species, some groups reported negative results and questioned its general applicability. Thus, further studies carefully evaluating the horizontal transfer of exogenous sRNAs and its potential biological functions are urgently required. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field of the horizontal transfer of mobile sRNAs, suggest its future directions and key points for examination and discuss its potential mechanisms and application prospects in nutrition, agriculture and medicine.

  3. Anatomy of RISC: how do small RNAs and chaperones activate Argonaute proteins?

    Nakanishi, Kotaro

    2016-09-01

    RNA silencing is a eukaryote-specific phenomenon in which microRNAs and small interfering RNAs degrade messenger RNAs containing a complementary sequence. To this end, these small RNAs need to be loaded onto an Argonaute protein (AGO protein) to form the effector complex referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC assembly undergoes multiple and sequential steps with the aid of Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. The molecular mechanisms for this assembly process remain unclear, despite their significance for the development of gene silencing techniques and RNA interference-based therapeutics. This review dissects the currently available structures of AGO proteins and proposes models and hypotheses for RISC assembly, covering the conformation of unloaded AGO proteins, the chaperone-assisted duplex loading, and the slicer-dependent and slicer-independent duplex separation. The differences in the properties of RISC between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will also be clarified. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:637-660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1356 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rapid and specific purification of Argonaute-small RNA complexes from crude cell lysates.

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; Salomon, William E; Zamore, Phillip D

    2013-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute proteins, the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave complementary target RNAs. Here, we describe a method to purify active RISC containing a single, unique small RNA guide sequence. We begin by capturing RISC using a complementary 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide tethered to beads. Unlike other methods that capture RISC but do not allow its recovery, our strategy purifies active, soluble RISC in good yield. The method takes advantage of the finding that RISC partially paired to a target through its siRNA guide dissociates more than 300 times faster than a fully paired siRNA in RISC. We use this strategy to purify fly Ago1- and Ago2-RISC, as well as mouse AGO2-RISC. The method can discriminate among RISCs programmed with different guide strands, making it possible to deplete and recover specific RISC populations. Endogenous microRNA:Argonaute complexes can also be purified from cell lysates. Our method scales readily and takes less than a day to complete.

  5. Interferência de populações de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea ramosissima isoladas ou em misturas sobre a cultura de soja Interference of populations of Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea ramosissima isolated or in mixture in soybean crop

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais espécies daninhas que infestam as lavouras de soja do sul do Brasil, destacam-se Euphorbia heterophylla (leiteira e, mais recentemente, Ipomoea ramosissima (corda-de-viola. Objetivou-se avaliar a habilidade competitiva relativa entre espécies daninhas e soja e quantificar a interferência de infestações mistas de leiteira e corda-de-viola quando em convivência com plantas de soja. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, comparando associações de leiteira ou corda-de-viola com soja, utilizando-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e soja ou corda-de-viola e soja (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0. Em um terceiro experimento, mantiveram-se constantes quatro plantas de soja por vaso e utilizaram-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e corda-de-viola (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0, estabelecidas em duas épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja. Verificou-se que a redução na biomassa da soja é mais intensa quando em presença de corda-de-viola do que de leiteira e, principalmente, em situações nas quais a planta daninha se estabelece antes que a cultura. Quando em infestação mista, corda-de-viola é mais competitiva do que leiteira.Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia, and, more recently, Ipomoea ramosissima (morningglory are among the main weeds infesting soybean crop in southern Brazil. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of wild poinsettia and morningglory as single or mixed populations in coexistence with soybean. Two experimentswere conducted to compare associations of wild poinsettia or moningglory with soybean, using five ratios of wild poinsettia plants and soybean or morningglory (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0. In a third experiment, four soybean plants per pot were kept constant and five ratios of of wild poinsettia and moningglory plants were used (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0, established in two weed emergence periods related to the soybean. The results indicated that a higher

  6. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas. II - cultivar Caiapó Interference periods of weeds in the upland rice - Caiapó variety

    Maria Rosangela Malheiros Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos nos anos agrícolas 2003/2004 e 2004/2005, em área experimental da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Jaboticabal (SP, com o objetivo de se determinarem os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas, cultivar Caiapó. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 16 tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por períodos crescentes de controle ou de convivência das plantas daninhas após a emergência da cultura: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 dias e 0-colheita. Nos dois anos, as famílias predominantes eram Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae e Malvaceae e as principais plantas daninhas presentes foram: Cyperus rotundus L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria spp Heist., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Eleusine indica Gaertn e Alternanthera tenella Colla. A cultivar de arroz de terras altas Caiapó deve ser mantida sem plantas daninhas nos 30 dias após a emergência.The experiments were carried out in two growing seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05 in an experimental area at São Paulo State University - UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, to evaluate the weed interference periods on the upland Caiapó rice variety. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 4 replicates and 16 treatments. The treatments consisted of increasing periods of control or coexistence after emergence of the culture: 0-10; 0-20; 0-30; 0-40; 0-50; 0-60; 0-70 days; 0-harvest. The predominant families were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae and Malvaceae, and the main weeds present were Cyperus rotundus L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria spp Heist., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Eleusine indica Gaertn e Alternanthera tenella Colla for both years. The upland rice cultivar Caiapó is to be kept free of weeds for 30 days after emergence.

  7. Content Delivery in Fog-Aided Small-Cell Systems with Offline and Online Caching: An Information—Theoretic Analysis

    Seyyed Mohammadreza Azimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The storage of frequently requested multimedia content at small-cell base stations (BSs can reduce the load of macro-BSs without relying on high-speed backhaul links. In this work, the optimal operation of a system consisting of a cache-aided small-cell BS and a macro-BS is investigated for both offline and online caching settings. In particular, a binary fading one-sided interference channel is considered in which the small-cell BS, whose transmission is interfered by the macro-BS, has a limited-capacity cache. The delivery time per bit (DTB is adopted as a measure of the coding latency, that is, the duration of the transmission block, required for reliable delivery. For offline caching, assuming a static set of popular contents, the minimum achievable DTB is characterized through information-theoretic achievability and converse arguments as a function of the cache capacity and of the capacity of the backhaul link connecting cloud and small-cell BS. For online caching, under a time-varying set of popular contents, the long-term (average DTB is evaluated for both proactive and reactive caching policies. Furthermore, a converse argument is developed to characterize the minimum achievable long-term DTB for online caching in terms of the minimum achievable DTB for offline caching. The performance of both online and offline caching is finally compared using numerical results.

  8. Small-molecule inhibitors of Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 related kinase (ATR) sensitize lymphoma cells to UVA radiation

    Biskup, Edyta; Naym, David Gram; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    inhibited by small molecule antagonists VE-821, VE-822 or Chir-124, or by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Cell cycle and viability were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Small molecule inhibitors of ATR and Chk1 potently sensitized all cell lines to PUVA and, importantly, also to UVA, which by itself...... did not cause apoptotic response. VE-821/2 blocked ATR pathway activation and released the cells from the G2/M block caused by UVA and PUVA, but did not affect apoptosis caused by other chemotherapeutics (etoposide, gemcitabine, doxorubicine) or by hydrogen peroxide. Knockdown of ATR and Chk1 with si......RNA also blocked the ATR pathway and released the cells from G2/M block but did not sensitize the cells to UVA as observed with the small molecule inhibitors. The latter suggested that the synergism between VE-821/2 or Chir-124 and UVA was not solely caused by specific blocking of ATR kinase but also ATR...

  9. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    2012-12-27

    ... overall goal of simplification and maximization of benefits for small businesses, SBA proposed amendments... franchisee. F. Section 121.704--When SBA Determines Size and Eligibility SBA's proposed regulations for the...

  10. 75 FR 66411 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program

    2010-10-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice: Availability of Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide for the Women...

  11. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    2013-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business... Business Administration (SBA) is reopening the comment period for the Small Business Innovation Research...

  12. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section.

  13. Small RNAs in plants: Recent development and application for crop improvement

    Ayushi eKamthan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi which involves sequence specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs i.e small interfering RNA (siRNA and micro RNA (miRNA has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits & vegetables. It has also been applied for developing resistance against various biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects and abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, cold etc.. Nutritional improvements of crops have also been achieved by enriching the crops with essential amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and other nutrients beneficial for human health or by reducing allergens or anti-nutrients. Micro RNAs are key regulators of important plant processes like growth, development and response to various stresses. In spite of similarity in size (20-24nt, miRNA differ from siRNA in precursor structures, pathway of biogenesis, and modes of action. This review also highlights the miRNA based genetic modification technology where various miRNAs/artificial miRNAs and their targets can be utilized for improving several desirable plant traits. Micro RNA based strategies are much efficient than siRNA-based RNAi strategies due to its specificity and less undesirable off target effects. As per the FDA guidelines, small RNA based transgenics are much safer for consumption than those over expressing proteins. This review thereby summarizes the emerging advances and achievement in the field of small RNAs and its application for crop improvement.

  14. Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.

    Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interferência da fração mineral na estimativa do grau de humificação da matéria orgânica em agregados organominerais por ressonância paramagnética eletrônica

    C. Bayer

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de radicais livres semiquinona (CRLS, determinada por ressonância paramagnética eletrônica (EPR, é considerada um índice do grau de humificação, sendo uma importante determinação em estudos qualitativos da matéria orgânica do solo. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a interferência da fração mineral na quantificação da CRLS em agregados organominerais 20-53, 2-20 e < 2 ∝m de Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro e Latossolo Roxo. A CRLS foi determinada pela área do sinal, estimada pela aproximação intensidade do sinal (I, em cm, multiplicada pela sua largura de linha ao quadrado (∆H², em Gauss. Os parâmetros espectrais I e ∆H foram obtidos em espectros de EPR com e sem interferência da fração mineral. No Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo e no Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro, foram detectados dois sinais de radicais livres, um com um valor g 2,004 e largura de linha de 5-6 G, típico de radicais livres semiquinona, outro com um valor g 2,000 e largura de linha de 2-3 G, associado à fração mineral, especificamente ao quartzo (SiO2, como confirmado posteriormente por análise de amostra purificada. Nestes solos, a interferência da fração mineral na obtenção dos parâmetros I e ∆H resultou num erro na estimativa da CRLS de -7 a +488%, comparativamente às quantificações realizadas a partir dos espectros sem interferência da fração mineral. No Latossolo Roxo, os altos teores de Fe3+ não permitiram detectar os sinais dos radicais livres semiquinona por causa da sobreposição dos sinais do metal. A eliminação da interferência da fração mineral demonstrou ser um pré-requisito fundamental no estudo da matéria orgânica por EPR em agregados organominerais, para a qual são sugeridos alguns procedimentos alternativos.

  16. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  17. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  18. Small systems at the LHC

    Preghenella, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    In these proceedings, I report on a selection of recent LHC results in small systems from ALICE [1], ATLAS [2] and CMS [3] experiments. Due to the fact that the investigation of QCD in small systems at high multiplicity is becoming an increasingly large subject, interesting the heavy-ion community and more in general the high-energy physics community, not all the related topics can be discussed in this paper. The focus will be given to some of the measurements addressing the physics of collective phenomena in small systems and to the recent results on strangeness enhancement in proton-proton collisions. The reader must be informed that a large number of interesting results did not find space in the discussion reported here.

  19. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    approach and we propose for SME managers to investigate Foucault’s notion of “care of the self”. Originality/value: We conceptualize how SBSR is caught in a ‘governmentality dilemma’ where simultaneous expectations to govern others (e.g. through standards) and the self (e.g. through intrinsic motivations......) are confronting owner-managers’ ethos. We explain theoretically how small business managers respond to the challenge when they are required to formalize and display for external surveillance that which would otherwise be informal and part of the non-public or private sphere.......Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...

  20. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  1. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  2. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    2011-10-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business... Business Jobs Act of 2010, which pertain to small business subcontracting. SBA is proposing to amend its...

  3. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  4. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    ABR Thomson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed; some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  5. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    ABR Thomson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed, and some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  6. Connections for Small Vertex Models

    This paper is a first attempt at calssifying connections on small vertex models i.e., commuting squares of the form displayed in (1.2) below. ... obtain necessary conditions for two such `model connections' in (2, ) to be ... Current Issue : Vol.

  7. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  8. Effects of small radiation doses

    Fuchs, G.

    1986-01-01

    The term 'small radiation dosis' means doses of about (1 rem), fractions of one rem as well as doses of a few rem. Doses like these are encountered in various practical fields, e.g. in X-ray diagnosis, in the environment and in radiation protection rules. The knowledge about small doses is derived from the same two forces, on which the radiobiology of human beings nearly is based: interpretation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data, as well as the experience from radiotherapy. Careful interpretation of Hiroshima dates do not provide any evidence that small doses can induce cancer, fetal malformations or genetic damage. Yet in radiotherapy of various diseases, e.g. inflammations, doses of about 1 Gy (100 rad) do no harm to the patients. According to a widespread hypothesis even very small doses may induce some types of radiation damage ('no threshold'). Nevertheless an alternative view is justified. At present no decision can be made between these two alternatives, but the usefullness of radiology is definitely better established than any damage calculated by theories or extrapolations. Based on experience any exaggerated fear of radiations can be met. (author)

  9. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  10. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  11. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  12. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  13. Radiology of the small intestine

    Trueber, E.; Engelbrecht, V.

    1998-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in radiology of the small intestine, discussing diagnostic fundamentals in the general, introductory chapter and continuing with the specific modalities available and applicable for diagnostic evaluation of the various symptoms and lesions. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Small Molecule PET-Radiopharmaceuticals

    Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    This review describes several aspects required for the development of small molecule PET-tracers. Design and selection criteria are important to consider before starting to develop novel PET-tracers. Principles and latest trends in C-11 and F-18-radiochemistry are summarized. In addition an update

  15. Netbooks: Small but Powerful Friends

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks, sometimes called "mini-notebooks," are lightweight, small, and low-priced computers. Some writers ridicule them by calling them "one of the hottest tech toys of the year" (Saltzman, 2008). Others enthusiastically embrace them as "my perfect new travel companion" (Grossman, 2009). Netbooks are not toys. They are honest-to-goodness real…

  16. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  17. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  18. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  19. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  20. Small Business Location and Layout.

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    As an approach to teaching small-business location and layout, this publication contains material for teaching one session of a basic course. The sections of the publication are as follows: (1) The Lesson Plan--an outline of the material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: an outline of the presentation, and a…