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Sample records for socioeconomic study volume

  1. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  2. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  3. Economic study of socioeconomic characteristics and resource use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in 2008 in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Primary data which were obtained from randomly selected maize farmers were used for the study. Both socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers and production activities were studied. The socioeconomic characteristics were ...

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  5. Low Socioeconomic Status Men Persisting in College: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Dusten D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and to tell the stories of low socioeconomic status (SES) men in college who persisted beyond the halfway point of college at a Midwestern metropolitan university. Prior research suggested men from low socioeconomic status backgrounds matriculated and persisted in college at the lowest…

  6. Socioeconomic study: WPPSS Nuclear Projects 1 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    A study is presented which is primarily concerned with the identification of those WNP-1 and WNP-4 impacts which place stress upon the socioeconomic structure of the Tri-City region. The study fulfills three objectives: first, to describe the socioeconomic implications of the proposed projects and the components of socioeconomic structure characterizing the study region; second, to postulate the potential impacts of the projects as well as possible mitigating measures on these components; and third, to present overall evaluation and planning strategies

  7. Socioeconomic effects of the DOE Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant. Volume 1: methodology and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The socioeconomic effects of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant being built in Portsmouth, Ohio were studied. Chapters are devoted to labor force, housing, population changes, economic impact, method for analysis of services, analysis of service impacts, schools, and local government finance

  8. Low level radioactive waste disposal siting: a social and technical plan for Pennsylvania. Volume 2. Socioeconomic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, G.; Bord, R.J.; Clemente, F.A.; Dornsife, W.P.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.; Schmalz, R.F.; Witzig, W.F.

    1984-09-01

    Volume II comprises five chapters: Socioeconomic Screening Criteria for LLRW Facility Siting and An Application to Counties in Pennsylvania; Evaluating Public Participation Options for the Case of Low Level Radioactive Waste Siting in Pennsylvania; Potential Socioeconomic Impacts of a LLRW Facility in Pennsylvania; The Role of Community Incentives in Low Level Radioactive Waste Management; and Institutional Aspects of LLRW Site Development and Operations in Pennsylvania

  9. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project: An interim report on the State of Nevada socioeconomic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The State of Nevada formally initiated a study of the socioeconomic impacts of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada in 1986 after the Nevada site had been chosen as a potential waste disposal site. The State and affected local governments that participated in the development of the study recognized that the effort would need to go well beyond what is traditionally considered adequate for socioeconomic impact assessment because of the unique nature of the repository project. This Interim Report is a report on work in progress and presents findings from the research to date on the potential consequences of a repository for the citizens of Nevada. The research and findings in the Report have been subjected to rigorous peer review as part of the state's effort to insure independent, objective analysis that meets the highest professional standards. The basic research effort will continue through June 1990 and will enable the state to refine and clarify the findings presented in this Interim Report

  10. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Environmental, socioeconomic, regulatory impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume characterizes the major baseline environmental features of the Chattanooga Shale study and projects the effects which may accrue from implementation of a large scale development to recover uranium from the shale. Environmental, socioeconomic, and regulatory impacts are covered. The prototype project is located in Dekalb County in Tennessee. (DLC)

  11. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  12. Socioeconomic effects of the DOE Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant. Volume 2: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains 18 appendices: schools; fire protection; law enforcement; water and sewer systems; solid waste; health care; transportation; recreation; labor force; economic effects; finance; school finance; bibliography; contacts; project methodology; service impacts; reference tables; and response to comments

  13. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical documentation: Volume 3, Schematic flowcharts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.; Murdock, S.; Hamm, R.; Fannin, D.; Ransom-Nelson, W.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents a summary of results of an assessment of the adaptability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the SEARS model. Specifically, after describing the methods used in the analysis, the report presents a discussion of each aspect of the model evaluation process. The adaptation of the system to three states (Louisiana, Wyoming, and Texas) is described in light of the three key aspects of the model. Volume 3 presents 276 flowcharts for the major functions of the SEARS model

  15. A cross-sectional study of socioeconomic status and cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a challenge to populations and health systems worldwide. It is projected that by 2020 about a third of all deaths globally will be caused by CVDs, and that they will become the single leading cause of death by 2030. Empirical evidence suggests that there is socioeconomic ...

  16. Case studies on the socio-economic characteristics and lifestyles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home ... To develop a management strategy for informal fishers, a necessary first step is information about the nature of these fishers, their numbers and their socio-economic status. ... Education levels were low, only ~33% of people >20 years old having completed primary school.

  17. Discovering complex interrelationships between socioeconomic status and health in Europe: A case study applying Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Studies assume that socioeconomic status determines individuals' states of health, but how does health determine socioeconomic status? And how does this association vary depending on contextual differences? To answer this question, our study uses an additive Bayesian Networks model to explain the interrelationships between health and socioeconomic determinants using complex and messy data. This model has been used to find the most probable structure in a network to describe the interdependence of these factors in five European welfare state regimes. The advantage of this study is that it offers a specific picture to describe the complex interrelationship between socioeconomic determinants and health, producing a network that is controlled by socio-demographic factors such as gender and age. The present work provides a general framework to describe and understand the complex association between socioeconomic determinants and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease risk and mortality: A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  20. Individual socioeconomic status and breast cancer diagnostic stages: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza

    2016-06-01

    Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years.

  2. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years

  3. Evaluation of fusion study from socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Okano, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Nagumo, S.; Tokimatsu, K.; Tobita, K.

    2005-01-01

    A fusion research project was evaluated from the aspects of socio-economics and its possible economic benefit. Research project itself has large economic impacts and it appears in a different way in different time. Four categories were identified as such mechanisms; direct economic effect by purchase and employment, the growth of local community and its economy, an improvement of technical capability of the industry stimulated by the development, and fusion energy supply under environmental constraints. Industrial effects were analysed from actual R and D program and found to yield considerable economic outcome, although contribution by the research itself is far smaller than that required for industry before actual commercial products can be produced. Economic value of fusion energy could be huge, but appears several decades future, and should be reduced by discount rate and success probability. Its value is more important as a part of environmental policy. Value of the fusion research at present age cannot be estimated as actual benefit, but as the effectiveness in the policy, or benefit for public that is now regarded as a kind of Externality

  4. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  5. Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Kilian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association between hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions. Most, but not all found an association, and results are in part conflicting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between hip fractures and socioeconomic conditions in Germany, from 1995 to 2004, on a census tract area level. Methods We used data from the national hospital discharge diagnosis register and data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 131 census tracts from official statistics. Associations between the hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Results The risk of hip fracture decreased by 4% with a 7% increase (about one interquartile range of non-German nationals. It decreased by 10% with a 6% increased rate of unemployment, increased by 7% with a 2% increase of the proportion of welfare recipients, and also increased by 3% with an increase of the proportion of single parent families of 1.9%. Conclusion Our results showed weak associations between indicators of socioeconomic conditions at area level and hip fracture risk; the varied by type of indicator. We conclude that hip fracture incidence might be influenced by the socioeconomic context of a region, but further analysis using more specific markers for deprivation on a smaller scale and individual-level data are needed.

  6. Socioeconomic status in childhood and obesity in adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Navarro, Albert; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether there is an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and measures of body mass index, waist circumference and the presence of overall and abdominal obesity in adult life. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study, including a sample of adults (22-63 years old) living in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The socioeconomic status in childhood was analyzed through the education level of the participant's parents. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured by previously trained interviewers. Linear and logistic regressions with adjustment for confounding factors and stratification of data according to gender were used. RESULTS Of the 1,222 adults evaluated, 20.4% (95%CI 18.1-22.8) presented overall obesity and 24.8% (95%CI 22.4-27.4), abdominal obesity. The body mass index and waist circumference averages among women were, respectively, 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI -2.3- -0.04) and 2.8 cm (95%CI -5.3- -0.2) lower among those with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Among men, waist circumference was 3.9 cm (95%CI 1.0-6.8) higher in individuals with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Regarding obesity, women of higher socioeconomic status in childhood had lower odds of abdominal obesity (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.90), and no such association was observed among men. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status in childhood influences body mass index, waist circumference and obesity in adults, with a difference in the direction of association according to gender. The higher socioeconomic status among men and the lower socioeconomic status among women were associated with higher adiposity indicators.

  7. Associations between forest characteristics and socio-economic development: a case study from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning.

  8. The relationship between socioeconomic status and beverage consumption in children: The Cuenca Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla Tobarra, Marta; García Hermoso, Antonio; Lahoz García, Noelia; Notario Pacheco, Blanca; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Pozuelo Carrascosa, Diana P; García Meseguer, María José; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente A

    2018-01-19

    beverage consumption constitutes a source of children's daily energy intake. Some authors have suggested that consumption of caloric beverages is higher in children with a low socioeconomic position because families limit their spending on healthy food in order to save money. the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and Spanish children's beverage consumption. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sub-sample of 182 children (74 girls) aged 9-11 from the province of Cuenca (Spain). Beverage consumption was assessed using the YANA-C assessment tool, validated for HELENA study. Data for parental socioeconomic status were gathered by using self-reported occupation and education questions answered by parents and classified according to the scale proposed by the Spanish Society of Epidemiology. beverage intake was higher in children belonging to a middle-status family than in those of upper socioeconomic status (p = 0.037). The energy from beverages was similar in most water intake categories, except for water from beverages (p = 0.046). Regarding other beverages categories, middle-status children had higher consumption levels. In contrast, lower status children drank more fruit juices and skimmed milk. All of these do not show statistically significant differences. our study did not find significant associations between beverages consumption and socioeconomic status in children. In fact, intake for most beverage categories was higher in middle-status children than in both other socioeconomic groups. Future research is needed in order to identify this complex relation between socioeconomic inequality and beverage intake behavior.

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics in child (0-18 years) health studies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, C Leontine; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Wal, Marcel F; Verhoeff, Arnoud P

    2014-09-01

    Growing up in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods has been shown to have negative health effects on children. However, the most recent review on which measures are used to investigate the association between neighborhood characteristics and child (0-18 year) health included studies only until 2004. Insight into more recent research is needed for the further development of these measures. To review neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics used in recent studies investigating the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and child health. Sensitive search in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts databases (2004-2013). Ultimately, 19 studies were included. We found ten neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation constructs, of which income/wealth, employment, and education were most frequently used. The choice for neighborhood characteristics seemed independent of the health outcome and in most cases was not based on a specific theoretical background or earlier work. Studies vary regarding study designs, measures and outcomes. Researchers should clearly specify their choice of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics; preferably, these should be theory-based and used consistently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic status and number of children among Korean women: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseob; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.

  11. Relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and venous thromboembolism: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, D; van Rein, N; van der Meer, F J M; Vermaas, H W; Wiersma, N; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M

    2017-12-01

    Essentials Literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce. We assessed neighborhood SES with VTE risk in a population of over 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. These findings are helpful to inform policy and resource allocation in health systems. Background The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been carried out to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. Methods We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was based on the status score, which combines educational level, income and unemployment on a four-digit postal code level. Incidence rate ratios of venous thromboembolism were calculated for different levels of neighborhood socioeconomic status, with adjustments for age and sex. Results A total of 7373 patients with a first venous thromboembolism (median age 61 years; 50% deep vein thrombosis) were identified among more than 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. In the two highest status score groups (i.e. the 95-99th and > 99th percentile), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93), respectively, compared with the reference status score group (i.e. 30-70th percentile). Conclusions High neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with a lower risk of first venous thromboembolism. © 2017

  12. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  13. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimijiama, S; Nagai, M

    2014-01-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development

  14. [Lifetime socioeconomic status and health-related risk behaviors: the ELSA-Brazil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Jéssica Costa; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Griep, Rosane Härter; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Chor, Dóra; Chagas, Maria da Conceição Almeida

    2017-04-03

    Our objective was to investigate the association between lifetime socioeconomic status and intra-generational social mobility and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking among 13,216 men and women participating in the baseline of the ELSA-Brazil study (2008-2010). Socioeconomic status in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood was measured by maternal schooling, socio-occupational class of the first occupation, and socio-occupational class of the current occupation, respectively. Social disadvantages in adulthood were consistently associated with higher prevalence of the three behaviors analyzed in men and women. However, socioeconomic status in youth and childhood was less consistently associated with the behaviors. For example, while low maternal schooling reduced the odds of past smoking (women) and current smoking (men and women), it was associated with higher odds of leisure-time physical inactivity in women. Meanwhile, low socioeconomic status in youth increased the odds of past smoking (men and women) and current smoking (women). Analysis of social trajectories lent additional support to the relevance of disadvantages in adulthood for risk behaviors, since only individuals that rose to the high socio-occupational class did not show higher odds of these behaviors when compared to participants that had always belonged to the high socio-occupational class. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic disadvantages in adulthood appear to be more relevant for risk behaviors than disadvantages in childhood and adolescence.

  15. Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang-Huang, J. (Junwen); A. van Grieken (Amy); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands.

  16. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  17. Obesity and socioeconomic disadvantage in midlife female public sector employees: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Aapo; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne

    2017-10-24

    The two-way relationship between obesity and socioeconomic disadvantage is well established but previous studies on social and economic consequences of obesity have primarily focused on relatively young study populations. We examined whether obesity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage through the 10-12-year follow-up, and how obesity-related socioeconomic inequalities develop during midlife among women. Baseline data were derived from the female population of the Helsinki Health Study cohort, comprising 40-60 -year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland in 2000-2002 (n = 6913, response rate 69%). The follow-up surveys were carried out in 2007 (n = 5810) and 2012 (n = 5400). Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by five dichotomous measures. Repeated logistic regression analyses utilising generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test the association between baseline self-reported obesity and the likelihood of socioeconomic disadvantage through all phases. The effect of time on the development of inequalities was examined by time interaction terms in random effect logistic regression models. After adjustment for educational level, baseline obesity was associated with repeated poverty (OR = 1.23; 95% CI; 1.05-1.44), frequent economic difficulties (OR = 1.74; 95% CI; 1.52-1.99), low household net income (OR = 1.23; 95% CI; 1.07-1.41), low household wealth (OR = 1.90; 95% CI; 1.59-2.26) and low personal income (OR = 1.22; 95% CI; 1.03-1.44). The differences in poverty rate and low personal income between the participants with obesity and participants with normal weight widened during the follow-up. Living without a partner and early exit from paid employment explained the widening of inequalities. Weight status inequalities in socioeconomic disadvantage persisted or widened during the late adulthood.

  18. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard

    2014-03-06

    Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.

  19. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...... Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries...

  20. Socioeconomic position and stage at diagnosis of head and neck cancer - a nationwide study from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maja Halgren; Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Kjær, Trille Kristina

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic position and advanced stage HNSCC at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Men and women with HNSCC diagnosed between 1992 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) database, which contains detailed information on all cases of HNSCC treated in Denmark. Individual...... information on the following four socioeconomic indicators: highest attained educational level, cohabitation status, disposable income and degree of urbanisation were obtained from Statistics Denmark. For the 9683 cases on which there was full information, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for a diagnosis...... for hypopharynx cancer patients living in rural areas or provincial cities. Having one or more comorbid conditions was associated with an increased OR for advanced stage oral cancer but with a decreased OR for oropharynx cancer. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide population-based study, socioeconomic differences...

  1. Self-reported adherence to treatment: A study of socioeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Adherence to treatment is important and relevant in HIV treatment. Previous studies in sub Sahara Africa and south western Nigeria reported that psychiatric morbidity influence treatment adherence. The present study was to examine treatment adherence among the male and the female patients with HIV infection ...

  2. Is socioeconomic status a predictor of mortality in nonagenarians? The vitality 90+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Linda; Raitanen, Jani; Hervonen, Antti; Nosraty, Lily; Jylhä, Marja

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are well-known in middle-aged and younger old adults, but the situation of the oldest old is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities for all-cause, cardiovascular and dementia mortality among the people aged 90 or older. the data source was a mailed survey in the Vitality 90+ study (n = 1,276) in 2010. The whole cohort of people 90 years or over irrespective of health status or dwelling place in a geographical area was invited to participate. The participation rate was 79%. Socioeconomic status was measured by occupation and education, and health status by functioning and comorbidity. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was followed for 3 years. The Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), was applied. the all-cause and dementia mortality differed by occupational class. Upper non-manuals had lower all-cause mortality than lower non-manuals (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32), skilled manual workers (HR: 1.56 95% CI: 1.09-2.25), unskilled manual workers (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.20-2.94), housewives (HR: 1.77 95% CI: 1.15-2.71) and those with unknown occupation (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41-3.85). Inequalities in all-cause mortality were largely explained by the differences in functioning. The situation was similar according to education, but inequalities were not statistically significant. Socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular mortality were not significant. socioeconomic inequalities persist in mortality for 90+-year-olds, but their magnitude varies depending on the cause of death and the indicator of socioeconomic status. Mainly, mortality differences are explained by differences in functional status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data...

  4. Socioeconomic Status and Stroke Prevalence in Morocco: Results from the Rabat-Casablanca Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Thomas; Baglione, Quentin; Audibert, Martine; Viallefont, Anne; Mourji, Fouzi; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. Methods Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. Findings Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural) and richest (mainly urban) households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89). Conclusion We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population, which leads in

  5. Late life socioeconomic status and hypertension in an aging cohort: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoom, M Maya; Palta, Priya; Vart, Priya; Juraschek, Stephen P; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Diez Roux, Ana V; Coresh, Josef

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the association between individual and area-level socioeconomic status and hypertension risk among individuals later in life. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of socioeconomic status with incident hypertension using race-specific neighborhood socioeconomic status, median household income, and education among 3372 participants (mean age, 61 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 4 (1996-1998). Incident hypertension was defined as self-reported diagnosis or reported use of antihypertensive medications. Over a median follow-up time of 9.4 years, there were 1874 new cases of hypertension (62.1 per 1000 person-years). Overall, being in high as compared with low socioeconomic status categories was associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension in late life, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.87 (0.77-0.98) for high neighborhood socioeconomic status tertile, 0.79 (0.69-0.90) for high individual income, and 0.75 (0.63-0.89) for college education after adjustment for traditional risk factors. These findings were consistent and robust whenever accounting for competing risks of all-cause mortality. No significant interactions by race and age (dichotomized at age 65) were observed. Among participants free of hypertension in midlife, high neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status are associated with a decreased risk of incident hypertension. Our findings support population-level interventions, such as blood pressure screening at senior centers and faith-based organizations, that are tailored to shift the distribution of blood pressure and reduce hypertension health inequalities among older adults.

  6. Socioeconomic status and stroke prevalence in Morocco: results from the Rabat-Casablanca study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Engels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. METHODS: Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. FINDINGS: Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural and richest (mainly urban households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89. CONCLUSION: We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population

  7. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: summary report on the NRC post-licensing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, J.; Pijawka, D.; Branch, K.; Bergmann, P.; Flynn, J.; Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented concerning the conceptual framework for the assessment of socioeconomic impacts; methodology for the post-licensing case studies; socioeconomic changes due to the construction and operation of nuclear generating stations; public response to the construction and operation of nuclear generating stations; socioeconomic consequences of the accident at Three Mile Island; the significance of socioeconomic change due to the construction and operation of nuclear generating stations; findings of the post-licensing studies relative to the nuclear station impact literature; and implications of the findings for projective assessments and planning studies

  8. Socioeconomic position, treatment, and survival of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Denmark--a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Osler, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Not all patients have benefited equally from the advances in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survival. This study investigates several individual-level markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) in relation to NHL survival, and explores whether any social differences could be attributed to comorbidity...

  9. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking

  10. Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Kidney Transplantation Process: A Registry-Based Study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang, MSc

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions. Socioeconomic status-related inequalities exist with regard to both access to the waitlist, and kidney transplantation conditional on listing. However, the former inequality is substantially larger and is therefore expected to contribute more to societal inequalities. Further studies are needed to explore the potential mechanisms and strategies to reduce these inequalities.

  11. Analysis of Socio-Economic Indicators on Different Bioenergy Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic indicators are not fully developed and operational while this is an important aspect of sustainability. Seven case studies were analyzed within the Global-Bio-Pact project covering seven countries and five feedstock types. The 100 indicators that are identified are analyzed and

  12. The relationship between socio-economic inequality and criminal victimisation: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.; Winkel, F. W.; Ybema, J. F.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of socio-economic inequality (SEI) with criminal victimisation. It is hypothesised that disadvantage in terms of SEI is associated with increased risk of being victimised and with increased distress following victimisation. Two concepts of SEI are applied:

  13. The relationship between socio-economic inequality and criminal victimization: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.D.; Winkel, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship of socio-economic inequality (SEI) with criminal victimisation. It is hypothesised that disadvantage in terms of SEI is associated with increased risk of being victimised and with increased distress following victimisation. Two concepts of SEI are

  14. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  15. Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics in child (0-18) health studies: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, C.L.; Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Verhoeff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growing up in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods has been shown to have negative health effects on children. However, the most recent review on which measures are used to investigate the association between neighborhood characteristics and child (0-18 year) health included studies

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation characteristics in child (0-18 years) health studies : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, C. Leontine; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van der Wal, Marcel F.; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.

    Background: Growing up in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods has been shown to have negative health effects on children. However, the most recent review on which measures are used to investigate the association between neighborhood characteristics and child (0-18 year) health included studies

  17. Selective Attention: A Comparative Study on Argentine Students from Different Socioeconomic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Mirta S.; Greco, Carolina; Korzeniowski, Celina; Morelato, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attentional Efficiency (AE) is defined as the accuracy with which a child discriminates, from a group of similar stimuli, those which are identical to a model, within a certain time period. Various factors may be associated with a higher or lower AE, among which is socioeconomic context. The goals of this study were: 1) To describe…

  18. Stress, Life Events, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M.; House, James S.; Mero, Richard P.; Williams, David R.

    2005-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to stress and negative life events is related to poor health outcomes, and that differential exposure to stress plays a role in socioeconomic disparities in health. Data from three waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study (n = 3,617) were analyzed to investigate prospectively the relationship among…

  19. Socioeconomic impact of children's burns-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Nadia; Dheansa, Baljit

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study aimed to gain empirical data on the social and economic impacts of child burns on children and parents, in the context of the outpatient setting. A questionnaire was completed by 52 parents of paediatric patients attending the burns outpatient department at Queen Victoria Hospital (QVH), East Grinstead, for at least the third time. Children's medical notes were used to extract demographic and medical data. Quantitative data was analyzed statistically and qualitative data was analyzed manually using content analysis. The financial burden related to the injury posed the greatest impact on parents, and was mainly associated with making the journey to the hospital, with lower income households being most affected. Self-employed parents and those who had to attend more than 6 hospital appointments also ran into difficulties. On the whole, there was not a considerable social impact on the burn-injured child, which may reflect the minor nature of burns in this study (mean depth partial thickness, median TBSA 1.0%). Parents were shown to perceive a greater impact from their child's burn injury than their child. Certain groups of parents were identified as requiring additional support following the burn injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective cohort study investigating the explanation of socio-economic inequalities in health in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the objectives, design, data-collection procedures and enrollment rates of the Longitudinal Study on Socio-Economic Health Differences (LS-SEHD) are described. This study started in 1991, and is the first large-scale longitudinal study of the explanation of socio-economic inequalities

  1. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  2. Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genser Bernd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population level in the same cities. Methods We searched the literature in the medical databases and in the annals of scientific meeting, retrieving population-based surveys of asthma that were conducted in Brazil using the methodology defined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We performed separate analyses for the age groups 6–7 years and 13–14 years. We examined the association between asthma prevalence rates and eleven health and socio-economic indicators by visual inspection and using linear regression models weighed by the inverse of the variance of each survey. Results Six health and socioeconomic variables showed a clear pattern of association with asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased with poorer sanitation and with higher infant mortality at birth and at survey year, GINI index and external mortality. In contrast, asthma prevalence decreased with higher illiteracy rates. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma in urban areas of Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be higher in cities with more marked poverty or inequality.

  3. Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; King, J.C.; O'Connell, M.S.

    1975-07-01

    Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

  4. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult mental wellbeing: Evidence from four British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Natasha; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Gale, Catharine; Goodman, Alissa; Crawford, Claire; Stafford, Mai

    2017-01-01

    There is much evidence showing that childhood socioeconomic position is associated with physical health in adulthood; however existing evidence on how early life disadvantage is associated with adult mental wellbeing is inconsistent. This paper investigated whether childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with adult mental wellbeing and to what extent any association is explained by adult SEP using harmonised data from four British birth cohort studies. The sample comprised 20,717 participants with mental wellbeing data in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), the National Child Development Study (NCDS), and the British Cohort Study (BCS70). Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) scores at age 73 (HCS), 60-64 (NSHD), 50 (NCDS), or 42 (BCS70) were used. Harmonised socioeconomic position (Registrar General's Social Classification) was ascertained in childhood (age 10/11) and adulthood (age 42/43). Associations between childhood SEP, adult SEP, and wellbeing were tested using linear regression and multi-group structural equation models. More advantaged father's social class was associated with better adult mental wellbeing in the BCS70 and the NCDS. This association was independent of adult SEP in the BCS70 but fully mediated by adult SEP in the NCDS. There was no evidence of an association between father's social class and adult mental wellbeing in the HCS or the NSHD. Socioeconomic conditions in childhood are directly and indirectly, through adult socioeconomic pathways, associated with adult mental wellbeing, but findings from these harmonised data suggest this association may depend on cohort or age.

  5. Associations between the neighbourhood food environment, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, and diet quality: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Maria; Csizmadi, Ilona; Friedenreich, Christine M; Uribe, Francisco Alaniz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; McLaren, Lindsay; Potestio, Melissa; Sandalack, Beverly; McCormack, Gavin R

    2016-09-15

    The neighbourhood environment may play an important role in diet quality. Most previous research has examined the associations between neighbourhood food environment and diet quality, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diet quality separately. This study investigated the independent and joint effects of neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic status in relation to diet quality in Canadian adults. We undertook a cross-sectional study with n = 446 adults in Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Individual-level data on diet and socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were captured from two self-report internet-based questionnaires, the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II) and the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Canadian Census data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) databases. Neighbourhood was defined as a 400 m network-based 'walkshed' around each participant's household. Using GIS we objectively-assessed the density, diversity, and presence of specific food destination types within the participant's walkshed. A seven variable socioeconomic deprivation index was derived from Canadian Census variables and estimated for each walkshed. The Canadian adapted Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI), used to assess diet quality was estimated from food intakes reported on C-DHQ II. Multivariable linear regression was used to test for associations between walkshed food environment variables, walkshed socioeconomic status, and diet quality (C-HEI), adjusting for individual level socio-demographic and health-related covariates. Interaction effects between walkshed socioeconomic status and walkshed food environment variables on diet quality (C-HEI) were also tested. After adjustment for covariates, food destination density was positively associated with the C-HEI (β 0.06, 95 % CI 0.01-0.12, p = 0.04) though the magnitude of the

  6. Associations between the neighbourhood food environment, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, and diet quality: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria McInerney

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neighbourhood environment may play an important role in diet quality. Most previous research has examined the associations between neighbourhood food environment and diet quality, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diet quality separately. This study investigated the independent and joint effects of neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic status in relation to diet quality in Canadian adults. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study with n = 446 adults in Calgary, Alberta (Canada. Individual-level data on diet and socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were captured from two self-report internet-based questionnaires, the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II and the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ. Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Canadian Census data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS databases. Neighbourhood was defined as a 400 m network-based ‘walkshed’ around each participant’s household. Using GIS we objectively-assessed the density, diversity, and presence of specific food destination types within the participant’s walkshed. A seven variable socioeconomic deprivation index was derived from Canadian Census variables and estimated for each walkshed. The Canadian adapted Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, used to assess diet quality was estimated from food intakes reported on C-DHQ II. Multivariable linear regression was used to test for associations between walkshed food environment variables, walkshed socioeconomic status, and diet quality (C-HEI, adjusting for individual level socio-demographic and health-related covariates. Interaction effects between walkshed socioeconomic status and walkshed food environment variables on diet quality (C-HEI were also tested. Results After adjustment for covariates, food destination density was positively associated with the C-HEI (β 0.06, 95 % CI 0

  7. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as indicators of socioeconomic position. Linear multilevel regression analyses were applied to study the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and standardised scores of anti-smoking strategies. Analyses were controlled for age, sex and smoking by parents and adolescents. We found no consistent socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. There were no statistically significant differences in relation to parental educational level or when using adolescent reports on parenting practices. However, when using parental reports, a few strategies varied significantly according to adolescent educational track. Adolescents in higher educational tracks were more likely to have no-smoking rules in the home (standardised regression coefficient (β) = 0.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.03; 0.37, p = 0.022) and more likely to have a no-smoking agreement (β = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.00; 0.34, p = 0.048). However, they were less likely to frequently communicate about smoking with their parents (β = -0.25, 95 % CI: -0.41; -0.08, p = 0.004). In this specific population, there was no consistent support for the hypothesis that anti-smoking parenting strategies contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Parental factors that are more likely to contribute to these inequalities include parental smoking and parenting styles.

  8. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Beliefs about Language Learning: A Study of Iranian Postgraduate EAP Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the probable interaction between Iranian language students' beliefs about language learning and their socio-economic status. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were grouped in terms of their socio-economic status. They answered a…

  9. A randomized controlled study of socioeconomic support to enhance tuberculosis prevention and treatment, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Datta, Sumona; Saunders, Matthew J; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of socioeconomic support on tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation in household contacts of tuberculosis patients and on treatment success in patients. Methods A non-blinded, household-randomized, controlled study was performed between February 2014 and June 2015 in 32 shanty towns in Peru. It included patients being treated for tuberculosis and their household contacts. Households were randomly assigned to either the standard of care provided by Peru’s national tuberculosis programme (control arm) or the same standard of care plus socioeconomic support (intervention arm). Socioeconomic support comprised conditional cash transfers up to 230 United States dollars per household, community meetings and household visits. Rates of tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation and treatment success (i.e. cure or treatment completion) were compared in intervention and control arms. Findings Overall, 282 of 312 (90%) households agreed to participate: 135 in the intervention arm and 147 in the control arm. There were 410 contacts younger than 20 years: 43% in the intervention arm initiated tuberculosis preventive therapy versus 25% in the control arm (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.1–4.1). An intention-to-treat analysis showed that treatment was successful in 64% (87/135) of patients in the intervention arm versus 53% (78/147) in the control arm (unadjusted OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.6). These improvements were equitable, being independent of household poverty. Conclusion A tuberculosis-specific, socioeconomic support intervention increased uptake of tuberculosis preventive therapy and tuberculosis treatment success and is being evaluated in the Community Randomized Evaluation of a Socioeconomic Intervention to Prevent TB (CRESIPT) project. PMID:28479622

  10. Neonatal encephalopathy and socioeconomic status: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities and mortality among disability pensioners in Norway – a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturla Gjesdal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the mortality related to disability pension (DP status in Norway during 1990-96 and investigated whether socioeconomic factors explained the increased mortality. Methods: A 10% random sample of the Norwegian population aged 30-59 years, 73,420 women and 75,500 men, were followed-up with respect to death or emigration in 1990-96. DP-status, age, gender, educational level and mean income before inclusion were used as explanatory variables in Cox’ regression analysis with death as endpoint. The analyses were stratified for gender and separately for persons who had obtained DP before 1985 (early and in 1985-1989 (late. Results: The majority of persons with DP had only basic education and belonged to the lowest income level. Among the women 6.2% in the DP-group died during follow-up compared to 1.2% of those in the non-DP group. The corresponding percentages for men were 14.5% and 2.3%. The age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 3.5 and 2.5 for women with early and late DP, and 4.3 and 3.3 among men. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, the HRs were 2.9 and 2.2 for women, and 2.2 and 1.9 for men. Conclusions: Nearly half of the excess mortality related to DP-status was explained by low socioeconomic status among the men. Among women, HR related to DP was not significantly reduced after the adjustments for socioeconomic variables. These findings indicate a strong impact of the medical factors underlying the DP decision, especially among women, but also an important role of the socioeconomic factors related to DP status.

  12. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.; Cochran, R.; Meale, R.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  13. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  14. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  15. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  16. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  17. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Rancho Seco case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  18. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  19. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One Station case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  20. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  1. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  2. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Diablo Canyon case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Yaquinto, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  3. Socio-economic factors influencing milk donation in milk banks in India: an institutional study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree D. Katke; Mohit R. Saraogi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breast-feeding has irrefutably been established as the best form of nourishment for neonatal and early infantile age groups. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the socio-economic factors in a developing country like India, which influence maternal motivation and willingness to donate breast milk and to make policy changes to promote the same. Methods: Ours is a retrospective study carried out over a period of 1 year in Cama and Albless hospital in Mu...

  4. Socioeconomic consequences of obesity : Population-based longitudinal studies of Swedish men

    OpenAIRE

    Karnehed, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of the thesis was to study if Swedish obese male adolescents become socioeconomicly disadvantaged in later life. Among Swedish men born 1951-79, who went through military conscription examination at age 18-20 years, the associations between obesity and attained education, occupation, income, and disability pension have been studied. The target populations were identified in the Multi-Generation Register. A record linkage was made between this register and...

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Fiona E.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Nierkens, Vera; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during

  6. The association of early life socioeconomic conditions with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: results from the Maastricht study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.M. Derks (Ivonne P. M.); A. Koster (Annemarie); M.T. Schram (Miranda); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); D.A.I. Groffen (Danielle A. I.); H. Bosma (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Using cross-sectional data from The Maastricht Study, we examined the association of socioeconomic conditions in early life with prediabetes and T2DM in adulthood. We also examined potential mediating pathways via both adulthood socioeconomic conditions and adult BMI and

  7. Life Stressors as Mediators of the Relation Between Socioeconomic Position and Mental Health Problems in Early Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amone-P'Olak, K.; Ormel, J.; Huisman, Martijn; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Burger, Huib

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Life stressors and family socioeconomic position have often been associated with mental health status. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the pathways from low socioeconomic position and life stressors to mental problems. Method: In a cross-sectional

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in

  9. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  10. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  11. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2016-03-08

    To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. UK Biobank. 119,669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6 × 10(-3)) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6 × 10(-15)) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6 × 10(-7)), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4 × 10(-8)). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m(2)) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1 × 10(-5)) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. These data support evidence that height and BMI play an important partial role in determining several aspects of a person

  12. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Design Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Setting UK Biobank. Participants 119 669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Main outcome measures Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. Results In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6×10−3) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6×10−15) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6×10−7), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4×10−8). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m2) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1×10−5) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. Conclusions These data support evidence that height and BMI play an

  13. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. Methods In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N?=?225) aged 13 to 17?years and their mothers (N?=?122) and fathers (N?=?105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as in...

  14. Socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet: results from the E3N study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affret, Aurélie; Severi, Gianluca; Dow, Courtney; Rey, Grégoire; Delpierre, Cyrille; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet. Dietary data from a large cohort study were used to derive two mutually exclusive dietary patterns through a latent class analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-economic factors were studied with logistic regression. E3N, a French prospective cohort study composed of women recruited from a national health insurance plan covering people working in the national education system. E3N participants (n 73 031) with dietary and socio-economic data available. The 'Healthy' pattern was characterized by a large consumption of fruits and vegetables and the 'Less Healthy' pattern by a large consumption of pizza and processed meat. When all socio-economic factors were analysed together, all of the individual factors considered were associated with a healthy diet (e.g. women with three or more children were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. women with no children, OR (95 % CI): 0·70 (0·66, 0·75)) while the contextual factors associated with a healthy diet included the size of the agglomeration of residence and the area of birth and residence (e.g. women living in the West of France were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. those living in the South of France: 0·78 (0·72, 0·83)). We demonstrated that individual and contextual factors are both associated with diet. Rather than focusing only on individual factors, we recommend future studies or public health and nutritional strategies on diet to consider both types of factors.

  15. Study of the relationship between quality of life and socioeconomic status in Isfahan at 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Khasti, Behjat Yazd; Zadeh, Marzie Rezaei; Modaber, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is one of the health indexes for which many efforts have been made to define and measure during the last four decades of the 20(th) century in many countries. This paper is aimed at studying the QOL in relation to socioeconomic status of the general population of Isfahan in 1390. We applied a descriptive-analytical and sectional method. In this research, 385 women and men over 15 years of age from 14 regions of Isfahan's municipality were studied using multi-stage quota sampling. We examined QOL using the SF-36 standard questionnaire, along with two domains of mental and physical health and eight subscales within the validity domain of 65-90%. Social (81%) and economical (70%) status was also measured by the questionnaire instrument in both objective and subjective domains after confirming the validity and reliability of the instruments. The given data were analyzed by SPSS 17 software and using descriptive and statistical tests. The indicators of QOL showed that a score deviation of the SF-36 questionnaire in physical health (SD = 2.31) and mental health (SD = 3.22) domains was obtained from the population. Of the eight subscales, bodily pains and limitations on functioning as physical and mental had an inverse relationship with socioeconomic status. However, physical health, mental health, social activities, public health, and vitality had a significant positive relationship, including different strengths and weaknesses, with socioeconomic status. Also, sexuality and housing status had no relationship with QOL. There is a direct and significant relationship between quality of life and socioeconomic status variables in Isfahan.

  16. Research Studies Index. Authors and Subjects. Volume 1 through Volume 43 (1929-1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, Joseph, Comp.; Scott, Paula, Comp.

    This volume contains author and subject indexes for volumes 1 through 43 (1929-1975) of "Research Studies," a scholarly, multi-disciplinary quarterly published at Washington State University. Each author index entry includes the title, volume, and inclusive pagination of the article. The subject index is a keyword-out-of-context…

  17. Barriers to cancer symptom presentation among people from low socioeconomic groups: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace McCutchan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival can in part be explained by long patient intervals among people from deprived groups; however, the reasons for this are unclear. This qualitative study explores the actual and anticipated barriers to cancer symptom presentation in the context of socioeconomic deprivation. Methods Thirty participants were recruited through the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Welsh database (n = 20, snowball sampling (n = 8 and community partners (n = 2. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with symptomatic and asymptomatic adults over the age of 50 years, who were identified as being from a low socioeconomic group based on multiple individual and group level indicators. Transcripts were analysed using a Framework approach based on the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour. Results There was evidence of poor awareness of non-specific cancer symptoms (Capability, fearful and fatalistic beliefs about cancer (Motivation, and various barriers to accessing an appointment with the family physician (Opportunity and full disclosure of symptoms (Capability. These in combination were associated with a lengthened patient interval among participants. Social networks (Opportunity were influential on the formation of knowledge and beliefs about cancer. Participants’ behavioural and normative beliefs were usually formed and reinforced by people they knew with cancer, and such beliefs were considered to lengthen the patient interval. Discussing symptoms with a family member or friend before a visit to the family physician was the norm, and could act as a barrier or facilitator depending on the quality of advice given (Opportunity. Economic hardship meant fulfilling basic day-to-day needs such as finding money for food were prioritised over medical help seeking (Opportunity. Conclusions The complex interaction between individual characteristics and

  18. Socioeconomic status indicators and common mental disorders: Evidence from a study of prenatal depression in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Maselko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES, poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context. Prenatal depression is an important public health concern with negative sequela for the mother and her children. We use data on assets, education, food insecurity, debt, and depression symptoms from a sample of 1154 pregnant women residing in rural Pakistan. Women who screened positive for depression participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial of a perinatal depression intervention; all women were interviewed October 2015-February 2016, prior to the start of the intervention. Cluster-specific sampling weights were used to approximate a random sample of pregnant women in the area. Findings indicate that fewer assets, experiencing food insecurity, and having household debt are independently associated with worse depression symptoms. The association with assets is linear with no evidence of a threshold effect, supporting the idea of a gradient in the association between levels of SES and depression symptoms. A gradient was also initially observed with woman’s educational attainment, but this association was attenuated once other SES variables were included in the model. Together, the asset, food insecurity, and debt indicators explain 14% of the variance in depression symptoms, more than has been reported in high income country studies. These findings support the use of multiple SES indicators to better elucidate the complex

  19. Socio-economic inequalities in health services utilization: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Ezzatabadi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ameneh; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Rafiei, Sima

    2018-02-12

    Purpose Developing country workers mainly face important challenges when examining equality in health services utilization among the population and identifying influential factors. The purpose of this paper us to: understand health service use among households with different socio-economic status in Isfahan province; and to investigate probable inequality determinants in service utilization. Design/methodology/approach Almost 1,040 households living in Isfahan province participated in this cross-sectional study in 2013. Data were collected by a questionnaire with three sections: demographic characteristics; socio-economic status; and health services utilization. The concentration index was applied to measure inequality. Analysts used STATA 11. Findings Economic status, educational level, insurance coverage and household gender were the most influential factors on health services utilization. Those with a high socio-economic level were more likely to demand and use such services; although self-medication patterns showed an opposite trend. Practical implications Female-headed families face with more difficulties in access to basic human needs including health. Supportive policies are needed to meet their demands. Originality/value The authors used principle component analysis to assess households' economic situation, which reduced the variables into a single index.

  20. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  1. Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, Amy; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Wijtzes, Anne I.; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ≥1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ≥1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents

  2. Socioeconomic differences in children's television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Huang, Junwen; van Grieken, Amy; Moll, Henriëtte A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wijtzes, Anne I; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ≥1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ≥1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents

  3. Quantifying the contributions of behavioral and biological risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease incidence: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Droomers, Mariël; Robinson, Whitney R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of different modifiable behavioral and biological risk factors on socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) may help inform targeted, population-specific strategies to reduce the unequal distribution of the disease. Previous studies have used analytic

  4. Socioeconomic differences in waiting times for elective surgery: a population-based retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrelli Alessio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread literature on inequity in healthcare access and utilization has been published, but research on socioeconomic differences in waiting times is sparse and the evidence is fragmentary and controversial. The objective of the present study is the analysis of the relationship between individual socioeconomic level and waiting times for in-hospital elective surgery. Methods We retrospectively studied the waiting times experienced by patients registered on hospital waiting lists for 6 important surgical procedures by using the Hospital Discharge Database (HDD of the Piedmont Region (4,000,000 inhabitants in the North West of Italy from 2006 to 2008. The surgical procedures analyzed were: coronary artery by-pass (CABG, angioplasty, coronarography, endarterectomy, hip replacement and cholecystectomy. Cox regression models were estimated to study the relationship between waiting times and educational level taking into account the confounding effect of the following factors: sex, age, comorbidity, registration period, and Local Health Authorities (LHA as a proxy of supply. Results Median waiting times for low educational level were higher than for high educational level for all the selected procedures. Differences were particularly high for endarterectomy and hip replacement. For all considered procedures, except CABG, an inverse gradient between waiting times and educational level was observed: the conditional probabilities of undergoing surgery were lower among individuals with a low to middle level education than for individuals with a higher level of education after adjustment for sex, age, comorbidities, registration period, and LHAs. For most procedures the effect decreases over the follow up period. Conclusions The results of the study show evidence of inequalities in access to elective surgery in Italy. Implementation of policies aimed to promote national information initiatives that guarantee wider access to those

  5. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

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    Morgen Camilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8 and follow-up (mean age 21.3. Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2 corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI = 25. Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74 when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and

  6. Water supply in the Central Namib Region: A socio-economic study

    OpenAIRE

    Moorsom, Richard

    1997-01-01

    This study provides an empirical report and analysis of the results of a June/July 1995 household sample survey of the four towns (Walvis Bay, Swakopmund, Arandis and Henties Bay) located in the central west coast region of Namibia. It also draws on other primary data sets, in particular 1991 census enumeration area returns and 1994/95 municipal account databases. Its aim is to establish the socioeconomic context of domestic and small business water supply for urban communities in a desert en...

  7. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors: The CRONICAS Cohort Study of Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income education. Important differences were noted between the socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). All rights reserved.

  8. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  9. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight - a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Köhler, M; Philippi, M

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented.

  10. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-19

    To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. 32,482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100,000 need adjusted population. In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100,000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to -0.7 (95% CI -2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100,000. The number of FTE GPs per 100,000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100,000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the 'Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care'. There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. The Idea of Conformation in the Study of Systemic Socio-Economic Transformations

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    Olga Valentinovna Brizhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author shows the idea of conformation at studying the issues of intracorporate structure, corporate capital and economic (productive relations in the context of specific systemic socio-economic transformations. The dynamism and depth of current changes makes reflect on their nature, their objective conditionality, their dependence on existing factors. The problems of systemic market reforms are projected to private transformations. They relate both to individual economic entities (firms, companies, corporations, and to individual regions and territories of the national economy. In such conditions the aims of economic system development are changing and being corrected, and the possibilities are being reestimated. In the process of reforming the Russian economy some of the borrowed elements were rejected as inadequate and socially unacceptable. The other part was modified and embedded in public life in the course of implementation, so that they often served the opposite purposes in comparison with those for which they were borrowed. The article reveals the mission of conformation as a seamless integration of this process into the context of systemic socio-economic reforms, ensuring the necessary proportionality of transformations, the prevention of arousing gaps that threaten the sustainable movement in the corporate sector and systemic organization of economic relations at the intra-corporate level. Core development of contradictions, sprouts of post-market relations, components of the traditional capitalist market organization in terms of socio-economic transformation of Russia have impact on the economic behavior of corporations and on the specifics of intracorporate relations and interests. The corporation’s behavior is always focused on the specifics of domestic relations, the stability of legal and political system, property rights protection, preservation of national culture, etc. The author carries out the present research on the

  12. To study the quality of life and its relation with socioeconomic status in thalassemic adolescents in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A large number of children are afflicted by thalassemia in India which may significantly impact their quality of life (QOL; hence, we hypothesized that there exists a strong relationship between socioeconomic status and QOL. We thus designed this study to assess QOL in adolescents diagnosed with β thalassemia major and its association with socioeconomic status. Further, we also compared the QOL and socioeconomic status between thalassemic and nonthalassemic adolescents. Materials and Methods: We recruited 35 adolescents diagnosed with β thalassemia major and 35 nonthalassemics in the age group of 10-18 years who matched in age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Selected cases and their parents were administered using PedsQL 4.0 India/Hindi questionnaire to assess QOL and modified Kuppuswamy scale to assess socioeconomic status. Results: Almost half of the thalassemic adolescents, i.e., 51.4% had poor QOL, whereas 48.6% of adolescents in control group had high QOL. There was no statistically significant association between QOL and socioeconomic status in both groups. It was observed that the difference between QOL and socioeconomic class though not significant but was more pronounced in study group (P = 0.114 than control group (P = 0.594. The receiver operating characteristic curve for QOL parameters indicated that social domain was the major contributor to poor QOL in thalassemics. Conclusion: Our study showed that thalassemic adolescents had significantly poor QOL, social domain being the major contributor as compared to nonthalassemics. We propose that provision of subsidized organized care can negate the impact of poor socioeconomic status on QOL of thalassemics.

  13. A 4-study replication of the moderating effects of greed on socioeconomic status and unethical behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Anjana; Palma, Paolo A; Patenaude, Joshua; Campbell, Lorne

    2017-01-31

    Four replications of Piff and colleagues' study examined the moderating effects of greed attitudes on the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and unethical behaviour (Study 7). In the original study, the researchers found that both greed and SES predicted increased propensity to engage in unethical behavior. Furthermore, this association was moderated such that the effects of SES on unethical behaviour were no longer present in the greed prime condition versus the neutral condition. In replication 1 of the original study main effects of greed attitudes and SES were found, but no interaction was found. Main effects for greed emerged in replications 3 and 4. However no main effects for SES or interactions emerged for replications 2-4. A meta-analysis was conducted with all replications and the original study, and found no moderating effect of greed on the relationship between SES and unethical behavior.

  14. Understanding high traffic injury risks for children in low socioeconomic areas: a qualitative study of parents' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, N; Ward, H; Kimberlee, R; Towner, E; Sleney, J

    2007-12-01

    To gain an in-depth qualitative understanding of parents' views about their children's exposure to road traffic injury risk in low socioeconomic areas. Focus groups facilitated by a moderator with content analysis of data. Focus groups were conducted in 10 low socioeconomic English districts that also have high rates of child pedestrian injury. Research was conducted in community venues within each area. Parents of children aged 9-14 years living in low socioeconomic areas. Parents believe that children play in their local streets for the following reasons: they like playing out with friends near home; there are few safe, secure, and well-maintained public spaces for children; children are excluded from affordable leisure venues because of their costs; insufficient parental responsibility. For children that play in the street, the key sources of risk identified by parents were: illegal riding and driving around estates and on the pavements; the speed and volume of traffic; illegal parking; drivers being poorly informed about where children play; children's risk-taking behavior. Intervention programs need to take into account multiple reasons why children in low socioeconomic areas become exposed to hazardous environments thereby increasing their risk of injury. Multi-agency partnerships involving the community are increasingly needed to implement traditional road safety approaches, such as education, engineering, and enforcement, and provide safe and accessible public space, affordable activities for children, and greater support for parents.

  15. Socioeconomic outcomes following spinal cord injury and the role of no-fault compensation: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C; Derrett, S; McAllister, S; Herbison, P; Beaver, C; Sullivan, M

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal cohort study. To estimate socioeconomic and work outcomes over 2 and a half years following spinal cord injury (SCI), and to compare those in receipt of compensation (Accident Compensation Corporation, ACC) and those not. People admitted to the two spinal units in 2007-2009 in New Zealand, where there is a unique no-fault compensation scheme for injury. Interviews were conducted at ∼6, 18 and 30 months after SCI and data collected on pre-SCI and post-SCI health and socioeconomic characteristics. Poisson regression, quantile regression and a linear mixed model regression were used to compare differences in outcomes. Of the 162 eligible people, 118 (73%) participated and 91(77%) were followed to 30 months; 79% received ACC. Median personal income, self-reported standard of living and household income adequacy all fell slightly to 18 months and then stabilized at 30 months. At that time, 49% had returned to paid work. Among those not eligible for ACC, income fell to less than half the ACC group (Pretained their economic status and that return to work was relatively high appear to be due to the proportion entitled to the ACC no-fault compensation scheme for injury; with earnings-related compensation, a focus on rehabilitation to work and non-means-tested support services. This situation should mitigate against the downward spiral into poverty and further ill-health.

  16. Risk of low Apgar score and socioeconomic position: a study of Swedish male births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, David E; Doyle, Pat; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Whitelaw, Andrew; Rasmussen, Finn

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic position and a persistent low Apgar score (a score of manual (Odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (0.72-0.97)) and self-employed (OR 0.64 (0.44-0.93)) occupations were less likely to have an infant with a low Apgar score, compared to manual workers. There was evidence that the risk of a low Apgar score decreased as the mother's level of education increased, if the infant was born by instrumental (OR 0.86 (0.74-0.99)) or caesarean section (OR 0.80 (0.68-0.93)) delivery, but not by unassisted vaginal delivery (OR 1.01 (0.92-1.10)). There was a lower risk of poor birth condition in male infants born to more educated and non-manual/self-employed mothers. These differences may contribute to our understanding of socioeconomic differences in infant health and development although the results may not be applicable due to changes over the last 30 years.

  17. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants of health services utilization in Greece: the Hellas Health I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Oikonomou, Nikolaos; Pallikarona, Georgia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Mariolis, Anargiros; Pappa, Evelina; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of utilization of the Greek primary and hospital health care services. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional nationwide household survey Hellas Health I (2006). The sample (N = 1005) was representative of the Greek adult population in terms of age and residency, and was selected by means of a three-stage, proportional-to-size sampling design. The presence of a family doctor was reported in a higher degree by participants of higher social classes and private insurance. After adjusting for self-perceived general health and chronic illness, contacts with health care professionals during the past four weeks were found less for residents of rural areas, while contacts with health care professionals during the past 12 months were found less for men than women, for individuals without private insurance and for individuals of lower education. More out-of-pocket payments were reported by the 34-44 age group, rural area residents and individuals with private insurance. Higher use of private health care services was reported by participants of higher social classes and residents of rural areas and private insurance. Only hospital admissions were not directly influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors. The findings imply the existence of inequities in access and use of primary health services with clear implications to related policies.

  18. Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallolio Laura

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008 and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15–64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. Results The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r = 0.70; p b = 0.15, p  Conclusions In Italy, a high-income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.

  19. Socioeconomic status, psychological resources, and inflammatory markers: Results from the MIDUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Ari J; Chapman, Benjamin P

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to investigate interactions of psychological resources and socioeconomic status (SES)-as well as potential gender differences and the explanatory role of childhood and adult stress exposures, health behaviors, and negative and positive affect-in predicting markers of systemic inflammation. We utilized a sample of adults from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study who provided biomarker data (N = 1,152). SES was operationalized as a composite of education, income, and occupational prestige, and the psychological resources construct was operationalized as a latent factor measured with optimism, perceived control, and self-esteem. Linear regression models examined these 2 factors and their interaction in predicting interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured on average 2 years later, as well as 3-way interactions involving gender and the impact of covariate adjustment. Psychological resources interacted with SES in men (for IL-6: p low SES was moderately attenuated upon adjustment for negative affect. Socioeconomic status might modulate the linkage between psychological resources and systemic inflammation in men. At lower levels of SES, resources may be related to lower inflammation in part through lower negative affect. Associations with higher inflammation at higher SES add to growing evidence suggesting that adaptive psychological characteristics may be associated with markers of poorer physiological function under certain conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  1. Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallolio, Laura; Di Gregori, Valentina; Lenzi, Jacopo; Franchino, Giuseppe; Calugi, Simona; Domenighetti, Gianfranco; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2012-08-16

    One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006-2008) and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15-64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r = 0.70; p income showed a strong negative correlation (r = -0.78; p income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.

  2. Socio-economic differences in predictors of frequent dairy food consumption among Australian adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient dairy food consumption during adolescence is necessary for preventing disease. While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume few dairy foods, some eat quantities more in line with dietary recommendations despite socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic variations in factors supportive of adolescents' frequent dairy consumption remain unexplored. The present study aimed to identify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and adolescents' frequent dairy consumption at baseline and two years later across socio-economic strata, and to examine whether socio-economic position moderated observed effects. Online surveys completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007) included a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions based on social ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental dietary influences. Thirty-seven secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Australian adolescents (n 1201) aged 12-15 years, drawn from a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents (response rate=33%). While frequent breakfast consumption was cross-sectionally associated with frequent dairy consumption among all adolescents, additional associated factors differed by socio-economic position. Baseline dairy consumption longitudinally predicted consumption at follow-up. No further factors predicted frequent consumption among disadvantaged adolescents, while four additional factors were predictive among advantaged adolescents. Socio-economic position moderated two predictors; infrequently eating dinner alone and never purchasing from school vending machines predicted frequent consumption among advantaged adolescents. Nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving adolescents' dairy consumption should employ multifactorial approaches informed by social ecological models and address socio-economic differences in influences on eating behaviours; e.g., selected intrapersonal factors among all

  3. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  4. Socioeconomic status and depression during and after pregnancy in the Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies (FRAMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Alexander; Rauh, Claudia; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Dammer, Ulf; Voigt, Franziska; Fasching, Peter A; Faschingbauer, Florian; Burger, Pascal; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Goecke, Tamme W

    2014-04-01

    Depression during and after pregnancy can have a negative impact on women's quality of life and on the development of the newborn child. Interventions have been shown to have a positive influence on both mothers and children. Predictive factors for depressive symptoms might possibly be able to identify groups that are at high risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of socioeconomic factors in predicting depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. Depressiveness was measured using the German version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at three time-points, in a prospective cohort study (n = 1,100). Visit 1 (Q1) was at study entry in the third trimester of the pregnancy, visit 2 (Q2) was shortly after birth, and visit 3 (Q3) was 6-8 months after birth. Depression scores were associated with socioeconomic factors and time in linear mixed models. Parity status, education status, monthly income, residential property status, and partnership status, as well as interactions between them, were found to be predictive factors for EPDS scores. The strongest factor influencing depressive symptoms was partnership status. Women who did not have an intact partnership had EPDS scores that were on average four points higher than in women with a partner at all three study visits (P define subgroups that have different depression scores during and after pregnancy. Partnership status appears to be one of the most important influencing factors and could be useful for identifying women who should be offered an intervention to prevent possible negative effects on the mother or child.

  5. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO STUDY THE INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Fedulova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to find out and identify conceptual approaches to the study of the innovative development of regional socio-economic systems to take into account global requirements for global water security. Methodology. We used in our study traditional and special methods, including: historical and logical method, abstraction and analogy, and system analysis methods. Results. The article deals with the problems of innovative development of regional socio-economic systems. Conceptual approaches to the study of the innovative development of these systems are determined. Theoretical approaches to regionalization are generalized and the regional typology in world regionalism is presented. The study devotes a sufficient attention to the issues of infrastructure support for regional systems, which is a prerequisite for the functioning and development of such systems. The article focuses on the priority of research of such a component of regional infrastructure as engineering and technical infrastructure. The model of regulation of development of regional socio-economic systems on the basis of infrastructure support with the consideration of world requirements of global water security is offered. Practical implications. In recent times, the discussion on the definition of the essence of the concept of “region” is rather lively. The new paradigm of the regional economy represents the region as a variety of spatial systems of various scales. Yes, there are ongoing discussions that under the region can be understood as a group of states and small-sized administrative-territorial units. Despite the important role played by such regional systems in the economy of many countries, this topic in domestic studies is not given with enough attention. Also, in the domestic scientific schools of the regional economy, studies devoted to the problems of patterns and tendencies of the formation and development of regional systems of Ukraine, the

  6. Monitoring Quarry Area with Landsat Long Time-Series for Socioeconomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoteng Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quarry sites result from human activity, which includes the removal of original vegetation and the overlying soil to dig out stones for building use. Therefore, the dynamics of the quarry area provide a unique view of human mining activities. Actually, the topographic changes caused by mining activities are also a result of the development of the local economy. Thus, monitoring the quarry area can provide information about the policies of the economy and environmental protection. In this paper, we developed a combined method of machine learning classification and quarry region analysis to estimate the quarry area in a quarry region near Beijing. A temporal smoothing based on the classification results of all years was applied in post-processing to remove outliers and obtain gently changing sequences along the monitoring term. The method was applied to Landsat images to derive a quarry distribution map and quarry area time series from 1984 to 2017, revealing significant inter-annual variability. The time series revealed a five-stage development of the quarry area with different growth patterns. As the study region lies on two jurisdictions—Tianjin and Hebei—a comparison of the quarry area changes in the two jurisdictions was applied, which revealed that the different policies in the two regions could impose different impacts on the development of a quarry area. An analysis concerning the relationship between quarry area and gross regional product (GRP was performed to explore the potential application on socioeconomic studies, and we found a strong positive correlation between quarry area and GRP in Langfang City, Hebei Province. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of annual monitoring over the long-term for socioeconomic studies, which can be used for mining decision making.

  7. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  8. Impact of reproductive health on socio-economic development: a case study of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, J I B; Adinma, E D

    2011-03-01

    The link between reproductive health, sexual and reproductive right, and development was highlighted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Egypt. Developmental disparities are related to socio-economic differences which have led to the identification of distinct socio-economic classifications of nations. Human development represents the socioeconomic standing of any nation, in addition to literacy status and life expectancy. Africa accounts for 25% of the world's landmass but remains the world's poorest continent. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has policies and programmes geared towards the improvement of its socio-economic standing and overal development, with little positive result. Reproductive health is a panacea towards reversing the stalled socio-economic growth of Nigeria as evident from the linkage between reproductive health and development, highlighted in Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, 5 and 6. Fast tracking Nigeria's development requires implementation of reproductive health policies and programmes targeted on women and children.

  9. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  10. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  11. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  13. A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.

  14. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (p<0.001), ‘positive smoker characteristics’ (p=0.003) and ‘positive taste characteristics’ (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

  15. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-02-06

    This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (p<0.001), 'positive smoker characteristics' (p=0.003) and 'positive taste characteristics' (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for 'negative smoker characteristics' (p=0.427) or 'negative harm characteristics' (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

  16. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on waiting time for cardiac surgery: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Jill P; Pell, Alastair C H; Norrie, John; Ford, Ian; Cobbe, Stuart M

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the priority given to patients referred for cardiac surgery is associated with socioeconomic status. Design Retrospective study with multivariate logistic regression analysis of the association between deprivation and classification of urgency with allowance for age, sex, and type of operation. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine association between deprivation and waiting time within each category of urgency, with allowance for age, sex, and type of operation. Setting NHS waiting lists in Scotland. Participants 26 642 patients waiting for cardiac surgery, 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1997. Main outcome measures Deprivation as measured by Carstairs deprivation category. Time spent on NHS waiting list. Results Patients who were most deprived tended to be younger and were more likely to be female. Patients in deprivation categories 6 and 7 (most deprived) waited about three weeks longer for surgery than those in category 1 (mean difference 24 days, 95% confidence interval 15 to 32). Deprived patients had an odds ratio of 0.5 (0.46 to 0.61) for having their operations classified as urgent compared with the least deprived, after allowance for age, sex, and type of operation. When urgent and routine cases were considered separately, there was no significant difference in waiting times between the most and least deprived categories. Conclusions Socioeconomically deprived patients are thought to be more likely to develop coronary heart disease but are less likely to be investigated and offered surgery once it has developed. Such patients may be further disadvantaged by having to wait longer for surgery because of being given lower priority. PMID:10617517

  17. Decomposing of Socioeconomic Inequality in Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study into Female-Headed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Connection between socioeconomic statuses and mental health has been reported already. Accordingly, mental health asymmetrically is distributed in society; therefore, people with disadvantaged condition suffer from inconsistent burden of mental disorders. In this study, we aimed to understand the determinants of socioeconomic inequality of mental health in the female-headed households and decomposed contributions of socioeconomic determinants in mental health. In this cross-sectional study, 787 female-headed households were enrolled using systematic random sampling in 2014. Data were taken from the household assets survey and a self-administered 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a screening tool for detection of possible cases of mental disorders. Inequality was measured by concentration index (CI) and as decomposing contribution in inequality. All analyses were performed by standard statistical software Stata 11.2. The overall CI for mental health in the female-headed households was -0.049 (95% CI: -0.072, 0.025). The highly positive contributors for inequality in mental health in the female-headed households were age (34%) and poor household economic status (22%). Socioeconomic inequalities exist in mental health into female-headed households and mental health problems more prevalent in women with lower socioeconomic status.

  18. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 5: Interventions)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME FIVE: INTERVENTIONS Natural Recovery from Alcohol Problems Harald Klingemann School-Based Programmes to Prevent Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use Gilbert Botvin and Kenneth Griffin Community Prevention of Alcohol Problems Harold Holder Can Screening and Brief Intervention Lead to Population-Level Reductions in Alcohol-Related Harm? Nick Heather Sharpening the Focus of Alcohol Policy from Aggregate Consumption to Harm and Risk Reduction Tim Stockwell et al A Review of the Efficacy and...

  19. Socioeconomic position and incidence of ischemic stroke in denmark 2003-2012. A nationwide hospital-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A greater burden of stroke risk factors in general is associated with a higher risk for stroke among people of lower than those of higher socioeconomic position. The relative impact of individual stroke risk factors is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the relations between...... socioeconomic position, measured as household income and length of education, and all hospital admissions for a first ischemic stroke among 54 048 people over the age of 40 years in Denmark in 2003-2012 in comparison with the general Danish population (23.5 million person-years). We also studied...... the cardiovascular risk factor profile associated with socioeconomic position in stroke patients. Relative risks for stroke were estimated in log-linear Poisson regression models. The risk for hospitalization for a first ischemic stroke was almost doubled for people in the lowest income group, and the risk of those...

  20. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The session on Socioeconomic Evaluations consisted of the following seven papers: (1) Socioeconomic Considerations in Nuclear Waste Management; (2) High-Level Radioactive Waste - the Social Decision; (3) Role of Impact Assessment in Program Planning - A Social Science Perspective; (4) Social and Demographic Impacts Associated with Large-Scale Resource Developments - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (5) Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Large-Scale Development Projects - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (6) Socioeconomic Analyses of the Proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project; and (7) Existing Institutional Arrangements and Fiscal Incentives for Siting Publicly Sensitive Facilities

  1. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  2. Socioeconomic status, anthropometric status, and psychomotor development of Kenyan children from resource-limited settings: a path-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Van de Vijver, Fons; Van Baar, Anneloes; Mbonani, Leonard; Kalu, Raphael; Newton, Charles; Holding, Penny

    2008-09-01

    Sub-optimal physical growth has been suggested as a key pathway between the effect of environmental risk and developmental outcome. To determine if anthropometric status mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychomotor development of young children in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 204 (105 girls) children from two resource-limited communities in the Coast Province, Kenya. The mean age of these children was 29 months (SD = 3.43; range: 24-35 months). Psychomotor functioning was assessed using a locally developed and validated measure, the Kilifi Developmental Inventory. A significant association was found between anthropometric status (as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, mid-upper arm circumference, and head circumference) and psychomotor functioning and also between socioeconomic status and anthropometric status; no direct effects were found between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome. The models showed that weight, height and to a lesser extent mid-upper arm circumference mediate the relation between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome, while head circumference did not show the same effect. Among children under 3 years living in poverty, anthropometric status shows a clear association with psychomotor development while socioeconomic status may only have an indirect association.

  3. Socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality and antibiotics use: A cross-cultural study among European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Lajunen, Timo; Gaygısız, Esma

    There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed. Governance quality (r=-.51), mean years of schooling (r=-.61), power distance (r=.59), masculinity (r=.53), and neuroticism (r=.73) correlated with antibiotic use. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted by the cultural values (65%) followed by socio-economic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socio-economic factors, cultural values and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. In particular, governance quality, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and neuroticism were important factors explaining antibiotics use. The findings underline the importance of socio-economic and cultural context in health care and in planning public health interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934-1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, H Maiju; Salonen, Minna K; Häkkinen, Antti; Olkkola, Maarit; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-08-18

    Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95). They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  5. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maiju Mikkonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95. They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  6. Socioeconomic differences in the association between sickness absence and mortality: The prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Kivimäki, Mika; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine duration of sickness absence as a risk marker for future mortality by socioeconomic position among all private sector employees in Denmark 1998-2004. Design, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study studied all residents in Denmark employed in the private sec...

  7. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence : Findings from two European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

  8. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  9. The use of geographical information systems in socio-economic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Daplyn, P.; Cropley, J.; Treagust, S.; Gordon, A.

    1994-01-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have found wide and growing applications, as digital remote-sensing data and computer technology have become more sophisticated, more easily available and less expensive. NRI recently undertook preliminary research into potential socio-economic applications of GIS. The feasibility of utilizing spatial data, available in GIS, to model socio-economic relationships was examined. It included the following steps: (a) identification of hypothetical relationshi...

  10. SOCIOECONOMIC, INSTITUTIONAL & POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES: A SUBNATIONAL STUDY OF INDIA, 1993 – 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2008-01-01

    We conduct an econometric analysis of socioeconomic, institutional and political factors determining government respect for human rights within India. Using time series cross-sectional data for 28 Indian states for the period 1993 – 2002, we find that internal threat poised by number of social violence events, presence of civil war and riot hit disturbed areas are strongly associated with human rights abuses. Amongst socioeconomic factors, ‘exclusive’ economic growth, ‘uneven’ development, po...

  11. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  12. Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Batty, G. David; Bovet, Pascal; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.; Kumari, Meena; Tabak, Adam G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic adversity in early life has been hypothesized to “program” a vulnerable phenotype with exaggerated inflammatory responses, so increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence is explained by chronic inflammation. Methods and Findings We use data from the British Whitehall II study, a prospective occupational cohort of adults established in 1985. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured repeatedly and type 2 diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over an 18-year follow-up (from 1991–1993 until 2007–2009). Our analytical sample consisted of 6,387 non-diabetic participants (1,818 women), of whom 731 (207 women) developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up. Cumulative exposure to low socioeconomic status from childhood to middle age was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–2.58 for low cumulative lifecourse socioeconomic score and HR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.91 for low-low socioeconomic trajectory). 25% of the excess risk associated with cumulative socioeconomic adversity across the lifecourse and 32% of the excess risk associated with low-low socioeconomic trajectory was attributable to chronically elevated inflammation (95% confidence intervals 16%–58%). Conclusions In the present study, chronic inflammation explained a substantial part of the association between lifecourse socioeconomic disadvantage and type 2 diabetes. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings in population-based samples, as the Whitehall II cohort is not representative of the general population, and to examine the extent to which social inequalities attributable to chronic inflammation are reversible

  13. Socio-economic inequalities in the incidence of four common cancers: a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, E J; Allardice, G M; McLoone, P; Morrison, D S

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between socio-economic circumstances and cancer incidence in Scotland in recent years. Population-based study using cancer registry data. Data on incident cases of colorectal, lung, female breast, and prostate cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 were obtained from a population-based cancer registry covering a population of approximately 2.5 million people in the West of Scotland. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed based on postcode of residence at diagnosis, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). For each cancer, crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated by quintile of SIMD score, and the number of excess cases associated with socio-economic deprivation was estimated. 93,866 cases met inclusion criteria, comprising 21,114 colorectal, 31,761 lung, 23,757 female breast, and 15,314 prostate cancers. Between 2001 and 2006, there was no consistent association between socio-economic circumstances and colorectal cancer incidence, but 2006-2012 saw an emerging deprivation gradient in both sexes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for colorectal cancer between most deprived and least deprived increased from 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.16) to 1.24 (95% CI 1.11-1.39) during the study period. The incidence of lung cancer showed the strongest relationship with socio-economic circumstances, with inequalities widening across the study period among women from IRR 2.66 (95% CI 2.33-3.05) to 2.91 (95% CI 2.54-3.33) in 2001-03 and 2010-12, respectively. Breast and prostate cancer showed an inverse relationship with socio-economic circumstances, with lower incidence among people living in more deprived areas. Significant socio-economic inequalities remain in cancer incidence in the West of Scotland, and in some cases are increasing. In particular, this study has identified an emerging, previously unreported, socio-economic gradient in colorectal cancer incidence among women as well as men. Actions

  14. Why Do Children from Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Families Suffer from Poor Health When They Reach Adulthood? A Life-Course Study. : Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior , Maria; Moffitt , Terrie ,; Milne , Barry ,; Poulton , Richie; Caspi , Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The authors investigated what risk factors contribute to an excess risk of poor adult health among children who experience socioeconomic disadvantage. Data came from 1,037 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-1973, who were followed from birth to age 32 years (2004-2005). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured at multiple points between birth and age 15 years. Risk factors evaluated included a familial liability to poor health, childhood/adolescent...

  15. Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Constantine E; Mensah, Fiona K; Kerr, Jessica A; Wake, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Social patterning of dietary-related diseases may partly be explained by population disparities in children's diets. This study aimed to determine which early life socioeconomic factors best predict dietary trajectories across childhood. For waves 2-6 of the Baby (B) Cohort (ages 2-3 to 10-11 years) and waves 1-6 of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort (ages 4-5 to 14-15 years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we constructed trajectories of dietary scores and of empirically derived dietary patterns. Dietary scores, based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines, summed children's consumption frequencies of seven groups of foods or drinks over the last 24 hours. Dietary patterns at each wave were derived using factor analyses of 12-16 food or drink items. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined associations of baseline single (parental education, remoteness area, parental employment, income, food security and home ownership) and composite (socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. All dietary trajectory outcomes across both cohorts showed profound gradients by composite socioeconomic position but not by neighbourhood disadvantage. For example, odds for children in the lowest relative to highest socioeconomic position quintile being in the 'never healthy' relative to the 'always healthy' score trajectory were OR=16.40, 95% CI 9.40 to 28.61 (B Cohort). Among the single variables, only parental education consistently predicted dietary trajectories. Child dietary trajectories vary profoundly by family socioeconomic position. If causal, reducing dietary inequities may require researching underlying pathways, tackling socioeconomic inequities and targeting health promoting interventions to less educated families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  16. Effective orbital volume and eyeball position: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni; Papadaki, Efrosini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have examined factors affecting the position of the eyeball to the orbit. This study examined the role of effective orbital volume (EOV), defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume, as a determinant of eyeball position, using MRI scans. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete Greece. Patients with a history of orbital disease were excluded. Distances between eyeball poles and orbital landmarks were measured in T1 weighted transverse, sagittal and coronal orbital images. The protrusion of the eyeball in the sagittal and transverse planes was recorded. The volume of the eyeball and bony orbit, the EOV, the volume of the extraocular muscles as well as clinical information (age, gender, Hertel exophthalmometry) were also recorded. EOV was significantly associated with orbital volume but not with eyeball volume. EOV was also significantly associated with transverse and sagittal globe protrusions. Females displayed significantly lower orbital and eyeball volumes as well as EOV than males but higher transverse globe protrusion than males. Variations in EOV are associated with orbital volume rather than with eyeball volume. EOV is associated with globe protrusion and may be taken into account in the planning of various procedures, including orbital decompression, treatment of enophthalmos or the size of orbital implants following enucleation.

  17. [The socioeconomic and demographic characterization of children and adolescents who study and work outside their home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Renata Cristina da Penha; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Secco, Iara Aparecida de Oliveira; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents who study and work outside their home. This non-experimental, correlational, cross-sectional study was performed using questionnaires applied to primary education students, enrolled in public schools in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil). Two schools were selected through a draw. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0. Of the 133 students who answered the questionnaire, 36 (27.7%) reported working outside their home, 20.6% were between 11 and 13 years of age, and 66.7% were male (p=0.000) and had started working early to help with the family income (p=0.003). The salary they received helped comprise the family income, and it was found that as the family income increased, the need for the youngsters to work was reduced. It was found that many factors contribute to these subjects' early start at work, including family size, structure and poverty.

  18. Socio-economic costs of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Ruiz Zamora, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The burden of illness that can be attributed to osteoarthritis is considerable and ever increasing. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze currently available data derived from cost-of-illness studies on the healthcare and non-healthcare costs of osteoarthritis. PubMed, Index Medicus Español (IME), and the Spanish Database of Health Sciences [Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)] were searched up to the end of April 2013. This study adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were reviewed and the study quality assessed by two independent investigators with consensus resolution of discrepancies. We identified 39 studies that investigated the socio-economic cost of osteoarthritis. Only nine studies took a social perspective. Rather than estimating the incremental cost of osteoarthritis, nine studies estimated the total cost of treating patients with osteoarthritis without a control for comorbidity. The other 30 studies determined the incremental cost with or without a control group. Only nine studies assessed a comprehensive list of healthcare resources. The annual incremental healthcare costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €705 to €19,715. The annual incremental non-healthcare-related costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €432 to €11,956. The study concludes that the social cost of osteoarthritis could be between 0.25% and 0.50% of a country׳s GDP. This should be considered in order to foster studies that take into account both healthcare and non-healthcare costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in general and psychological health among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece

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    Zissi Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.

  20. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magklara, Konstantina; Skapinakis, Petros; Gkatsa, Tatiana; Bellos, Stefanos; Araya, Ricardo; Stylianidis, Stylianos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2012-02-12

    Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic associations. Our findings may add to the

  1. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magklara Konstantina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization

  2. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  3. Unhealthy lifestyles do not mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident depressive symptoms: the Health ABC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, D.A.; Koster, A.; Bosma, H.; van den Akker, M.; Kempen, G.I.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Gool, C.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Harris, T.B.; Rubin, S.M.; Pahor, M.; Schulz, R.; Simonsick, E.M.; Perry, S.E.; Ayonayon, H.N.; Kritchevsky, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is well described, also in older persons. Although studies have found associations between low SES and unhealthy lifestyle factors, and between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms, not much is

  4. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly: the role of risk factors in the EPESE study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lenthe, Frank J van; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P; Bos, G A M van den; Fay, Martha E; Berkman, Lisa F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. METHODS: Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established

  5. Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10 year-old girls : The NHLBI Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimm, SYS; Obarzanek, E; Barton, BA; Aston, CE; Similo, SL; Morrison, JA; Sabry, ZI; Schreiber, GB; McMahon, RP

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are inversely associated with obesity in 9- to 10-year-old black and white girls and their parents. Subjects were participants in the Growth and Health Study (NGHS) of the National Heart, Lung, and

  6. Large-scale alcohol use and socioeconomic position of origin: longitudinal study from ages 15 to 19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine socioeconomic position (SEP) of origin as predictor of large-scale alcohol use in adolescence. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 15-year-olds at baseline (n=843) with a first follow-up 4 years later (n=729). Excess alcohol intake was assessed by consumption last...

  7. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E.; Richter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys

  9. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  10. The Associations Between Socioeconomic Status and Lifestyle Factors in European Adolescents: A Population-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Dario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES and lifestyle factors. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 3,072 adolescents from two European countries of Lithuania and Serbia. The dependent variable was SES, while independent variables were gender, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, body-mass index, self-rated health, psychological distress, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. In univariate model, middle/high SES was associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (ptrend = 0.003, good self-rated health (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12 to 2.05 and meeting recommendations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.45 to 3.00, yet inversely associated with psychological distress (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66 to 0.99 and sedentary behaviour (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68 to 0.94. No associations were found between SES and bodymass index and gender. In multivariate model, the same associations occurred between middle/high SES and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, special strategies and policies, based on more affordable nutrition and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, should be implemented within the system.

  11. Strategies and Socioeconomic and Environmental Sustainability: Study of the Producer Segment of Meat Industry

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    Márcia Cristiane Gruba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the emerging needs of society and the environment for the economic sectors act with sustainability, agrifood cooperatives of meat industry (CASC face management and strategy challenges to achieve better performance. Approaching different links of the production chain, some studies were conducted in a CASC, including this article, in order to verify if there were strategic economic, social or environmental sustainable actions from COOPERALIANÇA’s meat producers, its consequent organizational results and influence from the environment. The methodology was characterized by case study and the interviews with business leaders of the link chain producer were semi-structured. A content analysis was done. Among the most important results, influences from other links in the supply chain were found in strategic pro-sustainability action, which are not voluntarily made by producers and are influenced by interorganizational macroenvironment. Social activities were stimulated by public policies. It was also found a lack of long-term sustainability programs and strategic actions but cooperation and accountability occurred between the links, mostly because of interests of win-win that increased commitment and facilitated their interorganizational functions. However it was not found information in the interest of reconciliation between organizational outcomes and socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. With these results it was found adherence to the organizational ecology approach.

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the context of multimorbidity: A Korean panel study.

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    Myung Ki

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in health are commonly known to decrease at late age. Yet, it remains unclear whether socioeconomic inequalities in health at late age appear in relation to multimorbidity, particularly in Korea where social support remains unsatisfactory for older people. Using three waves of Korea Health Panel, data of 19,942 observations with repeated measure were constructed to ensure a temporal sequence between three socioeconomic measures (i.e., poverty, employment status, and education and multimorbidity with a t to t+1 year transition. A multilevel multinomial model was applied to quantify the socioeconomic impact across different age, diseases and disease groups, both separately and in combination. There were associations between socioeconomic position (SEP and multimorbidity, and increasing trends of socioeconomic inequalities not only with greater number of morbidity but also with age. The latter result was only observed with employment status through mid-to-early old age; i.e., between the 40s (odds ratio (OR = 2.45, 95% confidence interval (CI:1.08-5.57 and 70s (OR = 3.48, 95%CI: 1.24-9.74. The patterns of socioeconomic inequalities in multimorbidity varied for particular pairs of diseases and were stronger in the disease pairs co-occurring with mental and cardiovascular diseases but weaker in the disease pairs co-occurring with cancer. Accumulation of adversity tended to intensify with increase in number of diseases and older age, though this finding was not consistently supported. The labour market should be encouraged to actively participate in actions to promote healthy aging needs to be complemented by the provision of more generous and universal income support to the elderly in Korea.

  13. The impact of geographic unit of analysis on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant summary stage - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Morrell, Stephen; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; You, Hui; Niyonsenga, Theo; Walton, Richard; Baker, Deborah; Currow, David

    2016-12-13

    When using area-level disadvantage measures, size of geographic unit can have major effects on recorded socioeconomic cancer disparities. This study examined the extent of changes in recorded socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant stage when the measure of socioeconomic disadvantage was based on smaller Census Collection Districts (CDs) instead of Statistical Local Areas (SLAs). Population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry data were used to identify cases diagnosed with primary invasive cancer in 2000-2008 (n=264,236). Logistic regression and competing risk regression modelling were performed to examine socioeconomic differences in odds of distant stage and hazard of cancer death for all sites combined and separately for breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. For all sites collectively, associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and cancer survival and distant stage were stronger when the CD-based socioeconomic disadvantage measure was used compared with the SLA-based measure. The CD-based measure showed a more consistent socioeconomic gradient with a linear upward trend of risk of cancer death/distant stage with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage. Site-specific analyses provided similar findings for the risk of death but less consistent results for the likelihood of distant stage. The use of socioeconomic disadvantage measure based on the smallest available spatial unit should be encouraged in the future. Implications for Public Health: Disadvantage measures based on small spatial units can more accurately identify socioeconomic cancer disparities to inform priority settings in service planning. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. © 2014 The Authors

  15. Socioeconomic inequality in disability among adults: a multicountry study using the World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R; Stewart Williams, Jennifer A; Gautam, Jeny; Posarac, Aleksandra; Officer, Alana; Verdes, Emese; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Chatterji, Somnath

    2013-07-01

    We compared national prevalence and wealth-related inequality in disability across a large number of countries from all income groups. Data on 218,737 respondents participating in the World Health Survey 2002-2004 were analyzed. A composite disability score (0-100) identified respondents who experienced significant disability in physical, mental, and social functioning irrespective of their underlying health condition. Disabled persons had disability composite scores above 40. Wealth was evaluated using an index of economic status in households based on ownership of selected assets. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. Median age-standardized disability prevalence was higher in the low- and lower middle-income countries. In all the study countries, disability was more prevalent in the poorest than in the richest wealth quintiles. Pro-rich inequality was statistically significant in 43 of 49 countries, with disability prevalence higher among populations with lower wealth. Median relative inequality was higher in the high- and upper middle-income countries. Integrating equity components into the monitoring of disability trends would help ensure that interventions reach and benefit populations with greatest need.

  16. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfanti, Lavinia [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea, E-mail: colantoni@unitus.it [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Bencardino, Massimiliano [University of Salerno, Department of Political, Social and Communication Sciences, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Sateriano, Adele [Via A. Di Tullio 40, I-00136, Rome (Italy); Zambon, Ilaria [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Salvati, Luca, E-mail: luca.salvati@crea.gov.it [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  17. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Si Hassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  18. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfanti, Lavinia; Colantoni, Andrea; Recanatesi, Fabio; Bencardino, Massimiliano; Sateriano, Adele; Zambon, Ilaria; Salvati, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  19. Socio-economic deprivation associated with acute rheumatic fever. A hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M M; Yoshiike, N; Chowdhury, A H; Jalil, M Q; Mahmud, R S; Faruque, G M; Rouf, M A; Haque, K M; Tanaka, H

    1997-07-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between socio-economic factors and rheumatic fever (RF) in the populations where the burden of both socio-economic deprivation and RF is still very high. The aim of this study is to assess the association between some socio-economic factors and RF by examining data available from a RF hospital in Bangladesh. We have reviewed the medical records of patients presenting with manifestations suggestive of RF during a 1-year period. From the patients who showed group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal upper respiratory infection (ABHS infection), 44 RF cases defined by the Jones criteria and 86 control subjects, who did not satisfy the criteria, were identified for analysis. The median age was 12 years and 60% were female. RF was significantly associated with low income (odds ratio [OR] 2.37; P = 0.04); poor living conditions: substandard (kacha) house (OR 2.93, P = 0.02); and poor nutritional status: low height for age (OR 2.68, P = 0.02). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed an increased OR for kacha house (OR 3.18, P = 0.02) but the same estimate for low height for age (OR 2.68; P = 0.04). Our analysis shows that, among the patients presenting to the RF hospital with proven ABHS infection, acute RF is associated with socio-economic deprivation.

  20. Correction of misclassification bias induced by the residential mobility in studies examining the link between socioeconomic environment and cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryere, Josephine; Pornet, Carole; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Guittet, Lydia; Launoy, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Many international ecological studies that examine the link between social environment and cancer incidence use a deprivation index based on the subjects' address at the time of diagnosis to evaluate socioeconomic status. Thus, social past details are ignored, which leads to misclassification bias in the estimations. The objectives of this study were to include the latency delay in such estimations and to observe the effects. We adapted a previous methodology to correct estimates of the influence of socioeconomic environment on cancer incidence considering the latency delay in measuring socioeconomic status. We implemented this method using French data. We evaluated the misclassification due to social mobility with census data and corrected the relative risks. Inclusion of misclassification affected the values of relative risks, and the corrected values showed a greater departure from the value 1 than the uncorrected ones. For cancer of lung, colon-rectum, lips-mouth-pharynx, kidney and esophagus in men, the over incidence in the deprived categories was augmented by the correction. By not taking into account the latency period in measuring socioeconomic status, the burden of cancer associated with social inequality may be underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic status and trajectory of overweight from birth to mid-childhood: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Jones-Smith

    Full Text Available Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status.Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n≈4,950, we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, "overweight/obesity" according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models.The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood.Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians than previously reported.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Gerrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.03 – 0.27, logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22 compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex. Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research.

  3. The socio-economics dynamics of Dam on Rural Communities: A case study of Oyan Dam, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Amidu; Ojifo, Lawrence

    2018-06-01

    Dams construction and operations have many benefits, nevertheless, they have also led to lots of negative social, health and human impacts. It is based on this that this study assesses the potential and socio-economics dynamics of Oyan dam between 1980 and 2016. The data used for this study include water level and discharge records of the dam between 2007 and 2016, Landsat imageries of 1984 and 2016 and socio-economic datasets for the period. Analysis of the dam potentials (water supply, agriculture and hydropower) and socio-economic impacts of the dam were carried out using basic statistical tools, land use change anaysis and field survey using questionnaire, structured interview with major stakeholders and personal observation. The results revealed that the water level and storage of the Oyan dam had a relative reduction of about 2 % as well as non-stationarity pattern of water abstraction and production for the period. The landuse classes show all classes decreased in extent except the cultivated landuse that acrued an increased of 19.9 % between 1984 and 2016. Furthermore, commercial water supply varied significantly between 2010 and 2016 while irrigation scheme is grossly under-utilized from the inception in 1983 to 2016. Finally, the result of socio-economic impacts revealed that majority of the selected communities' members are actually not benefiting from the dam and their livelihoods are not from the dam.

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INEQUALITIES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and patterns in the socio-economic development in the study area.The pattern ... Department of Urban and Regional Planning ... perspective of network density of paved road ... available and a number of cooperative .... The case of Akwa Ibom.

  5. Morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomics in females with 46,XY disorders of sex development: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Stochholm, Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    Context: Little is known about long-term health outcomes in phenotypic females with 46,XY disorders of sex development (XY females) and the socioeconomic profile is not described in detail. Objective: To describe morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in XY females in a comparison...... the general population. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: combined mortality and morbidity as well as chapter-specific morbidity. Medicinal use and socioeconomic profile, including education, cohabitation and retirement. Results: Compared to female controls overall morbidity was increased in XY...... closely related to the DSD condition. Judged on educational level and income XY females perform well on the labor market. However, DSD seems to impact on the prospects of family life.​....

  6. Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teychenne Megan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the

  7. The impact of socioeconomic position on severe maternal morbidity outcomes among women in Australia: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, A; Noor, N; Sullivan, E; Knight, M

    2015-11-01

    Studies in other developed countries have suggested that socioeconomic position may be a risk factor for poorer pregnancy outcomes. This analysis aimed to explore the independent impact of socioeconomic position on selected severe maternal morbidities among women in Australia. A case-control study using data on severe maternal morbidities associated with direct maternal death collected through the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Australia. 623 cases, 820 controls. Logistic regression analysis to investigate differences in outcomes among different socioeconomic groups, classified by Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Severe maternal morbidity (amniotic fluid embolism, placenta accreta, peripartum hysterectomy, eclampsia or pulmonary embolism). SEIFA quintile was statistically significantly associated with maternal morbidity, with cases being twice as likely as controls to reside in the most disadvantaged areas (adjusted OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.29-3.10). Maternal age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.20 for women aged 35 or over compared with women aged 25-29, 95%CI 1.64-3.15] and previous pregnancy complications (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.21-1.87) were significantly associated with morbidity. A parity of 1 or 2 was protective (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43-0.79), whereas previous caesarean delivery was associated with maternal morbidity (aOR 2.20 for women with one caesarean delivery, 95%CI 1.44-2.85, compared with women with no caesareans). The risk of severe maternal morbidity among women in Australia is significantly increased by social disadvantage. This study suggests that future efforts in improving maternity care provision and maternal outcomes in Australia should include socioeconomic position as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Association of adiponectin and socioeconomic status in African American men and women: the Jackson heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.

  9. The association between socioeconomic status and the symptoms at diagnosis of celiac disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhik; Mehra, Shilpa; Kelly, Ciarán P; Tariq, Sohaib; Pallav, Kumar; Dennis, Melinda; Peer, Ann; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Green, Peter H R; Leffler, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    There are little data on patient factors that impact diagnosis rates of celiac disease. This study aims to evaluate the association between patient socioeconomic status and the symptoms at diagnosis of celiac disease. A total of 872 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease were categorized based on the presence or absence of (1) diarrhea and (2) any gastrointestinal symptoms at diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between socioeconomic status and symptoms. Patients without diarrhea at presentation had a higher mean per capita income (US$34,469 versus US$32,237, p = 0.02), and patients without any gastrointestinal symptoms had a higher mean per capita income (US$36,738 versus US$31,758, p symptoms. On multivariable analysis adjusting for sex, age, autoimmune or psychiatric comorbidities, and income, per capita income remained a significant predictor of diagnosis without gastrointestinal symptoms (odds ratio: 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.50, p symptoms of celiac disease are less likely to be diagnosed if they are of lower socioeconomic status. Celiac disease may be under-recognized in this population due to socioeconomic factors that possibly include lower rates of health-seeking behavior and access to healthcare.

  10. Does food group consumption vary by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Yang, Su-Jau; Berenson, Gerald S

    2007-02-01

    To examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. Cross-sectional. Young adults (n=1,266, 74% European American, 26% African American; 39% men, 61% women) aged 20 to 38 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Food group consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic (eg, income and education), demographic (eg, age, sex, and ethnicity), and lifestyle (eg, marital status and physical activity) information was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and the subjects were stratified according to these groups. Analysis of covariance (adjusted for covariates) was used to detect differences in the mean servings of food groups consumed per day between the various socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle groups. Compared to income$45,000 had lower consumption of burgers/sandwiches (Pconsumption of mixed dishes (P12 years of education. European-American men consumed more servings of dairy products (Pfood group consumption varies by socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting. Food and nutrition professionals who encounter diverse populations need to consider the influence of income, education, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and physical activity on food consumption patterns when planning diets, nutrition education programs, and interventions for young adults.

  11. Study of living kidney donor-recipient relationships: variation with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Tomson, Charles Rv; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher renal replacement therapy acceptance rates in the UK but lower rates of living kidney transplantation. This study examines donor-recipient relationship patterns with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England. Demographic characteristics of all white live renal transplant donors and recipients between 2001 and 2010 in England were analyzed. Patterns of donor-recipient relationship were analyzed to see whether they differed according to an ecological measure of socioeconomic status (Index of Multiple Deprivation). Group comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Sources of living kidney transplants differed with deprivation (p Recipients living in poorer areas were more likely to receive a kidney from a sibling, child, and "other relative" donor and less likely from spouses/partners. Logistic regression suggested differences seen with spouse/partner donations with deprivation were explained by differences in the age and gender of the recipients. The source of living kidneys differs by level of area deprivation. Given the disparity in rates of living kidney transplants between the most and least socioeconomically deprived, there is a need to understand the reasons behind these observed relationship differences, with the aim of increasing transplantation rates in the most deprived. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  13. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  14. The role of municipal public policies in oral health socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Violeta Rodrigues; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2017-12-07

    It is known that fluoridation has a contextual effect on oral health socioeconomic inequalities, but broad public policies have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of municipal public policies on oral health across different social strata. This was a cross-sectional study with 7328 12-year-old children and 5445 15-19-year-old adolescents from 177 Brazilian municipalities. Information at municipal level was collated for dental services, educational services, sanitation and water fluoridation. The main individual-level exposure was the disposable equivalent household income. The dichotomous outcomes were as follows: untreated dental caries (≥1 tooth), missing teeth (≥1 tooth) and filled teeth (≥1 tooth). Analyses were carried out using multilevel logistic regression. Interaction terms were tested between individual-level income and policy variables. The prevalence of untreated dental caries, missing and filled teeth was 47.0%, 15.1% and 47.5%, respectively. There was no significant interaction between income and policy indicators. Individuals living in municipalities with no water fluoridation had 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) higher odds of having untreated dental caries; the odds ratio (OR) for those in municipalities with less education policies was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); those in municipalities with less sanitation had OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.78-1.40); and those in municipalities with less dental care had OR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02-1.80). Fluoridation and policies about sanitation, education and dental care were similarly associated with oral health in different social strata. Other policies on social and economic fields may be further explored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Socioeconomic deprivation does not influence the severity of Crohn's disease: Results of a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Stéphane; Lahmek, Pierre; Macaigne, Gilles; Faurel, Jean-Pierre; Sass, Catherine; Howaizi, Mehran; Fleury, Antoine; Baju, A; Locher, Christophe; Barjonet, Georges; Saillant, GillesGatineau; Moulin, Jean-Jacques; Poupardin, Cécile

    2009-04-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poor health. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of deprivation in the characteristics and comparisons of deprived and nondeprived Crohn's disease (CD) patients. CD patients were prospectively recruited from September 2006 to June 2007 in 6 hospitals in the Paris area. To assess the level of deprivation we used the EPICES score (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers; http://www.cetaf.asso.fr), a validated individual index of deprivation developed in France, a score >30 defining deprivation. We defined CD as severe when at least 1 of the conventionally predefined criteria of clinical severity was present. In all, 207 patients (128 women and 79 men, mean age 40 years) were included and had a median score of deprivation of 20.7 (0-100). Seventy-three (35%) were deprived. There were no statistical differences between deprived and nondeprived patients for the following parameters: 1) mean age: 39 +/- 14.6 versus 40.6 +/- 13.5, P = 0.4; 2) sex ratio (female/male): 87/47 (65%) versus 41/32 (56%), P = 0.2; 3) duration of disease (years) 9 +/- 8.8 versus 8.5 +/- 7.2, P = 0.7; 4) delay from onset of symptoms to diagnosis >1 year: 22/115 (19%) versus 13/63 (21%), P = 0.8; and 5) severity of disease 71% versus 70% (P = 0.9). Nondeprived patients had a lower rate of hospitalization (40 versus 56%, P = 0,04) and a higher rate of surgery (44 versus 22%, P = 0,004); the rate of surgery was only identified by logistic regression. In this study deprivation does not seem to influence the severity of CD. This can be explained by easy access to healthcare in France.

  16. Volume 2. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Volume II, Probabilistic Analysis of HTGR Application Studies - Supporting Data, gives the detail data, both deterministic and probabilistic, employed in the calculation presented in Volume I. The HTGR plants and the fossil plants considered in the study are listed. GCRA provided the technical experts from which the data were obtained by MAC personnel. The names of the technical experts (interviewee) and the analysts (interviewer) are given for the probabilistic data

  17. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyre, M.; Chevalier, V.; Abdo-Salem, S.; Velthuis, A.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Thiry, E.; Roger, F.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to

  18. Pathways between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Childhood Growth in the Scottish Longitudinal Study, 1991-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Richard J; Williamson, Lee; Grundy, Emily M; De Stavola, Bianca L

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4.5 years were related to three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage (mother's education, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, synthetic weekly income). Mediation was examined using two approaches: a 'traditional' mediation analysis and a counterfactual-based mediation analysis. Both analyses identified a negative effect of each measure of socioeconomic disadvantage on height, mediated to some extent by birth weight, and a positive 'direct effect' of mother's education and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation on overweight/obesity, which was partly counterbalanced by a negative 'indirect effect'. The extent of mediation estimated when adopting the traditional approach was greater than when adopting the counterfactual-based approach because of inappropriate handling of intermediate confounding in the former. Our findings suggest that higher birth weight in more disadvantaged groups is associated with reduced social inequalities in height but also with increased inequalities in overweight/obesity.

  19. Antisocial and Human Capital Pathways to Socioeconomic Exclusion: A 42-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W. Alex; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Nordic welfare states have been very successful at reducing poverty and inequality among their citizens. However, the presence of a strong social safety net in these countries has not solved the problem of "socioeconomic exclusion", manifesting in such outcomes as chronic unemployment and welfare dependency. In an effort to understand…

  20. The silent burden of stigmatisation: a qualitative study among Dutch people with a low socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Audrey M W; Houkes, Inge; Koster, Annemarie; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

    2018-04-03

    In-depth qualitative research into perceived socioeconomic position-related stigmatisation among people living at the lower end of our socioeconomic hierarchy is necessary for getting more insight in the possible downside of living in an increasingly meritocratic and individualistic society. Seventeen interviews were conducted among a group of Dutch people with a low socioeconomic position to examine their experiences with stigmatisation, how they coped with it and what they perceived as consequences. Social reactions perceived by participants related to being inferior, being physically recognisable as a poor person, and being responsible for their own financial problems. Participants with less experience of living in poverty, a heterogeneous social network and greater sense of financial responsibility seemed to be more aware of stigmas than people with long-term experience of poverty, a homogeneous social network and less sense of financial responsibility. Perceived stigmatisation mainly had emotional consequences. To maintain a certain level of self-respect, participants tried to escape from reality, showed their strengths or confronted other people who expressed negative attitudes towards them. Despite the good intentions of policies to enhance self-reliance, responsibility and active citizenship, these policies and related societal beliefs might affect people at the lower end of our socioeconomic hierarchies by making them feel inferior, ashamed and blamed, especially when they cannot meet societal expectations or when they feel treated disrespectfully, unjustly or unequally by social workers or volunteers of charity organisations.

  1. Socioeconomic status and transient ischaemic attack/stroke: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Gillian D; Higgins, Peter; Walters, Matthew; Ghosh, Sandip K; Wright, Fiona; Langhorne, Peter; Stott, David J

    2011-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with an increased risk of stroke but the mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to determine whether low-SES stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients have a greater burden of vascular risk factors/co-morbidity and reduced health care access. We prospectively studied 467 consecutive stroke and TIA patients from 3 Scottish hospitals (outpatients and inpatients) during 2007/2008. We recorded vascular risk factors, stroke severity, co-morbidity measures, investigations and health service utilisation. SES was derived from postcodes using Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics and analysed in quartiles. TIA/stroke patients in the lowest SES quartile were younger (64 years, SD 14.1) than those in the highest quartile (72 years, SD 12.9; p p = 0.001) but there was no association with other vascular risk factors/co-morbidity. There was a trend for those with lower SES to have a more severe stroke [modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and interquartile range: 4 (2-6) vs. 3 (1-5); multivariate p = 0.05]. Lower SES groups were less likely to have neuro-imaging (82 vs. 90%; p = 0.036) or an electrocardiogram (72 vs. 87%; p = 0.003), but differences were no longer significant on multivariate analysis. However, there was equal access to stroke unit care. Low-SES TIA and stroke patients are younger and have a more severe deficit; an increased prevalence of smoking is likely to be a major contributor. We found equal access to stroke unit care for low-SES patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Childhood adversity, adult socioeconomic status and risk of work disability: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-09-01

    To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability. Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects. When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29 to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects. These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: St. lucie case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, M.L.; Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study are during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  5. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Rancho Seco case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  7. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  8. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations - Diablo Canyon case study. Technical report for 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Yaquinto, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlemeent patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  9. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  10. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  11. Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (the ABENA study 2004–2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Méjean, Caroline; Deschamps, V.; Bellin-Lestienne, C.; Oleko, A.; Darmon, Nicole; Serge, H.; Katia, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Few studies in Europe have examined the relationship of sociodemographic and economic factors with diet in deprived populations. We analysed the association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of different food groups in food aid users. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n=1664). Associations of sociodemographic and economic factors and food aid use with frequency of consumption of t...

  12. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  13. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differentials of C-reactive protein levels: a systematic review of population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors strongly influence cardiovascular disease outcomes and risk factors. C-reactive protein (CRP, a non-specific marker of inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular risk, and knowledge about its distribution in the population may help direct preventive efforts. A systematic review was undertaken to critically assess CRP levels according to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors. Methods Medline was searched through December 2006 for population-based studies examining CRP levels among adults with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP and/or race/ethnicity. Bibliographies from located studies were scanned and 26 experts in the field were contacted for unpublished work. Results Thirty-two relevant articles were located. Cross-sectional (n = 20 and cohort studies (n = 11 were included, as was the control group of one trial. CRP levels were examined with respect to SEP and race/ethnicity in 25 and 15 analyses, respectively. Of 20 studies that were unadjusted or adjusted for demographic variables, 19 found inverse associations between CRP levels and SEP. Of 15 similar studies, 14 found differences between racial/ethnic groups such that whites had the lowest while blacks, Hispanics and South Asians had the highest CRP levels. Most studies also included adjustment for potential mediating variables in the causal chain between SEP or race/ethnicity and CRP. Most of these studies showed attenuated but still significant associations. Conclusion Increasing poverty and non-white race was associated with elevated CRP levels among adults. Most analyses in the literature are underestimating the true effects of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors due to adjustment for mediating factors.

  14. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  15. The contribution of childhood environment to the explanation of socio-economic inequalities in health in adult life: A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; van den Bos, J.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the contribution of childhood environment to the explanation of socio-economic inequalities in health in adulthood is examined. Childhood environment was measured using indicators of social, socio-economic and material aspects. Retrospective data obtained from an oral interview, part

  16. Family socioeconomic status and nutrition habits of 7-8 year old children: cross-sectional Lithuanian COSI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrauskienė, Aušra; Žaltauskė, Vilma; Albavičiūtė, Edita

    2015-04-23

    Nutritional habits are a useful way to characterize whole diets and they are also known to be influenced by a wide range of social and economic factors. The above factors in each country may have different effect on children's eating habits. In Lithuania the data of children nutrition in association with socio-economic status of family is poor. There are few studies done, where links between nutrition habits of children and socio-economic status of family was evaluated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate association among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socio-economic status in Lithuania. Data were obtained participating in the international study, which was performed in all ten districts of Lithuania. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010, using the protocol and methodology prepared by the experts from the WHO and countries participating in the Initiative. The data were collected by means of COSI standardized questionnaire, which was filled out by parents of selected first-formers'. In this paper a part of questions regarding children nutrition habits and parents' socio-economic status is presented. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0 software for Windows. Correlation among variables was evaluated by χ (2). Links among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socioeconomic status were determined using binary logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all tests p eat breakfast every day or 4-6 times a week. Significant differences were found between breakfast consumption and gender - girls eat breakfast less frequently than boys. Odds ratio of children daily breakfast consumption were 1.3 times higher in families where fathers' were older than 30 years comparing with younger fathers. Meanwhile mothers' age had significant influence just on children daily soft drinks with sugar consumption. Results from the national survey of primary school age children of Lithuania reveals

  17. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  18. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  19. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  20. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and cognitive decline among older Mexican Americans: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N; Osypuk, Theresa; Abdou, Cleopatra; Hinton, Ladson; Aiello, Allison E

    2011-08-15

    In 1 previous study, it was shown that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with cognitive decline among Latinos. No studies have explored whether and to what extent individual-level socioeconomic factors account for the relation between neighborhood disadvantage and cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on cognitive decline and examine how individual-level SEP factors (educational level, annual income, and occupation) influenced neighborhood associations over the course of 10 years. Participants (n = 1,789) were community-dwelling older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Neighborhood SEP was derived by linking the participant's individual data to the 2000 decennial census. The authors assessed cognitive function with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Analyses used 3-level hierarchical linear mixed models of time within individuals within neighborhoods. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, higher neighborhood SEP was significantly associated with cognitive function (β = -0.033; P cognition but not with rates of decline. Differences in individual educational levels explained most of the intra- and interneighborhood variance. These results suggest that the effect of neighborhood SEP on cognitive decline among Latinos is primarily accounted for by education.

  2. Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children – a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Loc G; Scott, Jane A; Thomson, W Murray; Stamm, John W; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Wong, Ching; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health,...

  3. The Impacts of Gender Discrimination, Socio-Economic Capital & University Enrollment Plans: A Case Study in Ankara Distinct

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, M. Demet

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 726 non-clinical adolescents (aged 17-18 years) from high schools in Ankara/ Turkey, this study investigated the interacting relationships between Turkish adolescents’ university plans and personal capital variables such as gender, school achievement, self-esteem, anxiety/depression, goal setting, course attendance and family atmosphere such as parental supporting, parental monitoring, parental separation and socio-economic c...

  4. Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A life-course study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Milne, Barry J.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates what risk factors contribute to an excess risk of poor adult health among children who experienced socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. Data come from 1,037 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, followed from birth up to age 32. Childhood SES was measured at multiple points between birth and age 15 years. Risk factors included a familial liability to poor health, childhood/adolescent health risks, low childhood IQ, exposure to childhood maltreatment, and ad...

  5. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  6. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  7. Reusable Agena study. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. K.; Piper, J. E.; Douglass, D. A.; Waller, E. W.; Hopkins, C. V.; Fitzgerald, E. T.; Sagawa, S. S.; Carter, S. A.; Jensen, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the existing Agena vehicle as a reusable upper stage for the space shuttle is discussed. The primary objective of the study is to define those changes to the Agena required for it to function in the reusable mode in the 100 percent capture of the NASA-DOD mission model. This 100 percent capture is achieved without use of kick motors or stages by simply increasing the Agena propellant load by using optional strap-on-tanks. The required shuttle support equipment, launch and flight operations techniques, development program, and cost package are also defined.

  8. The impact of socioeconomic status and multimorbidity on mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Jensen, Nikoline; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mercer, Stewart W; Glümer, Charlotte; Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Multimorbidity (MM) is more prevalent among people of lower socioeconomic status (SES), and both MM and SES are associated with higher mortality rates. However, little is known about the relationship between SES, MM, and mortality. This study investigates the association between educational level and mortality, and to what extent MM modifies this association. We followed 239,547 individuals invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (mean follow-up time: 3.8 years). MM was assessed by using information on drug prescriptions and diagnoses for 39 long-term conditions. Data on educational level were provided by Statistics Denmark. Date of death was obtained from the Civil Registration System. Information on lifestyle factors and quality of life was collected from the survey. The main outcomes were overall and premature mortality (death before the age of 75). Of a total of 12,480 deaths, 6,607 (9.5%) were of people with low educational level (LEL) and 1,272 (2.3%) were of people with high educational level (HEL). The mortality rate was higher among people with LEL compared with HEL in groups of people with 0-1 disease (hazard ratio: 2.26, 95% confidence interval: 2.00-2.55) and ≥4 diseases (hazard ratio: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.24), respectively (adjusted model). The absolute number of deaths was six times higher among people with LEL than those with HEL in those with ≥4 diseases. The 1-year cumulative mortality proportions for overall death in those with ≥4 diseases was 5.59% for people with HEL versus 7.27% for people with LEL, and 1-year cumulative mortality proportions for premature death was 2.93% for people with HEL versus 4.04% for people with LEL. Adjusting for potential mediating factors such as lifestyle and quality of life eliminated the statistical association between educational level and mortality in people with MM. Our study suggests that LEL is associated with higher overall and premature mortality and that the

  9. The influence of fathers' socioeconomic status and paternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacking, Renée; Dykes, Fiona; Ewald, Uwe

    2010-06-01

    The propensity to breastfeed is a matter of public concern because of the favourable effects for infants. However, very few studies have described the influence of paternal variables upon duration of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of fathers' socioeconomic status and their use of paternity leave on breastfeeding duration for infants up to 1 year of age. A prospective population-based cohort study was undertaken. Data on breastfeeding, registered in databases in two Swedish counties for 1993-2001, were matched with data on socioeconomic status and paternity leave obtained from Statistics Sweden. Fathers of 51,671 infants were identified and included. Infants whose fathers had a lower level of education, were receiving unemployment benefit and/or had a lower equivalent disposable household income were significantly less likely to be breastfed at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Infants whose fathers did not take paternity leave during the infant's first year were significantly less likely to be breastfed at 2 (p paternity leave, may have beneficial effects on breastfeeding up to 6 months of age. A more systematic approach to supporting fathers' involvement may be particularly valuable to those infants whose fathers have a lower socioeconomic status.

  10. The Integration of Socio-Economic Indicators in the CASBEE-UD Evaluation System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tools to measure the degree of sustainability of cities is the approach that receives the most attention in developed countries. However, studies of evaluation tools at the neighborhood level reveal that there are many weaknesses in the most widely-used evaluation systems (LEED-ND, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE-UD. There are ambiguities and gaps in weighting and in scoring and in most cases, there is no mechanism for local adaptability and participation. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current situation by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these evaluation tools in order to integrate social and economic aspects for the improvement of the CASBEE-UD (neighborhood level evaluation tool. The selection of socio-economic aspects was made through the use of a multi criteria Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP and a Geographic Integration System (GIS. The results of this case study indicate that most evaluation tools need to be revised because most do not include socio-economic aspects. We have demonstrated that applying the CASBEE-UD assessment tool integrated with socio-economic aspects to four boroughs in the City of Montreal can measure success by addressing the objectives of sustainable development.

  11. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streel, Sylvie; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Hoge, Axelle; Majerus, Sven; Kolh, Philippe; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20-69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010-2012). A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves "financially in need." Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  12. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  13. Nuclear Aircraft Feasibility Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Iso Dose 10-12 10.1.4-3 Absorption Cross Section Ratio 10-14 10.1.5-1 Engine Systems Study Diagram 10-15 10.1.8-1 Life Cycle Cost for 60...0 00 ■ 3 15.00 OC z ^ 10.00 X s -i 1 UJ 5 < oc D I 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 1 ’ ISO LBS/SQ FT WING...4.1.6-1. Payload vs Wing Loading 4-17 m I - 27000 | i i ^1 ̂ N GROSS WEIGHT > 1.600,000 LBS 523 FT/SEC P 30.000 FT ONE GAS REACTOR 1

  14. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    A model was developed to be used to calculate the accumulation of uranium in the organs of the human body for different kinds of exposure. The proposed model divides the human body into compartments: red cell, short-term bone, long-term bone, kidney, and urine. The transfer rate between compartments is governed by 1st order kinetics. Transfer from plasma to the other compartments is instantaneous. Feedback from compartments to plasma is taken into account. The division of blood into plasma and red cell compartment is important to the calculations of uranium transport during the first few days after exposure. It was noted that uranium in bone has two different half-lives depending on the site of deposition, a short-term and a long-term bone component. An analytical solution to the model was proposed for any time-dependent exposure to uranium. This methodology is unique to this model and represents a significant change in analytical solutions. Specific analytical solutions for common cases of uranium exposure were derived. These include: single injection dose to the blood; exposure to background levels of natural uranium by ingestion; exposure through inhalation during working hours for uranium workers; single inhalation dose; constant inhalation exposure during a finite interval of time; and single ingestion dose. For model verification five baboons were injected intravenously with uranium nitrate and the partition of uranium between plasma and red cells was studied. The half-life in short-term bone was derived and the distribution in soft tissues four days after injection was studied: the kidney was the main organ for uranium deposition. The concentration in human skeleton was equal to 0.02 μg U/g ash. For this concentration in skeleton the gastrointestinal absorption factor was calculated as 23% and the daily excretion as 0.24 μg U/day

  15. A STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CARCINOMA BREAST IN FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardana Rao Venkata Kakulapati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer distribution differs by geography, regional lifestyle, racial or ethnic background. In general, both breast cancer incidence and mortality are relatively lower among the female populations of Asia and Africa, relatively underdeveloped nations, and nations that have not changed to the westernised reproductive and dietary patterns. In contrast, European and North American women from heavily industrialised or westernised countries have a substantially higher incidence of breast cancer. The aim of the study is to1. Analyse the relationship between socioeconomic and educational status and early diagnosis of CA breast. 2. Emphasise the need for early detection of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in 150 patients who were admitted in the Department of General Surgery. Inclusion criteria for patients in this study consist of patient of any age presenting with the lesion suspected of breast carcinoma and proved by FNAC and Tru-cut biopsy and all relevant investigations to stage the disease like chest x-ray, ultrasound abdomen, liver function test, mammography and skeletal survey done for advanced cases to rule out metastasis. Patients excluded where those who presented with symptoms of breast on clinical examination, but on investigation, there was no malignant pathology of breast and male patients with breast carcinoma excluded. Patients data was collected in standardised pro forma, which included age, socioeconomic status, level of education, duration of symptoms, detection of lump by the patient or medical practitioner into three class lower, middle and upper. The socioeconomic status defined by Kuppuswamy scale was used in this study. Literacy status classified into illiterate and educated, which is further classified into primary (I-IV, secondary (high school and higher secondary and higher education (graduate and above. RESULTS In our study, among 150 patients, 34% presented in early stage

  16. Socioeconomic and occupational risk factors for venous thromboembolism in Sweden: a nationwide epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate possible associations between hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and socioeconomic and occupational factors. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish census data to the Hospital Discharge Register (1990-2007). Hospital diagnoses of VTE were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 43063 individuals aged >20 years were hospitalised for VTE. Individuals with >12 years of education were at lower risk for VTE. Blue-collar workers, farmers, and non-employed individuals had higher risks for VTE, and white collar workers and professionals lower risks. In males and/or females, risks for VTE were increased for assistant nurses; farmers; miners and quarry workers; mechanics, iron and metalware workers; wood workers; food manufacture workers; packers; loaders and warehouse workers; public safety and protection workers; cooks and stewards; home helpers; building caretakers; and cleaners. Decreased risks were observed for technical, chemical, physical, and biological workers; physicians; dentists; nurses; other health and medical workers; teachers, religious, juridical, and other social science-related workers; artistic workers; clerical workers; sale agents; and fishermen, whalers and sealers. High educational level and several occupations requiring high levels of education were protective against VTE, while the risks for VTE were increased for farmers, blue-collar workers and non-employed individuals. The mechanisms are unknown but it might involve persistent psychosocial stress related to low socioeconomic and occupational status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Systems study 'Andere Entsorgung'. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, K.D.; Engelmann, H.J.; Fuerst, W.; Loser, H.; Mehling, O.; Motoi, V.; Papp, R.

    1984-12-01

    In the framework of a comparative assessment study the reference concept of direct Entsorgung was contrasted to Integrated Entsorgung (IE). The comparison was based on the following criteria: radiological safety and safeguards as well as economics and security of supply with uranium. Analyses of radiological and of long-term safety in the geologic repository did not yield a decisive advantage for either one of both fuel cycles. As to safeguarding a geologic repository for spent fuel some questions were left open. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal will remain superior in the foreseeable future. On the other hand, macro-economic impacts of Entsorgung are not easily quantifiable. If aspects such as preservation of technology and utilization of resources are stressed, fuel reprocessing has to be favored. These results lead to the conclusion that fuel reprocessing should be continued as a matter of priority; simultaneously, the direct disposal technology is to be brought to maturity. Later on, this Entsorgung option ought to complement fuel reprocessing. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Radioactivity studies. Progress report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1981-09-01

    The metabolism of 243 244 Cm in nine adult female baboons following intravenous injection was studied. Curium-243,244 was administered as a single injection of curium citrate in dosages of 0.053 to 0.220 μCi/kg. The behavior of 243 244 Cm at these low dosages was quantitated by external whole-body and partial-body counting, bioassay of blood, urine and feces samples, liver biopsies, and post-mortem tissues analysis. Curium-243,244 rapidly passed from the blood to other tissues. At 1 and 24 h after injection, the amounts circulating were 10% and 1%, respectively. At 24 h after injection 70% of the 243 244 Cm was located within soft tissues, probably associated with extracellular fluid; the liver alone contained 32% of the injected activity. During the first weeks the content of 243 244 Cm in soft tissues decreased sharply. As time progressed, significant deposition was noted in the liver and the skeleton. Approximately 20% of the injected activity was in the liver at 1 month with a 40 day half-time. The skeleton reached a maximum burden of 57% by 100 days; the half-time observed in bone was 4 to 16 y. During the first 24 h, 10% of the injected activity appeared in the urine decreasing to 0.1%/day at 30 days and 0.01%/day at 200 days. Fecal excretion increased reaching a maximum level at four weeks. The amount of 243 244 Cm excreted in the feces during the initial 4 to 5 months (approx. 20%) and the rate of elimination in the feces after the first month paralleled the retention in the liver indicating an hepatic-biliary-fecal pathway. A model illustrating the interaction of seven internal compartments with respect to the translocation kinetics of 243 244 Cm was derived based upon this data. Solutions of the model were derived for two specific time-related exposures

  19. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  20. A Flexible Socioeconomic Scenarios Framework for the Study of Plausible Arctic Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissell, A. K.; Peters, G. P.; Riahi, K.; Kroglund, M.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Nilsson, A. E.; Preston, B. L.; van Ruijven, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Future developments of the Arctic region are associated with different drivers of change - climate, environmental, and socio-economic - and their interactions, and are highly uncertain. The uncertainty poses challenges for decision-making, calling for development of new analytical frameworks. Scenarios - coherent narratives describing potential futures, pathways to futures, and drivers of change along the way - can be used to explore the consequences of the key uncertainties, particularly in the long-term. In a participatory scenarios workshop, we used both top-down and bottom-up approaches for the development of a flexible socioeconomic scenarios framework. The top-down approach was linked to the global Integrated Assessment Modeling framework and its Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), developing an Arctic extension of the set of five storylines on the main socioeconomic uncertainties in global climate change research. The bottom-up approach included participatory development of narratives originating from within the Arctic region. For extension of global SSPs to the regional level, we compared the key elements in the global SSPs (Population, Human Development, Economy & Lifestyle, Policies & Institutions, Technology, and Environment & Natural Resources) and key elements in the Arctic. Additional key elements for the Arctic scenarios include, for example, seasonal migration, the large role of traditional knowledge and culture, mixed economy, nested governance structure, human and environmental security, quality of infrastructure. The bottom-up derived results suggested that the scenarios developed independent of the SSPs could be mapped back to the SSPs to demonstrate consistency with respect to representing similar boundary conditions. The two approaches are complimentary, as the top-down approach can be used to set the global socio-economic and climate boundary conditions, and the bottom-up approach providing the regional context. One key uncertainty and

  1. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate. For boys, tobacco price was negatively associated with weekly smoking rates. This association did not significantly differ between low and high FAS. Levels of tobacco-dependence treatment were significantly associated with weekly smoking. This association varied between low and high FAS, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.

  3. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  4. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Design Population based cohort study. Setting England. Population More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Main outcome measures Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. Results One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Conclusions Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. PMID:29540358

  5. Who is eating where? Findings from the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women (SESAW) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie

    2011-03-01

    Foods prepared outside of the home have been linked to less-than-ideal nutrient profiles for health. We examine whether the locations where meals are prepared and consumed are associated with socio-economic predictors among women. A cross-sectional study using self-reported data. We examined multiple locations where meals are prepared and consumed: (i) at home; (ii) fast food eaten at home; (iii) fast food eaten at the restaurant; (iv) total fast food; (v) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at home; (vi) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at the restaurant; and (vii) all non-fast-food restaurant meals. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether frequent consumption of meals from these sources varied by level of education, occupation, household income and area-level disadvantage. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1328 women from forty-five neighbourhoods randomly sampled for the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women study. Those with higher educational qualifications or who were not in the workforce (compared with those in professional employment) were more likely to report frequent consumption of meals prepared and consumed at home. High individual- and area-level socio-economic characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of frequent consumption of fast food and a higher likelihood of frequent consumption of meals from non-fast-food sources. The strength and significance of relationships varied by place of consumption. The source of meal preparation and consumption varied by socio-economic predictors. This has implications for policy makers who need to continue to campaign to make healthy alternatives available in out-of-home food sources.

  6. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakou, Aimilia; Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-03-14

    To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Population based cohort study. England. More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Jokela, Markus; Avendaño, Mauricio; McCrory, Cathal; d'Errico, Angelo; Bochud, Murielle; Barros, Henrique; Costa, Giuseppe; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Delpierre, Cyrille; Gandini, Martina; Fraga, Silvia; Goldberg, Marcel; Giles, Graham G; Lassale, Camille; Kenny, Rose Anne; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Paccaud, Fred; Layte, Richard; Muennig, Peter; Marmot, Michael G; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Steptoe, Andrew; Shipley, Martin J; Zins, Marie; Mackenbach, Johan P; Vineis, Paolo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-03-23

    To assess the association of low socioeconomic status and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (diabetes, high alcohol intake, high blood pressure, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking) with loss of physical functioning at older ages. Multi-cohort population based study. 37 cohort studies from 24 countries in Europe, the United States, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, 1990-2017. 109 107 men and women aged 45-90 years. Physical functioning assessed using the walking speed test, a valid index of overall functional capacity. Years of functioning lost was computed as a metric to quantify the difference in walking speed between those exposed and unexposed to low socioeconomic status and risk factors. According to mixed model estimations, men aged 60 and of low socioeconomic status had the same walking speed as men aged 66.6 of high socioeconomic status (years of functioning lost 6.6 years, 95% confidence interval 5.0 to 9.4). The years of functioning lost for women were 4.6 (3.6 to 6.2). In men and women, respectively, 5.7 (4.4 to 8.1) and 5.4 (4.3 to 7.3) years of functioning were lost by age 60 due to insufficient physical activity, 5.1 (3.9 to 7.0) and 7.5 (6.1 to 9.5) due to obesity, 2.3 (1.6 to 3.4) and 3.0 (2.3 to 4.0) due to hypertension, 5.6 (4.2 to 8.0) and 6.3 (4.9 to 8.4) due to diabetes, and 3.0 (2.2 to 4.3) and 0.7 (0.1 to 1.5) due to tobacco use. In analyses restricted to high income countries, the number of years of functioning lost attributable to low socioeconomic status by age 60 was 8.0 (5.7 to 13.1) for men and 5.4 (4.0 to 8.0) for women, whereas in low and middle income countries it was 2.6 (0.2 to 6.8) for men and 2.7 (1.0 to 5.5) for women. Within high income countries, the number of years of functioning lost attributable to low socioeconomic status by age 60 was greater in the United States than in Europe. Physical functioning continued to decline as a function of unfavourable risk factors between ages 60 and 85. Years of functioning

  8. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonska Beata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Methods: Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. Results: The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend < 0.001. Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar a iniquidade econômica (absoluta e relativa decorrente da renda familiar na ocorrência de prematuros no Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foram realizados quatro estudos do tipo coorte de nascimentos nos anos de 1982, 1993, 2004 e 2011. A exposição principal foi a renda familiar mensal e o desfecho foi nascer prematuro. Foram calculadas as iniquidades através do slope index of inequality e o relative index of

  10. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  11. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  12. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ramírez-Hurtado

    Full Text Available The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work's specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market's potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country's socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization.

  13. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work’s specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market’s potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country’s socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization. PMID:29293596

  14. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Hurtado, José M; Berbel-Pineda, Juan M; Palacios-Florencio, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work's specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market's potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country's socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization.

  15. Surgical volume and conversion rate in laparoscopic hysterectomy: does volume matter? A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurentjes, José H M; Briët, Justine M; de Bock, Geertruida H; Mourits, Marian J E

    2018-02-01

    A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was conducted in the Netherlands. The aim was to evaluate whether surgical volume of laparoscopic hysterectomies (LHs) performed by proven skilled gynecologists had an impact on the conversion rate from laparoscopy to laparotomy. In 14 hospitals, all LHs performed by 19 proven skilled gynecologists between 2007 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Surgical volume, conversion rate and type of conversion (reactive or strategic) were retrospectively assessed. To estimate the impact of surgical volume on the conversion rate, logistic regressions were performed. These regressions were adjusted for patient's age, Body Mass Index (BMI), ASA classification, previous abdominal surgery and the indication (malignant versus benign) for the LH. During the study period, 19 proven skilled gynecologists performed a total of 1051 LHs. Forty percent of the gynecologists performed over 20 LHs per year (median 17.3, range 5.4-49.5). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in 5.0% of all LHs (53 of 1051); 38 (3.6%) were strategic and 15 (1.4%) were reactive conversions. Performing over 20 LHs per year was significantly associated with a lower overall conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.77), a lower strategic conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.65), but not with a lower reactive conversion rate (OR adjusted 0.96, 95% CI 0.33-2.79). A higher annual surgical volume of LHs by proven skilled gynecologists is inversely related to the conversion rate to laparotomy, and results in a lower strategic conversion rate.

  16. The association of cancer survival with four socioeconomic indicators: a longitudinal study of the older population of England and Wales 1981–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Harriet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found socioeconomic differentials in cancer survival. Previous studies have generally demonstrated poorer cancer survival with decreasing socioeconomic status but mostly used only ecological measures of status and analytical methods estimating simple survival. This study investigate socio-economic differentials in cancer survival using four indicators of socioeconomic status; three individual and one ecological. It uses a relative survival method which gives a measure of excess mortality due to cancer. Methods This study uses prospective record linkage data from The Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study for England and Wales. The participants are Longitudinal Study members, recorded at census in 1971 and 1981 and with a primary malignant cancer diagnosed at age 45 or above, between 1981 and 1997, with follow-up until end 2000. The outcome measure is relative survival/excess mortality, compared with age and sex adjusted survival of the general population. Relative survival and Poisson regression analyses are presented, giving models of relative excess mortality, adjusted for covariates. Results Different socioeconomic indicators detect survival differentials of varying magnitude and definition. For all cancers combined, the four indicators show similar effects. For individual cancers there are differences between indicators. Where there is an association, all indicators show poorer survival with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Cancer survival differs markedly by socio-economic status. The commonly used ecological measure, the Carstairs Index, is adequate at demonstrating socioeconomic differentials in survival for combined cancers and some individual cancers. A combination of car access and housing tenure is more sensitive than the ecological Carstairs measure at detecting socioeconomic effects on survival – confirming Carstairs effects where they occur but additionally identifying

  17. Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

    1992-08-01

    To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence of other sexually transmitted diseases. 1846 Ethiopian women, outpatient attenders at two teaching hospitals and a mother and child health centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Gynaecological outpatient department, antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinics. Sera were tested for type-specific anti-chlamydial antibodies using purified chlamydial antigens (C. trachomatis A-C (CTA-C), C. trachomatis D-K (CTD-K), Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV1-3), and C. pneumoniae (CPn)), in a micro-immunofluorescence test. The genital chlamydia seropositivity was analysed against patient's age, clinic attended, ethnic group, religion, origin of residence, age at first marriage and first coitus, income, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity, marital status/profession, obstetric and contraceptive history, and seropositivity for other sexually transmitted diseases. Overall exposure to chlamydia species was found in 84%, genital chlamydial infection in 62%, and titres suggestive of recent or present genital infection in 42% of those studied. Genital chlamydial infection was highest (64%) in family planning and lowest (54%) in antenatal clinic attenders. Exposure to genital chlamydia species was influenced by ethnic group and religion. Those married and sexually active under 13 years of age had greater exposure (69%) to genital chlamydial infection than those first sexually active aged over 18 (46%). Prevalence of infection was highest in those with more than five sexual partners (78%) and in bargirls (84%). The lowest income groups

  18. Mortality decrease according to socioeconomic groups during the economic crisis in Spain: a cohort study of 36 million people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Granados, José A Tapia; Viciana-Fernández, Francisco J; de la Fuente, Luis; Barrio, Gregorio

    2016-11-26

    Studies of the effect of macroeconomic fluctuations on mortality in different socioeconomic groups are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. We analyse mortality trends in Spain before and during the Great Recession in different socioeconomic groups, quantifying the change within each group. We did a nationwide prospective study, in which we took data from the 2001 Census. All people living in Spain on Nov 1, 2001, were followed up until Dec 31, 2011. We included 35 951 354 people alive in 2001 who were aged between 10 and 74 years in each one of the four calendar years before the economic crisis (from 2004 to 2007) and in each one of the first four calendar years of the crisis (from 2008 to 2011), and analysed all-cause and cause-specific mortality in those people. We classified individuals by socioeconomic status (low, medium, or high) using two indicators of household wealth: household floor space (104 m 2 ) and number of cars owned by the residents of the household (none, one, and two or more). We used Poisson regression to calculate the annual percentage reduction (APR) in mortality rates during 2004-07 (pre-crisis) and 2008-11 (crisis) in each socioeconomic group, as well as the effect size, measured by the APR difference between the pre-crisis and crisis period. The annual decline in all-cause mortality in the three socioeconomic groups was 1·7% (95% CI 1·2 to 2·1) for the low group, 1·7% (1·3 to 2·1) for the medium group, and 2·0% (1·4 to 2·5) for the high group in 2004-07, and 3·0% (2·5 to 3·5) for the low group, 2·8% (2·5 to 3·2) for the medium group, and 2·1% (1·6 to 2·7) for the high group in 2008-11 when individuals were classified by household floor space. The annual decline in all-cause mortality when people were classified by number of cars owned by the household was 0·3% (-0·1 to 0·8) for the low group, 1·6% (1·2 to 2·0) for the medium group, and 2·2% (1·6 to 2·8) for the high group in 2004-07, and 2·3% (1·8 to 2

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Does life-course socioeconomic position influence racial inequalities in the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Limas Irio Boclin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether life-course socioeconomic position mediates the association between skin color/race and occurrence of uterine leiomyomas. We analyzed 1,475 female civil servants with baseline data (1999-2001 of the Pró-Saúde Study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Life-course socioeconomic position was determined by parental education (early life socioeconomic position, participant education (socioeconomic position in early adulthood and their combination (cumulative socioeconomic position. Gynecological/breast exams and health insurance status were considered markers of access to health care. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with white women, black and parda (“brown” women had higher risk of reporting uterine leiomyomas, respectively HR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.2-2.1; HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 0.8-2.5. Estimates were virtually identical in models including different variables related to life-course socioeconomic position. This study corroborated previous evidence of higher uterine leiomyomas risk in women with darker skin color, and further suggest that life-course socioeconomic position adversity does not influence this association.

  1. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2 2010. 53 ... The use of motorcycles for urban passenger transport in Nigeria popularly called okada is a source of ..... Gap in Mexico Washington, DC: The World Bank. Becker, S. G. ...

  2. Transportation and socioeconomic impacts of bypasses on communities : an integrated synthesis of panel data, multilevel, and spatial econometric models with case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Title: Transportation and Socioeconomic Impacts of Bypasses on Communities: An Integrated Synthesis of Panel Data, Multilevel, and Spatial Econometric Models with Case Studies. The title used at the start of this project was Transportation and Soc...

  3. Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Scott, Jane A; Thomson, W Murray; Stamm, John W; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Wong, Ching; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John

    2014-05-06

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers' general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions such as overweight. It will lead to the

  4. Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children – a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. Methods/Design This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers’ general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. Discussion This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions

  5. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In

  6. The socioeconomic impact of a pediatric ostomy in Uganda: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzira, Arlene; Kakembo, Nasser; Kisa, Phyllis; Langer, Monica; Sekabira, John; Ozgediz, Doruk; Fitzgerald, Tamara N

    2018-04-01

    Multiple pediatric surgical conditions require ostomies in low-middle-income countries. Delayed presentations increase the numbers of ostomies. Patients may live with an ostomy for a prolonged time due to the high backlog of cases with insufficient surgical capacity. In caring for these patients in Uganda, we frequently witnessed substantial socioeconomic impact of their surgical conditions. The operative log at the only pediatric surgery referral center in Uganda was reviewed to assess the numbers of children receiving ostomies over a 3-year period. Charts for patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) were reviewed to assess delays in accessing care. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with family members of children with ostomies based on themes from discussions with the surgical and nursing teams. A pilot survey was developed based on these themes and administered to a sample of patients in the outpatient clinic. During the period of January 2012-December 2014, there was one specialty-certified pediatric surgeon in the country. There were 493 ostomies placed for ARM (n = 234), HD (N = 114), gangrenous ileocolic intussusception (n = 95) and typhoid-induced intestinal perforation (n = 50). Primary themes covered in the FGD were: stoma care, impact on caregiver income, community integration of the child, impact on family unit, and resources to assist families. Many patients with HD and ARM did not present for colostomy until after 1 year of life. None had access to formal ostomy bags. 15 caregivers completed the survey. 13 (86%) were mothers and 2 (13%) were fathers. Almost half of the caregivers (n = 7, 47%) stated that their spouse had left the family. 14 (93%) caregivers had to leave jobs to care for the stoma. 14 respondents (93%) reported that receiving advice from other caregivers was beneficial. The burden of pediatric surgical disease in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial with significant disparities

  7. How socioeconomic inequalities impact pathways of care for coronary artery disease among elderly patients: study protocol for a qualitative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sara L; Fink, Astrid; Schumann, Nadine; Moor, Irene; Plehn, Alexander; Richter, Matthias

    2015-11-09

    Several studies have identified that socioeconomic inequalities in coronary artery disease (CAD) morbidity and mortality lead to a disadvantage in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES). International studies have shown that socioeconomic inequalities also exist in terms of access, utilisation and quality of cardiac care. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide information on the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on the pathway of care for CAD, and to establish which factors lead to socioeconomic inequality of care to form and expand existing scientific theories. A longitudinal qualitative study with 48 patients with CAD, aged 60-80 years, is being conducted. Patients have been recruited consecutively at the University Hospital in Halle/Saale, Germany, and will be followed for a period of 6 months. Patients are interviewed two times face-to-face using semistructured interviews. Data are transcribed and analysed based on grounded theory. Only participants who have been informed and who have signed a declaration of consent have been included in the study. The study complies rigorously with data protection legislation. Approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany was obtained. The results of the study will be presented at several congresses, and will be published in high-quality peer-reviewed international journals. This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register and assigned DRKS00007839. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Equalisation of socioeconomic differences in injury risks at school age? A study of three age cohorts of Swedish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F

    2003-01-01

    Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers) with documented socioeconomic differences: injuries due to traffic, interpersonal violence, and self-infliction. The Relative Index of Inequality was used to measure the magnitude of relative socioeconomic differences, for each year of observation. Where...... the two older cohorts (10-14 and 15-19, in 1990). In conclusion, this study provides limited evidence of equalisation in injury risks between socioeconomic groups among Swedish adolescents. Equalisation appears to be a gender-specific phenomenon, that is, among girls, and manifests itself around the age...... culture effects-as hypothesised by West-is debatable, particularly in the case of self-inflicted injuries....

  9. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  10. Socioeconomic, remoteness and sex differences in life expectancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Gupta, Leena; Thackway, Sarah; Broome, Richard A

    2017-01-10

    Despite being one of the healthiest countries in the world, Australia displays substantial mortality differentials by socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and sex. In this study, we examined how these mortality differentials translated to differences in life expectancy between 2001 and 2012. Population-based study using mortality and estimated residential population data from Australia's largest state, New South Wales (NSW), between 2001 and 2012. Age-group-specific death rates by socioeconomic disadvantage quintile, remoteness (major cities vs regional and remote areas), sex and year were estimated via Poisson regression, and inputted into life table calculations to estimate life expectancy. Life expectancy decreased with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage in males and females. The disparity between the most and least socioeconomically deprived quintiles was 3.77 years in males and 2.39 years in females in 2012. Differences in life expectancy by socioeconomic disadvantage were mostly stable over time. Gender gaps in life expectancy ranged from 3.50 to 4.93 years (in 2012), increased with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage and decreased by ∼1 year for all quintiles between 2001 and 2012. Overall, life expectancy varied little by remoteness, but was 1.8 years higher in major cities compared to regional/remote areas in the most socioeconomically deprived regions in 2012. Socioeconomic disadvantage and sex were strongly associated with life expectancy. The disparity in life expectancy across the socioeconomic spectrum was larger in males and was stable over time. In contrast, gender gaps reduced for all quintiles between 2001 and 2012, and a remoteness effect was evident in 2012, but only for those living in the most deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Circumstances and the Co-Occurrence of Unhealthy Lifestyles: Evidence from 206,457 Australians in the 45 and Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles has tended to focus mainly upon the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. This study investigated the relevance of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance for multiple unhealthy lifestyles. Method An unhealthy lifestyle index was constructed for 206,457 participants in the 45 and Up Study (2006?2009) by summing binary responses on smoking, alcohol, physical activity and five diet-related variables. Higher...

  12. Socioeconomic differences in selected dietary habits among Norwegian 13–14 year-olds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene Skårdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social inequalities in health are a major and even growing problem in all European countries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe 1 differences in dietary habits among Norwegian adolescents by gender and socioeconomic status; 2 differences in self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines among their parents according to socioeconomic status. Design: In 2012, a cross-sectional study where students filled in a web-based food frequency questionnaire at school was conducted in nine lower secondary schools in Vest-Agder County, Norway. Socioeconomic status (SES and knowledge of dietary guidelines were obtained from the parents using a web-based questionnaire. In total, 517 ninth-grade students (mean age 13.9 out of 742 invited students participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 69.7%. The total number of dyads with information on both parents and students was 308 (41.5%. Results: The findings indicate that there is a tendency for girls to have a healthier diet than boys, with greater intake of fruits and vegetables (girls intake in median 3.5 units per day and boys 2.9 units per day, and lower intake of soft drinks (girls 0.25 l in median versus boys 0.5 l per week. Students from families with higher SES reported a significant higher intake of vegetables and fish, and lower intake of soft drinks and fast food than those from lower SES. Parents with higher SES reported a significantly better knowledge of dietary guidelines compared to those with lower SES. Conclusions: Differences in dietary habits were found between groups of students by gender and SES. Differences were also found in parents’ self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines. This social patterning should be recognized in public health interventions.

  13. The Socio-economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapulanga, M; Nzala, S; Mweemba, C

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Stroke, which affects mostly the productive age group, leaves about 65% of its victims disabled, leads to increased loss of manpower both at individual and national levels. Little is known about the socio-economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub-Sahara Africa region and Zambia at large. The study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic impact of stroke households in Livingstone district, Zambia. A total of 50 households were randomly selected from the registers of Livingstone General Hospital. Self-administered questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 (IBM Corporation) and content analysis. Chi-square test was used to make associations between variables. The social impacts on the victim were depression, difficult to get along with, resentfulness, apathy, needy, separation, divorce, general marital problems, neglect on the part of the victim and fear. The economic impacts were loss of employment, reduced business activity and loss of business on the part of the victim. Economic activities such as food provision, payment of school fees, accommodation were affected as a result of stroke and this led to financial insecurities in households with lost incomes in form of salaries and businesses. The activities forgone by stroke households were food provision, housing and education. The study also revealed an association between period of stroke and relationship changes (P < 0.001). Gender and family relationship changes were highly associated (P < 0.00), as more females than males experienced relationship changes. The results of the present study show that stroke has considerable socio-economic impact on households in Livingstone district, which can deter the victims' development as

  14. A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

  15. Socioeconomic status and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: data from the Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy C; Glynn, Robert J; Peña, Jessica M; Paynter, Nina P; Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M; Pradhan, Aruna D; Buring, Julie E; Albert, Michelle A

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) predicts incident type II diabetes (diabetes), a cardiovascular risk equivalent and burgeoning public health epidemic among women. Participants include 23,992 women with Hb(A1c) levels risk of diabetes decreased with increasing education (master's degree, and doctorate: 1.0, 0.7 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.6-0.8], 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7), 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.6), 0.4 (95% CI, 0.3-0.5); p(trend)risk factors attenuated this relationship (education: p(trend) = 0.96). Similar associations were observed between income categories and diabetes. Advanced education and increasing income were both inversely associated with incident diabetes even in this relatively well-educated cohort. This relationship was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly body mass index.

  16. Socioeconomic status and subclinical coronary disease in the Whitehall II epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Steptoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors in accounting for this association.CAC was assessed in 528 asymptomatic men and women aged 53-76 years, stratified into higher, intermediate and lower by grade of employment groups. Lifestyle (smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, biological (blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, inflammatory markers and psychosocial factors (work stress, financial strain, social support, depression, hostility, optimism were also measured. Detectable CAC was present in 293 participants (55.5%. The presence of calcification was related to lifestyle and biological risk factors, but not to grade of employment. But among individuals with detectable calcification, the severity of CAC was inversely associated with grade of employment (p = 0.010, and this relationship remained after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors. Compared with the higher grade group, there was a mean increase in log Agatston scores of 0.783 (95% C.I. 0.265-1.302, p = 0.003 in the intermediate and 0.941 (C.I. 0.226-1.657, p = 0.010 in the lower grade of employment groups, after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors.Low grade of employment did not predict the presence of calcification in this cohort, but was related to the severity of CAC. These findings suggest that lower SES may be particularly relevant at advanced stages of subclinical coronary artery disease, when calcification has developed.

  17. Socioeconomic status and subclinical coronary disease in the Whitehall II epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Katie; Venuraju, Shreenidhi; Marmot, Michael G; Lahiri, Avijit

    2010-01-25

    There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors in accounting for this association. CAC was assessed in 528 asymptomatic men and women aged 53-76 years, stratified into higher, intermediate and lower by grade of employment groups. Lifestyle (smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity), biological (blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, inflammatory markers) and psychosocial factors (work stress, financial strain, social support, depression, hostility, optimism) were also measured. Detectable CAC was present in 293 participants (55.5%). The presence of calcification was related to lifestyle and biological risk factors, but not to grade of employment. But among individuals with detectable calcification, the severity of CAC was inversely associated with grade of employment (p = 0.010), and this relationship remained after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors. Compared with the higher grade group, there was a mean increase in log Agatston scores of 0.783 (95% C.I. 0.265-1.302, p = 0.003) in the intermediate and 0.941 (C.I. 0.226-1.657, p = 0.010) in the lower grade of employment groups, after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, biological and psychosocial factors. Low grade of employment did not predict the presence of calcification in this cohort, but was related to the severity of CAC. These findings suggest that lower SES may be particularly relevant at advanced stages of subclinical coronary artery disease, when calcification has developed.

  18. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carratalà Jordi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (≤ primary level or ≥ secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ≤12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p

  19. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  20. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  1. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight), health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance. We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test). Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child. The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education) and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education). The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance. Children's school performance was affected only slightly by a

  2. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  3. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  4. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography

  5. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis

  6. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy

  7. Grid Connected Integrated Community Energy System. Volume 5. Institutional and socio-economic assessments. Final report: Phase I, February 1, 1977-May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Fuels for ICES (consisting of the University of Minnesota, St. Mary's and Fairview hospitals, Augsburg College, Northern States Power Company, some single family residential buildings, higher density apartments, small neighborhood commercial enterprises, and light and general manufacturing enterprises) will come from western coal mines and solid waste from the health care industry. In addition to lower fuel costs, economy of operation will be improved by one large central plant (2-combined plants) because of scale and electric generation. Utilization factor of the ICES plant will be 80% versus 50% utilization of a normal plant. Site development barriers and capacity land use, site development expansion and projections, central plant limits, health care and fuel supply projections, construction codes, regulatory agencies, socio-economics, and public relations are discussed.

  8. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and

  9. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95

  10. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Trine R; Jensen, Signe M; Kreiner, Svend; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-10-25

    Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors.The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times

  11. Socioeconomic position and work, travel, and recreation-related physical activity in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Munehiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2015-09-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between socioeconomic position and the domains of physical activity connected with work, travel, and recreation in Japanese adults. A total of 3269 subjects, 1651 men (mean ± standard deviation; 44.2 ± 8.1 years) and 1618 women (44.1 ± 8.1 years), responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Data on socioeconomic (household income, educational level) and demographic variables (age, size of household, and household motor vehicles) were obtained. To examine the associations between socioeconomic position and physical activity, logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) for "active" domains of physical activity. Men with a household income of ≥ 7 million yen had significantly lower work-related physical activity than the lowest income group (OR 0.51; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.75), but significantly greater travel-related (OR 1.37; 1.02-1.85), recreational (OR 2.00; 1.46-2.73) and total physical activity (OR 1.56; 1.17-2.08). Women with a household income of ≥ 7 million yen had significantly greater recreational physical activity (OR 1.43; 1.01-2.04) than the lowest income group. Their total physical activity was borderline significant, with slightly more activity in the high-income group (OR 1.36; 1.00-1.84), but no significant differences for work- and travel-related physical activity. Men with higher educational level (4-year college or higher degree) had significantly lower work-related (OR 0.62; 0.46-0.82), and greater travel-related physical activity (OR 1.33; 1.04-1.71) than the lowest educated group, but there were no significant differences in recreational and total physical activity. Women with a 4-year college or higher degree had significantly greater travel-related physical activity than the lowest educated group (OR 1.49; 1.12-1.97), but there were no significant differences in any other physical activity. There was no relation between

  12. Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Soga, Kay; Joshy, Grace; Calabria, Bianca; Attia, John; Wong, Deborah; Banks, Emily

    2016-11-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects disadvantaged people, but reliable quantitative evidence on socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence in Australia is lacking. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic variation in rates of primary and secondary CVD events in mid-age and older Australians. Baseline data (2006-2009) from the 45 and Up Study, an Australian cohort involving 267,153 men and women aged ≥ 45, were linked to hospital and death data (to December 2013). Outcomes comprised first event - death or hospital admission - for major CVD combined, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke, in those with and without prior CVD (secondary and primary events, respectively). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome in relation to education (and income and area-level disadvantage), separately by age group (45-64, 65-79, and ≥ 80 years), adjusting for age and sex, and additional sociodemographic factors. There were 18,207 primary major CVD events over 1,144,845 years of follow-up (15.9/1000 person-years), and 20,048 secondary events over 260,357 years (77.0/1000 person-years). For both primary and secondary events, incidence increased with decreasing education, with the absolute difference between education groups largest for secondary events. Age-sex adjusted hazard ratios were highest in the 45-64 years group: for major CVDs, HR (no qualifications vs university degree) = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.77) for primary events, and HR = 1.49 (1.34-1.65) for secondary events; myocardial infarction HR = 2.31 (1.87-2.85) and HR = 2.57 (1.90-3.47) respectively; stroke HR = 1.48 (1.16-1.87) and HR = 1.97 (1.42-2.74) respectively. Similar but attenuated results were seen in older age groups, and with income. For area-level disadvantage, CVD gradients were weak and non-significant in older people (> 64 years). Individual-level data are important for quantifying socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence, which

  13. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Fiona E; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Nierkens, Vera; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-05-06

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). Participants were 66,960 Dutch adults (≥ 18 years) who took part in the annual national Health Survey (2004-2011). Period was dichotomised: 'pre-' and 'during-GFC'. SES measures used were income, education and neighbourhood deprivation. Outcomes were current smoking rates (smokers/total population) and smoking cessation ratios (former smokers/ever smokers). Multilevel logistic regression models controlled for individual characteristics and tested for interaction between period and SES. In both periods, high SES respondents (in all indicators) had lower current smoking levels and higher cessation ratios than those of middle or low SES. Inequalities in current smoking increased significantly in poorly educated adults of 45-64 years of age (Odds Ratio (OR) low educational level compared with high: 2.00[1.79-2.23] compared to pre-GFC 1.67[1.50-1.86], p for interaction = 0.02). Smoking cessation inequalities by income in 18-30 year olds increased with borderline significance during the GFC (OR low income compared to high income: 0.73[0.58-0.91]) compared to pre-GFC (OR: 0.98[0.80-1.20]), p for interaction = 0.051). Overall, socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation were unchanged during the GFC. However, current smoking inequalities by education, and smoking cessation inequalities by income, increased in specific age groups. Increased financial strain caused by the crisis may disproportionately affect smoking behaviour in some disadvantaged groups.

  15. Assessing the Short-Term Global Health Experience: A Cross-Sectional Study of Demographics, Socioeconomic Factors, and Disease Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geen, Olivia; Pumputis, Allison; Kochi, Cristina; Costa, Andrew; Stobbe, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru. Descriptive analysis was conducted on clinic data collected from patients living in Pamplona Alta and Pamplona Baja, Lima, Peru, in July 2015. We found that volunteers encountered mainly female patients (70.8%), and that there were significant socioeconomic barriers to care including poverty, poor housing, environmental exposures, and lack of continuity of health care. Analysis of the disease prevalence found a high proportion of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in the adult populations (18.8% and 11.4%, respectively), and a high presentation of upper respiratory tract infections (25.4%) and parasites (22.0%) in the pediatric group. These findings can be used by future short-term medical service trips to address potential gaps in care including the organization of weekend clinics to allow access to working men, and the use of patient education and nonpharmacological management of acute and chronic disease.

  16. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  17. Socioeconomic status and impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits in Italy: results from the INHES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Bonanni, Americo; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-11-08

    There is lack of evidence about the likely impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits in Western societies. We aimed to assess dietary modifications that possibly occurred during the recession and to investigate major socioeconomic factors associated with such modifications. Cross-sectional analysis on 1829 subjects from the general population recruited in the larger INHES study (n = 9319) a telephone-based survey on nutrition and health conducted in Italy from 2010 to 2013. Association of socioeconomic (education, household income, occupation) with self-reported impact of the economic crisis on dietary habits was tested by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Low-educated subjects (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.39-3.80), those with poor income (OR = 5.71; 95% CI: 3.68-8.85), and unemployed (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.62-9.56) had higher odds of reporting undesirable dietary changes due to recession. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was lower in subjects reporting a negative impact of the crisis on diet as compared to those declaring no effect, whereas the quality of grocery items was higher in the latter. Undesirable dietary changes due to the economic crisis were mainly reported by lower socioeconomic groups. Subjects perceiving a negative impact of the recession on their diet also showed a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet and reduced quality of grocery products. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Klinthäll, Martin; Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems fro...

  19. Diet, physical activity and socio-economic disparities of obesity in Lebanese adults: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Marie Claire; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn; Tamim, Hani; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2015-03-21

    The prevalence of obesity within countries varies by gender, age, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Identification of behavioural factors that are associated with obesity within the country's context is critical for the development of effective public health programs which aim to prevent and manage obesity. The objective of this study was to assess age and gender differentials in the prevalence of obesity in Lebanon and examine correlates of obesity with a focus on socioeconomic disparities. Following the WHO STEPwise guidelines, a national survey was conducted in Lebanon in 2008-2009. Households were selected randomly from all Governorates based on stratified cluster sampling method. One adult aged 20 years and over was randomly selected from each household for the interview. Anthropometric measurements and 24 hour recall dietary intake were obtained. The final sample included 1244 men and 1453 women. Descriptive statistics were computed for BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between energy intake and obesity adjusted for relevant co-variables. The prevalence of obesity among Lebanese adults was 26.1%. Gender differences in obesity estimates were observed across age groups and the three obesity classes, with men showing higher prevalence rates at the younger age groups (20-49 years), and women showing higher prevalence rates in older age groups (50 years and above). Obesity showed significant associations with socio-economic status in women; it decreased with higher educational attainment (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.91), greater household assets (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.72) and lower crowding index (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), net of the effect of other co-variates. There was a significant positive association between obesity and energy intake in both genders, and a negative association between obesity and physical activity, significantly

  20. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  1. Bias with respect to socioeconomic status: A closer look at zip code matching in a pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Link-Gelles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 was introduced in the US for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Individual-level socioeconomic status (SES is a potential confounder of the estimated effectiveness of PCV13 and is often controlled for in observational studies using zip code as a proxy. We assessed the utility of zip code matching for control of SES in a post-licensure evaluation of the effectiveness of PCV13 (calculated as [1-matched odds ratio]*100. We used a directed acyclic graph to identify subsets of confounders and collected SES variables from birth certificates, geocoding, a parent interview, and follow-up with medical providers. Cases tended to be more affluent than eligible controls (for example, 48.3% of cases had private insurance vs. 44.6% of eligible controls, but less affluent than enrolled controls (52.9% of whom had private insurance. Control of confounding subsets, however, did not result in a meaningful change in estimated vaccine effectiveness (original estimate: 85.1%, 95% CI 74.8–91.9%; adjusted estimate: 82.5%, 95% CI 65.6–91.1%. In the context of a post-licensure vaccine effectiveness study, zip code appears to be an adequate, though not perfect, proxy for individual SES. Keywords: Socioeconomic status, PCV13, Pneumococcus, Pneumococcal vaccine, Vaccine effectiveness, Matched case-control

  2. Socioeconomic status and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: data from the Women's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We prospectively examined whether socioeconomic status (SES predicts incident type II diabetes (diabetes, a cardiovascular risk equivalent and burgeoning public health epidemic among women. METHODS: Participants include 23,992 women with Hb(A1c levels <6% and no CVD or diabetes at baseline followed from February 1993 to March 2007. SES was measured by education and income while diabetes was self-reported. RESULTS: Over 12.3 years of follow-up, 1,262 women developed diabetes. In age and race adjusted models, the relative risk of diabetes decreased with increasing education (<2 years of nursing, 2 to <4 years of nursing, bachelor's degree, master's degree, and doctorate: 1.0, 0.7 [95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.6-0.8], 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.6, 0.4 (95% CI, 0.3-0.5; p(trend<0.001. Adjustment for traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors attenuated this relationship (education: p(trend = 0.96. Similar associations were observed between income categories and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Advanced education and increasing income were both inversely associated with incident diabetes even in this relatively well-educated cohort. This relationship was largely explained by behavioral factors, particularly body mass index.

  3. Socioeconomic disparity in survival after breast cancer in ireland: observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Walsh

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer survival and deprivation using data from the Irish National Cancer Registry. Cause-specific survival was compared between five area-based socioeconomic deprivation strata using Cox regression. Patient and tumour characteristics and treatment were compared using modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Based on 21356 patients diagnosed 1999-2008, age-standardized five-year survival averaged 80% in the least deprived and 75% in the most deprived stratum. Age-adjusted mortality risk was 33% higher in the most deprived group (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45, P<0.001. The most deprived groups were more likely to present with advanced stage, high grade or hormone receptor-negative cancer, symptomatically, or with significant comorbidity, and to be smokers or unmarried, and less likely to have breast-conserving surgery. Cox modelling suggested that the available data on patient, tumour and treatment factors could account for only about half of the survival disparity (adjusted hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 0.97-1.43, P = 0.093. Survival disparity did not diminish over time, compared with the period 1994-1998. Persistent survival disparities among Irish breast cancer patients suggest unequal use of or access to services and highlight the need for further research to understand and remove the behavioural or other barriers involved.

  4. Relative health effects of education, socioeconomic status and domestic gender inequity in Sweden: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan P; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 773) we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women) and the work environment (for men) in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated.

  5. Relative health effects of education, socioeconomic status and domestic gender inequity in Sweden: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Phillips

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. METHODS: Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 773 we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women and the work environment (for men in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated.

  6. Neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years: A nationwide cohort study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Holzmann, Martin J; Ärnlöv, Johan; Wändell, Per; Gasevic, Danijela; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Objective We aimed to study the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and risk of ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years. Methods All individuals in Sweden were included if their 40th birthday occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorize neighborhood socioeconomic status into high, middle, and low and to retrieve information on incident ischemic strokes. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results A total of 1,153,451 adults (women 48.9%) were followed for a mean of 5.5 years (SD 3.5 years), during which 1777 (0.30%) strokes among men and 1374 (0.24%) strokes among women were recorded. After adjustment for sex, marital status, education level, immigrant status, region of residence, and neighborhood services, there was a lower risk of stroke in residents from high-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.96), and an increased risk of stroke in adults from low-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27), compared to their counterparts living in middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods. After further adjustment for hospital diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation prior to the age of 40, the higher risk in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status was attenuated, but remained significant (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.23). Conclusions In a nationwide study of individuals between 40 and 50 years, we found that the risk of ischemic stroke differed depending on neighborhood socioeconomic status, which calls for increased efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  7. Are there geographic and socio-economic differences in incidence, burden and prevention of malaria? A study in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike Nkem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale It is not clearly evident whether malaria affects the poor more although it has been argued that the poor bear a very high burden of the disease. This study explored the socioeconomic and geographic differences in incidence and burden of malaria as well as ownership of mosquito nets. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1657 respondents from rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria on: incidence of malaria, number of days lost to malaria; actions to treat malaria and household ownership of insecticide treated and untreated mosquito nets. Data was compared across socio-economic status (SES quartiles and between urban and rural dwellers. Results There was statistically significant urban-rural difference in malaria occurrence with malaria occurring more amongst urban dwellers. There was more reported occurrence of malaria amongst children and other adult household members in better-off SES groups compared to worse-off SES groups, but not amongst respondents. The average number of days that people delayed before seeking treatment was two days, and both adults and children were ill with malaria for about six days. Better-off SES quartile and urban dwellers owned more mosquito nets (p Conclusion Malaria occurs more amongst better-off SES groups and urban dwellers in southeast Nigeria. Deployment of malaria control interventions should ensure universal access since targeting the poor and other supposedly vulnerable groups may exclude people that really require malaria control services.

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Age Variations in Health-Related Quality of Life: Results From the National Health Measurement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, Dasha; Palta, Mari; Dunham, Nancy Cross; Feeny, David; Fryback, Dennis G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We examine whether multiple health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are stratified by socioeconomic status (SES) and age in the United States. Methods Data are from the 2005/2006 National Health Measurement Study, a telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We plot mean HRQoL scores by SES within age groups. Regression analyses test whether education, income, and assets each have independent associations with three “preference-based” HRQoL measures and self-rated health (SRH). We test whether these associations vary by age. Results There are SES disparities in HRQoL and SRH among adults in the United States at all age groups. Income differentials in HRQoL are strong across current adult age cohorts, except the 75–89 age cohort. Education and assets have statistically significant but weaker associations with HRQoL. All three SES measures are associated with SRH (net of each other) at every age group. Those in the lowest income and education groups in the 35–44 age cohort have worse HRQoL and SRH than those in higher SES groups in the 65+ age cohort. Discussion Significant improvements in HRQoL at the population level will only be possible if we improve the HRQoL of people at the lowest end of the socioeconomic distribution. PMID:19307286

  9. Socioeconomic status and treatment of depression during pregnancy: a retrospective population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gillian E; Park, Mina; Oberlander, Tim F

    2018-06-02

    Women at the lower end of the socioeconomic distribution have higher rates of depression in pregnancy; however, we know little about the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in determining their treatment. Herein, we investigate the relationships between income and the use of health services for depression in pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study using population-based administrative datasets included all women who delivered a live infant in the province of British Columbia, Canada (population of 4.3 million) between April 1st, 2000 and December 31st, 2009. We restricted to women with an indication of depression during pregnancy and examined their use of health services to treat depression by income quintile. Women in the highest income quintile were significantly more likely to see a psychiatrist for depression during pregnancy and to fill prescriptions for serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants than women in the lowest income quintile. Women at the lower end of the income distribution were more likely to have a GP visit for depression. Women at the low end of the income distribution were more likely to end up in hospital for depression or a mental health condition during pregnancy and more likely to receive a benzodiazepine and/or an antipsychotic medication. Our findings suggest a critical gap in access to health services for women of lower income suffering from depression during pregnancy, a time when proper access to effective treatment has the most potential to improve the long-term health of the developing child and the whole family unit.

  10. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Limited socioeconomic opportunities and Latina teen childbearing: a qualitative study of family and structural factors affecting future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Marchi, Kristen; Ralph, Lauren; Biggs, M Antonia; Combellick, Sarah; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D; Braveman, Paula

    2013-04-01

    The decrease in adolescent birth rates in the United States has been slower among Latinas than among other ethnic/racial groups. Limited research has explored how socioeconomic opportunities influence childbearing among Latina adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 65 pregnant foreign- and US-born Latina women (31 adolescents; 34 adults) in two California counties. We assessed perceived socioeconomic opportunities and examined how family, immigration and acculturation affected the relationships between socioeconomic opportunities and adolescent childbearing. Compared with women who delayed childbearing into adulthood, pregnant adolescents described having few resources for educational and career development and experiencing numerous socioeconomic and social barriers to achieving their goals. Socioeconomic instability and policies limiting access to education influenced childbearing for immigrant adolescents. In contrast, family disintegration tied to poverty figured prominently in US-born adolescents' childbearing. Limited socioeconomic opportunities may play a large role in persistently high pregnancy rates among Latina adolescents.

  12. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, C; Etches, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.

  13. Unhealthy lifestyles do not mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident depressive symptoms: the Health ABC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Koster, Annemarie; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Eijk, Jacques Th M; van Gool, Coen H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Harris, Tamara B; Rubin, Susan M; Pahor, Marco; Schulz, Richard; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Perry, Sara E; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is well described, also in older persons. Although studies have found associations between low SES and unhealthy lifestyle factors, and between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms, not much is known about unhealthy lifestyles as a potential explanation of socioeconomic differences in depressive symptoms in older persons. To study the independent pathways between SES (education, income, perceived income, and financial assets), lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity), and incident depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D 10] and reported use of antidepressant medication), we used 9 years of follow-up data (1997-2007) from 2,694 American black and white participants aged 70-79 years from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. At baseline, 12.1% of the study population showed prevalent depressive symptoms, use of antidepressant medication, or treatment of depression in the 5 years prior to baseline. These persons were excluded from the analyses. Over a period of 9 years time, 860 participants (31.9%) developed depressive symptoms. Adjusted hazard ratios for incident depressive symptoms were higher in participants from lower SES groups compared with the highest SES group. The strongest relationships were found for black men. Although unhealthy lifestyle factors were consistently associated with low SES, they were weakly related to incident depressive symptoms. Lifestyle factors did not significantly reduce hazard ratios for depressive symptoms by SES. In generally healthy persons aged 70-79 years, lifestyle factors do not explain the relationship between SES and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  15. Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nappi Correa

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the food vendor distribution profile of the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and investigate its association with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of different municipal regions. This descriptive, cross-sectional study obtained the location of food vendors from secondary data from different institutional sources. The density of different types of food vendors per 1,000 inhabitants in each municipal weighted area was calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the mean density of food vendors and the weighted income areas. The lowest-income regions had the lowest density of butchers, snack bars, supermarkets, bakeries/pastry shops, natural product stores, juice bars, and convenience stores. The identification of these areas may encourage the creation of public policies that facilitate healthy food startups and/or maintenance of healthy food vendors, especially in the lowest-income regions.

  16. Association of socioeconomic status with diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension in diabetic hypertensive individuals in Bangladesh: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosiur; H, Syed Emdadul; Islam, Md Jahirul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Saadat, Khandakar Asm

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine if socioeconomic status could affect the likelihood of diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension in diabetic hypertensive individuals. Cross-sectional nationally representative study. Bangladesh. This paper used data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 339 diabetes hypertensive individuals. Diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension. The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in diabetes individuals was 38.4% in the study population. Among diabetic hypertensive subjects only 65.7% had been diagnosed, 58.4% were receiving treatment and 42% controlled their hypertension. Individuals from high socioeconomic status (AOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.16-5.83) had an increased likelihood of reporting diagnosis of hypertension. Individuals from medium (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11-4.46) and high socioeconomic status (AOR 3.47; 95% CI 1.59-7.58) had increased chance of receiving treatment. In addition, individuals belonging to high socioeconomic status (AOR 2.53; 95% CI 1.14-5.63) were more likely to report of controlling hypertension. This study indicated that hypertension is more prevalent among diabetic patients. Furthermore, diabetic hypertensive patients from the low socioeconomic status group are also less likely to be diagnosed and also less likely to receive treatment for hypertension. In addition, diabetic hypertensive patients from the low socioeconomic status were less likely to control hypertension compared with an individual belonging to the high socioeconomic status group. This reduced likelihood of receiving proper treatment will lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among diabetic hypertensive patients.

  17. Free volume of cyanate resins studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Oshima, N.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ito, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The polymerization process of bisphenol-A dicyanate (BADCy) has been studied using a positron-annihilation lifetime technique (PAL). The polymerization was conducted at 150 deg C, and the process was followed by PAL. Seven kinds of samples with different curing times were also formed at 150 deg C, and the relation between the period of the curing time and the degree of polymerization was studied. It has been shown that the ο-Ps lifetime increases in samples with a higher polymerization than 85%, which is consistent with measurements of the specific volume of BADCy. (author)

  18. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  19. Sex-specific role of education on the associations of socioeconomic status indicators with obesity risk: A population-based study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin; Kim, Jaeyeun; Lim, Seung-Ji; Lee, Sunmi

    2018-01-01

    No study of obesity risk for people in developed countries has conducted a multi-dimensional analysis of the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. In this paper, we investigated if education functions as either a confounder or an effect modifier in the association of another socioeconomic status indicator with obesity. This cross-sectional study analyzed data of an adult population sample (10,905 men and 14,580 women) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2014). The study performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for three education levels and four indicators of socioeconomic status (i.e., marital status, residential area, occupation, and income). The overall prevalence of obesity was 38.1% in men and 29.1% in women (p status and obesity (p for interaction = 0.006), it functioned as both a confounder (p socioeconomic indicator groups in men; for example, in a rural resident group, a higher level of education increased the probability of being obese by 19.7%. The present study suggests the need to examine sex-specific studies regarding the role of education on the association between other socioeconomic status indicators and obesity. This should be considered in planning education policies to reduce the risk of obesity.

  20. Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinra, S; Johnson, M; Kulkarni, B; Rameshwar Sarma, K V; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Smith, G D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13-18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and childhood nutritional supplementation trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad in South India. Cross-sectional associations between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors were examined using linear regression models. The mean BMI was 16.7 kg/m(2) for boys and 17.8 kg/m(2) for girls. Socio-economic position was positively associated with fat mass index (0.15 kg/m(2); 95% CI: 0.05-0.25) and inversely associated with central-peripheral skinfold ratio (-0.04; 95% CI: -0.06 to -0.01) and, in boys, fasting triglycerides (-0.05; 95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01). Association of socio-economic position with other risk factors (blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, insulin and cholesterol) was weak and inconsistent, and did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, height, adiposity and nutrition supplementation. The study thus showed that lower socio-economic position may be associated with greater central adiposity and higher triglyceride levels in these settings. Socio-economic gradient in cardiovascular risk may strengthen in future with later economic and lifestyle changes. Cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should therefore focus on the youth from the low income group. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Jonsson

    Full Text Available While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low in adolescence (age 16 were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual was measured using the participant's own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068 which was partially explained by people's own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an

  2. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Claire L; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Scott, David; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Prior, Lindsay; Cupples, Margaret E

    2014-05-23

    There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such 'hard-to-reach' population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents' and community leaders' perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an 'exit strategy' were perceived as important factors

  3. Psychosocial functioning and intelligence both partly explain socioeconomic inequalities in premature death. A population-based male cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Falkstedt

    Full Text Available The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence.The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949-1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35-39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers.The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20-45% and 41% (29-52% after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24-76% and 52% (35-68% after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8-59%. Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence.Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic status and cause of death. Both

  4. The Effect of Individual Factors, Socioeconomic and Social Participation on Individual Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Maryam; Mohamadian, Fathola; Ghajarieah, Mozhgan; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Happiness and exhilaration are the most essential demands of human innate psychological needs that affect both physical and mental health. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of individual factors, socioeconomic and social participation on individual happiness. In this study, we evaluated 15 to 54-year-old individuals to find the effects of individual factors, socioeconomic and social partnership (formal or informal) on human happiness. A random sampling method was used in the present study. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics including; frequency, percentage, Mean±SD. Correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA and logistic regression were also used as analytical statistics. There was a significant relationship between gender (p=0.001, r=0.144), marital status (p=0.001, r=0.174), happy parents (p=0.001, r=0.194), educational grade (p=0.001, r=0.189), employment status (p=0.001, r=0.180), income (p=0.001, r=0.264), car ownership (p=0.001, r=0.173), informal social participation (p=0.001, r=0.3) and formal social participation (p=0.001, r=0.231) with happiness. However, the relationship between home ownership (p=0.346, r=-0.015), and happiness was not significant. It seems that good and cordial relations with others, including family, relatives and friends (informal social participation) are the main sources and the most important factors of life satisfaction and human happiness. Higher income can increase happiness by enhancing the possibility to access the needs, desires, problems solving, enhancing the social support and self esteem and opportunities to perform one's favourite activities.

  5. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial — A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA, but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years, in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED, low (LIPA, and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%, and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46–0.82, from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39–0.72. Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348 and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min, and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min−1 × kg−1 than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  6. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K A; Dundas, R; Miller, M; McCartney, G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose-response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  7. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main

  8. Is personality a driving force for socioeconomic differences in young adults' health care use? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Maren; Arts, Koos; Traag, Tanja; Otten, Ferdy; Bosma, Hans

    2017-09-01

    To relate personality characteristics at the age of 12 to socioeconomic differences in health care use in young adulthood. And thereby examining the extent to which socioeconomic differences in the use of health care in young adulthood are based on differences in personality characteristics, independent of the (parental) socioeconomic background. Personality of more than 13,000 Dutch 12-year old participants was related to their health and socioeconomic position after a follow-up of 13 years (when the participants had become young adults). In young adulthood, low socioeconomic status was related to high health care use (e.g. low education -hospital admission: OR = 2.21; low income -GP costs: OR = 1.25). Odds ratios (for the socioeconomic health differences) did not decrease when controlled for personality. In this Dutch sample of younger people, personality appeared not to be a driving force for socioeconomic differences in health care use. Findings thus do not support the personality-related, indirect selection perspective on the explanation of socioeconomic differences in health.

  9. Effect of socioeconomic status on mortality after bacteremia in working-age patients. A Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality.......To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality....

  10. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 2. Annotated bibliography for OCS oil and gas impact studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The volume is the second of two volumes to the final report, Potential Impacts of OCS Oil and Gas Activities on Fisheries. The volume presents an annotated bibliography of published and grey literature related to OCS oil and gas activity impacts of finfish and shellfish in marine and estuaring waters. The studies presented in the bibliography include those related to the following pollutants or impact-causing activities: Rig/reef effects, Drilling discharges (muds or cuttings), Oil (petroleum hydrocarbons), Trace metals, Produced water, Habitat alteration, Debris, Rig placement (avoidance), Pipelines, and Socioeconomic effects. The studies are listed alphabetically by the primary author's last name. An index is provided to help the reader identify studies related to a specific impact

  11. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  12. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  13. Prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in relation to job description and socioeconomic status: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Patrick J; Swift, Steven E; O'Boyle, Amy L; Valley, Michael T; Bland, Deirdre R; Kahn, Margie A; Schaffer, Joseph I

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if certain occupations or socioeconomic levels are associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Investigators at six American sites performed pelvic organ prolapse quantification examinations on women presenting for routine gynecologic care. Between September 1999 and March 2002, 1,004 patients were examined. Severe pelvic organ prolapse was defined as the leading edge being 1 cm or more beyond the hymeneal ring. The data was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Bonferroni test, multiple logistic regression, and descriptive statistics. The prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in our group was 4.3%. Women who were laborers/factory workers had significantly more severe prolapse than the other job categories (p 30, and smoking status (all p jobs and an annual household income of Dollars 10,000 or less are associated with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

  14. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  15. Temporal trends in the association between socioeconomic status and cancer survival in Ontario: a population-based retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbikeh, Andrew; Peng, Yingwei; Mackillop, William J.; Booth, Christopher M.; Zhang-Salomons, Jina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer survival is known to be associated with socioeconomic status. The income gap between the richer and poorer segments of the population has widened over the last 20 years in Canada. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal trends in disparities in cancer-specific survival related to socioeconomic status in Ontario. Methods: There were 920 334 cancer cases between 1993 and 2009 in the Ontario Cancer Registry. We linked median household income from the Canadian census to the registry. We calculated 5-year cancer-specific survival rates for all cancers combined and for specific cancer sites by socioeconomic status quintile and year of diagnosis, and modelled time to death using Cox regression. Results: Between 1993 and 2009, for all cancers combined, the hazard of death decreased by 3.1% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.969 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.967-0.971]) per year in the richest quintile and by 1.2% (HR 0.988 [95% CI 0.987-0.990]) per year in the poorest quintile. The corresponding values for breast cancer were 4.3% (HR 0.957 [95% CI 0.951-0.964]) and 2.0% (HR 0.980 [95% CI 0.975-0.986]); for lung cancer, 1.4% (HR 0.986 [95% CI 0.982-0.990]) and 0.3% (HR 0.997 [95% CI 0.995-1.000]); for colorectal cancer, 3.7% (HR 0.963 [95% CI 0.958-0.968]) and 1.8% (HR 0.982 [95% CI 0.978-0.985]); and for head and neck cancer, 3.1% (HR 0.969 [95% CI 0.958-0.979]) and 1.0% (HR 0.990 [95% CI 0.983-0.996]). Interpretation: Between 1993 and 2009, cancer-specific survival in Ontario improved more among patients from affluent communities than among those from poorer communities. This phenomenon cannot be explained by increased disparity in income. PMID:28877916

  16. Maternal age, education level and migration: socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce

    2010-06-09

    Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

  17. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  18. Development of predictions of future pollution problems. Socio-economic environmental studies series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, J.E.; Reimers, R.S.

    1974-03-01

    The report describes the results of a program to identify, rank and project short- and intermediate-term future pollution problems. Identification was accomplished using three independent search approaches based on industrial production, environmental, and societal trends and activity. Primary emphasis was placed on the environmental trends as gleaned from EPA, Battelle, Literature, and other sources. An initial list of problems was compiled with specific stressors identified with each. Nine ranking factors were devised to select ten most serious problems from the initial list. The factors included: persistence; mobility/pervasiveness; environmental, technological, social, and political complexity; physiological risk; research needs; and bulk or volume of the pollutant. The ten problems selected by this method were further ranked in order of relative importance. The ten selected problems in rank order are as follows: (1) Impacts of new energy initiatives; (2) Geophysical modifications of the earth; (3) Trace element (metal) contaminants; (4) Proliferating hazardous and toxic chemicals; (5) Emissions from new automobile fuels, additives, and control devices; (6) Disposal of waste sludges, liquids, and solid residues; (7) Critical radiation problems; (8) Fine particulates; (9) Expanding drinking water contamination; (10) Irrigation (impoundment) practices. Five to ten year projections were made of the ten problems which resulted

  19. Contribution of lifetime smoking habit in France and Northern Ireland to country and socioeconomic differentials in mortality and cardiovascular incidence: the PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W G; Patterson, C C; Arveiler, D; Amouyel, P; Ferrières, J; Woodside, J V; Haas, B; Montaye, M; Ruidavets, J B; Kee, F; Evans, A; Bingham, A; Ducimetière, P

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the contribution of lifetime smoking habit to the socioeconomic gradient in all-cause and smoking-related mortality and in cardiovascular incidence in two countries. 10,600 men aged 50-59 years were examined in 1991-4 in centres in Northern Ireland and France and followed annually for 10 years. Deaths and cardiovascular events were documented. Current smoking habit, lifetime smoking (pack-years) and other health behaviours were evaluated at baseline. As socio-occupational coding schemes differ between the countries seven proxy socioeconomic indicators were used. Lifetime smoking habit showed marked associations with most socioeconomic indicators in both countries, but lifetime smoking was more than 10 pack-years greater overall in Northern Ireland and smoking patterns differed. Total mortality was 49% higher in Northern Ireland than in France, and smoking-related mortality and cardiovascular incidence were 93% and 92% higher, respectively. Both lifetime smoking and fibrinogen contributed independently to these differentials, but together explained only 42% of the difference in total mortality between countries, adjusted for both biological and lifestyle confounders. Socioeconomic gradients were steeper for total and smoking-related mortality than for cardiovascular incidence. Residual contributions of lifetime smoking habit ranged from 6% to 34% for the seven proxy indicators of socioeconomic position for total and smoking-related mortality. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular incidence were minimal following adjustment for confounders. In Northern Ireland and France lifetime smoking appeared to explain a significant part of the gradients in total and smoking-related mortality between socioeconomic groups, but the contribution of smoking was generally small for cardiovascular incidence.

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  1. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Bowers, H.I.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study

  2. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  3. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on screening for cardiovascular disease risk in a primary prevention population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah-Jane; Abel, Gary A; Mant, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky

    2016-03-21

    Investigate the association between socioeconomic deprivation and completeness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor recording in primary care, uptake of screening in people with incomplete risk factor recording and with actual CVD risk within the screened subgroup. Cross-sectional study. Nine UK general practices. 7987 people aged 50-74 years with no CVD diagnosis. CVD risk was estimated using the Framingham equation from data extracted from primary care electronic health records. Where there was insufficient information to calculate risk, patients were invited to attend a screening assessment. Proportion of patients for whom clinical data were sufficiently complete to enable CVD risk to be calculated; proportion of patients invited to screening who attended; proportion of patients who attended screening whose 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event was high (>20%). For each outcome, a set of logistic regression models were run. Crude and adjusted ORs were estimated for person-level deprivation, age, gender and smoking status. We included practice-level deprivation as a continuous variable and practice as a random effect to account for clustering. People who had lower Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) scores (less deprived) had significantly worse routine CVD risk factor recording (adjusted OR 0.97 (0.95 to 1.00) per IMD decile; p=0.042). Screening attendance was poorer in those with more deprivation (adjusted OR 0.89 (0.86 to 0.91) per IMD decile; p20% (OR 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15) per IMD decile; p=0.004). Our data suggest that those who had the most to gain from screening were least likely to attend, potentially exacerbating existing health inequalities. Future research should focus on tailoring the delivery of CVD screening to ensure engagement of socioeconomically deprived groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikuya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school.The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval. The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year; 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report.For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems.In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these

  5. Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2018-01-01

    Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school. The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval). The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year) and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year); 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education) and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report. For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems). Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems. In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these associations could

  6. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  7. Clinical associations of total kidney volume: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Daniel A; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Chuang, Michael L; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Fox, Caroline S

    2017-08-01

    Total kidney volume (TKV) is an imaging biomarker that may have diagnostic and prognostic utility. The relationships between kidney volume, renal function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been characterized in a large community-dwelling population. This information is needed to advance the clinical application of TKV. We measured TKV in 1852 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 64.1 ± 9.2 years, 53% women) using magnetic resonance imaging. A healthy sample was used to define reference values. The associations between TKV, renal function and CVD risk factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, mean TKV was 278 ± 54 cm3 for women and 365 ± 66 cm3 for men. Risk factors for high TKV (>90% healthy referent size) were body surface area (BSA), diabetes, smoking and albuminuria, while age, female and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) kidney damage including albuminuria and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while high TKV is associated with diabetes and decreased odds of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies are needed to characterize the natural progression and clinical consequences of TKV. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  9. Delivery of tidal volume from four anaesthesia ventilators during volume-controlled ventilation: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, G; Bonnet, A; Guérin, C

    2013-06-01

    Tidal volume (V(T)) must be accurately delivered by anaesthesia ventilators in the volume-controlled ventilation mode in order for lung protective ventilation to be effective. However, the impact of fresh gas flow (FGF) and lung mechanics on delivery of V(T) by the newest anaesthesia ventilators has not been reported. We measured delivered V(T) (V(TI)) from four anaesthesia ventilators (Aisys™, Flow-i™, Primus™, and Zeus™) on a pneumatic test lung set with three combinations of lung compliance (C, ml cm H2O(-1)) and resistance (R, cm H2O litre(-1) s(-2)): C60R5, C30R5, C60R20. For each CR, three FGF rates (0.5, 3, 10 litre min(-1)) were investigated at three set V(T)s (300, 500, 800 ml) and two values of PEEP (0 and 10 cm H2O). The volume error = [(V(TI) - V(Tset))/V(Tset)] ×100 was computed in body temperature and pressure-saturated conditions and compared using analysis of variance. For each CR and each set V(T), the absolute value of the volume error significantly declined from Aisys™ to Flow-i™, Zeus™, and Primus™. For C60R5, these values were 12.5% for Aisys™, 5% for Flow-i™ and Zeus™, and 0% for Primus™. With an increase in FGF, absolute values of the volume error increased only for Aisys™ and Zeus™. However, in C30R5, the volume error was minimal at mid-FGF for Aisys™. The results were similar at PEEP 10 cm H2O. Under experimental conditions, the volume error differed significantly between the four new anaesthesia ventilators tested and was influenced by FGF, although this effect may not be clinically relevant.

  10. Socioeconomic position and variations in coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study of 1,287 40- and 50-year-old men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socioeconomic position and coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40- and 50-year-old Danes, participation rate 69%, n=7,125. The study included 1,287 persons who reported functional...... position, measured by occupational social class. RESULTS: Among women, there was no correlation between social class and avoidant coping, but a significant decrease in the use of problem-solving coping by decreasing social class, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.64 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1...... for clinicians who advise and support patients in their response to musculoskeletal pain to be aware of socioeconomic differences in coping strategies. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic factors and coping should be further investigated....

  11. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  12. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  13. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Benzeval

    Full Text Available There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students. The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  14. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRACTICE AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: comparative study of children and adolescents of the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cezar Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify possible differences in the levels of physical activity related to the socio-economic conditions of schoolchildren in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul-RS. It is of transversal-descriptive character, and its subjects are 350 schoolchildren, aged 7 to 17, of both genders. For data collection a previously validated and adapted questionnaire was used, while the chi-quadrat-test was used for statistical analysis. Significant statistical differences were detected in the manner of locomotion, with regard to the school level and socio-economic status, for both genders. The results showed that students from urban areas and of inferior socio-economic levels showed more active in this respect. In the practice of physical activities, the results pointed to a reverse relation of this variable with the socio-economic level. At school level, a prevalence of inactive subjects from the rural area was observed. The difference in the form of locomotion and the physical activities of the evaluated schoolchildren, both at school level and at their socio-economic level, demonstrates different profiles of schoolchildren, which should be considered in future intervention programs.

  15. Social context of neighborhood and socioeconomic status on leisure-time physical activity in a Brazilian urban center: The BH Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Goston, Janaína Lavalli; César, Cibele Comini; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Diez Roux, Ana V; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and investigate its association with contextual characteristics of the social and physical environment in different socioeconomic statuses, using a household survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (2008-2009). Leisure-time physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and the social and physical environment by scales arising from perception of neighborhood attributes. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each socioeconomic status stratum. The overall prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was 30.2%, being 20.2% amongst participants of low socioeconomic status, 25.4% in the medium and 40.6% in the high socioeconomic status group. A greater perception of social cohesion was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity only amongst participants of the lowest socioeconomic status even after adjusting for individual characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of social cohesion for the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in economically disadvantaged groups, supporting the need to stimulate interventions for enhancing social relationships in this population.

  16. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  17. Laser fusion study. Final report, volume I, study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to devise, evaluate, and conceptually design a complete, end-to-end, alignment system capable of handling 30 to 32 Shiva amplifier chains to specified accuracies in space and time. A secondary goal was to accomplish the primary goal with an acceptably low development and procurement cost and with an acceptably high day-after-day performance reliability. This report presents such a system: it is comprised of sensors, actuating mechanisms, controls, and displays that perform well within the current art-state. (U.S.)

  18. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  19. Hierarchical Linear Modelling of Sixth-Grade Students' Socio-Economic Status and School Factors on Mathematics Achievement: Case Studies of Kenya and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Ayieko, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic status, school-level variables and mathematics achievement of sixth graders in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The study is based on secondary data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ III). SACMEQ employed cluster-sampling procedures…

  20. Work characteristics, socioeconomic position and health: a systematic review of mediation and moderation effects in prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Hanno; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    Social inequalities in health persist in modern societies. The contribution of adverse work and employment conditions towards their explanation is analysed by two approaches, mediation and moderation. Yet the relative significance of each approach remains unclear in respective research. We set out to study this question by conducting a systematic literature review. We included all original papers based on prospective observational studies of employed cohorts that were published between January 1980 and October 2012 meeting our search criteria, by using major databases and by observing established quality criteria. 26 reports were included after quality assessment. 17 studies examined the mediation hypothesis and nine studies tested the moderation hypothesis. Moderate support was found for the mediation hypothesis where OR or HR of health according to socioeconomic position (SEP) were reduced in a majority of analyses after introducing work characteristics in multivariate models. Evidence in favour of the moderation hypothesis was found in some studies, demonstrating stronger effects of adverse work on health among people with low SEP. Despite some support in favour of the two hypotheses future research should aim at reducing the heterogeneity in defining and measuring core variables and at applying advanced statistical analyses. Policy recommendations would benefit from a higher degree of consistency of respective research evidence.

  1. Participation in population-based case-control studies: does the observed decline vary by socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Marie; Bailey, Helen D; Heiden, Tamika; Armstrong, Bruce K; de Klerk, Nicholas; Milne, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    An Australian study of childhood leukaemia (Aus-ALL) previously reported that control participation was positively associated with socio-economic status (SES). A similar study of childhood brain tumours (Aus-CBT) was carried out 4 years later, and this paper compares control participation and its relationship with SES in the two studies. To assess the representativeness of controls in terms of SES, the addresses of controls were linked to Australian Bureau of Statistics Census 2006 Collection Districts (CDs), and hence to area-based indices of SES. Independent sample t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to compare the SES indices of CDs where Aus-CBT controls lived with those where Aus-ALL controls lived and with those of all CDs where Australian families lived. The overall percentage of eligible families who agreed to participate was lower in Aus-CBT (53.9%) than in Aus-ALL (70.3%). Control families in both studies were of higher SES than the general population, while the distribution of SES among recruited controls was similar in both studies. These findings provide some reassurance that the observed decline in research participation over time may not be associated with an increasingly unrepresentative participant population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A Comparative Study of Clear Corneal Phacoemulsification with Rigid IOL Versus SICS; the Preferred Surgical Technique in Low Socio-economic group Patients of Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, Jaya; Agarwal, Smita; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Low socio-economic group patients from rural areas often opt for free cataract surgeries offered by charitable organisations. SICS continues to be a time tested technique for cataract removal in such patients. In recent times, camp patients are sometimes treated by clear corneal phacoemulsification with implantation of a rigid IOL, which being more cost effective is often provided for camp patients. This study was undertaken to find out which surgical technique yielded better outcomes and was more suited for high volume camp surgery. To find the better surgical option- phacoemulsification with rigid IOL or SICS, in poor patients from rural areas. A prospective randomised controlled trial of cataract patients operated by two different techniques. One hundred and twelve eyes were selected and were randomly allocated into two groups of 56 eyes each. At completion of the study, data was analysed for 52 eyes operated by clear corneal phacoemulsification and implantation of a rigid IOL, and 56 eyes operated by SICS. Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p- value. The results were evaluated on the following criteria. The mean post-operative astigmatism at the end of four weeks - was significantly higher in phacoemulsification group as compared to SICS group The BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) at the end of four weeks - was comparable in both groups. Subjective complaints and/ or complications: In phaco group two patients required sutures and seven had striate keratitis , while none in SICS group. Complaint of irritation was similar in both groups. Surgical time- was less for SICS group as compared to phaco group. SICS by virtue of being a faster surgery with more secure wound and significantly less astigmatism is a better option in camp patients from rural areas as compared to phacoemulsification with rigid IOL.

  3. School Performance : A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent

  4. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent

  5. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël

    2015-01-01

    Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory

  6. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline...

  7. A social work study on socio-economic and cultural factors influencing on community

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Mostafa Rajabi; Allahyar Arabmomeni; Akram Fakhri Fakhramini; Mina Shirvani

    2013-01-01

    We present a study to investigate the impacts of four factors on contribution role on society among Arab tribes Jarghoyeh women who live in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire, distributes them among 400 women, and analyzes their feedbacks. There are four hypotheses, which study the effects of various factors on women’s contribution role on society. These factors include educational background, level of welfare, numbers of children and ties of kinship. The results show that while educatio...

  8. Ancestry, Socioeconomic Status, and Age-Related Cataract in Asians: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Koh, Jia Yu; Tan, Ava Grace; Zhao, Wanting; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of age-related cataract and its ancestral and socioeconomic risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays, and 3400 Indians) aged >40 years in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Study participants were invited for a structured interview and received a standardized comprehensive eye examination. Digital lens photographs were taken from eyes of each participant and graded for nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract, following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Prevalence data were compared with the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) in Australia. Information on medical and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires and blood samples. To increase the precision of racial definition, genetic ancestry was derived from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers using principal component analysis. Regression models were used to investigate the association of cataract with socioeconomic factors (education and income) and genetic ancestry. Age-related cataract. A total of 8750 participants (94.0%) had gradable lens photographs. The age-standardized prevalence of cataract surgery in Chinese (16.0%), Malays (10.6%), and Indians (20.2%) was higher than in white subjects (4.1%). We found the age-standardized cataract prevalence in Chinese (30.4%), Malays (37.8%), and Indians (33.1%) was higher than in whites (18.5%). Cataract was 1.5 to 2 times more common in Asians and began 10 years earlier than in white subjects. Malays had significantly higher age-standardized prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and PSC cataract than Chinese (PChinese and Indians but not Malays. The presence of visual impairment associated with cataract was higher in people aged ≥60 years and Malays. We showed that people of different Asian ethnicities had a higher prevalence and earlier age of onset of cataract than Europeans. People

  9. Psychosocial Factors in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Cardiometabolic Risk: the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Penedo, Frank; Roesch, Scott C; Isasi, Carmen R; Carnethon, Mercedes; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Schneiderman, Neil; Gonzalez, Patricia; Chirinos, Diana A; Camacho, Alvaro; Teng, Yanping; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    U.S. Hispanics/Latinos display a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a group of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure) associated with higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk for MetSyn in Hispanics/Latinos, and psychosocial factors may play a role in this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors in the association of SES and MetSyn components in 4,996 Hispanic/Latino adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetSyn components were measured at the baseline examination. Participants completed interviews to determine psychosocial risks (e.g., depression) and resources (e.g., social support) within 9 months of baseline (psychosocial indicators, and three factors for MetSyn [blood pressure, lipids, metabolic factors]. SEMs showed that lower SES was related to MetSyn factors indirectly through higher psychosocial risk/lower resources (Y-Bχ 2 (df = 420) = 4412.90, p psychosocial risk/resource variables (Mackinnon's 95% asymmetric CI = -0.13 to -0.02). SES is related to metabolic variables indirectly through psychosocial factors in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of diverse ancestries.

  10. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K A; Nicholls, N; Macdonald, S; Dundas, R; Douglas, G V A

    2015-03-01

    This study examined urban-rural and socioeconomic differences in adolescent toothbrushing. The data were modelled using logistic multilevel modelling and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method of estimation. Twice-a-day toothbrushing was regressed upon age, family affluence, family structure, school type, area-level deprivation and rurality, for boys and girls separately. Boys' toothbrushing was associated with area-level deprivation but not rurality. Variance at the school level remained significant in the final model for boys' toothbrushing. The association between toothbrushing and area-level deprivation was particularly strong for girls, after adjustment for individuals' family affluence and type of school attended. Rurality too was independently significant with lower odds of brushing teeth in accessible rural areas. The findings are at odds with the results of a previous study which showed lower caries prevalence among children living in rural Scotland. A further study concluded that adolescents have a better diet in rural Scotland. In total, these studies highlight the need for an examination into the relative importance of diet and oral health on caries, as increases are observed in population obesity and consumption of sugars. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Mayasandra S; Nagendra, Hongasandra; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga, compared to physical activity on the cognitive performance in 7-9 year-old schoolchildren from a socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Two hundred (200) schoolchildren from Bangalore, India, after baseline assessment of cognitive functioning were randomly allocated to either a yoga or a physical-activity group. Cognitive functions (attention and concentration, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal ability, and abstract thinking) were assessed using an Indian adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at baseline, after 3 months of intervention, and later at a 3-month follow-up. Of the 200 subjects, 193 were assessed at 3 months after the study, and then 180 were assessed at the 3-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between the two study groups (yoga versus physical activity) at postintervention, after controlling for grade levels. Improvement in the mean scores of cognitive tests following intervention varied from 0.5 (Arithmetic) to 1.4 (Coding) for the yoga group and 0.7 (Arithmetic) to 1.6 (Vocabulary) in the physical-activity group. Yoga was as effective as physical activity in improving cognitive performance in 7-9 year old schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to examine the dose-response relationship between yoga and cognitive performance.

  12. Socioeconomic correlates of drug use based on prescription data: a population-based cross-sectional register study in Denmark 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens T; Olesen, Anne V; Bøggild, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    with slightly more male top managers using cardiovascular drugs. People in the upper half of the socioeconomic scale were somewhat less likely to redeem prescriptions for treating muscle, joints and bone, and central nervous system. CONCLUSION: Social or economic barriers in buying medicine are generally small......INTRODUCTION: In the public health system we study medical treatment which is ideally provided according to need and independently of economic means. We report use of prescription drugs according to socioeconomic classifications in North Jutland County in Denmark in 1999. METHOD: We conducted...

  13. The socio-economic patterning of survey participation and non-response error in a multilevel study of food purchasing behaviour: area- and individual-level characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian; Gould, Trish; Roy, Marie-Andree

    2003-04-01

    To undertake an assessment of survey participation and non-response error in a population-based study that examined the relationship between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour. The study was conducted in Brisbane City (Australia) in 2000. The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design. Respondents were recruited using a range of strategies that attempted to maximise the involvement of persons from disadvantaged backgrounds: respondents were contacted by personal visit and data were collected using home-based face-to-face interviews; multiple call-backs on different days and at different times were used; and a financial gratuity was provided. Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas that differed in their socio-economic characteristics. Rates of survey participation - measured by non-contacts, exclusions, dropped cases, response rates and completions - were similar across areas, suggesting that residents of socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged areas were equally likely to be recruited. Individual-level analysis, however, showed that respondents and non-respondents differed significantly in their sociodemographic and food purchasing characteristics: non-respondents were older, less educated and exhibited different purchasing behaviours. Misclassification bias probably accounted for the inconsistent pattern of association between the area- and individual-level results. Estimates of bias due to non-response indicated that although respondents and non-respondents were qualitatively different, the magnitude of error associated with this differential was minimal. Socio-economic position measured at the individual level is a strong and consistent predictor of survey non-participation. Future studies that set out to examine the relationship between socio-economic position and diet need to adopt sampling strategies and data collection methods that maximise the likelihood of recruiting

  14. Socioeconomic residential segregation and public housing policies. An approach from the Program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida”. Case study in the city of Cordoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Molinatti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the possible effects of the housing program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida” in socioeconomic residential segregation in the city of Córdoba (Argentina. These effects are estimated from the study of the socioeconomic residential composition (before and after the implementation of the program, the mapping of residential movements generated by the program and the application of bivariate autocorrelation techniques. Among the key findings, most of the program beneficiaries are concentrated in poor areas surrounded by others in similar conditions. This fact favors the existence of a large cluster of poverty in the peripheries of the city and promotes marginalization and social exclusion.

  15. Problem drinking and exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol consumption in Scottish men: associations with life course socioeconomic disadvantage in a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzeval Michaela

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With surveys suggesting that exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol intake is commonplace, the health and social impact of modifying intake on a population level is potentially considerable. If public health interventions are to be successfully implemented, it is first important to identify correlates of such behaviours, including socioeconomic disadvantage. This was the aim of the present study. Methods Population-representative cohort study of 576 men from the West of Scotland. Data on life course socioeconomic position were collected in 1988 (at around 55 years of age. Alcohol consumption patterns (detailed seven day recall and problem drinking (CAGE questionnaire were ascertained in 1990/2 (at around 59 years of age. A relative index of inequality was computed to explore the comparative strength of different indicators of social circumstances from different periods of the life course. Results Socioeconomic adversity in both early life and in adulthood was related to an increased risk of exceeding the weekly and daily alcohol guidelines, with adult indicators of socioeconomic position revealing the strongest associations. Of these, material indicators of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood – car ownership, housing tenure – were marginally more strongly related to heavy alcohol intake and problem drinking than education, income and occupational social class. A substantial proportion of the influence of early life deprivation on alcohol intake was mediated via adult socioeconomic position. Similar results were apparent when problem drinking was the outcome of interest. Conclusion In men in this cohort, exposure to disadvantaged social circumstances across the lifecourse, but particularly in adulthood, is associated with detrimental patterns of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in late middle age.

  16. A social work study on relationship between socio-economic factors and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kamrani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study to investigate the effects of employees’ income and age on their mental health. The study has accomplished among a sample of 150 randomly selected employees who worked for Esfahan steel company located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study uses a standard questionnaire, which is adopted from Goldberg and Williams (2000 [Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (2000. General health questionnaire (GHQ. Swindon, Wiltshire, UK: NFER Nelson.]. The results of the implementation of ANOVA test have revealed that while there was a significant and positive relationship between employees’ salary and mental health, there was not any meaningful relationship between employees’ age and mental health.

  17. A social work study on socio-economic and cultural factors influencing on community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study to investigate the impacts of four factors on contribution role on society among Arab tribes Jarghoyeh women who live in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire, distributes them among 400 women, and analyzes their feedbacks. There are four hypotheses, which study the effects of various factors on women’s contribution role on society. These factors include educational background, level of welfare, numbers of children and ties of kinship. The results show that while educational background, level of welfare and ties of kinship play important role on women’s contribution role on society, having more children do not statistically have any influence on juvenile delinquency.

  18. Socioeconomic status, white matter, and executive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i.e., a mediating relationship). Alternatively, SES may differentially shape brain-behavior relations such that the relation of white matter structure to EF may differ as a function of SES (i.e., a moderating relationship). In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, we examined socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigated relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks. Socioeconomic status was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume in multiple white matter tracts. Additionally, family income moderated the relation between white matter structure and cognitive flexibility. Specifically, across multiple tracts of interest, lower FA or lower volume was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility among children from lower income families. In contrast, children from higher income families showed preserved cognitive flexibility in the face of low white matter FA or volume. SES factors did not mediate or moderate links between white matter and either working memory or inhibitory control. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the socioeconomic contexts in which children develop not only shape cognitive functioning and its underlying neurobiology, but may also shape the relations between brain and behavior.

  19. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.

  20. A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani; Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest v...

  1. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Methods: Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. Results: The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend < 0.001. Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.

  2. Gradients in Depressive Symptoms by Socioeconomic Position Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the EXPLORE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Basia; Marshall, Brandon D L; Shoveller, Jean A; Chesney, Margaret A; Coates, Thomas J; Koblin, Beryl; Mayer, Kenneth; Mimiaga, Matthew; Operario, Don

    2016-08-01

    This study examines gradients in depressive symptoms by socioeconomic position (SEP; i.e., income, education, employment) in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were used from EXPLORE, a randomized, controlled behavioral HIV prevention trial for HIV-uninfected MSM in six U.S. cities (n = 4,277). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (short form). Multiple linear regressions were fitted with interaction terms to assess additive and multiplicative relationships between SEP and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were more prevalent among MSM with lower income, lower educational attainment, and those in the unemployed/other employment category. Income, education, and employment made significant contributions in additive models after adjustment. The employment-income interaction was statistically significant, indicating a multiplicative effect. This study revealed gradients in depressive symptoms across SEP of MSM, pointing to income and employment status and, to a lesser extent, education as key factors for understanding heterogeneity of depressive symptoms.

  3. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinket, An-Sofie; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES) consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ) consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption. PMID:27669290

  4. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Pinket

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776 recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption.

  5. Literacy & Numeracy Studies Volume 15 No 2 Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Literacy and Numeracy Studies takes up two major themes shaping the landscape of research and practice in adult literacy. The first of these is the more recent of the two: the intersections between literacy and professional and workplace practice. The second is perhaps a more sustained and enduring concern in the field with the relationship of literacy to context, place and culture. In this sense, this issue of the journal is an expression of the reach and diversity of concerns with literacy in ‘social participation, the utilisation of social resources and the quality of life’ (Green, Lo Bianco and Wyn, this volume and carries forward critical debates for the field across the span of practice from the workplace, to the classroom to the community.

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trendinequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Hajikhani Golchin, Nayereh Azam; Komili, Abdulhay

    2012-03-15

    Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls) in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002). Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  8. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Moloud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002. Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  9. An exploratory study of the local socio-economic effects of Sizewell B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This Sizewell B study involved five main tasks: (i) to provide broad estimates of the temporary and permanent accommodation requirements of the proposed Sizewell B workforce and families and the likely level of local supply of accommodation; (ii) to provide broad estimates of the requirements for school places of the accompanied workforce and the likely local supply of such places; (iii) to assess further the wider employment effects of the proposed development on local firms, particularly as potential suppliers of goods and services; (iv) to conduct further studies of the expenditure patterns of power station employees; and (v) to incorporate where relevant the likely effects of a policy of double day shift work (in power station construction) into the predictions. Results of the study are reported. (author)

  10. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  11. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors : A case study for Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-01-01

    Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demand and supply of water-intensive commodities. This study aims to analyse the dynamics in virtual water trade of

  12. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  13. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Irene; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Cleathero, Lesley A; Janssen, Patricia A; Lanphear, Bruce P; Hayes, Michael V; Mattman, Andre; Pampalon, Robert; Venners, Scott A

    2012-06-13

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  15. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  16. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in two populations with differing socio-economic profiles: a cross-sectional database study using the PROMPT criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, Janine A

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this study is to establish the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in middle-aged adults (45-64 years) in two populations with differing socio-economic profiles, and to investigate factors associated with PIP, using the PROMPT (PRescribing Optimally in Middle-aged People\\'s Treatments) criteria.

  17. Social engagement from childhood to middle age and the effect of childhood socio-economic status on middle age social engagement: results from the National Child Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, H; Aartsen, M.J.; Kiuru, N.; Lyyra, T.M.; Read, S.

    2016-01-01

    Social engagement has powerful effects on wellbeing, but variation in individual engagement throughout the lifecourse is wide. The trajectories may differ by gender and be affected by socio-economic status (SES). However, long-term development of social engagement is little studied and the effect of

  18. Perceived classism and its relation with socioeconomic status, health, health behaviours and perceived inferiority: the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences (LISS) panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Audrey M W; Koster, Annemarie; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Classism might be the downside of the prevailing ideologies of individual responsibility for success. However, since studies into perceived classism have mainly been qualitative, little is known about its association with socioeconomic status, health, health behaviours and perceived inferiority, especially in more egalitarian countries. This study, therefore, examined the associations of perceived classism with socioeconomic status, health, health behaviours and perceived inferiority. We used cross-sectional data (2012/2013) from the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences (LISS) (n = 1540; age 16-90; 46.9 % men). We found that classism was perceived by 18.2 % of the participants, with the lowest income and occupation group most likely to perceive classism (22.0 and 27.5 %, respectively). Perceived classism was significantly associated with poor health (e.g. self-rated health OR = 2.44, 95 % CI = 1.76-3.38) and feelings of inferiority (e.g. shame OR = 4.64, 95 % CI = 3.08-6.98). No significant associations were found with health behaviours. To further examine the role of perceived classism for socioeconomic differences in health and its association with country-level socioeconomic inequalities, prevailing ideologies, and objective opportunities for social mobility, we recommend more longitudinal and international studies with comparable measures of perceived classism.

  19. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: A prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); F.W.J. Otten (Ferdy); C.H. Arts (Coos); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and

  20. A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest villages in Iran named Maymand. The results indicate that there is a strong positive relationship, 0.873, between developing economy and tourism. In other word, developing tourism industry will help create more jobs, increase land prices, increase people's income and flourish environment. There is also a positive correlation, 0.854, between social development and tourism industry. This means we could expect a better health care system as well as medical treatment facilities, which helps prevent immigration to big cities.

  1. Summary of background fiscal data and analysis for the Nevada socioeconomic impact assessment study to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This study has developed models to assess the fiscal implications of a projected economic and demographic future for the State of Nevada and for its three southern countries, Clark, Lincoln and Nye. The models analyze the fiscal implications of an economic and demographic future for the State General Fund, the State Highway Fund, local government general funds, local capital requirements, the State Distributive Fund and local school districts

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study on Socioeconomic Systems Supporting Outpatients With Parkinson’s Disease in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Matsushima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socioeconomic systems supporting outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD in Japan. Methods: The study was performed in 2013 at two private hospitals and one clinic in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. A survey was conducted with 248 consecutive PD patients, and the data from 237 PD outpatients were analyzed after excluding 11 patients who did not meet inclusion criteria. Monthly medical and transportation payments as a PD outpatient were selected as outcome variables, and their association with various explanatory variables, such as utilization of support systems for PD outpatients, were evaluated using logistic regression model analysis. Results: After controlling for potential confounding variables, the utilization of the system providing financial aid for treatment for patients with intractable disease was significantly inversely associated with monthly medical payment among PD outpatients (OR 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22–0.95. Experience of hospital admission for PD treatment was significantly positively associated with monthly transportation payment (OR 4.74; 95% CI, 2.18–10.32. Monthly medical payment was also significantly positively associated with monthly transportation payment (OR 4.01; 95% CI, 2.23–7.51. Conclusions: Use of Japanese public financial support systems may be associated with reductions in medical payments for PD outpatients. However, those systems may not have supported transportation payments, and higher transportation payments may be associated with an increased risk of hospitalization.

  3. An exploratory study of early letter-sound knowledge in a low socio-economic context in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley O'Carroll

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores one aspect of early literacy development in a low socio-economic context in South Africa. Assessments conducted with a sample of children from two disadvantaged communities in Cape Town indicated that in this context, almost half of the learners entering Grade One were unable to recognise any letters. A Grade R intervention conducted by volunteers showed that children from this context were able to learn letter-sounds in Grade R through a programme that focused on teaching letter-sounds in the context of building language skills, emergent writing and concepts about print. In order to strengthen the effectiveness of the intervention, the volunteer programme was supplemented by support for the Grade R teacher and teaching assistant. Follow-up assessments of one of the intervention groups at the end of Grade One revealed significant correlations between early Grade One letter knowledge and end of Grade One word reading and spelling skills. The findings of this exploratory study are in line with research that shows the importance of letter-sound knowledge in the earliest stages of learning to read. This raises concerns about the historical lack of emphasis in the Grade R curriculum on this aspect of early literacy development. Although the study has a narrow focus and conclusions cannot be drawn about other aspects of early literacy learning in this context, the results suggest an urgent need for quality Grade R teacher training programmes with a specific focus on emergent literacy.

  4. Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (The ABENA study 2004-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, C; Deschamps, V; Bellin-Lestienne, C; Oleko, A; Darmon, N; Hercberg, S; Serge, H; Castetbon, K; Katia, C

    2010-04-01

    Few studies in Europe have examined the relationship of sociodemographic and economic factors with diet in deprived populations. We analysed the association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of different food groups in food aid users. A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n=1664). Associations of sociodemographic and economic factors and food aid use with frequency of consumption of the main food groups were tested using multivariate logistic regression models accounting for sampling weights. Both migrant status and consumption of fewer than three daily meals were associated with risk of low frequency of starchy food consumption (status was also associated with low frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables (food insufficiency were more likely to be low consumers of fruits and vegetables, meat, seafood and eggs (food budget, temporary housing in a shelter and no source of household income were all associated with risk of low frequency of seafood consumption (food aid use, type of food aid distribution and perception of poor health status were associated with low consumption of meat, seafood and eggs. Economic level and other social characteristics were associated with an unhealthy diet within this deprived French population.

  5. What are the socioeconomic implications of the value chain of biodiversity products? A case study in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos; Gomes, Laura Jane; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-02-01

    The trade in biodiversity products has gained increasing importance in conservation and livelihood strategies. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the socioeconomic aspects and dynamics of the production and commercialization of two important products of Brazilian biodiversity from the fruits of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. Interviews were conducted with who were involved in the various stages of value chains. Data were analyzed under an analytical/descriptive approach. It was found that the two value chains under study, although they share the same production environment and workforce, are different models of the commercial appropriation of the forest environment: one is related to local traditions, whereas the other seeks to meet an industry-related demand originating from a multinational pharmaceutical company. Harvesters become highly dependent on the trends imposed by these markets. Thus, it is clear that promoting these products as a conservation strategy requires an understanding of how their value chains arise, are established, and operate.

  6. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother's education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother's education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01-1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37-3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99-1.71); pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03-1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother's education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems.

  7. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  8. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  9. Migrants and the transformation of local neighbourhoods: A study of the socioeconomic transformation of Lidcombe, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major contributor to negative attitudes towards migrants is that they exert pressure on the facilities of the host communities without making any (substantial contribution to the host economy and society. This negative sentiment is particularly acute in cities, where pressure on amenities is concentrated and more visible. In turn, migrant neighbourhoods are particularly despised. Migration experiences in the Rookwood Cemetery area of Sydney, Australia, widely regarded as the “largest necropolis in the southern hemisphere”, however, challenge this stereotypical view. This migrant neighbourhood is the site of vibrant and diverse migration and migrant (especially Korean activities never before seen in the history of the area, which is now called Lidcombe. Drawing on multiple sources of evidence, including archival research at local libraries, discussion with long-time residents of the neighbourhood and visual ethnography (analysed from the historical-structural perspective in migration studies, this study offers a history of Lidcombe and appraises its twenty-first-century migration experiences. By doing so, it highlights the demographic, social and economic changes to emphasise the contribution of migrants to the regeneration of a “dead city” and also to contest inherited stereotypes of migrants that often lead to racial scapegoating and misrepresentation as “parasites”, “criminals” and a “drain” on the host economy. Overall, this case study suggests that migrants can and often do transform the spaces they occupy in ways that make a positive and lasting contribution to the host economy and society more generally. This is an important lesson for European countries facing the “migrant crisis” to consider, as it also is for politicians around the world seeking to wall out migrants to protect host economies and societies.

  10. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema: results from the hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen; Hautamaki, Emily; Sisic, Zlatko; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik B; Caballero, Teresa

    2014-07-04

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The study objective was to characterize direct and indirect resource utilization associated with HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. The study was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE via a cross-sectional survey of HAE patients, including direct and indirect resource utilization during and between attacks for patients and their caregivers over the past 6 months. A regression model examined predictors of medical resource utilization. Overall, 164 patients had an attack in the past 6 months and were included in the analysis. The most significant predictor of medical resource utilization was the severity of the last attack (OR 2.6; p career/educational advancement. HAE poses a considerable burden on patients and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks.

  11. Socioeconomic effects of operating reactors on two host communities: a case study of Pilgrim and Millstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities

  12. The Role of Adolescents From a Low Socioeconomic Background in Household Food Preparation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Aasand, Taylor A; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand adolescents' from low-income households perceptions of their involvement in home food preparation, reasons underlying the extent to which they were involved, and positive and negative consequences associated with their involvement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 19 adolescents (13-18 years). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Eight adolescents described cooking as a primary responsibility due to adult work and family schedules, age, gender, and/or cultural expectations. They were typically preparing food for themselves and their family without assistance, and making decisions about what was prepared. They identified positive and negative consequences including enjoyment and satisfaction, as well as stress and less time for other activities. Eleven adolescents mostly assisted the primary food preparer, with little input in deciding what was prepared. They identified benefits such as enjoyment and family interaction. Foods prepared by many adolescents tended to be quick and easy to prepare foods. Future studies should investigate the relationship between adultified cooking responsibilities, diet quality, and health. Also, cooking education for adolescents needs to address how to prepare a healthy family meal on a budget.

  13. The photo-elicitation of food worlds: A study on the eating behaviors of low socioeconomic Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia, Galvez E; Vizcarra, Marcela; Palomino, Ana María; Valencia, Alejandra; Iglesias, Lorena; Schwingel, Andiara

    2017-04-01

    Traditional methods for studying eating behaviors include quantitative methods such as 24-h dietary recalls or food frequency questionnaires. Recently, visual methods such as photo-elicitation (PE) have been recognized as useful for studying and understanding eating behaviors. PE has been defined as the use of images during an interview. The goals of this study are to demonstrate the potential of PE for exploring the eating behaviors of Chilean women of low socioeconomic status and to show the advantages and disadvantages of PE from the participants' points of view. The study included 31 participants who were asked to take pictures that represented what they considered important to them in their "food world". The pictures were developed and participants were invited to participate in an individual interview. Participants were able to talk about their eating behaviors and those of their families, the factors influencing those behaviors, their dietary knowledge and skills, and their reflections on their diet using the photographs. PE proved to be a feasible research technique for the studied population, and was well received and enjoyed by the participants. The participants perceived a few barriers with PE, such as forgetting to take pictures or not having ideas for new pictures. Nevertheless, PE allowed researchers to obtain rich information about eating behaviors, and can therefore be a useful method for working with populations of underserved areas. The PE data that this study collected could be used to create or improve interventions promoting healthy eating within the studied population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  15. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context) Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Geraci, Diana; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2012-03-19

    Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1) and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3), N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the participants' immediate social environments. With this

  16. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  17. Comparing antibiotic self-medication in two socio-economic groups in Guatemala City: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramay, Brooke M; Lambour, Paola; Cerón, Alejandro

    2015-04-27

    Self-medication with antibiotics may result in antimicrobial resistance and its high prevalence is of particular concern in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) like Guatemala. A better understanding of self-medication with antibiotics may represent an opportunity to develop interventions guiding the rational use of antibiotics. We aimed to compare the magnitude of antibiotic self-medication and the characteristics of those who self-medicate in two pharmacies serving disparate socio-economic communities in Guatemala City. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in one Suburban pharmacy and one City Center pharmacy in Guatemala City. We used a questionnaire to gather information about frequency of self-medication, income and education of those who self-medicate. We compared proportions between the two pharmacies, using two-sample z-test as appropriate. Four hundred and eighteen respondents completed the survey (221 in the Suburban pharmacy and 197 in the City Center pharmacy). Most respondents in both pharmacies were female (70%). The reported monthly income in the suburban pharmacy was between $1,250.00-$2,500.00, the city-center pharmacy reported a monthly income between $125.00- $625.00 (p Guatemala City. Additionally, self-medicating respondents were most often women and most commonly self-medicated with amoxicillin. Our findings support future public health interventions centered on the regulation of antibiotic sales and on the potential role of the pharmacist in guiding prescription with antibiotics in Guatemala.

  18. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-03-11

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.

  19. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  20. Socioeconomic status, comorbidity and the use of health services in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droomers, M.; Westert, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a strong association between comorbidity and volume and variety of health care utilisation. Aim: The study objective is to examine the relation between socioeconomic status and multiple health care utilisation and comorbidity. Methods: Analysis of continuous Netherlands Health

  1. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Packard, Chris J

    2011-01-17

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father\\'s occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father\\'s occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the \\'health divide\\' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  2. An ethical approach to socio-economic information sources in ongoing vulnerability and resilience studies: the Mount Cameroon case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilaria Pannaccione Apa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vulnerability of facing natural and man-made hazards, with the related resilient answers belong to the complex and articulate field of social sciences called ‘Disaster Anthropology’. Vulnerability is generally defined as a weak point in facing an aggressive event that is difficult to manage. Resilience is the subsequent capacity for self-repair after a sustained natural or anthropogenic stress. Consequently, the theoretical model of economic resilience is the ability to restore an economic background that can support the gradual recovery of social benefits following a disaster. Moreover, the presence in the territory of different systems of production (natural eco-systems and/or technical systems should allow multi-resilient communities. The mathematical structure of these economic theorems makes their practical application difficult inside an ethno-anthropological context, as it conflicts with cultural variables of the socio-structural fabric. An example can be given by some urban and rural family structures that are settled around the Mount Cameroon volcano (southwest Cameroon, in which the general psychological pressure increases because of both the constant exposure to natural hazards and the vulnerability arising from its social environment (e.g. castes, forced housing allocation, cultural estrangement to local chiefdom. Therefore, the rational heuristic model to be adopted in this social vulnerability study is performed by several combined analyses that have many interpretive obstacles. In 2009, within FP7-MIA-VITA, the first fieldwork mission for the study of socio-economic development of communities living around Mount Cameroon was launched. This completed 108 interviews across several social groups of different ethnicities and religions. The resulting information is being re-tested and verified from the second fieldwork mission in 2011, for completion of the study area.

  3. Passive seismic monitoring of natural and induced earthquakes: case studies, future directions and socio-economic relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Ellsworth, William L.; Ito, Hisao; Cloetingh, Sierd; Negendank, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important discovery in crustal mechanics has been that the Earth’s crust is commonly stressed close to failure, even in tectonically quiet areas. As a result, small natural or man-made perturbations to the local stress field may trigger earthquakes. To understand these processes, Passive Seismic Monitoring (PSM) with seismometer arrays is a widely used technique that has been successfully applied to study seismicity at different magnitude levels ranging from acoustic emissions generated in the laboratory under controlled conditions, to seismicity induced by hydraulic stimulations in geological reservoirs, and up to great earthquakes occurring along plate boundaries. In all these environments the appropriate deployment of seismic sensors, i.e., directly on the rock sample, at the earth’s surface or in boreholes close to the seismic sources allows for the detection and location of brittle failure processes at sufficiently low magnitude-detection threshold and with adequate spatial resolution for further analysis. One principal aim is to develop an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring at the seismic source and their relationship to the host geologic environment. In this paper we review selected case studies and future directions of PSM efforts across a wide range of scales and environments. These include induced failure within small rock samples, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and natural seismicity at convergent and transform plate boundaries. Each example represents a milestone with regard to bridging the gap between laboratory-scale experiments under controlled boundary conditions and large-scale field studies. The common motivation for all studies is to refine the understanding of how earthquakes nucleate, how they proceed and how they interact in space and time. This is of special relevance at the larger end of the magnitude scale, i.e., for large devastating earthquakes due to their severe socio-economic impact.

  4. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  6. Associations of social environment, socioeconomic position and social mobility with immune response in young adults: the Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gabriella M; Friedlander, Yehiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Huang, Jonathan Yinhao; Tracy, Russell P; Manor, Orly; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit

    2017-12-21

    Immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) impacts adult chronic disease. This study investigates associations of childhood and adulthood social environment, socioeconomic position (SEP) and social mobility with CMV response in young adults. Historical prospective study design. Subcohort of all 17 003 births to residents of Jerusalem between 1974 and 1976. Participants included 1319 young adults born in Jerusalem with extensive archival and follow-up data, including childhood and adulthood SEP-related factors and anti-CMV IgG titre levels and seroprevalence measured at age 32. Principal component analysis was used to transform correlated social environment and SEP-related variables at two time points (childhood and adulthood) into two major scores reflecting household (eg, number of siblings/children, religiosity) and socioeconomic (eg, occupation, education) components. Based on these components, social mobility variables were created. Linear and Poisson regression models were used to investigate associations of components and mobility with anti-CMV IgG titre level and seroprevalence, adjusted for confounders. Lower levels of household and socioeconomic components in either childhood or adulthood were associated with higher anti-CMV IgG titre level and seropositivity at age 32. Compared with individuals with stable favourable components, anti-CMV IgG titre level and risk for seropositivity were higher in stable unfavourable household and socioeconomic components (household: β=3.23, P<0.001; relative risk (RR)=1.21, P<0.001; socioeconomic: β=2.20, P=0.001; RR=1.14, P=0.01), downward household mobility (β=4.32, P<0.001; RR=1.26, P<0.001) and upward socioeconomic mobility (β=1.37, P=0.04; RR=1.19, P<0.001). Among seropositive individuals, associations between household components and mobility with anti-CMV IgG titre level were maintained and associations between socioeconomic components and mobility with anti-CMV IgG titre level were attenuated. Our study

  7. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  8. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H

    2009-01-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal...... Cancer Group were linked to individual socioeconomic information in Statistics Denmark. Patients born before 1921 and those having local surgical or palliative procedures were excluded. A total of 7160 patients, operated on in the period 2001-2004, were included, of whom 342 (4.8%) died within 30 days...

  9. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  10. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  11. Violence against the adolescents of Kolkata: A study in relation to the socio-economic background and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Ray, Mrinalkanti; Bhattacharyya, Banhishikha; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    This study attempts to understand the nature of violence suffered by the adolescents of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) and to identify its relation with their socio-economic background and mental health variables such as anxiety, adjustment, and self-concept. It is a cross-sectional study covering a total of 370 adolescents (182 boys and 188 girls) from six higher secondary schools in Kolkata. The data was gathered by way of a semi-structured questionnaire and three standard psychological tests. Findings revealed that 52.4%, 25.1%, and 12.7% adolescents suffered psychological, physical, and sexual violence in the last year. Older adolescents (aged 17-18 years) suffered more psychological violence than the younger ones (15-16 years) (pviolence between adult members in the family. More than three-fifth (61.9%) adolescents experienced at least one type of violence, while one-third (32.7%) experienced physical or sexual violence or both. Whatever its nature is, violence leaves a scar on the mental health of the victims. Those who have been through regular psychological violence reported high anxiety, emotional adjustment problem, and low self-concept. Sexual abuse left a damaging effect on self-concept (pviolence or the witnessing of violence prompted high anxiety scores (pconcept (p<0.05). This study stresses the need to provide individual counselling services to the maltreated adolescents of Kolkata so that their psychological traumas can heal and that they can move on in life with new hopes and dreams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unequal Exposure or Unequal Vulnerability? Contributions of Neighborhood Conditions and Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Socioeconomic Inequality in Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mustafa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Hastert, Theresa A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Bertoni, Alain G; Baylin, Ana

    2017-11-23

    Risk factors can drive socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) through differential exposure and differential vulnerability. We show how econometric decomposition directly enables simultaneous, policy-oriented assessment of these two mechanisms. We specifically estimated contributions via these mechanisms of neighborhood environment and proximal risk factors to socioeconomic inequality in CVD incidence. We followed 5,608 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012) until the first CVD event (median follow-up 12.2 years). We used a summary measure of baseline socioeconomic position (SEP). Covariates included baseline demographics, neighborhood, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors. Using Poisson models, we decomposed the difference (inequality) in incidence rates between low- and high-SEP groups into contributions of 1) differences in covariate means (differential exposure), and 2) differences in CVD risk associated with covariates (differential vulnerability). Notwithstanding large uncertainty in neighborhood estimates, our analysis suggests that differential exposure to poorer neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, adverse social environment, diabetes, and hypertension accounts for most of inequality. Psychosocial and behavioral contributions were negligible. Further, neighborhood SEP, female gender, and White race were more strongly associated with CVD among low-SEP (vs. high-SEP) participants. These differentials in vulnerability also accounted for nontrivial portions of the inequality, and could have important implications for intervention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia

    2017-07-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Jones, Bryan D; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E J; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M; Iverson, Don C

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (pdisadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (pdisadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  15. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F; Birkeland, Kåre I; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1-3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6-43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

  16. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: a prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Otten, Ferdy W J; Arts, Coos H; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on return to work. A representative sample of the Dutch working population (N=15 152) was selected for a prospective study with ten years follow-up (93 917 person-years). Perceived health and individual and household characteristics were measured at baseline with the Permanent Quality of Life Survey (POLS) during 1999-2002. Statistics Netherlands ascertained employment status monthly from January 1999 to December 2008. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the factors that predicted labor force exit and return to work. Ill health increased the likelihood of labor force exit into unemployment [hazard ratio (HR) 1.89], disability pension (HR 6.39), and early retirement (HR 1.20), but was not a determinant of becoming economically inactive (HR 1.07). Workers with low socioeconomic status were, even after adjusting for ill health, more likely to leave the labor force due to unemployment, disability pension, and economic inactivity. Workers with ill health at baseline were less likely to return to work after unemployment (HR 0.75) or disability pension (HR 0.62). Socioeconomic status did not influence re-employment. Ill health is an important determinant for entering and maintaining paid employment. Workers with lower education were at increased risk for health-based selection out of paid employment. Policies to improve labor force participation, especially among low socioeconomic level workers, should protect workers with health problems against exclusion from the labor force.

  17. Are PCI Service Volumes Associated with 30-Day Mortality? A Population-Based Study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wei, Chung-Jen; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2017-11-09

    The volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for over 30 years; however, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to the heterogeneity of service volume definitions and categorization methods. This study takes percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an example to examine whether the service volume was associated with PCI 30-day mortality, given different service volume definitions and categorization methods. A population-based, cross-sectional multilevel study was conducted. Two definitions of physician and hospital volume were used: (1) the cumulative PCI volume in a previous year before each PCI; (2) the cumulative PCI volume within the study period. The volume was further treated in three ways: (1) a categorical variable based on the American Heart Association's recommendation; (2) a semi-data-driven categorical variable based on k-means clustering algorithm; and (3) a data-driven categorical variable based on the Generalized Additive Model. The results showed that, after adjusting the patient-, physician-, and hospital-level covariates, physician volume was associated inversely with PCI 30-day mortality, but hospital volume was not, no matter which definitions and categorization methods of service volume were applied. Physician volume is negatively associated with PCI 30-day mortality, but the results might vary because of definition and categorization method.

  18. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  19. Adolescent reserve capacity, socioeconomic status and school achievement as predictors of mortality in Finland - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acacio-Claro, Paulyn Jean; Koivusilta, Leena Kristiina; Borja, Judith Rafaelita; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2017-12-28

    Despite robust evidence on the inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality, deviations from expected results have been observed likely due to school achievement and psychosocial resources, termed as "reserve capacity." Since adolescence is a critical period in developing sound psychological and behavioural patterns and adolescent markers of SES were seldom used, we determine if family SES in adolescence predicts later mortality. We also study how reserve capacity (perceived health, health-promoting behaviour and social support) and school achievement modify this relationship and reduce the negative effects of low SES. A longitudinal study was designed by linking baseline data on 12 to 18 year-old Finns in 1985-95 (N = 41,833) from the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Surveys with register data on mortality and SES from Statistics Finland. Average follow-up time was 18.4 years with a total of 770,161 person-years. Cox regression models, stratified by sex, were fitted to determine the effects of variables measured during adolescence: family SES, reserve capacity and school achievement on mortality risk. All reserve capacity dimensions significantly predicted mortality in boys. Perceived health and social support predicted that in girls. Adolescents with the lowest school achievement were more than twice at risk of dying compared to those with better school performance. Low SES increased the risk of death in boys (Hazard ratios: 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) but not in girls. Reserve capacity and school achievement weakened the effects of low SES on boys' risk of death. High reserve capacity and good school achievement in adolescence significantly reduce the risk of mortality. In boys, these also mitigate the negative effect of low SES on mortality. These findings underscore the roles of reserve capacity and school achievement during adolescence as likely causal or modifying factors in SES-health inequalities.

  20. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976....... Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...... by register linkage. Education and income were independently associated with FEV1 and FVC. The age- and height-adjusted difference in FEV1 (mean+/-SEM) between the highest and lowest level of education and income was 259+/-31 mL in females and 400+/-39 mL in males. After additional adjustment for quantity...

  1. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002-2010: a time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Moor, Irene; De Clercq, Bart; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Currie, Candace

    2015-05-23

    Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income inequality. We undertook a time-series analysis of data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, in which cross-sectional surveys were done in 34 North American and European countries in 2002, 2006, and 2010 (pooled n 492,788). We used individual data for socioeconomic status (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Family Affluence Scale) and health (days of physical activity per week, body-mass index Z score [zBMI], frequency of psychological and physical symptoms on 0-5 scale, and life satisfaction scored 0-10 on the Cantril ladder) to examine trends in health and socioeconomic inequalities in health. We also investigated whether international differences in health and health inequalities were associated with per person income and income inequality. From 2002 to 2010, average levels of physical activity (3·90 to 4·08 days per week; pInequalities between socioeconomic groups increased in physical activity (-0·79 to -0·83 days per week difference between most and least affluent groups; p=0·0008), zBMI (0·15 to 0·18; pinequality fall during this period (-0·98 to -0·95; p=0·0198). Internationally, the higher the per person income, the better and more equal health was in terms of physical activity (0·06 days per SD increase in income; pincome inequality uniquely related to fewer days of physical activity (-0·05 days; p=0·0295), higher zBMI (0·06; pinequalities between socioeconomic groups in psychological (0·13; p=0·0080) and physical (0·07; p=0·0022) symptoms, and life satisfaction (-0·10; p=0·0092). Socioeconomic inequality has increased in many domains of adolescent health. These trends coincide with unequal distribution of income between rich and poor

  3. Socioeconomic disparities in first stroke incidence, quality of care, and survival: a nationwide registry-based cohort study of 44 million adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Bray, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: We aimed to estimate socioeconomic disparities in the incidence of hospitalisation for first-ever stroke, quality of care, and post-stroke survival for the adult population of England. Methods: In this cohort study, we obtained data collected by a nationwide register on patients aged 18 years or older hospitalised for first-ever acute ischaemic stroke or primary intracerebral haemorrhage in England from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. We classified socioeconomic status at the level of Lower Super Output Areas using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a neighbourhood measure of deprivation. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate the incidence of hospitalisation for first stroke (negative binomial, quality of care using 12 quality metrics (multilevel logistic, and all-cause 1 year case fatality (Cox proportional hazards. Findings: Of the 43·8 million adults in England, 145 324 were admitted to hospital with their first-ever stroke: 126 640 (87% with ischaemic stroke, 17 233 (12% with intracerebral haemorrhage, and 1451 (1% with undetermined stroke type. We observed a socioeconomic gradient in the incidence of hospitalisation for ischaemic stroke (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·3 for the most vs least deprived deciles and intracerebral haemorrhage (1·6, 1·3–1·9. Patients from the lowest socioeconomic groups had first stroke a median of 7 years earlier than those from the highest (p<0·0001, and had a higher prevalence of pre-stroke disability and diabetes. Patients from lower socioeconomic groups were less likely to receive five of 12 care processes but were more likely to receive early supported discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1·14, 95% CI 1·07–1·22. Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 26% higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·26, 95% CI 1·20–1·33, for highest vs lowest deprivation decile, but this gradient was largely attenuated after

  4. Treatment Outcome for Low Socioeconomic Status African American Families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A.; Butler, Ashley M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    The course and efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) were examined in 18 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American families of preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders. Mothers reported significant improvements in child disruptive behavior but not in maternal depressive symptoms or parenting stress. Attrition was 56%,…

  5. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  6. Inequalities in the use of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status: evidence from the PURE observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Murphy (Adrianna); Palafox, B. (Benjamin); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); D. Stuckler (David); P. Perel (Pablo); AlHabib, K.F. (Khalid F); Avezum, A. (Alvaro); Bai, X. (Xiulin); Chifamba, J. (Jephat); Chow, C.K. (Clara K); Corsi, D.J. (Daniel J); G.R. Dagenais (Gilles R); Dans, A.L. (Antonio L); R. Díaz (Rafael); Erbakan, A.N. (Ayse N); Ismail, N. (Noorhassim); Iqbal, R. (Romaina); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); Khatib, R. (Rasha); Lanas, F. (Fernando); Lear, S.A. (Scott A); Li, W. (Wei); Liu, J. (Jia); Lopez-Jaramillo, P. (Patricio); Mohan, V. (Viswanathan); Monsef, N. (Nahed); Mony, P.K. (Prem K); Puoane, T. (Thandi); Rangarajan, S. (Sumathy); A. Rosengren (Annika); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E); Sintaha, M. (Mariz); Teo, K.K. (Koon K); Wielgosz, A. (Andreas); Yeates, K. (Karen); Yin, L. (Lu); Yusoff, K. (Khalid); Zatońska, K. (Katarzyna); S. Yusuf (Salim); M. McKee (Martin)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is little evidence on the use of secondary prevention medicines for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic groups in countries at different levels of economic development. Methods: We assessed use of antiplatelet, cholesterol, and blood-pressure-lowering drugs in 8492

  7. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.H.; Nicolau, M.; Dam, van R.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet.

  8. The associations between socioeconomic status and risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and subsequent endocarditis - a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise Bruun; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in several countries. Since socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence the risk of infectious diseases in general, we aimed to investigate the association between SES and SAB, and risk...

  9. A Phenomenological Study of the Factors Leading Low Socioeconomic Status Urban Students to Enroll in a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Luke D.

    2013-01-01

    Low socioeconomic urban students do not attend universities at a rate proportional to other populations. This perpetuates a cycle of recurrence and diminished potential benefits associated with degree attainment. The commonly ascribed Theory of Student Choice (Hossler, Braxton & Coopersmith, 1989) does not apply to this population. The purpose…

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies

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    David Bann, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. Methods: We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD, 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS, 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS, and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS. BMI (kg/m2 was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10–11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. Findings: In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946–70, but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (pinteraction=0·001. Low socioeconomic

  11. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food.

  12. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005

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    Olson Nicole A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES. In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

  13. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nicole A; Davidow, Amy L; Winston, Carla A; Chen, Michael P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Katz, Dolores J

    2012-05-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. National TB surveillance data for 1996-2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income) from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

  14. Inequalities in the use of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status: evidence from the PURE observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrianna; Palafox, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Owen; Stuckler, David; Perel, Pablo; AlHabib, Khalid F; Avezum, Alvaro; Bai, Xiulin; Chifamba, Jephat; Chow, Clara K; Corsi, Daniel J; Dagenais, Gilles R; Dans, Antonio L; Diaz, Rafael; Erbakan, Ayse N; Ismail, Noorhassim; Iqbal, Romaina; Kelishadi, Roya; Khatib, Rasha; Lanas, Fernando; Lear, Scott A; Li, Wei; Liu, Jia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Mohan, Viswanathan; Monsef, Nahed; Mony, Prem K; Puoane, Thandi; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Rosengren, Annika; Schutte, Aletta E; Sintaha, Mariz; Teo, Koon K; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yeates, Karen; Yin, Lu; Yusoff, Khalid; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2018-03-01

    There is little evidence on the use of secondary prevention medicines for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic groups in countries at different levels of economic development. We assessed use of antiplatelet, cholesterol, and blood-pressure-lowering drugs in 8492 individuals with self-reported cardiovascular disease from 21 countries enrolled in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Defining one or more drugs as a minimal level of secondary prevention, wealth-related inequality was measured using the Wagstaff concentration index, scaled from -1 (pro-poor) to 1 (pro-rich), standardised by age and sex. Correlations between inequalities and national health-related indicators were estimated. The proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease on three medications ranged from 0% in South Africa (95% CI 0-1·7), Tanzania (0-3·6), and Zimbabwe (0-5·1), to 49·3% in Canada (44·4-54·3). Proportions receiving at least one drug varied from 2·0% (95% CI 0·5-6·9) in Tanzania to 91·4% (86·6-94·6) in Sweden. There was significant (pSaudi Arabia, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe. Pro-poor distributions were observed in Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Poland, and the occupied Palestinian territory. The strongest predictors of inequality were public expenditure on health and overall use of secondary prevention medicines. Use of medication for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease is alarmingly low. In many countries with the lowest use, pro-rich inequality is greatest. Policies associated with an equal or pro-poor distribution include free medications and community health programmes to support adherence to medications. Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0. license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Inequalities in the use of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status: evidence from the PURE observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Murphy, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: There is little evidence on the use of secondary prevention medicines for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic groups in countries at different levels of economic development. Methods: We assessed use of antiplatelet, cholesterol, and blood-pressure-lowering drugs in 8492 individuals with self-reported cardiovascular disease from 21 countries enrolled in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE study. Defining one or more drugs as a minimal level of secondary prevention, wealth-related inequality was measured using the Wagstaff concentration index, scaled from −1 (pro-poor to 1 (pro-rich, standardised by age and sex. Correlations between inequalities and national health-related indicators were estimated. Findings: The proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease on three medications ranged from 0% in South Africa (95% CI 0–1·7, Tanzania (0–3·6, and Zimbabwe (0–5·1, to 49·3% in Canada (44·4–54·3. Proportions receiving at least one drug varied from 2·0% (95% CI 0·5–6·9 in Tanzania to 91·4% (86·6–94·6 in Sweden. There was significant (p<0·05 pro-rich inequality in Saudi Arabia, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe. Pro-poor distributions were observed in Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Poland, and the occupied Palestinian territory. The strongest predictors of inequality were public expenditure on health and overall use of secondary prevention medicines. Interpretation: Use of medication for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease is alarmingly low. In many countries with the lowest use, pro-rich inequality is greatest. Policies associated with an equal or pro-poor distribution include free medications and community health programmes to support adherence to medications. Funding: Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments.

  16. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  17. Impact of socioeconomic position and distance on mental health care utilization: a nationwide Danish follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packness, Aake; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Christensen, René dePont; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Simonsen, Erik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Halling, Anders

    2017-11-01

    To determine the impact of socioeconomic position (SEP) and distance to provider on outpatient mental health care utilization among incident users of antidepressants. A nationwide register-based cohort study of 50,374 person-years. Persons in low SEP were more likely to have outpatient psychiatrist contacts [odds ratio (OR) 1.25; confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.34], but less likely to consult a co-payed psychologist (OR 0.49; CI 0.46-0.53) and to get mental health service from a GP (MHS-GP) (OR 0.81; CI 0.77-0.86) compared to persons in high SEP after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidity and car ownership. Furthermore, persons in low SEP who had contact to any of these therapists tended to have lower rates of visits compared to those in high SEP. When distance to services increased by 5 km, the rate of visits to outpatient psychiatrist tended to decrease by 5% in the lowest income group (IRR 0.95; CI 0.94-0.95) and 1% in the highest (IRR 0.99; CI 0.99-1.00). Likewise, contact to psychologists decreased by 11% in the lowest income group (IRR 0.89; CI 0.85-0.94), whereas rate of visits did not interact. Patients in low SEP have relatively lower utilization of mental health services even when services are free at delivery; co-payment and distance to provider aggravate the disparities in utilization between patients in high SEP and patients in low SEP.

  18. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  19. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.; Cochran, R.; Meale, R.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  20. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One station case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  1. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  2. Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....

  3. Assessment of environmental injustice in Korea using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Giehae; Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of the universal right to a healthy environment, the right is being violated in some populations. The objective of the current study is to verify environmental discrimination associated with socioeconomic status in Korea, using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status. The concentrations of NO₂(nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO₂(sulfur dioxide), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Socioeconomic status was measured at individual level (income, education, number of household members, occupation, and National Basic Livelihood status) and area level (neighborhood index). The neighborhood index was calculated in the finest administrative unit (municipality) by performing standardization and integration of municipality-level data of the following: number of families receiving National Basic Livelihood, proportion of people engaged in an elementary occupation, population density, and number of service industries. Each study participant was assigned a neighborhood index value of the municipality in which they reside. Six regression models were generated to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and overall air pollution. All models were adjusted with sex, age, and smoking status. Stratification was conducted by residency (urban/rural). Moran's I was calculated to identify spatial clusters, and adjusted regression analysis was conducted to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that people with higher neighborhood index, people living with smaller number of family members, and people with no education lived in municipalities with better overall air quality. The association differed by residency in some cases, and consideration of spatial autocorrelation altered the association. This study gives strength to the idea that environmental discrimination exists in some socioeconomic groups in Korea, and that residency and spatial autocorrelation must be considered

  4. A Comparison Study on Socio-Economic Variables and Life Satisfaction Among the Elders people, Gorgan, in 2004 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadHossein Hajiebrahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The elder population and their proportion of the total population are increasing in our country. Their population has reached to 7.3 percent of total population in 2006 compared with their population at 1996 and it shows a 1.5 times increase during ten years.The aim of this study was to compare the socio-economic situation of elder people who were living in two areas in Gorgan city, Golestan province in north of Iran, which is covered by 4th and 5th urban health center between in 2004 and 2009. Methods & Materials: A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study has been conducted among 884 elder people who were resident in the study area at 2009. Data collection has been done through a questionnaire, filled out by trained persons. The results are compared with the outcomes of pervious unpublished study at 2004 which has been carried out among 315 elder people in the same study area. Qui-Square and independent T-test statistical methods used to analysis the data. We use SAS version 9.2 to analyze the data. Results: Mean age of elder people was 67.2±6.7 at 2009 and 67.6±6.7 years at 2004. Educational level had a significant change in 2009 compared with 2004 (P=0.0002. Compared with 2004, marital status (P=0.0021 and economical level (P<0.0001 had statistically significant changes in 2009. Moreover, visiting friends, going to park, going for movies and visiting the family showed statistical significant change in 2009 compared to 2004 by P<0.001, P=0.0173, P=0.0001, P=0.0435 and P=0.0001 respectively. In addition, being high energetic showed a statistically significant change (P<0.01 in 2009 compared to 2004, when we considered the satisfaction of life among elders. Conclusion: It is necessary to pay more attention to social, economic and life satisfaction problems of elder people which are dramatically growing by increasing the elder population and their higher proportion in entire population of the world particularly in Iran. We need

  5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF SUPLIT STONE BREAKER WOMEN IN SUPPORTING FAMILY LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF INFORMAL SECTOR STONE BREAKER WORKER IN THE NORTH MORAMO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambolong M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A socio-economic study of Suplit Stone breaker women In Supporting Family life is a study of the Informal Sector Workers carried out in the form of a survey. This study aims to assess the socio-economic level of the workers, educational level, results achieved, income levels, health effects, and household's social condition. This research will specifically study and analyze income received, identify and examine the issues that arise in performing stone breaker as an occupation: deficiencies, expectations, and negative impacts. Ten urban villages/villages in Moramo North District was taken as research population. Area samples taken were five (5 urban/rural where workers are concentrated in Lalowaru Village, Puasana Village, Mata Mawatu Village, Sanggula Village, and Lamokula Village. Samples community were 5 percent of all household. Therefore total samples taken were 93 people scattered in villages. Research informants are Head of North Morano district, Stone Processing owner, and stone carrier driver. Data collection was conducted by observation, interview using a list of questions, as well as documentation of objective conditions. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis techniques, which describe the objective conditions of the field in accordance with the purpose of research. Research result shows workers are housewives who help their husbands and families to supplement the household income to support family life. In general, socio-economic conditions of women suplit stone breaker is relatively low, their education level is generally elementary or none. The results achieved are still limited by an average of IDR 30,000, per day/worker is calculated based on the total stone yield. These women perform their work using simple tools such as hammer and gloves. The negative impact on eye health and breathing difficulty caused by inhaling stone dust every day. The problems faced by the workers is the lack of working capital to be trying to own

  6. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The "Be Active, Eat Right" Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.; Vogel, I.; van Rossem, L.; Renders, C.M.; Hirasing, R.A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Raat, H.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old

  7. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  8. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be active, eat right" study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  9. Associations between perceived stress, socioeconomic status, and health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)