WorldWideScience

Sample records for socioeconomic disadvantage experienced

  1. The Online Life of Individuals Experiencing Socioeconomic Disadvantage: How Do They Experience Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Kathleen; Bruce, Christine S.; Hughes, Hilary; Davis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the online information experiences of individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage in Australia. As access to online information becomes increasingly critical those without access are in danger of being left behind. This exploratory pilot study examines the way that digital exclusion may be experienced.…

  2. Coexisting Disadvantages in later Life: Demographic and Socio-Economic Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Heap, Josephine; Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify which of certain demographic and socio-economic groups in the oldest part of the population that have an increased probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in different life domains - here termed coexisting disadvantages. To do so, we compared analyses of coexisting disadvantages, measured as two or more simultaneous disadvantages, with analyses of single disadvantages and specific combinations of disadvantages. Indicators of physical health p...

  3. Gender differences in asthma prevalence: variations with socioeconomic disadvantage.

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    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Gill, Tiffany K; Grant, Janet F; Adams, Robert J; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been shown to vary for different diseases and by gender. This study aimed to examine gender differences in associations between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage. Socioeconomic variables were assessed among men and women in the North West Adelaide Health Study, a representative population cohort (n = 4060) aged 18 years and over in metropolitan South Australia. Asthma was determined from spirometry and self-reported doctor diagnosis. The prevalence of asthma was 12.0% (95% CI: 11.1-13.1), and was significantly higher among women (13.5%) than men (10.5%). For participants aged 18-64 years a higher prevalence of asthma was associated with an education level of secondary school or lower, or not being in the paid labour force among men, and with a gross annual household income of $20,000 or less among women. Among socioeconomically advantaged groups, the prevalence of asthma was significantly higher among women than men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher asthma prevalence, although this varied by gender depending on the indicator of socioeconomic position used. Men with low education or those not employed in the paid labour force had higher asthma prevalence than more socioeconomically advantaged men. Women with low income had higher asthma prevalence than those with higher income. Among all socioeconomically advantaged groups, and also the low-income group, women experienced a higher prevalence of asthma than men.

  4. Coexisting Disadvantages in later Life: Demographic and Socio-Economic Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Josephine; Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify which of certain demographic and socio-economic groups in the oldest part of the population that have an increased probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in different life domains - here termed coexisting disadvantages. To do so, we compared analyses of coexisting disadvantages, measured as two or more simultaneous disadvantages, with analyses of single disadvantages and specific combinations of disadvantages. Indicators of physical health problems, ADL limitations, psychological health problems, limited financial resources, and limited social resources were included. We used nationally representative data from 2011 on people aged 76 and older in Sweden ( n  = 765). Results showed that coexisting disadvantages were associated with specific demographic and socio-economic groups, particularly certain marital status groups. Moreover, the differences between the demographic and socio-economic groups were only found for those who reported coexisting disadvantages, and not for those who reported only one disadvantage, which suggests that demographic and social factors become more important as disadvantages compound. Further, we analysed pairwise combinations of disadvantages. We found that different combinations of disadvantages tended to be associated with different groups, information useful from a social planning perspective since different combinations of disadvantages may imply different needs for help and support.

  5. Home and away: Area socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Sharp, Gregory; Denney, Justin T

    2017-03-01

    Although residential context is linked to obesity risk, less is known about how the additional places where we work, shop, play, and worship may influence that risk. We employ longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS) to derive time-weighted measures of exposure to home and activity space contexts to ascertain the impacts of each on obesity risk for adults. Results show that increased exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage in the residential neighborhood significantly increases obesity risk, and although activity space disadvantage does not directly influence obesity, it reduces the association between residential disadvantage and obesity. We further explore the ways in which residential and activity space disadvantages may interact to influence obesity and discuss the value of integrating personal exposure and activity space contexts to better understand how places contribute to individual health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

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    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses such as psychosis are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper thus examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health and health service utilisation in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilises quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, South Australia. Participants (42% female provided information about socio-economic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilisation. The paper highlights that socio-economic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by

  7. Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program for Families with Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van den Ban, E.; Matthys, W.

    2017-01-01

    Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic

  8. Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A life-course study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Milne, Barry J.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates what risk factors contribute to an excess risk of poor adult health among children who experienced socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. Data come from 1,037 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, followed from birth up to age 32. Childhood SES was measured at multiple points between birth and age 15 years. Risk factors included a familial liability to poor health, childhood/adolescent health risks, low childhood IQ, exposure to childhood maltreatment, and ad...

  9. Socio-economic disadvantage, quality of medical care and admission for acute severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, J; Vamos, M; Fergusson, W

    1997-06-01

    In asthma, socio-economic and health care factors may operate by a number of mechanisms to influence asthma morbidity and mortality. To determine the quality of medical care including the patient perception of the doctor-patient relationship, and the level of socio-economic disadvantage in patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (15-50 years) admitted to hospital (general ward or intensive care unit) with acute asthma were prospectively assessed using a number of previously validated instruments. The initial subjects had severe asthma on admission (pH = 7.3 +/- 0.2, PaCO2 = 7.1 +/- 5.0 kPa, n = 90) but short hospital stay (3.7 +/- 2.6 days). Although having high morbidity (40% had hospital admission in the last year and 60% had moderate/severe interference with sleep and/or ability to exercise), they had indicators of good ongoing medical care (96% had a regular GP, 80% were prescribed inhaled steroids, 84% had a peak flow meter, GP measured peak flow routinely in 80%, 52% had a written crisis plan and 44% had a supply of steroids at home). However, they were severely economically disadvantaged (53% had experienced financial difficulties in the last year, and for 35% of households the only income was a social security benefit). In the last year 39% had delayed or put off GP visit because of cost. Management of the index attack was compromised by concern about medical costs in 16% and time off work in 20%. Patients admitted to hospital with acute asthma have evidence of good quality on-going medical care, but are economically disadvantaged. If issues such as financial barriers to health care are not acknowledged and addressed, the health care services for asthmatics will not be effectively utilised and the current reductions in morbidity and mortality may not be maintained.

  10. Why Do Children from Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Families Suffer from Poor Health When They Reach Adulthood? A Life-Course Study. : Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior , Maria; Moffitt , Terrie ,; Milne , Barry ,; Poulton , Richie; Caspi , Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The authors investigated what risk factors contribute to an excess risk of poor adult health among children who experience socioeconomic disadvantage. Data came from 1,037 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-1973, who were followed from birth to age 32 years (2004-2005). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured at multiple points between birth and age 15 years. Risk factors evaluated included a familial liability to poor health, childhood/adolescent...

  11. The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with socioeconomic disadvantage: alternative explanations and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Method Secondary analysis of a UK birth cohort (the Millennium Cohort Study, N = 19,519) was used to model the association of ADHD with socioeconomic disadvantage and assess ...

  12. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  13. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  14. Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.

  15. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  16. Socioeconomic disadvantage and oral-health-related hospital admissions: a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Western Australian population study was to assess the relationship of socioeconomic disadvantage and: 1) trends in hospitalisations for oral-health-related conditions over 10 years; 2) insurance status, costs and length of stay in hospital; and 3) specific conditions (principal diagnosis) patients were admitted for. Hospitalisation data (of oral-health-related conditions) were obtained for every episode of discharge from all hospitals in Western Australia for the financial years 1999-2000 to 2008-2009. Area based measures (using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage) was used to determine relationships between socioeconomic status and other variables. The most disadvantaged in the population are being hospitalised at significantly higher rates than other groups, stay in hospital for longer, and at higher costs. This trend remained over a period of 10 years. Those least disadvantaged have the second highest rates of hospitalisation, but the likelihood of being admitted for different procedures differ between these two extremes. The importance of socioeconomic determinants of health are evident when analysing these hospitalisations. Recognition that lifestyle choices are severely restricted among the most marginalised and disadvantaged groups in the population can no longer be ignored in attempts to reduce health inequalities.

  17. Pathways between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Childhood Growth in the Scottish Longitudinal Study, 1991-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Richard J; Williamson, Lee; Grundy, Emily M; De Stavola, Bianca L

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4.5 years were related to three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage (mother's education, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, synthetic weekly income). Mediation was examined using two approaches: a 'traditional' mediation analysis and a counterfactual-based mediation analysis. Both analyses identified a negative effect of each measure of socioeconomic disadvantage on height, mediated to some extent by birth weight, and a positive 'direct effect' of mother's education and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation on overweight/obesity, which was partly counterbalanced by a negative 'indirect effect'. The extent of mediation estimated when adopting the traditional approach was greater than when adopting the counterfactual-based approach because of inappropriate handling of intermediate confounding in the former. Our findings suggest that higher birth weight in more disadvantaged groups is associated with reduced social inequalities in height but also with increased inequalities in overweight/obesity.

  18. Is there Complex Trauma Experience typology for Australian's experiencing extreme social disadvantage and low housing stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Carol A; Magee, Christopher A; Kelly, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability. Data on adverse childhood experiences, adulthood interpersonal trauma and relevant covariates were collected through interviews at baseline (Wave 1). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify distinct classes of childhood trauma history, which included physical assault, neglect, and sexual abuse. Multinomial logistic regression investigated childhood relevant factors associated with class membership such as biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years and number of times in foster care. Of the total sample (N=1682), 99% reported traumatic adverse childhood experiences. The most common included witnessing of violence, threat/experience of physical abuse, and sexual assault. LCA identified six distinct childhood trauma history classes including high violence and multiple traumas. Significant covariate differences between classes included: gender, biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years, and time in foster care. Identification of six distinct childhood trauma history profiles suggests there might be unique treatment implications for individuals living in extreme social disadvantage. Further research is required to examine the relationship between these classes of experience, consequent impact on adulthood engagement, and future transitions though homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Simultaneous Effects of Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Child Health on Children’s Cognitive Development

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    Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot

    2018-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and child health are so strongly related that scholars have speculated child health to be an important pathway through which a “cycle of poverty” is reproduced across generations. Despite increasing recognition that SES and health work reciprocally and dynamically over the life course to produce inequality, however, existing research has yet to address how these two pathways simultaneously shape children’s development. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and marginal structural models, we ask three questions: 1) how does the reciprocal relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and child health affect estimates of each circumstance on children’s cognitive development?; 2) how do their respective effects vary with age?; and 3) do family SES and child health have differential effects on cognitive development across population subgroups? The results show that the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health are insensitive to their reciprocal relationships over time. We find divergent effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health on children’s cognitive trajectories, with a widening pattern for family SES effects and a leveling-off pattern for child health effects. Finally, the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage are similar across all racial/ethnic groups, while the effects of child health are largely driven by white children. We discuss theoretical and policy implications of these findings for future research. PMID:28836169

  20. Obesity and socioeconomic disadvantage in midlife female public sector employees: a cohort study.

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    Hiilamo, Aapo; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne

    2017-10-24

    The two-way relationship between obesity and socioeconomic disadvantage is well established but previous studies on social and economic consequences of obesity have primarily focused on relatively young study populations. We examined whether obesity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage through the 10-12-year follow-up, and how obesity-related socioeconomic inequalities develop during midlife among women. Baseline data were derived from the female population of the Helsinki Health Study cohort, comprising 40-60 -year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland in 2000-2002 (n = 6913, response rate 69%). The follow-up surveys were carried out in 2007 (n = 5810) and 2012 (n = 5400). Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by five dichotomous measures. Repeated logistic regression analyses utilising generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test the association between baseline self-reported obesity and the likelihood of socioeconomic disadvantage through all phases. The effect of time on the development of inequalities was examined by time interaction terms in random effect logistic regression models. After adjustment for educational level, baseline obesity was associated with repeated poverty (OR = 1.23; 95% CI; 1.05-1.44), frequent economic difficulties (OR = 1.74; 95% CI; 1.52-1.99), low household net income (OR = 1.23; 95% CI; 1.07-1.41), low household wealth (OR = 1.90; 95% CI; 1.59-2.26) and low personal income (OR = 1.22; 95% CI; 1.03-1.44). The differences in poverty rate and low personal income between the participants with obesity and participants with normal weight widened during the follow-up. Living without a partner and early exit from paid employment explained the widening of inequalities. Weight status inequalities in socioeconomic disadvantage persisted or widened during the late adulthood.

  1. Language and Disadvantage: A Comparison of the Language Abilities of Adolescents from Two Different Socioeconomic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…

  2. The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with socioeconomic disadvantage: alternative explanations and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Secondary analysis of a UK birth cohort (the Millennium Cohort Study, N = 19,519) was used to model the association of ADHD with socioeconomic disadvantage and assess evidence for several potential explanatory pathways. The case definition of ADHD was a parent-report of whether ADHD had been identified by a medical doctor or health professional when children were 7 years old. ADHD was associated with a range of indicators of social and economic disadvantage including poverty, housing tenure, maternal education, income, lone parenthood and younger motherhood. There was no evidence to suggest childhood ADHD was a causal factor of socioeconomic disadvantage: income did not decrease for parents of children with ADHD compared to controls over the 7-year study period. No clinical bias towards labelling ADHD in low SES groups was detected. There was evidence to suggest that parent attachment/family conflict mediated the relationship between ADHD and SES. Although genetic and neurological determinants may be the primary predictors of difficulties with activity level and attention, aetiology appears to be influenced by socioeconomic situation. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Oldenburg, Brian F; Harris, Elizabeth; Jolley, Damien

    2004-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and GP utilisation across Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that differed in their geographic remoteness, and to assess whether Indigenous status and GP availability modified the association. Retrospective analysis of Medicare data for all unreferred GP consultations (1996/97) for 952 SLAs comprising the six Australian States. Geographic remoteness was ascertained using the Area Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and SES was measured by grouping SLAs into tertiles based on their Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage score. Age/sex standardised rates of GP utilisation for each SLA. In SLAs classified as 'highly accessible', rates of GP use were 10.8% higher (95% CI 5.7-16.0) in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile after adjustment for Indigenous status and GP availability. A very different pattern of GP utilsation was found in 'remote/very remote' SLAs. After adjustment, rates of GP use in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile were 25.3% lower (95% CI 5.9-40.7) than in the most advantaged tertile. People in socio-economically disadvantaged metropolitan SLAs have higher rates of GP utilisation, as would be expected due to their poorer health. This is not true for people living in disadvantaged remote/very remote SLAs: in these areas, those most in need of GP services are least likely to receive them. Australia may lay claim to having a primary health care system that provides universal coverage, but we are still some way from having a system that is economically and geographically accessible to all.

  4. Socioeconomic Disadvantage Is Associated with a Higher Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Nichols, Linda; Stirling, Christine; Otahal, Petr; Stankovich, Jim; Gall, Seana

    2018-03-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) incidence is not well studied. Varied definitions of "subarachnoid hemorrhage" have led to a lack of clarity regarding aSAH incidence. The impact of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and geographical location on the incidence of aSAH also remains unclear. Using a population-based statewide study, we examined the incidence of aSAH in relation to socioeconomic disadvantage and geographical location. A retrospective cohort study of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages from 2010 to 2014 was undertaken. Researchers manually collected data from multiple overlapping sources including statewide administrative databases, individual digital medical records, and death registers. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) per 100,000 person years were calculated using the 2001 Australian population. Differences in incidence rate ratios were calculated by age, sex, area-level socioeconomic status, and geographical location using Poisson regression. The cohort of 237 cases (mean age, 61.0 years) with a female predominance of 166 (70.04%) included 159 confirmed aSAH, 52 community-based deaths, and 26 probable cases. The ASR for aSAH was 9.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.69-11.29). A significant association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and incidence was observed, with the rate of aSAH in disadvantaged geographical areas being 1.40 times higher than that in advantaged areas (95% CI, 1.11-1.82; P = .012). This study uses a comprehensive search of multiple data sources to define a new baseline of aSAH within an Australian population. This study presents a higher incidence rate of aSAH with socioeconomic variations. As a key risk factor that may explain this paradox, addressing socioeconomic inequalities is important for effective prevention and management interventions. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Occupational, Leisure-Time, and Household Physical Activity, and Diabetes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Lee, Chioun; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink

    2017-10-01

    Regular physical activity is a key way to prevent disease. However, we have a limited understanding of the socioeconomic precursors and glucoregulatory sequelae of engaging in physical activity in different domains. We examined the associations among life course socioeconomic disadvantage; meeting the physical activity guidelines with leisure-time physical activity, occupational physical activity, or household physical activity; and prediabetes and diabetes in the Midlife in the United States national study (N = 986). Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower odds of meeting the guidelines with leisure-time physical activity (odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.86). Adulthood disadvantage was associated with higher odds of meeting the guidelines with occupational physical activity (odds ratio = 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.53). Importantly, while meeting the guidelines with leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower odds of prediabetes and diabetes, we found no evidence for associations among occupational physical activity, household physical activity, and glucoregulation. Current US physical activity guidelines do not differentiate between physical activity for leisure or work, assuming that physical activity in any domain confers comparable health benefits. We documented important differences in the associations among lifetime socioeconomic disadvantage, physical activity domain, and diabetes, suggesting that physical activity domain potentially belongs in the guidelines, similar to other characteristics of activity (eg, type, intensity).

  6. Perceived discrimination, socioeconomic disadvantage and refraining from seeking medical treatment in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel; Hogstedt, Christer

    2007-05-01

    To analyse the association between perceived discrimination and refraining from seeking required medical treatment and the contribution of socioeconomic disadvantage. Data from the Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004 were used for analysis. Respondents were asked whether they had refrained from seeking required medical treatment during the past 3 months. Perceived discrimination was based on whether respondents reported that they had been treated in a way that made them feel humiliated (due to ethnicity/race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age or disability). The Socioeconomic Disadvantage Index (SDI) was developed to measure economic deprivation (social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves). Swedish population-based survey of 14,736 men and 17,115 women. Both perceived discrimination and socioeconomic disadvantage were independently associated with refraining from seeking medical treatment. Experiences of frequent discrimination even without any socioeconomic disadvantage were associated with three to nine-fold increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment. A combination of both frequent discrimination and severe SDI was associated with a multiplicative effect on refraining from seeking medical treatment, but this effect was statistically more conclusive among women (OR = 11.6, 95% CI 8.1 to 16.6; Synergy Index (SI) = 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)) than among men (OR = 12, 95% CI 7.7 to 18.7; SI = 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.1)). The goal of equitable access to healthcare services cannot be achieved without public health strategies that confront and tackle discrimination in society and specifically in the healthcare setting.

  7. Socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non-adherence with medication in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Bostrom, Gunnel; Hogstedt, Christer; Agren, Gunner

    2007-06-01

    Lack of adherence with pharmacological therapy is a public health concern that compels tremendous costs for the health care system and the community. To analyse the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non-adherence with medication, and to explore possible mediating effects of trust in health care and lifestyle profile. Cross-sectional population-based study based on data from the Swedish national public health surveys 2004-2005. The study comprised 13603 men and 18292 women aged 21-84 years who had any contact with a physician at a hospital or primary care centre. Measures Primary non-adherence with medication based on whether respondents reported that they refrained from purchasing at the pharmacy prescribed medication. Socioeconomic Disadvantage Index was based on four different indicators of economic deprivation. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with primary non-adherence with medication independent of long-term illness, risky lifestyle, low education, living alone and low trust for health care. This association increased with older age, particularly among women. Among individuals aged 21-34 years, severe compared with no socioeconomic disadvantage, was associated with two-fold increased odds for non-adherence with medication. The corresponding odds among individuals aged 65-84 years were three-fold increase among elderly men (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.4-7.8) and six-fold increase among elderly women (OR=6.2, 95% CI: 2.5-15.3). Yet every seventh elderly woman aged 65-84 years suffered from long-term illness. Results indicate that health policies for 'care on equal terms' in Sweden have been less successful in relation to equitable access to prescribed medication, especially among the elderly.

  8. Estimating the effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage on oral cancer in India using marginal structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Rao, Sreevidya; Mejia, Gloria C; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard M; Kamath, Veena; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Mittinty, Murthy N

    2015-07-01

    Early life socioeconomic disadvantage could affect adult health directly or indirectly. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of the direct effect of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer occurrence in adult life. We conducted a multicenter, hospital-based, case-control study in India between 2011 and 2012 on 180 histopathologically confirmed incident oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer cases, aged 18 years or more, and 272 controls that included hospital visitors, who were not diagnosed with any cancer in the same hospitals. Life-course data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, risk factors, and parental behavior through interview employing a life grid. The early life socioeconomic conditions measure was determined by occupation of the head of household in childhood. Adult socioeconomic measures included participant's education and current occupation of the head of household. Marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights were used to estimate the controlled direct effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer. The total effect model showed that those in the low socioeconomic conditions in the early years of childhood had 60% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.4, 1.9]) increased risk of oral cancer. From the marginal structural models, the estimated risk for developing oral cancer among those in low early life socioeconomic conditions was 50% (RR = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.4, 1.5]), 20% (RR = 1.2 [95% CI = 0.9, 1.7]), and 90% (RR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.7, 2.2]) greater than those in the high socioeconomic conditions when controlled for smoking, chewing, and alcohol, respectively. When all the three mediators were controlled in a marginal structural model, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.6). Early life low socioeconomic condition had a controlled direct effect on oral cancer when smoking, chewing tobacco, and alcohol were separately adjusted in marginal structural models.

  9. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, A E; Stansfeld, S A; Smuk, M; Lain, D; van der Horst, M; Vickerstaff, S; Clark, C

    2017-06-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood. This study builds upon previous research by examining associations between childhood adversity and self-reported labour force participation among older adults (aged 55). Data was from the National Child Development Study - a prospective cohort of all English, Scottish, & Welsh births in one week in 1958. There was evidence for associations between childhood adversity and increased risk of permanent sickness at 55 years - which were largely sustained after adjustment for educational disengagement and adulthood factors (mental/physical health, qualifications, socioeconomic disadvantage). Specifically, children who were abused or neglected were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. In addition, among males, those in care, those experiencing illness in the home, and those experiencing two or more childhood adversities were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. Childhood factors were also associated with part-time employment and retirement at 55 years. Severe childhood adversities may represent important distal predictors of labour force exit at 55 years, particularly via permanent sickness. Notably, some adversities show associations among males only, which may inform interventions designed to extend working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craike, Melinda; Wiesner, Glen; Hilland, Toni A; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2018-05-15

    People from socioeconomically disadvantaged population groups are less likely to be physically active and more likely to experience adverse health outcomes than those who are less disadvantaged. In this umbrella review we examined across all age groups, (1) the effectiveness of interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, (2) the characteristics of effective interventions, and (3) directions for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus were searched up to May 2017 to identify systematic reviews reporting physical activity interventions in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations or sub-groups. Two authors independently conducted study screening and selection, data extraction (one author, with data checked by two others) and assessment of methodological quality using the 'Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews' scale. Results were synthesized narratively. Seventeen reviews met our inclusion criteria, with only 5 (30%) reviews being assessed as high quality. Seven (41%) reviews focused on obesity prevention and an additional four focused on multiple behavioural outcomes. For pre school children, parent-focused, group-based interventions were effective in improving physical activity. For children, school-based interventions and policies were effective; few studies focused on adolescents and those that did were generally not effective; for adults, there was mixed evidence of effectiveness but characteristics such as group-based interventions and those that focused on physical activity only were associated with effectiveness. Few studies focused on older adults. Across all ages, interventions that were more intensive tended to be more effective. Most studies reported short-term, rather than longer-term, outcomes and common methodological limitations included high probability of selection bias, low response rates, and high attrition. Interventions can be successful at improving physical activity among children from

  11. Neighborhood Characteristics and Individual Homicide Risks : Effects of Social Cohesion, Confidence in the Police, and Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; McCall, Patricia L.; Elffers, Henk; Wittebrood, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This study tests hypotheses on the relationship between characteristics of neighborhoods in the Netherlands—their socioeconomic disadvantage, social cohesion, and residents’ confidence in the police—and the likelihood of homicide victimization. These hypotheses are derived from social

  12. Concurrent Social Disadvantages and Chronic Inflammation: The Intersection of Race and Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Aliza D

    2017-08-28

    Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, the findings reveal inflammation disparities between non-poor whites and the following demographic subgroups, net of sociodemographic and biological factors: young poor Hispanic women, young poor white men, young poor and non-poor Hispanic men, middle-aged poor and non-poor black women, middle-aged poor and non-poor black men, and middle-aged poor Hispanic men. Disparities in inflammation on account of social disadvantage are most evident among those aged 45-64 years and diminish for those 65 and older in both men and women.

  13. Predictors of weight stigma experienced by middle-older aged, general-practice patients with obesity in disadvantaged areas of Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Catherine; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Faruqi, Nighat; Stocks, Nigel; Harris, Mark F

    2018-05-21

    Rates of obesity have increased globally and weight stigma is commonly experienced by people with obesity. Feeling stigmatised because of one's weight can be a barrier to healthy eating, physical activity and to seeking help for weight management. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived weight among middle-older aged patients with obesity attending general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas of Australia. As part of a randomised clinical trial in Australia, telephone interviews were conducted with 120 patients from 17 general practices in socioeconomically disadvantaged of Sydney and Adelaide. Patients were aged 40-70 years with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 . The interviews included questions relating to socio-demographic variables (e.g. gender, language spoken at home), experiences of weight-related discrimination, and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Multi-level logistic regression data analysis was undertaken to examine predictors of recent experiences of weight-related discrimination ("weight stigma"). The multi-level model showed that weight stigma was positively associated with obesity category 2 (BMI = 35 to stigma and gender, age, education or the other HLQ domains examined. Weight stigma disproportionately affected the patients with obesity most in need of support to manage their weight: those with more severe obesity, from non-English speaking backgrounds and who were not in employment. Additionally, those who had experienced weight stigma were less able to actively engage with healthcare providers further compounding their disadvantage. This suggests the need for a more proactive approach to identify weight stigma by healthcare providers. Addressing weight stigma at the individual, system and population levels is recommended. The trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN126400102162 .

  14. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend pay less attention to health (P-trend lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.

  15. The role of socio-economic disadvantage in the development of comorbid emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.

  16. Socioeconomic disadvantages and neural sensitivity to infant cry: role of maternal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Capistrano, Christian; Congleton, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage such as poverty can increase distress levels, which may further make low-income mothers more vulnerable to difficulties in the transition to parenthood. However, little is known about the neurobiological processes by which poverty and maternal distress are associated with risks for adaptations to motherhood. Thus, the current study examined the associations between income and neural responses to infant cry sounds among first-time new mothers (N = 28) during the early postpartum period. Lower income was associated with reduced responses to infant cry in the medial prefrontal gyrus (involved in evaluating emotional values of stimuli), middle prefrontal gyrus (involved in affective regulation) and superior temporal gyrus (involved in sensory information processing). When examining the role of maternal distress, we found a mediating role of perceived stress, but not depressive symptoms, in the links between income and prefrontal responses to infant cry. Reduced neural responses to infant cry in the right middle frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus were further associated with less positive perceptions of parenting. The results demonstrate that perceived stress associated with socioeconomic disadvantages may contribute to reduced neural responses to infant cry, which is further associated with less positive perceptions of motherhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (p<0.001), ‘positive smoker characteristics’ (p=0.003) and ‘positive taste characteristics’ (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

  18. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-02-06

    This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (p<0.001), 'positive smoker characteristics' (p=0.003) and 'positive taste characteristics' (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for 'negative smoker characteristics' (p=0.427) or 'negative harm characteristics' (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

  19. Correlates of High Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds are disproportionately affected by the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, yet data regarding risk factors in this population are lacking, particularly regarding emerging biomarkers of CVD such as C-reactive protein (CRP. We measured high-sensitivity CRP and examined its association with demographic and lifestyle factors in a sample of 792 participants aged 40–79 years from the Southern Community Cohort Study, which has an over-representation of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals (over 60% with a total annual household income 3 mg/L varied significantly by sex, race, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs (95% CIs for having elevated CRP were 1.6 (1.1–2.3 for women vs. men, 1.4 (0.9–2.0 for African Americans vs. whites, 2.3 (1.4–3.8 for African American women vs. white men, 1.8 (1.2–2.7 for current smokers vs. non-smokers, and 4.2 (2.7–6.6 for obese (BMI 30.0–44.9 kg/m2 vs. healthy-weight (BMI 18.3–24.9 kg/m2 participants. Further stratified analyses revealed that the association between BMI and elevated CRP was stronger among African Americans than whites and women than men, with prevalence ORs (95% CI comparing obese vs. healthy-weight categories reaching 22.8 (7.1–73.8 for African American women. In conclusion, in this socioeconomically disadvantaged population, sex, race, smoking, and BMI were associated with elevated CRP. Moreover, inflammatory response to obesity differed by race and sex, which may contribute to CVD disparities.

  20. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

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    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  1. Trajectories on the path to reciprocity-A theoretical framework for collaborating with socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Maria; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa; Anglin, James P

    2018-01-01

    The importance of cultivating connection to enhance individual, relational and collective well-being is gaining attention in the current literature on building community. Although these goals are being increasingly considered, the concept of reciprocity has been less prominent than may be warranted in the field of psychology. This article presents a theoretical framework on the dynamics of reciprocity which resulted from grounded theory (GT) research involving 2 complementary studies. The first study involved 22 participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds engaged in "reflecting-team with appreciative audiences" sessions (Madsen, 2007) in Portugal. The second study involved participant observation of 15 community programs recognized as good-practices in collaboration with socioeconomically disadvantaged participants, at national and international levels, across 9 countries. The theoretical framework emphasizes the centrality of building reciprocity for the development of individuals, families, communities, and programs. It integrates the trajectories of reciprocity; quadrants reflecting the standpoints assumed according to socioeconomic and cultural positions; basic social-psychological processes inherent to the process of building reciprocity; and characterizes different types of programs. The resulting framework is analyzed in relation to prior literature for a broader understanding of synergies and challenges, and the article concludes by suggesting implications for further research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Exercise Behavior, Facilitators and Barriers among Socio-economically Disadvantaged African American Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kosma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although exercise participation has numerous benefits among young adults, socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic minorities tend to be less active than their White counterparts of higher SES. Instead of relying on logical positivism in exercise promotion, a phronetic (humanistic approach may better assist with understanding exercise behavior. Objective: The study purpose was to examine the exercise behavior and qualitatively distinct exercise values (e.g., activity and inactivity reasons among socio-economically disadvantaged African American young adults. Method: This was a phronetic, qualitative study among 14 African American young adults (Mage = 32.97 years old ±14.13, who attended General Educational Development classes in an inner-city learning center. An in-depth and dialogical interview process was conducted regarding exercise behavior, positive and negative exercise experiences, reasons for exercise participation or not, exercise behavior of participants’ peers and significant others, and neighborhood safety. Results: Only three men met the minimum aerobic exercise recommendations and their main activity was basketball. Three individuals were somewhat active, while the rest of the participants were inactive. Based on the phronetic, thematic analysis, two themes emerged. Exercise facilitators included enjoyment (from skill and fitness development in a playful setting, health improvement, weight loss and toned physique, and utilitarian purpose (i.e., karate to work for campus security. Exercise barriers included time constraints and other priorities (school, work, caretaking, injuries, accessibility and cost issues, safety issues (unsafe neighborhoods, personality (lack of motivation and self-discipline, and undesirable results on appearance and performance. Conclusion: Exercise promoters should emphasize: a playful, culturally meaningful, and socially supported activities to increase fitness, skill development, and

  3. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-05-17

    The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. A realist review. MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which will require dedicated primary care resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  4. Gender-specific relationships between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, Whitney E; Rogers, Valerie; Smith, Tracey; Ryherd, Susan J; Botchway, Albert; Steward, David E

    2015-12-01

    To assess the gender-specific effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on obesity in elementary school students. We evaluated body mass index (BMI) data from 2,648 first- and fourth-grade students (1,377 male and 1,271 female students) in eight elementary schools in Springfield, Illinois, between 2012 and 2014. Other factors considered in analysis were grade level, year of data collection, school, race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic disadvantage (SD). Students were considered SD if they were eligible for free/reduced price lunch, a school-based poverty measure. We performed Fisher's exact test or chi-square analysis to assess differences in gender and obesity prevalence by the other factors and gender-stratified logistic regression analysis to determine if SD contributed to increased odds of obesity. A higher proportion of SD female students (20.8%) were obese compared to their non-SD peers (15.2%) (p=0.01). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated no difference in obesity in SD and non-SD male students. However, in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, SD female students had higher odds of obesity than their peers. Even after controlling for grade level, school, year of data collection, and race/ethnicity, SD female students had 49% higher odds of obesity than their non-SD classmates (odds ratio:1.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.04). Obesity was elevated in SD female students, even after controlling for factors such as race/ethnicity, but such an association was not seen in male students. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of this disparity, and interventions should be developed to target SD female students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children

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    Sefa Bulut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.

  6. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934-1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, H Maiju; Salonen, Minna K; Häkkinen, Antti; Olkkola, Maarit; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-08-18

    Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95). They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  7. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maiju Mikkonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95. They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  8. Attending, learning, and socioeconomic disadvantage: developmental cognitive and social neuroscience of resilience and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibli, Kylie; Wong, Kyle; Hedayati, Nina; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2017-05-01

    We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information. Attentional preferences influence the development of latent inhibition (LI), an aspect of learning that involves reassigning meaningful associations to previously learned but irrelevant stimuli. LI reflects learning processes clarifying the relationship between neurobiological mechanisms related to attention and socioeconomic disadvantage during child development. Notably, changes in both selective attention and typical LI development may occur via the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MsCL-DA) system. Chaotic environments, social isolation, and deprivation associated with low SES trigger stress responses implicating imbalances in the MsCL-DA and consolidating anxiety traits. BiDeT describes plausible interactions between socioemotional traits and low-SES environments that modify selective attention and LI, predisposing individuals to vulnerability in cognitive development and academic achievement. However, positive role models, parental style, and self-regulation training are proposed as potential promoters of resilience. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Discrimination and anger control as pathways linking socioeconomic disadvantage to allostatic load in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Imami, Ledina; Ong, Anthony D; Lumley, Mark A; Gruenewald, Tara

    2017-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that experiences of discrimination contribute to socioeconomic status health disparities. The current study examined if the experience and regulation of anger-an expected emotional response to discrimination-serves as an explanatory factor for the previously documented links between socioeconomic disadvantage (SED), discrimination, and allostatic load. Data were drawn from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 909 adults who participated in the biomarkers subproject. Results revealed that perceived discrimination was associated with higher levels of allostatic load. Furthermore, we found evidence that perceived discrimination and anger control sequentially explained the relationship between SED and allostatic load, such that greater discrimination was associated with lower levels of anger control, which, in turn accounted for the effects of discrimination on allostatic load. These results remained significant after controlling for negative affect, positive affect, other forms of anger expression, as well as demographic covariates. Our findings suggest that low anger control may be an important psychological pathway through which experiences of discrimination influence health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In

  11. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  12. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  13. Motivation and Barriers for Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between motivation and barriers for physical activity, and physical activity behavior in women living in socioeconomic disadvantage. This study also examined whether weight control intentions moderate those associations. Data from 1664 women aged 18-46 years was collected at baseline and three-year follow-up as part of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. In mail-based surveys, women reported sociodemographic and neighborhood environmental characteristics, intrinsic motivation, goals and perceived family barriers to be active, weight control intentions and leisure-time physical activity (assessed through the IPAQ-L). Linear regression models assessed the association of intrinsic motivation, goals and barriers with physical activity at baseline and follow-up, adjusting for environmental characteristics and also physical activity at baseline (for longitudinal analyses), and the moderating effects of weight control intentions were examined. Intrinsic motivation and, to a lesser extent, appearance and relaxation goals for being physically active were consistently associated with leisure-time physical activity at baseline and follow-up. Perceived family barriers, health, fitness, weight and stress relief goals were associated with leisure-time physical activity only at baseline. Moderated regression analyses revealed that weight control intentions significantly moderated the association between weight goals and leisure-time physical activity at baseline (β = 0.538, 99% CI = 0.057, 0.990) and between intrinsic motivation and leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.666, 99% CI = 0.188, 1.145). For women actively trying to control their weight, intrinsic motivation was significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.184, 99% CI = 0.097, 0.313). Results suggest that, especially in women trying to control their weight

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is not associated with wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer patients treated in a multidisciplinary setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Canner, Joseph K; Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Sherman, Ronald L; Hines, Kathryn; Lippincott, Christopher; Black, James H; Abularrage, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poor glycemic control and higher hospital admission rates in patients with diabetes. We sought to quantify the effects of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation on wound healing among a cohort of patients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) treated in a multidisciplinary setting. Socioeconomic disadvantage was calculated for all patients using the area deprivation index (ADI) stratified by quartile (from ADI-0: least through ADI-3: most). Predictors of wound healing were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models accounting for patient demographics, wound characteristics, and ADI category. Six hundred twenty-one wounds were evaluated, including 59% ADI-0, 7% ADI-1, 12% ADI-2, and 22% ADI-3. After accounting for patient demographics and wound characteristics, the likelihood of wound healing was similar between groups (ADI-3 versus ADI-0: hazards ratio [HR] 1.03 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.41]). Independent predictors of poor wound healing included peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.75), worse wound stage (stage 4: HR 0.48), larger wound area (HR 0.99), and partially dependent functional status (HR 0.45) (all, P healing was largely dependent on wound characteristics and vascular status rather than patient demographics or neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Use of a multidisciplinary approach to the management of DFU may overcome the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage frequently described in the diabetic population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and high-risk injection behavior among people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir, Jennifer; Lovasi, Gina S; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman; Lewis, Crystal Fuller

    2018-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted on the determinants of HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID), the influence of the neighborhood context on high-risk injection behavior remains understudied. To address this gap in the literature, we measured associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and high-risk injection behavior, and determined whether these associations were modified by drug-related police activity and syringe exchange program (SEP) accessibility. Our sample was comprised of 484 pharmacy-recruited PWID in New York City. Measures of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were created using data from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Associations with high-risk injection behavior were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression. Effect modification by drug-related police activity and SEP accessibility was assessed by entering cross-product terms into adjusted models of high-risk injection behavior. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with decreased receptive syringe sharing and unsterile syringe use. In neighborhoods with high drug-related police activity, associations between neighborhood disadvantage and unsterile syringe use were attenuated to the null. In neighborhoods with high SEP accessibility, neighborhood disadvantage was associated with decreased acquisition of syringes from an unsafe source. PWID in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported safer injection behaviors than their counterparts in neighborhoods that were relatively better off. The contrasting patterns of effect modification by SEP accessibility and drug-related police activity support the use of harm reduction approaches over law enforcement-based strategies for the control of blood borne virus transmission among PWID in disadvantaged urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.

  17. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p < .01), MVPA (7.9%; p < .001), and VPA (5.3%; p < .01) after controlling for weight status. Mediational analysis supports the significant indirect effect of MVPA on the relation between FMS and SB (95% CI: [-0.019, -0.006]). Adequate FMS development during early childhood may result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors.

  18. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban–regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukar E. Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster, this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban–regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional, and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage, nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools, and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban–regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed. Keywords: Australia, Fast food, Socioeconomic inequalities, Urbanicity, Schools, Land-use planning

  20. Community-based primary prevention programs decrease the rate of metabolic syndrome among socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Lauren Gray; Malhotra, Rajeev; Peltier-Saxe, Donna; Slicas, Donna; Pineda, Eliana; Culhane-Hermann, Catherine; Cook, Nakela; Fernandez-Golarz, Carina; Wood, Malissa

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) is one of the strongest predictors of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is associated with a 4- to 10-fold increased risk of DM2 and a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of CVD. Low income and minority women have some of the highest rates of MetSyn. This study examines the effect of a unique, community based, primary prevention program on the rates of MetSyn and health habits. Sixty-four low income and minority women were enrolled in the HAPPY (Health Awareness and Primary Prevention in Your neighborhood) Heart Program in an eastern suburb of Boston. Over these 2 years, patients were evaluated by an interdisciplinary medical team: their primary physician, cardiologist, nutritionist, physical therapist, and health coach. The rate of MetSyn was measured at baseline, year 1, and year 2. Comparisons were made either using the paired t test for normally distributed variables or the Wilcoxon Sign test for non-normal variables. The rate of MetSyn fell from 64.7% at baseline to 34.9% at year 1 (p=0.01) and 28.2% at year 2 (p<0.001). This was driven by increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (p<0.001) and decreases in blood pressure (p=0.05). Fasting blood glucose trended down, but the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reached significance (decreasing from 6 to 5.8, p<0.01). Nutrition and exercise habits trended toward improvement. There were significant decreases in anxiety (p<0.001), depression (p=0.006) and stress (p=0.002). This lifestyle intervention program is effective at decreasing MetSyn in a socioeconomically disadvantaged, largely minority, female population. This program also decreases anxiety, stress, and depression among participants.

  1. Longtintudinal asscociations of experience of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, A.E; Stansfield, S.A; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; Van der Horst, Mariska; Vickerstaff, Sarah; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...

  2. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...

  3. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  4. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514

  5. Cancer survival disparities worsening by socio-economic disadvantage over the last 3 decades in new South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna E. Tervonen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public concerns are commonly expressed about widening health gaps. This cohort study examines variations and trends in cancer survival by socio-economic disadvantage, geographical remoteness and country of birth in an Australian population over a 30-year period. Methods Data for cases diagnosed in New South Wales (NSW in 1980–2008 (n = 651,245 were extracted from the population-based NSW Cancer Registry. Competing risk regression models, using the Fine & Gray method, were used for comparative analyses to estimate sub-hazard ratios (SHR with 95% confidence intervals (CI among people diagnosed with cancer. Results Increased risk of cancer death was associated with living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with the least disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.17, and in outer regional/remote areas compared with major cities (SHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.06. People born outside Australia had a similar or lower risk of cancer death than Australian-born (SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–1.01 and SHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90–0.92 for people born in other English and non-English speaking countries, respectively. An increasing comparative risk of cancer death was observed over time when comparing the most with the least socio-economically disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.10 for 1980–1989; SHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12–1.17 for 1990–1999; and SHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21–1.27 for 2000–2008; p < 0.001 for interaction between disadvantage quintile and year of diagnosis. Conclusions There is a widening gap in comparative risk of cancer death by level of socio-economic disadvantage that warrants a policy response and further examination of reasons behind these disparities.

  6. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  7. Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR = 1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC. PMID:24152961

  8. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  9. Medical School Performance of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Underrepresented Minority Students Matriculating after a Multiple Mini-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Talamantes, Efrain; Fancher, Tonya; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 performance and third-year clerkship Honors, measures affecting residency matching. While URM status was not associated with the measures, students with greater SED had lower Step 1 scores and fewer Honors. Students with higher MMI scores had more Step 1 failures, but more Honors. The findings identify areas to address in medical school admissions, student support, and evaluation processes, which is important given the need for a more representative physician workforce.

  10. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Veitch, Jenny; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thornton, Lukar; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-19

    Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18-46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To

  11. Psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families: the role of proximal and distal adverse life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2008-12-01

    The study investigated if proximal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced in the last year) or distal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced before the last year) is a better predictor of adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior. It also tested for the specificity, accumulation and gradient of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior, and for the interaction between proximal and distal contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior. The sample was 199 11-18 year old children from a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which measures four difficulties (hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems) and prosocial behavior, was used. Confounders were age, gender, and maternal educational qualifications. To model the relationship between the five SDQ scales and contextual risk multivariate response regression models and multivariate response logistic regression models that allow the error terms of the scale specific models to be correlated were fitted. This study highlighted the importance of proximal contextual risk in predicting both broad and externalizing psychopathology, and the importance of considering risk accumulation rather than specificity in predicting psychopathology. By showing that the number of proximal adverse life events experienced had a steady, additive effect on broad and externalizing psychopathology, it also highlighted the need to protect adolescents experiencing current risk from further risk exposure. By showing that the number of distal adverse life events experienced did not affect the proximal risk's impact on either broad or externalizing psychopathology, it highlighted the need to protect all adolescents, irrespective of experience of early life adversities, from risk.

  12. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Krieger, Nancy; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen

    2004-02-01

    We sought to describe the burden of smoking on the US population, using diverse socioeconomic measures. We analyzed data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was greatest among persons in--and independently associated with--working class jobs, low educational level, and low income. Attempts to quit showed no socioeconomic gradient, while success in quitting was greatest among those with the most socioeconomic resources. These patterns held in most but not all race/ethnicity-gender groups. Finer resolution of smoking patterns was obtained using a relational UK occupational measure, compared to the skill-based measure commonly used in US studies. Reducing social disparities in smoking requires attention to the complexities of class along with race/ethnicity and gender.

  13. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crawford, D.A.; Ball, K.; Cleland, V.J.; Campbell, K.J.; Timperio, A.F.; Abbott, G.; Brug, J.; Baur, L.A.; Salmon, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the

  14. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  15. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharee Kantipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

  16. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Claire L; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Scott, David; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Prior, Lindsay; Cupples, Margaret E

    2014-05-23

    There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such 'hard-to-reach' population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents' and community leaders' perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an 'exit strategy' were perceived as important factors

  17. Paying the price: a cross-sectional survey of Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' responses to hypothetical cigarette price rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Doran, Christopher; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation can lead to reductions in tobacco consumption and prevalence of use across social groups. However, use of price-minimisation strategies to manage current and future tobacco use and the role of financial stress is less understood. This study aimed to measure the effect of cigarette price increases on price-minimisation strategy endorsement and financial stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Community service organisation welfare recipients in NSW, Australia completed a touchscreen survey. Smoking history, financial stress, highest price to quit and responses to hypothetical cigarette price increases were assessed. Participants were 354 smokers (response rate = 79%). Most participants received income from a government pension (95%), earned price rises, significantly more participants endorsed trying to quit in response to the larger increase scenario (P price-minimisation strategies (e.g. switching to cheaper brands/products) were endorsed, but remained constant across hypothetical scenarios; level of financial stress appeared to have little influence. Smokers indicating they would not change their smoking in response to price rises had higher levels of nicotine dependence. Socially disadvantaged smokers endorsed numerous price-minimising strategies to maintain smoking at hypothetically increased costs. Larger cigarette price rises motivated more smokers to consider quitting, while price-resistant smokers appeared to have a more entrenched smoker status. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Socioeconomic disadvantage and schizophrenia in migrants under mental health detention orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Jan; Hoffmann, Klaus; Querengässer, Jan; Ross, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Migrants with mental hospital orders according to section 63 of the German criminal code are overrepresented in relation to their numbers in the general population. Subgroups originating from certain world regions are diagnosed with schizophrenia at a much higher rate than others. In the present literature, there is a strong evidence for a substantial correlation between migration, social disadvantage and the prevalence of schizophrenia. This study investigates the relationship between countries of origin, the risk of becoming a forensic patient and the proportion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Data from a comprehensive evaluation tool of forensic inpatients in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg (FoDoBa) were compared with population statistics and correlated with the Human Development Index (HDI) and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). For residents with migration background, the risk ratio to receive a mental hospital order is 1.3 in comparison to non-migrants. There was a highly significant correlation between the HDI of the country of origin and the risk ratio for detention in a forensic psychiatric hospital. The proportion of schizophrenia diagnoses also correlated significantly with the HDI. In contrast, the MPI country rankings were not associated with schizophrenia diagnoses. Two lines of explanations are discussed: first, higher prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants originating from low-income countries, and second, a specific bias in court rulings with regard to involuntary forensic treatment orders for these migrant groups.

  19. Co-construction and evaluation of a prevention program for improving the nutritional quality of food purchases at no additional cost in a socio-economically disadvantaged population

    OpenAIRE

    Perignon, Marlène; Dubois, Christophe; Gazan, Rozenn; Maillot, Matthieu; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food prices influence food choices. Purchasing foods with higher nutritional quality for their price may help improve the diet quality of socio-economically disadvantaged individuals. Objective: To describe the co-construction and evaluation of the 'Opticourses' prevention program promoting healthy eating among participants in deprived socio-economical situations by improving the nutritional quality of their household food purchases with no additional cost. Methods: Individuals we...

  20. Sleep, biological stress, and health among toddlers living in socioeconomically disadvantaged homes: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica R; Sadler, Lois S; Canapari, Craig A; Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2017-12-01

    Healthy sleep is important to behavioral, neurobiological, and physiologic health. In older children and adults, stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and C-reactive protein, increase when they do not practice healthy sleep habits. However, little is known about the relationships among sleep health, stress, and health outcomes among very young children living with socioeconomic adversity, a group that is particularly at risk for poor future health. The NIH-funded study described in this protocol addresses this scientific gap to improve understanding of these relationships during a critical developmental period in children's lives-toddlerhood. We will use a longitudinal design with repeated measures to prospectively examine the relationships among sleep health, stress, and toddlers' health from age 12 to 24 months, to address the following aims: i) examine changes in subjective and objective sleep health measures; ii) examine changes in stress biomarkers; iii) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures and stress response; and iv) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures, stress biomarkers, and toddlers' behavioral health. The sample will include 113 toddlers and their caregivers. We are collecting subjective and objective data on sleep health, multi-systemic biomarkers of stress, and toddlers' behavioral health. Generalized linear models will be used in the data analyses. Results from this study will be used to support development and testing of interventions, such as those that may improve sleep, among young children at risk for toxic stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Attention-training with children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieff-Elson, Leigh E; Ockhuizen, Ju-Reyn H; During, Genevieve; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2017-09-01

    Attention is a core process underlying competence in higher-order cognitive abilities. Previous research suggests that healthy children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform poorly, relative to those from higher SES backgrounds, on tasks assessing attentional abilities. In this pilot study, we investigated the effects of an attention-training intervention on task performance in low-SES children. We conducted a quasi-controlled trial with stratified randomisation, using a pre-test/ post-test design. Participants were low-SES children aged 7-13 years. Each was assigned to either an intervention group, a play control group, or a test-only control group (n = 5 per group). We implemented a ten-week manualised cognitive rehabilitation program, Pay Attention!, administering standardised tests of attention, working memory, and inhibition before and after the intervention. Between- and within-group analyses and Reliable Change Index statistics evaluated differences in scores from pre- to post-intervention. Analyses detected no notable between-group differences at either pre- or post-intervention testing. However, on tests of selective attention, attentional control, and inhibition, there were significant within-group and positive individual reliable changes exclusive to the intervention-group participants. Given the variability in our findings, more research needs be conducted with a larger sample to determine, with greater rigour, the efficacy of the intervention within samples of healthy children from low-SES backgrounds.

  2. Socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course and oral health in older age: findings from a longitudinal study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Papachristou, Efstathios; Watt, Richard G; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, A Olia; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2018-04-19

    The influence of life-course socioeconomic disadvantage on oral health at older ages is not well-established. We examined the influence of socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age on oral health at older ages, and tested conceptual life-course models (sensitive period, accumulation of risk, social mobility) to determine which best described observed associations. A representative cohort of British men aged 71-92 in 2010-12 included socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age. Oral health assessment at 71-92 years (n = 1622) included tooth count, periodontal disease and self-rated oral health (excellent/good, fair/poor) (n = 2147). Life-course models (adjusted for age and town of residence) were compared with a saturated model using Likelihood-ratio tests. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, middle-age and older age was associated with complete tooth loss at 71-92 years-age and town adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.39 (1.02-1.90), 2.26 (1.70-3.01), 1.83 (1.35-2.49), respectively. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and middle-age was associated with poor self-rated oral health; adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.48 (1.19-1.85) and 1.45 (1.18-1.78), respectively. A sensitive period for socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age provided the best model fit for tooth loss, while accumulation of risk model was the strongest for poor self-rated oral health. None of the life-course models were significant for periodontal disease measures. Socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age has a particularly strong influence on tooth loss in older age. Poor self-rated oral health in older age is influenced by socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course. Addressing socioeconomic factors in middle and older ages are likely to be important for better oral health in later life.

  3. A Whole Class Teaching Approach to Improve the Vocabulary Skills of Adolescents Attending Mainstream Secondary School, in Areas of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aoife; Franklin, Sue; Breen, Annemarie; Hanlon, Molly; McNamara, Aoife; Bogue, Aine; James, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Young people from areas of socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are more likely to present with language difficulties, particularly vocabulary difficulties. Studies have shown the effectiveness of vocabulary interventions for children with language impairment but not for adolescents from areas of SED. This article aims to establish the effectiveness…

  4. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  5. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, Karla A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled

  6. Post-quit stress mediates the relation between social support and smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Atem, Folefac; Ma, Ping; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E

    2016-06-01

    Social support interventions have demonstrated limited effectiveness for preventing smoking relapse. The stress-buffering hypothesis may be a useful framework by which to understand social support in smoking cessation interventions. The current study evaluated the interrelations among social support, stress, and smoking cessation in both moderation and mediation models. Participants (N=139) were enrolled in a smoking cessation study at the safety-net hospital in Dallas, Texas. During the week prior to a scheduled quit attempt, general social support was measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) questionnaire and smoking-specific social support was measured via repeated smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA). Post-quit stress was repeatedly assessed via smartphone. Logistic regression analyses evaluated potential interaction effects of pre-quit social support and post-quit stress on the likelihood of achieving biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks post-quit. Mediation models were evaluated to determine if post-quit stress mediated the association between pre-quit social support and smoking cessation. Participants were predominantly Black (63.3%) and female (57.6%); and 55% reported an annual household income of social support did not significantly interact with post-quit stress to influence smoking cessation. However, post-quit stress did mediate associations between social support variables and smoking cessation. Findings indicated that social support impacts smoking cessation through its influence on post-quit stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults participating in cessation treatment. Increasing social support for the specific purpose of reducing stress during a quit attempt may improve smoking cessation rates in disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  8. A Randomized Trial of Collaborative Care for Perinatal Depression in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women: The Impact of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K; Katon, Wayne J; Russo, Joan E; Lohr, Mary Jane; Curran, Mary; Galvin, Erin; Carson, Kathy

    2016-11-01

    The comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with antenatal depression poses increased risks for postpartum depression and may delay or diminish response to evidence-based depression care. In a secondary analysis of an 18-month study of collaborative care for perinatal depression, the authors hypothesized that pregnant, depressed, socioeconomically disadvantaged women with comorbid PTSD would show more improvement in the MOMCare intervention providing Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, compared to intensive public health Maternity Support Services (MSS-Plus). A multisite randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment was conducted in the Seattle-King County Public Health System, July 2009-January 2014. Pregnant women were recruited who met criteria for a probable diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and/or dysthymia on the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (5.0.0). The primary outcome was depression severity at 3-, 6-, 12-and 18-month follow-ups; secondary outcomes included functional improvement, PTSD severity, depression response and remission, and quality of depression care. Sixty-five percent of the sample of 164 met criteria for probable comorbid PTSD. The treatment effect was significantly associated with PTSD status in a group-by-PTSD severity interaction, controlling for baseline depression severity (Wald χ²₁ = 4.52, P = .03). Over the 18-month follow-up, those with comorbid PTSD in MOMCare (n = 48), versus MSS-Plus (n = 58), showed greater improvement in depression severity (Wald χ²₁ = 8.51, P depression response (Wald χ²₁ = 4.13, P depression care had a greater impact on perinatal depressive outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women with comorbid PTSD than for those without PTSD. Findings suggest that a stepped care treatment model for high-risk pregnant women with both MDD and PTSD could be integrated into public health systems in

  9. Socio-economic disadvantage is associated with heavier drinking in high but not middle-income countries participating in the International Alcohol Control (IAC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, Taisia; Romeo, Jose S; Wall, Martin; Callinan, Sarah; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra; Mackintosh, Anne-Maree; Piazza, Marina; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Cuong, Pham Viet; Casswell, Sally

    2018-04-30

    To investigate if socio-economic disadvantage, at the individual- and country-level, is associated with heavier drinking in some middle- and high-income countries. Surveys of drinkers were undertaken in some high- and middle-income countries. Participating countries were Australia, England, New Zealand, Scotland (high-income) and Peru, Thailand and Vietnam (middle-income). Disadvantage at the country-level was defined as per World Bank (categorised as middle-or high-income); individual-level measures were (i) years of education and (ii) whether and individual was under or over the poverty line in each country. Measures of heavier drinking were (i) proportion of drinkers that consumed 8+ drinks and (ii) three drinking risk groups (lower, increasing and higher). Multi-level logistic regression models were used. Individual-level measures of disadvantage, lower education and living in poverty, were associated with heavier drinking, consuming 8+ drinks on a typical occasion or drinking at the higher risk level, when all countries were considered together. Drinkers in the middle-income countries had a higher probability of consuming 8+ drinks on a typical occasion relative to drinkers in the high-income countries. Interactions between country-level income and individual-level disadvantage were undertaken: disadvantaged drinkers in the middle-income countries were less likely to be heavier drinkers relative to those with less disadvantage in the high-income countries. Associations between socio-economic disadvantage and heavier drinking vary depending on country-level income. These findings highlight the value of exploring cross-country differences in heavier drinking and disadvantage and the importance of including country-level measurements to better elucidate relationships. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  11. Access to primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2018-01-01

    We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Older people's experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract-an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals' described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service.

  12. Is neighbourhood obesogenicity associated with body mass index in women? Application of an obesogenicity index in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Marilyn; Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2014-11-01

    An aggregate index is potentially useful to represent neighbourhood obesogenicity. We created a conceptually-based obesogenicity index and examined its association with body mass index (BMI) among 3786 women (age 18-45y) in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. The index included 3 items from each of 3 domains: food resources (supermarkets, green grocers, fast food restaurants), recreational activity resources (gyms, pools, park space), and walkability (4+ leg intersections, neighbourhood walking environment, neighbourhood safety), with a possible range from 0 to 18 reflecting 0-2 for each of the 9 items. Using generalised estimating equations, neighbourhood obesogenicity was not associated with BMI in the overall sample. However, stratified analyses revealed generally positive associations with BMI in urban areas and inverse associations in rural areas (interaction p=0.02). These analyses are a first step towards combining neighbourhood characteristics into an aggregate obesogenicity index that is transparent enough to be adopted elsewhere and to allow examination of the relevance of its specific components in different settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Mayasandra S; Nagendra, Hongasandra; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga, compared to physical activity on the cognitive performance in 7-9 year-old schoolchildren from a socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Two hundred (200) schoolchildren from Bangalore, India, after baseline assessment of cognitive functioning were randomly allocated to either a yoga or a physical-activity group. Cognitive functions (attention and concentration, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal ability, and abstract thinking) were assessed using an Indian adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at baseline, after 3 months of intervention, and later at a 3-month follow-up. Of the 200 subjects, 193 were assessed at 3 months after the study, and then 180 were assessed at the 3-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between the two study groups (yoga versus physical activity) at postintervention, after controlling for grade levels. Improvement in the mean scores of cognitive tests following intervention varied from 0.5 (Arithmetic) to 1.4 (Coding) for the yoga group and 0.7 (Arithmetic) to 1.6 (Vocabulary) in the physical-activity group. Yoga was as effective as physical activity in improving cognitive performance in 7-9 year old schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to examine the dose-response relationship between yoga and cognitive performance.

  14. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors' accumulation and protective factors' specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-06-01

    Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children's emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in 1,549 Lower layer Super Output Areas in nine strata. Contextual risk was measured at both area (with the Index of Multiple Deprivation) and family (with proximal and distal adverse life events experienced) level. Moderator variables were parenting, verbal and non-verbal ability, developmental milestones, and temperament. Multivariate multilevel models-that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level-and univariate multilevel models estimated risk effects on specific and broad psychopathology. At baseline, proximal family risk, distal family risk and area risk were all associated with broad psychopathology, although the most parsimonious was the proximal family risk model. The area risk/broad psychopathology association remained significant even after family risk was controlled but not after family level socioeconomic disadvantage was controlled. The cumulative family risk was more parsimonious than the specific family risks model. Non-verbal ability moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct and emotional problems, and developmental milestones moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct problems. The findings highlight the importance of modeling contextual risk appropriately and of locating in the cognitive domain factors that buffer its effect on young children's adjustment.

  15. [RIU project: perceived changes by health agents and professionals after a health intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviñó, Dory; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; La Parra Casado, Daniel; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    To describe how health agents and professionals working in a community project perceive the changes related to the population health status and their use of health-care services after the RIU intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage. A qualitative descriptive study based on individual and group interviews and participant observation conducted between October 2008-July 2009. Raval (Algemesí-Valencia) We selected by purposive sample 7 women health agents, all persons who completed the intervention, and 10 professionals for their involvement in the intervention. We conducted a group interview with the women at 6 months and a group and 7 individuals interviews both at 9 months of intervention. We realized a thematic descriptive analysis from health promotion framework. We used participant observation in a meeting with professionals at 9 months and analyzed field notes as: appraisal project, detected changes, challenges and recommendations. Women acquired information about health, contraception, pregnancy and heath services; they noted changes in self-care and social skills and leadership; they internalized the role of health worker disseminating what they learned and showed improvement in self-esteem and social recognition. They caused changes in the people related on health care and access to services. Professionals didn't incorporate at their work the community perspective; they valued positively the project; professionals and women agreed on improving access and use of services and closeness population-professionals. RIU increases the capabilities of the participants, their social recognition and improves access and use of health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Access to primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P.; Steel, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Methods Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Findings Older people’s experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract–an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals’ described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Conclusion Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service. PMID:29509811

  17. Utilization of preventive maternal and child public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of individual and small-area socioeconomic disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uptake of programmatic maternal and childhood preventive interventions continue to be sub-optimal in sub-Saharan Africa with wide variations within and across the countries. There is evidence suggestive of socioeconomic inequities in access to and coverage of preventive health intervention. In the context of maternal and child health (MCH) in sub-Saharan Africa, women and children among the poor are more disadvantaged in terms of access to life saving preven...

  18. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josie M M.; Ryde, Gemma.; Jepson, Ruth.; Gray, Cindy.; Shepherd, Ashley.; Mackison, Dionne.; Ireland, Aileen V.; McMurdo, Marion E T.; Williams, Brian.; Shepherd, A..; Jepson, R..; Gray, C..; Mackison, D..; Evans, J.M.M..; Ryde, G..

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualit...

  19. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas:a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting.METHODS: Studies using different quantitative and q...

  20. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-05-03

    To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Primary healthcare-17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; pdisadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; pdata analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Problem drinking and exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol consumption in Scottish men: associations with life course socioeconomic disadvantage in a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzeval Michaela

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With surveys suggesting that exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol intake is commonplace, the health and social impact of modifying intake on a population level is potentially considerable. If public health interventions are to be successfully implemented, it is first important to identify correlates of such behaviours, including socioeconomic disadvantage. This was the aim of the present study. Methods Population-representative cohort study of 576 men from the West of Scotland. Data on life course socioeconomic position were collected in 1988 (at around 55 years of age. Alcohol consumption patterns (detailed seven day recall and problem drinking (CAGE questionnaire were ascertained in 1990/2 (at around 59 years of age. A relative index of inequality was computed to explore the comparative strength of different indicators of social circumstances from different periods of the life course. Results Socioeconomic adversity in both early life and in adulthood was related to an increased risk of exceeding the weekly and daily alcohol guidelines, with adult indicators of socioeconomic position revealing the strongest associations. Of these, material indicators of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood – car ownership, housing tenure – were marginally more strongly related to heavy alcohol intake and problem drinking than education, income and occupational social class. A substantial proportion of the influence of early life deprivation on alcohol intake was mediated via adult socioeconomic position. Similar results were apparent when problem drinking was the outcome of interest. Conclusion In men in this cohort, exposure to disadvantaged social circumstances across the lifecourse, but particularly in adulthood, is associated with detrimental patterns of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in late middle age.

  2. Perceived discrimination amongst young people in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Parental support and community identity buffer (some) negative impacts of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Do employment protection policies reduce the relative disadvantage in the labour market experienced by unhealthy people? A natural experiment created by the Great Recession in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are likely needed to protect vulnerable groups during severe recessions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations: what do we know, what do we need to learn, and what should we do now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kuang, Xiaodong; Crock, Brittney; Skelton, Ashley

    2008-11-01

    Little is known about whether media campaigns are effective strategies to promote smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations or whether media campaigns may unintentionally maintain or widen disparities in smoking cessation by socioeconomic status (SES). This paper presents a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among low SES populations in the USA and countries with comparable political systems and demographic profiles such as Canada, Australia and Western European nations. We reviewed 29 articles, summarizing results from 18 studies, which made explicit statistical comparisons of media campaign effectiveness by SES, and 21 articles, summarizing results from 13 studies, which assessed the effectiveness of media campaigns targeted specifically to low SES populations. We find that there is considerable evidence that media campaigns to promote smoking cessation are often less effective, sometimes equally effective, and rarely more effective among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations relative to more advantaged populations. Disparities in the effectiveness of media campaigns between SES groups may occur at any of three stages: differences in meaningful exposure, differences in motivational response, or differences in opportunity to sustain long-term cessation. There remains a need to conduct research that examines the effectiveness of media campaigns by SES; these studies should employ research designs that are sensitive to various ways that SES differences in smoking cessation media effects might occur.

  5. Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Henry L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11 who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11 who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2 who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact

  6. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  7. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colman Peter G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD each local government area (LGA across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A, in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6 and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2. Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years. Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.

  8. Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia

    2017-07-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Parenting in Linking Family Socioeconomic Disadvantage to Physical Activity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in influencing adolescent health behaviors and parenting practices may be an important pathway through which social disadvantage influences adolescent health behaviors that can persist into adulthood. This analysis uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine how parenting practices mediate…

  10. Leading in Disadvantaged Zimbabwean School Contexts: Female School Heads' Experiences of Emotional Labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Joyce; Perumal, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study explored the sources of emotional stress experienced by 12 female Zimbabwean primary heads leading in socio-economic disadvantaged schools in Masvingo District and their attempts to alleviate the challenges that the children from these disadvantaged contexts presented them with. Data was generated through…

  11. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.

  12. Migration and access to maternal healthcare: determinants of adequate antenatal care and institutional delivery among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S; Kumari, Rita; Kaushal, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    To identify the determinants of adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilisation and institutional deliveries among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants living in Delhi, India. In a cross-sectional survey, 809 rural-urban migrant mothers with a child aged below 2 years were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Data on receiving antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, migration history and other social, demographic and income were collected. Recent migrants used the services significantly less than settled migrants. ANC was adequate only among 37% (35% of recent migrant women and 39% of settled migrants). Multinomial regression revealed that being a recent migrant, multiparous, illiterate and married to an unskilled worker were significant risk factors for receiving inadequate ANC. Around 53% of deliveries took place at home. ANC seeking has a strong influence on place of delivery: 70% of births to women who received inadequate ANC were at home. Women who are educated, had their first delivery after the age of 20 years and received adequate ANC were more likely to deliver their child in hospital. Post-natal care is grossly neglected among these groups. Migrant women, particularly recent migrants, are at the risk of not receiving adequate maternal healthcare. Because migration is a continuing phenomenon, measures to mitigate disadvantage due to migration need to be taken in the healthcare system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pselective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (pattention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.

  14. A disadvantaged advantage in walkability: findings from socioeconomic and geographical analysis of national built environment data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine E; Clarke, Philippa J

    2015-01-01

    Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition, region, and urbanicity across the United States. Using linear regression models and 2000-2001 US Census data, we investigated the relationship between 5 neighborhood census characteristics (income, education, racial/ethnic composition, age distribution, and sex) and 5 walkability indicators in almost 65,000 census tracts in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the built environment were obtained from the RAND Corporation's (Santa Monica, California) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (median block length, street segment, and node density) and the US Geological Survey's National Land Cover Database (proportion open space and proportion highly developed). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and those with more educated residents were more walkable (i.e., shorter block length, greater street node density, more developed land use, and higher density of street segments). However, tracts with a higher proportion of children and older adults were less walkable (fewer street nodes and lower density of street segments), after adjustment for region and level of urbanicity. Research and policy on the walkability-health link should give nuanced attention to the gap between persons living in walkable areas and those for whom walkability has the most to offer. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Mental health promotion and socio-economic disadvantage: lessons from substance abuse, violence and crime prevention and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumbourou, J W; Hemphill, S A; Tresidder, J; Humphreys, C; Edwards, J; Murray, D

    2007-12-01

    Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse and child health problems. Interventions that address underlying determinants of low SES show strong efficacy in decreasing adolescent crime and violence and effectiveness in improving child health outcomes. Although there is limited efficacy evidence that substance abuse prevention can be effectively addressed by targeting low SES, programs designed to improve educational pathways show some efficacy in reducing aspects of adolescent substance use. Mental health promotion strategies can draw on the approaches outlined here that are associated with the prevention of child and adolescent problems within low SES communities. Alternatively, such interventions could be supported in mental health promotion policy as they may assist in preventing related problems that undermine mental health.

  16. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie M. M. Evans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Results Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 % aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits. There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players. Intervention design (form and content was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. Conclusions It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic

  17. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian

    2016-04-18

    Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 %) aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits) and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits). There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players). Intervention design (form and content) was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage through a Bingo club setting. A physical activity

  18. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES, parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement.Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores, and lower grip strength (all p<0.05. In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05 and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001, whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001 and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05.Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention

  19. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children’s capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. Methodology The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8–12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Principal findings Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all p<0.05). In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05) and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001), whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001) and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical

  20. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (pmediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma.

  1. Is a perceived supportive physical environment important for self-reported leisure time physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged women with poor psychosocial characteristics? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2013-03-27

    Over the past decade, studies and public health interventions that target the physical environment as an avenue for promoting physical activity have increased in number. While it appears that a supportive physical environment has a role to play in promoting physical activity, social-ecological models emphasise the importance of considering other multiple levels of influence on behaviour, including individual (e.g. self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment) and social (e.g. social support, access to childcare) factors (psychosocial factors). However, not everyone has these physical activity-promoting psychosocial characteristics; it remains unclear what contribution the environment makes to physical activity among these groups. This study aimed to examine the association between the perceived physical environment and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas demonstrating different psychosocial characteristics. In 2007-8, 3765 women (18-45 years) randomly selected from low socioeconomic areas in Victoria, Australia, self-reported LTPA, and individual, social and physical environmental factors hypothesised within a social-ecological framework to influence LTPA. Psychosocial and environment scores were created. Associations between environment scores and categories of LTPA (overall and stratified by thirds of perceived environment scores) were examined using generalised ordered logistic regression. Women with medium and high perceived environment scores had 20-38% and 44-70% greater odds respectively of achieving higher levels of LTPA than women with low environment scores. When stratified by thirds of psychosocial factor scores, these associations were largely attenuated and mostly became non-significant. However, women with the lowest psychosocial scores but medium or high environment scores had 76% and 58% higher odds respectively of achieving ≥120 minutes/week (vs. <120 minutes/week) LTPA

  2. Improving access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a mixed method study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Jones, Andrew P; Wong, Geoff; Clark, Allan B; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Swart, Ann Marie; Steel, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    The UK has an ageing population, especially in rural areas, where deprivation is high among older people. Previous research has identified this group as at high risk of poor access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to generate a theory of how socioeconomically disadvantaged older people from rural areas access primary care, to develop an intervention based on this theory and test it in a feasibility trial. On the basis of the MRC Framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, three methods will be used to generate the theory. First, a realist review will elucidate the patient pathway based on existing literature. Second, an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing will be completed using structural equation modelling. Third, 15 semistructured interviews will be undertaken with patients and four focus groups with health professionals. A triangulation protocol will be used to allow each of these methods to inform and be informed by each other, and to integrate data into one overall realist theory. Based on this theory, an intervention will be developed in discussion with stakeholders to ensure that the intervention is feasible and practical. The intervention will be tested within a feasibility trial, the design of which will depend on the intervention. Lessons from the feasibility trial will be used to refine the intervention and gather the information needed for a definitive trial. Ethics approval from the regional ethics committee has been granted for the focus groups with health professionals and interviews with patients. Ethics approval will be sought for the feasibility trial after the intervention has been designed. Findings will be disseminated to the key stakeholders involved in intervention development, to researchers, clinicians and health planners through peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications, and locally through a dissemination event. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  3. Effect of a Home-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Breastfeeding Initiation Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged African American Women with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam K; López, Julia D; Stein, Richard I; Rhoades, Janine S; Schulz, Rosa C; Woolfolk, Candice L; Macones, George A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Cahill, Alison G

    2018-06-18

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) African American women with overweight or obesity are less likely to breastfeed. To test whether a home-based lifestyle intervention impacts breastfeeding initiation rates in SED African American women with overweight or obesity. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to March 2016 at a university-based hospital within the LIFE-Moms consortium. SED African American women with overweight or obesity and singleton gestations were randomized by 16 weeks to Parents as Teachers (PAT)-a home-based parenting support and child development educational intervention-or PAT+, PAT with additional content on breastfeeding. Participants completed a breastfeeding survey. Outcomes included breastfeeding initiation and reasons for not initiating or not continuing breastfeeding. One hundred eighteen women were included: 59 in PAT+; 59 in PAT. Breastfeeding initiation rates were similar in each group (78.00% in PAT+; 74.58% in PAT). On a one to four scale, with four denoting "very important," women in PAT+ and PAT were equally likely to rate their beliefs that formula was better than breast milk or breastfeeding would be too inconvenient as the most important reasons to not initiate breastfeeding. On the same scale, women similarly rated their difficulty latching or concern for low milk supply as the most important reasons for breastfeeding cessation. SED African American women with overweight or obesity who received a home-based educational intervention had higher breastfeeding rates than is reported nationally for black women (59%). However, the intervention with more breastfeeding content did not further increase breastfeeding rates or impact reasons for breastfeeding cessation. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01768793.

  4. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansfield Elizabeth D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1 to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2 to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59. Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.

  5. Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Francis, Damian K; Liberato, Selma; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Welch, Vivian; Batal, Malek; Greenhalgh, Trish; Rader, Tamara; Noonan, Eamonn; Shea, Beverley; Janzen, Laura; Wells, George A; Petticrew, Mark

    2015-03-05

    Undernutrition contributes to five million deaths of children under five each year. Furthermore, throughout the life cycle, undernutrition contributes to increased risk of infection, poor cognitive functioning, chronic disease, and mortality. It is thus important for decision-makers to have evidence about the effectiveness of nutrition interventions for young children. Primary objective1. To assess the effectiveness of supplementary feeding interventions, alone or with co-intervention, for improving the physical and psychosocial health of disadvantaged children aged three months to five years.Secondary objectives1. To assess the potential of such programmes to reduce socio-economic inequalities in undernutrition.2. To evaluate implementation and to understand how this may impact on outcomes.3. To determine whether there are any adverse effects of supplementary feeding. We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and seven other databases for all available years up to January 2014. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and several sources of grey literature. In addition, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and asked experts in the area about ongoing and unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs), and interrupted time series (ITS) that provided supplementary food (with or without co-intervention) to children aged three months to five years, from all countries. Adjunctive treatments, such as nutrition education, were allowed. Controls had to be untreated. Two or more review authors independently reviewed searches, selected studies for inclusion or exclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We conducted meta-analyses for continuous data using the mean difference (MD) or the standardised mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI), correcting for clustering if necessary. We analysed studies from low- and middle

  6. The Reliability of Free School Meal Eligibility as a Measure of Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the use of administrative data has become central to understanding pupil attainment and school performance. Of most importance has been its use to robustly demonstrate the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on pupil attainment. Much of this analysis in England and Wales has relied on whether pupils are eligible for free…

  7. Lessons learned from recruiting socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers into a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore the role of Exercise Assisted Reduction then Stop (EARS) smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tom P; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian H

    2015-02-12

    Research is needed on what influences recruitment to smoking reduction trials, and how to increase their reach. The present study aimed to i) assess the feasibility of recruiting a disadvantaged population, ii) examine the effects of recruitment methods on participant characteristics, iii) identify resource requirements for different recruitment methods, and iv) to qualitatively assess the acceptability of recruitment. This was done as part of a pilot two-arm trial of the effectiveness of a novel behavioral support intervention focused on increasing physical activity and reducing smoking, among disadvantaged smokers not wishing to quit. Smokers were recruited through mailed invitations from three primary care practices (62 participants) and one National Health Stop Smoking Service (SSS) database (31 participants). Six other participants were recruited via a variety of other community-based approaches. Data were collected through questionnaires, field notes, work sampling, and databases. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics of participants. We randomized between 5.1 and 11.1% of those invited through primary care and SSS, with associated researcher time to recruit one participant varying from 18 to 157 minutes depending on time and intensity invested.Only six participants were recruited through a wide variety of other community-based approaches, with an associated researcher time of 469 minutes to recruit one participant. Targets for recruiting a disadvantaged population were met, with 91% of the sample in social classes C2 to E (NRS social grades, UK), and 41% indicating mental health problems. Those recruited from SSS were more likely to respond to an initial letter, had used cessation aids before, and had attempted to quit in the past year. Overall, initial responders were more likely to be physically active than those who were recruited via follow-up telephone calls. No other demographics or behaviour characteristics were

  8. CKD in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-02-01

    The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health-care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expansion of the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased-donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increased community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  9. Adverse life events, area socio-economic disadvantage, and adolescent psychopathology: The role of closeness to grandparents in moderating the effect of contextual stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Tan, Jo-Pei; Griggs, Julia; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2010-09-01

    The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth.

  10. Family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behavioural problems, socio-economic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption among 4-12 year-old Victorians, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, A M N; Kumanyika, S; Tucker, K L

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to assess relationships between family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behaviour difficulties and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among 4-12-year-old children in Victoria, Australia. We used the 2006 Victorian Child's Health and wellbeing data set that included 3370 randomly selected primary caregivers of 4-12-year-old children interviewed between October 2005 and March 2006. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; level of family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device-General Functioning Scale and parental psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. The mean number of servings consumed per day was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.3) for fruit and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.1) for vegetables. The proportion of children meeting the minimum daily age-specific recommendation was 87.8% (95% CI: 86.4, 89.1%) for fruit and 36.5% (95% CI: 34.5, 38.5) for vegetables. Children with behaviour difficulties, low levels of prosocial behaviours and from poorly functioning households consumed fewer servings of F&V than children who did not experience any environment stressors or behavioural problems. Although parental psychological distress was not associated with fruit intake, daughters of parents who reported higher levels of psychological distress consumed fewer servings of vegetables than daughters of parents who reported lower levels of psychological distress. Child behavioural problems and family functioning and to some extent parental psychological distress were associated with F&V consumption. Programmes aimed at promoting F&V consumption in children should target those families with children experiencing behavioural problems or poorly functioning households.

  11. Identification of Intellectually Able Disadvantaged Filipino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval-Severino, Teresita

    1992-01-01

    Preschool Filipino children from disadvantaged urban communities were assessed for giftedness. This article describes the identification procedures and tools used and presents a profile of the children in terms of socioeconomic, intellectual, and personality variables. (Author/JDD)

  12. An Interactive, Mobile-Based Tool for Personal Social Network Data Collection and Visualization Among a Geographically Isolated and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population: Early-Stage Feasibility Study With Qualitative User Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Katherine S; Fagan, Jesse M; Collins, Tom

    2017-06-22

    . Respondents enjoyed the social network survey component, and visualizing social networks produced thoughtful responses from participants about leveraging or changing network content and structure for specific health-promoting purposes. Areas for improved literacy and functionality of the tool were identified. However, technical issues led to substantial (50%) data loss, limiting the success of its implementation from a researcher's perspective, and hindering practicality in the field. OpenEddi is a promising data collection tool for use in geographically isolated and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Future development will mitigate technical problems, improve usability and literacy, and test new methods of data collection. These changes will support goals for use of this tool in the delivery of network-based health communication and social support interventions to socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. ©Katherine S Eddens, Jesse M Fagan, Tom Collins. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 22.06.2017.

  13. The Effects of Country-wide Socio-economic Problems Experienced During the First World War on the region of Maraş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin GÜMÜŞALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The city of Maraş has been located geographically at the intersection of East Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia and Middle Anatolia regions. The city functioned as the capital city of Gurgum Kingdom which was one of Late Hitit cities due to its location and became an important center for long years at the intersection of trade ways passing through the region. Native people mostly dealt with agriculture and ranching to keep on living. The city has benefited from the advantages of being located on a plain next to Ceyhan River. Through the years, it became a region in which plenty kinds of fruits and vegetables were harvested. At the same time the city was an important region because of native people’s arts and crafts. The city always attracted the attention of domestic as well as foreign people due to the growing rice and cotton which were really precious industrial plants. The city of Maraş which is the main topic of this article became a station of food supplies for the army during World War I because of all these features. Sometimes arguments had taken place between the native people and the army for rice and other kinds of supplies which the city had given to the army. The city’s socioeconomic visage was changed with loss of population due to epidemics of diseases as the consequence of wars and exiles from the neighboring regions during the wars. The wartorn city was destroyed and put into fire due to many attacks during the period of National Struggle. That’s why the city needed a long time period to repair itself.

  14. Research into disadvantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    In: International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI): Educational Disadvantage. How do schools adress disadvantage?......In: International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI): Educational Disadvantage. How do schools adress disadvantage?...

  15. Using a Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach to develop and pilot a photo grid method to gain insights into early child health and development in a socio-economic disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Emma; Tyrrell-Smith, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of a Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach to develop a new research tool to involve members of the community in thinking about priorities for early child health and development in a deprived area of the UK. The CEnR approach involves researchers, professionals and members of the public working together during all stages of research and development.Researchers used a phased approach to the development of a Photo Grid tool including reviewing tools which could be used for community engagement, and testing the new tool based on feedback from workshops with local early years professionals and parents of young children.The Photo Grid tool is a flat square grid on which photo cards can be placed. Participants were asked to pace at the top of the grid the photos they considered most important for early child health and development, working down to the less important ones at the bottom. The findings showed that the resulting Photo Grid tool was a useful and successful method of engaging with the local community. The evidence for this is the high numbers of participants who completed a pilot study and who provided feedback on the method. By involving community members throughout the research process, it was possible to develop a method that would be acceptable to the local population, thus decreasing the likelihood of a lack of engagement. The success of the tool is therefore particularly encouraging as it engages "seldom heard voices," such as those with low literacy. The aim of this research was to consult with professionals and parents to develop a new research toolkit (Photo Grid), to understand community assets and priorities in relation to early child health and development in Blackpool, a socio-economic disadvantaged community. A Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach was used to consult with community members. This paper describes the process of using a CEnR approach in developing a Photo Grid toolkit. A phased CEnR approach

  16. Traversing myths and mountains: addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie

    2015-11-14

    In developed countries, individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage - whether a low education level, low income, low-status occupation, or living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhood - are less likely than those more advantaged to engage in eating and physical activity behaviours conducive to optimal health. These socioeconomic inequities in nutrition and physical activity (and some sedentary) behaviours are graded, persistent, and evident across multiple populations and studies. They are concerning in that they mirror socioeconomic inequities in obesity and in health outcomes. Yet there remains a dearth of evidence of the most effective means of addressing these inequities. People experiencing disadvantage face multiple challenges to healthy behaviours that can appear insurmountable. With increasing recognition of the role of underlying structural and societal factors as determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours and inequities in these behaviours, and the limited success of behaviour change approaches in addressing these inequities, we might wonder whether there remains a role for behavioural scientists to tackle these challenges. This debate piece argues that behavioural scientists can play an important role in addressing socioeconomic inequities in nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and that this will involve challenging myths and taking on new perspectives. There are successful models for doing so from which we can learn. Addressing socioeconomic inequities in eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours is challenging. However, successful examples demonstrate that overcoming such challenges is possible, and provide guidance for doing so. Given the disproportionate burden of ill health carried by people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, all our nutrition and physical activity interventions, programs and policies should be designed to reach and positively impact these individuals at greatest

  17. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of the...

  18. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  19. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure......), or the research methods— more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more openended research issues...

  20. Experiencing time

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporal reality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does it seem that way? These are the central questions addressed by Simon Prosser in Experiencing Time. These questions take on a particular importance in philosophy for two reasons. Firstly, there is a view concerning the metaphysics of time, known as the B-theory of time, according to which the apparently dynamic quality of change, the special status of the present, and even the passage of time are all illusions. Instead, the world is a four-dimensional space-time block, lacking any of the apparent dynamic features of time. If the B-theory is correct, as the book argues, then it must be explained why ...

  1. The Incidence and Short-term Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Illness with Cough in Children from a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Urban Community in Australia: A Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry K. Hall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia.MethodsProspective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center. ARIwC episodes and outcomes were collected for 12 months. Recurrent ARIwC was defined as ≥4 episodes in 12 months. Chronic cough was defined as cough lasting >4 weeks. Children who developed chronic cough were reviewed by a pediatric pulmonologist. Incidence densities per child-month of observation were calculated and predictors of recurrent ARIwC and chronic cough were evaluated in logistic regression models.ResultsBetween February 2013 and November 2015, 200 children were enrolled; median age of 18.1 months, range (0.7–59.7 months and 90% identified as Indigenous. A total of 1,722 child-months of observation were analyzed (mean/child = 8.58, 95% CI 8.18–9.0. The incidence of ARIwC was 24.8/100 child-months at risk (95% CI 22.3–27.5. Twenty-one children (10.5% experienced recurrent ARIwC. Chronic cough was identified in 70/272 (25.7% episodes of ARIwC. Predictors of recurrent ARIwC were presence of eczema, mold in the house, parent/carer employment status, and having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother/non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander father (compared to both parents being Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Predictors of chronic cough included being aged <12 months, eczema, childcare attendance, previous history of cough of >4 weeks duration, having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother/non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander father (compared to

  2. Are the Mothers of Hospitalized Socially Disadvantaged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and number of doses of scheduled immunizations received by 207 socially disadvantaged ... poor socio-economic status, poor housing, one parent ... percent of the total children surveyed. ... female ratio of 1.421. ... This information was not available in respect of 30 fathers and 1 1 mothers. ... S percent) out of 228 fathers of.

  3. Spatial dimensions of the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; South, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    esearch examining the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adolescent offending typically examines only the influence of residential neighborhoods. This strategy may be problematic as 1) neighborhoods are rarely spatially independent of each other and 2) adolescents spend

  4. Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Krnjacki, Lauren; Beer, Andrew; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Bentley, Rebecca

    2013-08-29

    The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time

  5. Gender differences in associations of neighbourhood disadvantage with alcohol's harms to others: a cross-sectional study from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2014-05-01

    To examine whether alcohol's harms to others are more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and whether men or women are at differential risk in these neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional survey data from 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were linked to geo-referenced indicators of neighbourhood disadvantage from the US 2000 Decennial Census. The pooled sample included 10,121 adults (54% female; average age 44.4 years; 69% White; 13% African-American; 13% Hispanic). A dichotomous indicator denoted neighbourhoods based on the top quartile on a five-item measure of disadvantage (alpha = 0.90). We examined past-year family problems due to someone else's drinking (marriage difficulties and/or financial trouble) and victimisation by someone who had been drinking (having property vandalised and/or being pushed, hit or assaulted). During the prior 12 months, 6% of women and 3% of men experienced family problems from someone else's drinking, and 4% of women and 7% of men reported being victimised by drinkers. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for individual-level socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics showed the relationship between neighbourhood disadvantage and harms from someone else's drinking was moderated by gender, with significantly higher odds of family problems in disadvantaged neighbourhoods for men but not for women, as well as significantly higher odds of crime victimisation in disadvantaged neighbourhoods for women but not men. Experiences of harms from someone else's drinking in disadvantaged neighbourhoods vary for men and women. Targeted intervention strategies are needed to reduce alcohol's harm to others. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Does cognitive ability buffer the link between childhood disadvantage and adult health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Emma; Daly, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from experiencing the physical and mental health consequences of early life socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; N = 11,522) were followed from birth to age 42, and those from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; N = 13,213) were followed from birth to age 50. Childhood social disadvantage was indexed using 6 indicators gauging parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e., housing tenure and home crowding). Standardized assessments of cognitive ability were completed at ages 10 (BCS) and 11 (NCDS) years. Psychological distress, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality were examined from early adulthood to midlife in both cohorts. Early social disadvantage predicted elevated levels of psychological distress and lower levels of self-rated health in both cohorts and higher mortality risk in the NCDS. Childhood cognitive ability moderated each of these relationships such that the link between early life social disadvantage and poor health in adulthood was markedly stronger at low (-1 SD) compared to high (+1 SD) levels of childhood cognitive ability. This study provides evidence that high childhood cognitive ability is associated with a decrease in the strength of socioeconomic status-driven health inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  8. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-18

    Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Prospective population-based linked data set. All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Midwifery continuity of carer in an area of high socio-economic disadvantage in London: A retrospective analysis of Albany Midwifery Practice outcomes using routine data (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Caroline Se; Leap, Nicky; Edwards, Nadine; Sandall, Jane

    2017-05-01

    in 1997, The Albany Midwifery Practice was established within King's College Hospital NHS Trust in a South East London area of high social disadvantage. The Albany midwives provided continuity of care to around 216 women per year, including those with obstetric, medical or social risk factors. In 2009, the Albany Midwifery Practice was closed in response to concerns about safety, amidst much publicity and controversy. The aim of this evaluation was to examine trends and outcomes for all mothers and babies who received care from the practice from 1997-2009. a retrospective, descriptive analysis of data routinely collected over the 12.5 year period was undertaken including changes over time and outcomes by demographic features. all women booked with the Albany Midwifery Practice were included. of the 2568 women included over the 12.5 year period, more than half (57%) were from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) communities; one third were single and 11.4% reported being single and unsupported. Almost all women (95.5%) were cared for in labour by either their primary or secondary midwife. There were high rates of spontaneous onset of labour (80.5%), spontaneous vaginal birth (79.8%), homebirth (43.5%), initiation of breastfeeding (91.5%) and breastfeeding at 28 days (74.3% exclusively and 14.8% mixed feeding). Of the 79% of women who had a physiological third stage, 5.9% had a postpartum haemorrhage. The overall rate of caesarean section was 16%. The preterm birth rate was low (5%). Ninety-five per cent of babies had an Apgar score of 8 or greater at 5minutes and 6% were admitted to a neonatal unit for more than two days. There were 15 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate of 5.78 per 1000 births); two were associated with significant congenital abnormalities. There were no intrapartum intrauterine deaths. this analysis has shown that the Albany Midwifery Practice demonstrated positive outcomes for women and babies in socially disadvantaged and BAME groups

  10. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  11. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  12. Gendered socioeconomic conditions and HIV risk behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this possibility, there are surprisingly few definitive studies that examine the effects of socioeconomic status on HIV risk and prevention behaviours among youth in South Africa. Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual ...

  13. Accessing Disadvantaged Pregnant Women in Houston, Texas, and Characterizing Biomarkers of Metal Exposure: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina W. Whitworth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communities of color or low socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by metal exposure given spatial variability of the ambient levels of these contaminants. Despite this, there is little research characterizing metal concentrations in blood among disadvantaged populations in the U.S., especially among pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable and difficult to access. Thus, we conducted a pilot study among disadvantaged pregnant women in Houston, Texas to assess willingness to participate in key activities of an epidemiologic study and characterize exposures to 16 metals. Thirty-one women attending a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic were included in this pilot study and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We obtained and measured metal compounds in whole blood samples for 22 of these women during third-trimester prenatal visits. Median whole blood concentrations of Ni, As, Cd, and Pb were 27, 1.4, 0.6, and 6.3 µg/L, respectively. Most women were willing to participate in critical aspects of a research study, including wearing a personal air-sampling badge for 2–3 days (87.1%, receiving ultrasounds (83.9%, and providing blood draws (64.5%. Despite the small sample, our results provide evidence of women’s metal exposure and their willingness to participate in future research studies to elucidate exposure pathways and explore related health effects experienced among this population of disadvantaged pregnant women.

  14. Cumulative contextual and individual disadvantages over the life course and adult functional somatic symptoms in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Disadvantage, originating in one's residential context or in one's past life course, has been shown to impact on health in adulthood. There is however little research on the accumulated health impact of both neighbourhood and individual conditions over the life course. This study aims to examine whether the accumulation of contextual and individual disadvantages from adolescence to middle-age predicts functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in middle-age, taking baseline health into account. The sample is the age 16, 21, 30 and 42 surveys of the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort, with analytical sample size n = 910 (85% of the original cohort). FSS at age 16 and 42, and cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage, social adversity and material adversity between 16 and 42 years were operationalized from questionnaires, and cumulative neighbourhood disadvantage between 16 and 42 years from register data. Results showed accumulation of disadvantages jointly explained 9-12% of FSS variance. In the total sample, cumulative neighbourhood and socioeconomic disadvantage significantly predicted FSS at age 42 in the total sample. In women, neighbourhood disadvantage but not socioeconomic disadvantage contributed significantly, whereas in men, socioeconomic but not neighbourhood disadvantage contributed significantly. In all analyses, associations were largely explained by the parallel accumulation of social and material adversities, but not by symptoms at baseline. In conclusion, the accumulation of diverse forms of disadvantages together plays an important role for somatic complaints in adulthood, independently of baseline health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal disadvantage factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, K.M.S.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described where reactor cell flux and the disadvantage factor are calculated by using diffusion theory in the moderator and integral transport in the fuel. The method is efficient (noniterative) and provides results that agree well with Monte Carlo, P 5 and ABH results

  16. Exploitation and disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, B.

    2016-01-01

    According to some accounts of exploitation, most notably Ruth Sample's (2003) degradation-based account and Robert Goodin's (1987) vulnerability-based account, exploitation occurs when an advantaged party fails to constrain their advantage in light of another's disadvantage, regardless of the cause

  17. WHO ARE THE DISADVANTAGED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORNSTEIN, ALLAN C.

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES SOME SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE INDIVIDUAL, SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, PARENTAL AND HYGIENIC DEPRIVATIONS OF DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. ALSO NOTED ARE DEPRIVATIONS THAT RESULT FROM RACE, CONSTRICTED EXPERIENCE, AND EDUCATIONAL HANDICAPS. EDUCATION IS CONSIDERED THE MOST IMPORTANT MEANS OF BREAKING THROUGH THE COMPLEX CYCLE OF POVERTY AND…

  18. Views on Values Education: From Teacher Candidates to Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Canay Demirhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…

  19. Socioeconomic Status Is Not Related with Facial Fluctuating Asymmetry: Evidence from Latin-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Castillo, Lucía; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Everardo, Paola; De Avila, Francisco; Hünemeier, Tábita; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovani; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rosique, Javier; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; González-José, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries.

  20. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  1. Trends in educational disadvantage in Dutch primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, G.; Merry, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils

  2. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  3. Impact of socioeconomic status and rurality on early outcomes and mid-term survival after CABG: insights from a multicentre registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, William Y; Yap, Cheng-Hon; Newcomb, Andrew E; Hayward, Philip A; Tran, Lavinia; Reid, Christopher M; Smith, Julian A

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether socioeconomic status and rurality influenced outcomes after coronary surgery. We identified 14,150 patients undergoing isolated coronary surgery. Socioeconomic and rurality data was obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and linked to patients' postcodes. Outcomes were compared between categories of socioeconomic disadvantage (highest versus lowest quintiles, n= 3150 vs. 2469) and rurality (major cities vs. remote, n=9598 vs. 839). Patients from socioeconomically-disadvantaged areas experienced a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, obesity and current smoking. Thirty-day mortality (disadvantaged 1.6% vs. advantaged 1.6%, p>0.99) was similar between groups as was late survival (7 years: 83±0.9% vs. 84±1.0%, p=0.79). Those from major cities were less likely to undergo urgent surgery. There was similar 30-day mortality (major cities: 1.6% vs. remote: 1.5%, p=0.89). Patients from major cities experienced improved survival at seven years (84±0.5% vs. 79±2.0%, p=0.010). Propensity-analysis did not show socioeconomic status or rurality to be associated with late outcomes. Patients presenting for coronary artery surgery from different socioeconomic and geographic backgrounds exhibit differences in their clinical profile. Patients from more rural and remote areas appear to experience poorer long-term survival, though this may be partially driven by the population's clinical profile. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  5. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  6. What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

  7. Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and

  8. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The session on Socioeconomic Evaluations consisted of the following seven papers: (1) Socioeconomic Considerations in Nuclear Waste Management; (2) High-Level Radioactive Waste - the Social Decision; (3) Role of Impact Assessment in Program Planning - A Social Science Perspective; (4) Social and Demographic Impacts Associated with Large-Scale Resource Developments - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (5) Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Large-Scale Development Projects - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (6) Socioeconomic Analyses of the Proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project; and (7) Existing Institutional Arrangements and Fiscal Incentives for Siting Publicly Sensitive Facilities

  9. Disadvantages of the wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Odd W.

    2005-01-01

    The article discussed various disadvantages of the wind power production and focuses on turbine types, generators, operational safety and development aspects. Some environmental problems are mentioned

  10. Social Disadvantage, Severe Child Abuse, and Biological Profiles in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-09-01

    Guided by the stress process model and the life course perspective, we hypothesize: (1) that childhood abuse is concentrated, in terms of type and intensity, among socially disadvantaged individuals, and (2) that experiencing serious abuse contributes to poor biological profiles in multiple body systems in adulthood. Data came from the Biomarker subsample of Midlife in the United States (2004-2006). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct profiles of childhood abuse, each reflecting a combination of type and severity. Results indicate that disadvantaged groups, women, and those from disadvantaged families are at greater risk of experiencing more severe and multiple types of abuse. Those with more severe and multifaceted childhood abuse show greater physiological dysregulation. Childhood abuse experiences partially accounted for the social status differences in physiological profiles. Our findings underscore that differential exposure to serious childhood stressors plays a significant role in gender and class inequalities in adult health.

  11. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Thornton, Lukar E; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Banting, Lauren K; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-07-11

    Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience) and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics 'Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage' (IRSD) was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age). Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas) (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]). Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with higher qualifications to work in more socioeconomically

  12. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of CKD in disadavantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities, and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  13. Predicting harsh discipline in at-risk mothers: the moderating effect of socioeconomic deprivation severity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mariana Monteiro de Aguiar; Negrão, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage is an important predictor of maternal harsh discipline, but few studies have examined risk mechanisms for harsh parenting within disadvantaged samples. In the present study, parenting stress, family conflict, and child difficult temperament are examined as predictors of maternal harsh discipline among a group of 58 mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and their young children between the ages of 1- to 4-years-old. Maternal harsh discipline was me...

  14. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European

  15. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Garcia-Garcia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  16. The Impact of Disadvantage on VET Completion and Employment Gaps. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, Duncan; Tabasso, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Increasing educational attainment is generally tied to better employment outcomes. The vocational education and training (VET) sector is often used as an entry point into post-compulsory education for individuals who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. But does increasing participation in VET by disadvantaged individuals necessarily lead…

  17. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Bennie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage’ (IRSD was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age. Results Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]. Conclusions Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with

  18. Social Capital, Information, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Math Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Schneider, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study revealed that socioeconomically advantaged students persist in high school math at higher rates than their disadvantaged peers, even when they have the same initial placements and skill levels. These disparities are larger among students with prior records of low academic status because students from more privileged backgrounds persist in math coursework even when their prior performance predicts they will not. Among students with low middle school math performance, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged families appear to benefit from having consultants for coursework decisions, so that they make up ground with their socioeconomically advantaged peers. PMID:21743762

  19. Socioeconomic stress and academic adjustment among Asian American adolescents: the protective role of family obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects.

  20. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  1. Role of Positive Parenting in the Association Between Neighborhood Social Disadvantage and Brain Development Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Pantelis, Christos; Sheeber, Lisa; Byrne, Michelle L; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-08-01

    The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents. In this longitudinal study of adolescents from schools in Melbourne, Australia, data were collected at 3 assessments between 2004 and 2012. Data were analyzed between August 2016 and April 2017. Both family (parental income-to-needs, occupation, and education level) and neighborhood measures of socioeconomic disadvantage were assessed. Positive maternal parenting behaviors were observed during interactions in early adolescence. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 times (early, middle, and late adolescence) from ages 11 to 20 years. Global and academic functioning was assessed during late adolescence. We used linear mixed models to examine the effect of family and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage as well as the moderating effect of positive parenting on adolescent brain development. We used mediation models to examine whether brain developmental trajectories predicted functional outcomes during late adolescence. Of the included 166 adolescents, 86 (51.8%) were male. We found that neighborhood, but not family, socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with altered brain development from early (mean [SD] age, 12.79 [0.425] years) to late (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [0.460] years) adolescence, predominantly in the temporal lobes (temporal cortex: random field theory corrected; left amygdala: B, -0.237; P development of dorsal frontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortices as well as the effects of family disadvantage on the development of the amygdala (occupation: B, 0.382; P = .004; income-to-needs: B, 27

  2. Neighborhood disadvantage and ischemic stroke: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen F; Liang, Li-Jung; Vassar, Stefanie D; Stein-Merkin, Sharon; Longstreth, W T; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yan, Tingjian; Escarce, José J

    2011-12-01

    Neighborhood characteristics may influence the risk of stroke and contribute to socioeconomic disparities in stroke incidence. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and incident ischemic stroke and examine potential mediators of these associations. We analyzed data from 3834 whites and 785 blacks enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, population-based, longitudinal study of adults ages≥65 years from 4 US counties. The primary outcome was adjudicated incident ischemic stroke. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was measured using a composite of 6 census tract variables. Race-stratified multilevel Cox proportional hazard models were constructed adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological risk factors. Among whites, in models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, stroke hazard was significantly higher among residents of neighborhoods in the lowest compared with the highest neighborhood socioeconomic status quartile (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01-1.72) with greater attenuation of the hazard ratio after adjustment for biological risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.16; 0.88-1.52) than for behavioral risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.30; 0.99-1.70). Among blacks, we found no significant associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status and ischemic stroke. Higher risk of incident ischemic stroke was observed in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods among whites, but not among blacks. The relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and stroke among whites appears to be mediated more strongly by biological than behavioral risk factors.

  3. Are you experienced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael Slavensky; Reichstein, Toke

    This paper investigates the relationship between the level of experience of managers and founders, and the likelihood of survival of their new firms. We take advantage of a comprehensive dataset covering the entire Danish labor market from 1980-2000. This is used to trace the activities of top...... ranked members of start-ups prior to their founding, and follow the fate of these firms. More specifically, we compare the survival of spin-offs from surviving parents, spin-offs from exiting parents, and other start-ups. Moreover, we investigate whether firms managed and founded by more experienced....... We also find that spin-offs from parent companies that exit are less likely to survive than either spin-offs from surviving parents or other start-ups. These findings support the theoretical arguments that organizational heritage is important for the survival of new organizations. We found no similar...

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Telomere Length: Results from the Fragile Families Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that protect genetic material. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the relationship between exposure to spatially concentrated disadvantage and telomere length for white and black mothers. We find that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with shorter telomere length for mothers of both races. This finding highlights a potential mechanism through which the unique spatially concentrated disadvantage faced by African Americans contributes to racial health disparities. We conclude that equalizing the health and socioeconomic status of black and white Americans will be very difficult without reducing levels of residential segregation in the United States.

  5. Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

  6. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  7. Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly educated neighborhoods to a greater degree than individuals with lower levels of education. PMID:20627796

  8. Cigarette availability and price in low and high socioeconomic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Emma; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Dobson, Annette; Gartner, Coral

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether tobacco retailer density and cigarette prices differ between low and high socioeconomic status suburbs in South-East Queensland. A survey of retail outlets selling cigarettes was conducted in selected suburbs over a two-day period. The suburbs were identified by geographical cluster sampling based on their Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage score and size of retail complex within the suburb. All retail outlets within the suburb were visited and the retail prices for the highest ranking Australian brands were recorded at each outlet. A significant relationship was found between Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage score (in deciles) and the number of tobacco retail outlets (r=0.93, p=0.003), with the most disadvantaged suburbs having a greater number of tobacco retailers. Results also demonstrate that cigarettes were sold in a broader range of outlets in suburbs of low SES. The average price of the packs studied was significantly lower in the most disadvantaged suburbs compared to the most advantaged. While cigarettes were still generally cheaper in the most disadvantaged suburbs, the difference was no longer statistically significant when the average price of cigarette packs was compared according to outlet type (supermarket, newsagent, etc). In South-East Queensland, cigarettes are more widely available in the most disadvantaged suburbs and at lower prices than in the most advantaged suburbs. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Crowdfunding as a Source for Social Enterprise Financing : Advantages and Disadvantages Experienced by Social Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Hazam, Diana; Karimova, Dijana; Olsson, Magnus Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Social Enterprises face funding challenges. As investors focus too narrowly on risk and return, social enterprises may struggle to compete with commercial enterprises for investment capital. In this context, lending and equity crowdfunding have not been sufficiently examined, and its growing importance for business financing makes it valuable to understand its implications for social enterprises. This study collects qualitative data and uses thematic analysis to identify advantages and disadv...

  10. The impact of geographic unit of analysis on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant summary stage - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Morrell, Stephen; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; You, Hui; Niyonsenga, Theo; Walton, Richard; Baker, Deborah; Currow, David

    2016-12-13

    When using area-level disadvantage measures, size of geographic unit can have major effects on recorded socioeconomic cancer disparities. This study examined the extent of changes in recorded socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant stage when the measure of socioeconomic disadvantage was based on smaller Census Collection Districts (CDs) instead of Statistical Local Areas (SLAs). Population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry data were used to identify cases diagnosed with primary invasive cancer in 2000-2008 (n=264,236). Logistic regression and competing risk regression modelling were performed to examine socioeconomic differences in odds of distant stage and hazard of cancer death for all sites combined and separately for breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. For all sites collectively, associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and cancer survival and distant stage were stronger when the CD-based socioeconomic disadvantage measure was used compared with the SLA-based measure. The CD-based measure showed a more consistent socioeconomic gradient with a linear upward trend of risk of cancer death/distant stage with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage. Site-specific analyses provided similar findings for the risk of death but less consistent results for the likelihood of distant stage. The use of socioeconomic disadvantage measure based on the smallest available spatial unit should be encouraged in the future. Implications for Public Health: Disadvantage measures based on small spatial units can more accurately identify socioeconomic cancer disparities to inform priority settings in service planning. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Neighborhood and Network Disadvantage among Urban Renters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Desmond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.

  12. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience.

  13. 'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2013-05-01

    People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee

  14. Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.

  15. Social Capital, Information, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Math Course Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study revealed that socioeconomically advantaged students persist in high school math at higher rates than their disadvantaged peers even when they have the same initial placements and skill levels. These disparities are larger among students with prior records of low academic status because students…

  16. Neighbourhood disadvantage, geographic remoteness and body mass index among immigrants to Australia: A national cohort study 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menigoz, Karen; Nathan, Andrea; Heesch, Kristiann C; Turrell, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is socioeconomically, geographically and ethnically patterned. Understanding these elements of disadvantage is vital in understanding population obesity trends and the development of effective and equitable interventions. This study examined the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and geographic remoteness with prospective trends in mean body mass index (BMI) among immigrants to Australia. Longitudinal data (2006-2014) from a national panel survey of Australian adults was divided into an immigrant-only sample (n = 4,293, 52.6% women and 19,404 person-year observations). The data were analysed using multi-level random effects linear regression modelling that controlled for individual socioeconomic and demographic factors. Male immigrants living in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods had significantly higher mean BMI compared with those living in the least disadvantaged. Over time, mean BMI increased for all groups except for men living in the least disadvantaged neighbourhoods, for whom mean BMI remained almost static (0.1 kg/m2 increase from 2006 to 2014), effectively widening neighbourhood inequalities. Among women, mean BMI was also significantly higher in the most compared with the least, disadvantaged neighbourhoods (β = 2.08 kg/m2; 95%CI: 1.48, 2.68). Neighbourhood inequalities were maintained over time as mean BMI increased for all groups at a similar rate. Male and female immigrants residing in outer regional areas had significantly higher mean BMI compared with those living in major cities; however, differences were attenuated and no longer significant following adjustment for ethnicity, individual socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage. Over time, mean BMI increased in all male and female groups with no differences based on geographic remoteness. Obesity prevention policy targeted at immigrant cohorts needs to include area-level interventions that address inequalities in BMI arising from neighbourhood

  17. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  18. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  19. Pregnancy experiences of women in rural Romania: understanding ethnic and socioeconomic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, Katherine; Baber Wallis, Anne; Chereches, Razvan; Gichane, Margaret; Tehei, Ciprian; Varga, Andreea; Tumlinson, Katherine

    2018-05-15

    Women in rural Romania face significant health disadvantages. This qualitative pilot study describes the structural disadvantage experienced during pregnancy by women in rural Romania, focusing on the lived experiences of Roma women. We explore how women in rural communities experience pregnancy, their interactions with the healthcare system, and the role that ethnic and social factors play in pregnancy and childbearing. We conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with health and other professionals, seven narrative interviews with Roma and non-Roma women and a focus group with Roma women. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. We identified intersectional factors associated with women's pregnancy experiences: women perceiving pregnancy as both unplanned and wanted, joyful, and normal; women's and professionals' differing prenatal care perceptions; transport and cost related barriers to care; socioeconomic and ethnic discrimination; and facilitators to care such as social support, having a health mediator and having a doctor. Talking directly with professionals and Roma and non-Roma women helped us understand these many factors, how they are interconnected, and how we can work towards improving the pregnancy experiences of Roma women in rural Romania.

  20. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions: Inequity in maternal

  2. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-04-03

    China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and

  3. The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

  4. Adolescent girls' neural response to reward mediates the relation between childhood financial disadvantage and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romens, Sarah E; Casement, Melynda D; McAloon, Rose; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Guyer, Amanda E; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-11-01

    Children who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at heightened risk for developing depression; however, little is known about neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood may confer risk for depression through its stress-related effects on the neural circuitry associated with processing monetary rewards. In a prospective study, we examined the relationships among the number of years of household receipt of public assistance from age 5-16 years, neural activation during monetary reward anticipation and receipt at age 16, and depression symptoms at age 16 in 123 girls. Number of years of household receipt of public assistance was positively associated with heightened response in the medial prefrontal cortex during reward anticipation, and this heightened neural response mediated the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and current depression symptoms, controlling for past depression. Chronic exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood may alter neural circuitry involved in reward anticipation in adolescence, which in turn may confer risk for depression. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Do Mothers with Lower Socioeconomic Status Contribute to the Rate of All-Cause Child Mortality in Kazakhstan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to explore whether or not mothers with higher educational and wealth status report lower rate of child mortality compared to those with less advantageous socioeconomic situation. Methods. Data used were cross-sectional and collected from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Kazakhstan conducted in 2015. Subjects experiencing childbirth were 9278 women aging between 15 and 49 years. The associations between maternal education and household wealth status with child mortality were examined by multivariate analytical methods. Results. The overall prevalence of child mortality was 6.7%, with noticeable variations across the different regions. Compared with women who had the highest educational status, those with upper and lower secondary were 1.47 and 1.89 times more likely to experience child death. Women in the lowest and second lowest wealth quintile had 2.74 and 2.68 times higher odds of experiencing child death compared with those in the richest wealth status households. Conclusions. Policy makers pay special attention to improving socioeconomic status of the mothers in an effort to reduce child mortality in the country. Women living in the disadvantaged regions with poor access to quality health care services should be regarded as a top priority.

  6. Do Mothers with Lower Socioeconomic Status Contribute to the Rate of All-Cause Child Mortality in Kazakhstan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Yan, Ziqi; Pu, Run; Tang, Shangfeng; Ghose, Bishwajit; Huang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether or not mothers with higher educational and wealth status report lower rate of child mortality compared to those with less advantageous socioeconomic situation. Data used were cross-sectional and collected from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Kazakhstan conducted in 2015. Subjects experiencing childbirth were 9278 women aging between 15 and 49 years. The associations between maternal education and household wealth status with child mortality were examined by multivariate analytical methods. The overall prevalence of child mortality was 6.7%, with noticeable variations across the different regions. Compared with women who had the highest educational status, those with upper and lower secondary were 1.47 and 1.89 times more likely to experience child death. Women in the lowest and second lowest wealth quintile had 2.74 and 2.68 times higher odds of experiencing child death compared with those in the richest wealth status households. Policy makers pay special attention to improving socioeconomic status of the mothers in an effort to reduce child mortality in the country. Women living in the disadvantaged regions with poor access to quality health care services should be regarded as a top priority.

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Safety and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: Biosocial Associations in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cheryl R.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Grooms, Kya N.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Methods Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000–2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. Results After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans. PMID:23691005

  8. Chronic disease as risk multiplier for disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzin Donoso, Francisca

    2018-03-06

    This paper starts by establishing a prima facie case that disadvantaged groups or individuals are more likely to get a chronic disease and are in a disadvantaged position to adhere to chronic treatment despite access through Universal Health Coverage. However, the main aim of this paper is to explore the normative implications of this claim by examining two different but intertwined argumentative lines that might contribute to a better understanding of the ethical challenges faced by chronic disease health policy. The paper develops the argument that certain disadvantages which may predispose to illness might overlap with disadvantages that may hinder self-management, potentially becoming disadvantageous in handling chronic disease. If so, chronic diseases may be seen as disadvantages in themselves, describing a reproduction of disadvantage among the chronically ill and a vicious circle of disadvantage that could both predict and shed light on the catastrophic health outcomes among disadvantaged groups-or individuals-dealing with chronic disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  10. Neighborhood disadvantage and obesity across childhood and adolescence: Evidence from the NLSY children and young adults cohort (1986-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Steven Elías

    2016-05-01

    Previous research suggests that youth who grow up in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods face higher odds of becoming obese. Neighborhood effects scholars, meanwhile, have suggested that contextual influences may increase in strength as children age. This is the first study to examine whether developmental epochs moderate the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on obesity over time. I use thirteen waves of new restricted and geo-coded data on children ages 2-18 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults. Bivariate and pooled logistic regression results suggest that neighborhood disadvantage has a stronger impact on adolescents' likelihood of becoming obese. Fixed effects models reveal that after adjusting for observed and unobserved confounders, adolescents continue to face higher odds of becoming obese due to the conditions associated with living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Moreover, as research on adults suggests, girls experience larger impacts of neighborhood disadvantage than boys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal distress and parenting in the context of cumulative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors.

  12. The Genetic Precursors and the Advantageous and Disadvantageous Sequelae of Inhibited Temperament: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by evolutionary game theory (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005), this study aimed to identify the genetic precursors and the psychosocial sequelae of inhibited temperament in a sociodemographically disadvantaged and racially diverse sample (N = 201) of 2-year-old children who experienced elevated levels of domestic violence.…

  13. Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rákosi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian investigates the argument structure and the syntax of appeal to- and important-type predicates in Hungarian. Couched in terms of Reinhart’s (2000, 2002) Theta System, the thesis presents arguments for the need to resort to the lexicon in setting up

  14. Social Inequality in Education and the Use of Extramural Support Services: Access and Parental Experiences in Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodvin, Kathleen; Verschueren, Karine; De Haene, Lucia; Struyf, Elke

    2018-01-01

    As low socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnic minority students often experience barriers during their school career, increased levels of referral of these students to extramural support services in education (ESS) can be expected. Yet, research indicates that disadvantaged students are often underrepresented in different types of ESS. The purpose…

  15. Experience of Disadvantage: The Influence of Identity on Engagement in Working Class Students' Educational Trajectories to an Elite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, Alexander; Snape, Darlene; Stanistreet, Debbi

    2017-01-01

    Pervasive socio-economic differences in relation to participation in higher education in the United Kingdom are particularly prominent in the most prestigious institutions. This study provides insight into why some individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds are successful in being admitted into one of these institutions. Underpinned by…

  16. Socio-Economic Position and Suicidal Ideation in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Pirkis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available People in low socio-economic positions are over-represented in suicide statistics and are at heightened risk for non-fatal suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Few studies have tried to tease out the relationship between individual-level and area-level socio-economic position, however. We used data from Ten to Men (the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to investigate the relationship between individual-level and area-level socio-economic position and suicidal thinking in 12,090 men. We used a measure of unemployment/employment and occupational skill level as our individual-level indicator of socio-economic position. We used the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (a composite multidimensional construct created by the Australian Bureau of Statistics that combines information from a range of area-level variables, including the prevalence of unemployment and employment in low skilled occupations as our area-level indicator. We assessed suicidal thinking using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. We found that even after controlling for common predictors of suicidal thinking; low individual-level and area-level socio-economic position heightened risk. Individual-level socio-economic position appeared to exert the greater influence of the two; however. There is an onus on policy makers and planners from within and outside the mental health sector to take individual- and area-level socio-economic position into account when they are developing strategic initiatives.

  17. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  18. Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

  19. Anxiety sensitivity explains associations between anxious arousal symptoms and smoking abstinence expectancies, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts among low-income smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Langdon, Kirsten J; Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Norton, Peter J; Businelle, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Disproportionately more smokers report low-income and mental health problems relative to non-smokers. Low-income smokers may use smoking to alleviate negative emotional states resulting from exposure to multiple stressors. Yet, little work has been devoted to elucidating mechanisms that may explain the association between negative emotional states and smoking-related processes among low-income smokers. The present study sought to address this gap by examining anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic factor related to both anxiety and smoking, as a potential mediator for the influence of anxiety symptoms on smoking-related processes, including threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants included treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=101; 68.3% male; M age =47.1; SD=10.2). Results indicated that anxiety symptoms exerted a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. The present results provide empirical support that anxiety sensitivity may be an underlying mechanism that partially explains the relation between anxiety symptoms and smoking processes among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Findings broaden current theoretical understanding of pathways through which anxiety symptoms contribute to maladaptive smoking processes and cognitions among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage.

  1. Counting the cost of social disadvantage in primary care: retrospective analysis of patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, A; Rea, J N; Ben-Shlomo, Y

    1997-01-04

    To cost the relation between socioeconomic status and various measures of primary care workload and assess the adequacy of current "deprivation" payments in relation to actual costings for patients living in qualifying areas. Retrospective data on primary care were collected over a 4.5 year period from both computerised and manually filed records. Standardised data on socioeconomic status were obtained by postal questionnaire. Inner city group practice with a socioeconomically diverse population. 382 male and female subjects of all ages, with a total of 1296 person years of observation. Primary care costs resulting from consultations with a general practitioner or a practice nurse and both new and repeat prescriptions. Morbidity, workload, and costs of drug treatment increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. The difference in cost for patients in social classes IV and V combined compared with those in I and II combined was about 150 Pounds per person year at risk (47 Pounds for workload and 103 Pounds for drugs). Deprivation payments met only half the extra workload cost for patients from qualifying wards. The greater workload caused by social disadvantage has been previously underestimated by simple consultation rates. The absolute difference in costs for socially disadvantaged patients increase as more detailed measures of workload and drug treatment are included. Current deprivation payments only partially offset the increased expenditure on workload. This shortfall will have to be addressed to attract general practitioners to, or retain them in, deprived areas.

  2. The silent partners? Leading parental involvement in primary schools in areas experiencing educational inequality.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    This research project explored and examined parental involvement in two primary school with an emphasis on ‘leading’ this involvement. Both schools were situated in designated DEIS Urban Band 1 areas in Dublin. DEIS Urban Band 1 schools are identified as areas of high levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The project was contextualised within the current national policy which has committed to parents as partners in their child’s education and the evidence from international literature clearly...

  3. Especial Skills in Experienced Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavinik, Mahdi; Abaszadeh, Ali; Mehranmanesh, Mehrab; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-09-05

    Especial skills are skills that are distinctive by virtue of massive practice within the narrow contexts in which they are expressed. In the first demonstration of especial skills, Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, and Young (2005) showed that experienced basketball players are better at shooting baskets from the foul line, where they had massive amounts of practice, than would expected from their success at other locations closer to or farther from the basket. Similar results were obtained for baseball throwing. The authors asked whether especial skills hold in archery, a sport requiring less movement. If the emergence of especial skills depends on large-scale movement, one would expect archery to escape so-called especialism. But if the emergence of especial skills reflects a more general tendency for highly specific learning, experienced archers should show especial skills. The authors obtained evidence consistent with the latter prediction. The expert archers did much better at their most highly practiced distance than would be expected by looking at the overall function relating shooting score to distance. We offer a mathematical model to account for this result. The findings attest to the generality of the especial skills phenomenon.

  4. Independent and Interactive Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Network Characteristics on Problem Drinking after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.

  5. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  6. Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Antonio R; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators, however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

  7. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  8. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  9. The economic value of improving the health of disadvantaged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeni, Robert F; Dow, William H; Miller, Wilhelmine D; Pamuk, Elsie R

    2011-01-01

    Higher educational attainment is associated with better health status and longer life. This analysis estimates the annual dollar value of the benefits that would accrue to less-educated American adults if they experienced the lower mortality rates and better health of those with a college education. Using estimates of differences in mortality among adults aged ≥ 25 years by educational attainment from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey and of education-based differentials in health status from published studies based on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, combined with existing estimates of the economic value of a healthy life year, the economic value of raising the health of individuals with less than a college education to the health of the college educated is estimated. The annual economic value that would accrue to disadvantaged (less-educated) Americans if their health and longevity improved to that of college-educated Americans is $1.02 trillion. This modeling exercise does not fully account for the social costs and benefits of particular policies and programs to reduce health disparities; rather, it provides a sense of the magnitude of the economic value lost in health disparities to compare with other social issues vying for attention. The aggregate economic gains from interventions that improve the health of disadvantaged Americans are potentially large. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic Forecasting : [Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Because the traffic forecasts produced by the Indiana : Statewide Travel Demand Model (ISTDM) are driven by : the demographic and socioeconomic inputs to the model, : particular attention must be given to obtaining the most : accurate demographic and...

  11. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INEQUALITIES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and patterns in the socio-economic development in the study area.The pattern ... Department of Urban and Regional Planning ... perspective of network density of paved road ... available and a number of cooperative .... The case of Akwa Ibom.

  12. Socio-economic status and health in a marginalized group: the role of subjective social status among prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friestad, Christine

    2010-12-01

    One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.

  13. Social Problem-Solving among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, László; Balázs, Fejes József; Guti, Kornél; Gáspár, Csaba; Zsolnai, Anikó

    2018-01-01

    The study examined the differences of social problem-solving (SPS) among 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Hungarian disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged adolescents (N = 382) and investigated the relationship between SPS and family background (FB). SPS was measured through students' own and their teachers' evaluations by an adapted questionnaire (Social…

  14. Socioeconomic Associations with ADHD: Findings from a Mediation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Emma Russell

    Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear.The current study investigates the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and investigates putative mediators of this association in a longitudinal population-based birth cohort in the UK.Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used (n = 8,132 to explore the relationship between different measures of socioeconomic status at birth-3 years and their association with a diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. A multiple mediation model was utilised to examine factors occurring between these ages that may mediate the association.Financial difficulties, housing tenure, maternal age at birth of child and marital status were significantly associated with an outcome of ADHD, such that families either living in financial difficulty, living in council housing, with younger or single mothers' were more likely to have a child with a research diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. Financial difficulties was the strongest predictor of ADHD (OR 2.23 95% CI 1.57-3.16. In the multiple mediation model, involvement in parenting at age 6 and presence of adversity at age 2-4 mediated 27.8% of the association.Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food has both direct and indirect impacts on a child's risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but important contributors toward the

  15. Socioeconomic Associations with ADHD: Findings from a Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Russell, Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear. The current study investigates the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and investigates putative mediators of this association in a longitudinal population-based birth cohort in the UK. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used (n = 8,132) to explore the relationship between different measures of socioeconomic status at birth-3 years and their association with a diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. A multiple mediation model was utilised to examine factors occurring between these ages that may mediate the association. Financial difficulties, housing tenure, maternal age at birth of child and marital status were significantly associated with an outcome of ADHD, such that families either living in financial difficulty, living in council housing, with younger or single mothers' were more likely to have a child with a research diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. Financial difficulties was the strongest predictor of ADHD (OR 2.23 95% CI 1.57-3.16). In the multiple mediation model, involvement in parenting at age 6 and presence of adversity at age 2-4 mediated 27.8% of the association. Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child's risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but important contributors toward the aetiology of ADHD.

  16. [Lifetime socioeconomic status and health-related risk behaviors: the ELSA-Brazil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Jéssica Costa; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Griep, Rosane Härter; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Chor, Dóra; Chagas, Maria da Conceição Almeida

    2017-04-03

    Our objective was to investigate the association between lifetime socioeconomic status and intra-generational social mobility and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking among 13,216 men and women participating in the baseline of the ELSA-Brazil study (2008-2010). Socioeconomic status in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood was measured by maternal schooling, socio-occupational class of the first occupation, and socio-occupational class of the current occupation, respectively. Social disadvantages in adulthood were consistently associated with higher prevalence of the three behaviors analyzed in men and women. However, socioeconomic status in youth and childhood was less consistently associated with the behaviors. For example, while low maternal schooling reduced the odds of past smoking (women) and current smoking (men and women), it was associated with higher odds of leisure-time physical inactivity in women. Meanwhile, low socioeconomic status in youth increased the odds of past smoking (men and women) and current smoking (women). Analysis of social trajectories lent additional support to the relevance of disadvantages in adulthood for risk behaviors, since only individuals that rose to the high socio-occupational class did not show higher odds of these behaviors when compared to participants that had always belonged to the high socio-occupational class. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic disadvantages in adulthood appear to be more relevant for risk behaviors than disadvantages in childhood and adolescence.

  17. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today.

  18. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. SUPPLEMENT III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. APPROXIMATELY 220 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1963 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS, SHORT-TERM GROUP COUNSELING,…

  20. A Science Program for the Disadvantaged Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John W.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests the need for science teachers to (1) examine their negative attitudes and prejudices concerning disadvantaged children, and (2) study the general characteristics and problems peculiar to these children. Classroom techniques that are effective in working with such children are discussed. Bibliography. (LC)

  1. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  2. Providing Higher Education to Socially Disadvantaged Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    1989-01-01

    An examination of the philosophy and implementation of two special programs offered by the Open University of Israel to socially and educationally disadvantaged populations focuses on whether both values of quality and equity can be achieved in higher education. (Author/MSE)

  3. Educational Uses of Tests with Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A report of a special panel, appointed by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association, which investigates the use of ability tests with disadvantaged students in the schools, focusing especially on intelligence tests. Various sections present a discussion of the theoretical rationale of human abilities underlying the…

  4. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of live…

  5. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...

  6. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of developing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhixin

    1987-01-01

    To solve the problem of the shortage of electricity in China, an objective assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity from different energy sources is necessary. Nuclear power is evaluated against hydro-, oil-, gas- and coal-power. It is proposed to develop nuclear power in a planned way as a sensible long term strategy

  8. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE DISADVANTAGED ADOLESCENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURNEY, DAVID

    SINCE THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED STUDENT OFTEN MANIFESTS AN AVERSION TOWARD THE ACADEMIC AND HIGHLY INSTITUTIONALIZED EDUCATIONAL PROCESS WHICH NOW EXISTS, EDUCATORS MUST EXPLORE THE POSSIBILITIES INHERENT IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TO MAKE THIS PROCESS LESS FORMAL. PROGRAMED MATERIALS AND OTHER SELF-TUTORING DEVICES ADAPTED TO THE LEARNING NEEDS…

  9. Freedom poverty: a new tool to identify the multiple disadvantages affecting those with CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N

    2013-06-20

    It is recognised that CVD affects an individual's financial situation, placing them in income poverty. However, recent developments in poverty measurement practice recognises other forms of disadvantage other than low income, such as poor health and insufficient education also affect living standards. Using the Freedom Poverty Measure, the multiple forms of disadvantage experienced by those with no health condition, heart disease, other diseases of the circulatory system, and all other health conditions was assessed using data on the adult Australian population contained in the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. 24% of those with heart disease and 23% of those with other diseases of the circulatory system were in freedom poverty, suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage. Those with heart disease and those with other diseases of the circulatory system were around three times more likely to be in freedom poverty (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 2.29-3.99, p<.0001; OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.94-3.98, p<.0001) than those with no health condition. Recognising the multiple forms of disadvantage suffered by those with CVD provides a clearer picture of their living standards than just looking at their income alone and the high proportion of individuals with CVD that are suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage should make them a target for policy makers wishing to improve living standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. When does hardship matter for health? Neighborhood and individual disadvantages and functional somatic symptoms from adolescence to mid-life in The Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per E; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has shown that health is influenced by disadvantaged living conditions, including both personal and neighborhood conditions. Little is however known to what degree the health impact of different forms of disadvantage differ along the life course. The present study aims to examine when, during the life course, neighborhood and individual disadvantages relate to functional somatic symptoms. Participants (n = 992) came from The Northern Swedish Cohort and followed from age 16, 21, 30 until 42 years. Functional somatic symptoms, socioeconomic disadvantage, and social and material adversity were measured through questionnaires and linked to register data on neighborhood disadvantage. Data was analyzed with longitudinal and cross-sectional multilevel models. Results showed that neighborhood disadvantage, social and material adversity and gender all contributed independently to overall levels of symptoms across the life course. Cross-sectional analyses also suggested that the impact of disadvantage differed between life course periods; neighborhood disadvantage was most important in young adulthood, and the relative importance of material versus social adversity increased as participants grew older. In summary, the study suggests that disadvantages from different contextual sources may affect functional somatic health across the life course, but also through life course specific patterns.

  11. English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

  12. Pathways to a Four-Year Degree: Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; Burkum, Kurt R.; La Nasa, Steven M.

    The High School Sophomore Cohort of 1980 followed nine different pathways to a 4-year college degree. These paths were formed by a combination of different levels of academic preparation secured in high school and the first type of postsecondary institution attended. The pathway most likely to lead to a 4-year degree is one defined by acquiring…

  13. Dispositional emotional expressivity, cancer-specific coping, and distress in socioeconomically-disadvantaged Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Patricia I; Bauer, Margaret R; Yanez, Betina; Jorge, Alexandra; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-06-01

    Coping processes directed toward avoiding and approaching stressor-related thoughts and emotions predict psychological adjustment. However, few studies have examined how the relationship between dispositional emotional tendencies and stressor-specific coping affects outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of dispositional emotional expressivity (i.e., the propensity to experience and express emotions strongly) with cancer-specific coping through avoidance and emotional approach to predict intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms in Latinas with breast cancer. Recently diagnosed Latina breast cancer patients receiving treatment completed standardized assessments via interview at 2 time points: within 18 months of diagnosis (Time 1; N = 95) and 3 months later (Time 2; N = 79). Most women were immigrants (93%), reported a combined household income of $20,000 or less (75%), did not graduate from high school (59%), and primarily spoke Spanish (88%). In path analyses, more recent immigration was associated with greater dispositional expressivity, which in turn was associated with coping with the cancer experience using both greater avoidance and emotional approach strategies. Only avoidance-oriented strategies predicted an increase in intrusive thoughts at 3 months. No significant effects on depressive symptoms were observed. Findings suggest that Latina breast cancer patients who have a propensity to experience and express emotions strongly may be initially overwhelmed by their cancer-related emotions and consequently turn to avoidance-oriented and emotional approach strategies to cope with their diagnosis. Avoidance-oriented coping in turn may uniquely predict an increase in cancer-related intrusive thoughts 3 months later. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Emotion Regulation, Harsh Parenting, and Teacher Sensitivity among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Toddlers in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Barnett, Melissa A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the transactional nature of harsh parenting and emotion regulation across toddlerhood, including the moderating role of teacher sensitivity in child care. Secondary data analyses were conducted with a subsample of families from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project who participated in…

  15. Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Parenting Responsibility, and Women’s Smoking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Subramanian, S.V.; Gortmaker, Steven; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We carried out analyses of smoking in relation to poverty and child care responsibility among women aged 18–54 years residing in the United States. Methods. With data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the interaction effects of poverty and living with young children on maternal smoking behavior among 61 700 women aged 18–54 years in 4 different racial/ethnic groups. Results. For non-White racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of smoking among women with small children in the household was lower than that among women without small children. However, White women were more likely to smoke if they were poor and living with small children (odds ratio=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.03, 1.26). Conclusions. These results suggest that child care responsibility confers an increased risk of smoking among low-income White women. PMID:15569970

  16. Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

  17. Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

  18. Multiple socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E

    2007-06-01

    To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.

  19. Cross-sectional study of area-level disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in community health service users in the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Roger; Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Weston, Kathryn M

    2017-09-19

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in health service users in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia. Methods HbA1c values recorded between 2010 and 2012 for non-pregnant individuals aged ≥18 years were extracted from the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) database. Individuals were assigned quintiles of the Socioeconomic Indices for Australia (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) according to their Statistical Area 1 of residence. Glycaemic risk categories were defined as HbA1c 5.0-5.99% (lowest risk), 6.0-7.49% (intermediate risk) and ≥7.5% (highest risk). Logistic regression models were fit with glycaemic risk category as the outcome variable and IRSD as the study variable, adjusting for age and sex. Results Data from 29064 individuals were analysed. Higher disadvantage was associated with belonging to a higher glycaemic risk category in the fully adjusted model (most disadvantaged vs least disadvantaged quintile; odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.58, 1.93; Pdisadvantage was a significant correlate of increased glycaemic-related risk. Geocoded clinical data can inform more targeted use of health service resources, with the potential for improved health care equity and cost-effectiveness. What is known about the topic? The rapid increase in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), both globally and nationally within Australia, is a major concern for the community and public health agencies. Individual socioeconomic disadvantage is a known risk factor for abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM), including T2D. Although small-area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is a known correlate of AGM in Australia, less is known of the association of area-level disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in individuals with AGM. What does this paper add? This study demonstrates a robust association between small

  20. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

  1. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  3. socio-economic population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not ideal, underscores the peculiarities of experience in a general hospital in a low socio-economic setting. In conclusion, hernia surgery in a general hospital setting can be safely performed with the judicious use of intravenous Kctamine in children and emergency adult surgery as long as awareness of its side-effects and.

  4. Bridging the Gap between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Children:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fitzpatrick

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the economic and social burden associated with poor academic achievement represents an urgent social concern. Increasingly research suggests that child characteristics in kindergarten play an important role in charting courses towards academic success. Although math and reading skill are important predictors of later achievement, executive function skills which underlie children’s ability to focus attention and become autonomous, self-directed learners are also likely to play a key role in later adjustment to school. Disadvantaged children perform more poorly on tests of achievement and executive functions.  Furthermore, executive functions have been found to partially account for the relationship between socioeconomic status and later achievement. It is possible to target executive functions in at-risk children using specific interventions. Not only are these interventions effective, they are also cost effective. It is proposed that increasing efforts towards promoting executive functions in preschool-aged children represents a promising strategy for reducing economically-based disparities in the education and eventual life chances of individuals.

  5. Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA T. CHICOŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was shaped in relation to different socio-economic and socio-cultural policies that determined the creation of a polarisation between north and south or between centre and periphery which were subject to numerous socio-urban inversions during the communist and post-communist eras. Hence, life in a large metropolis is vulnerable to inequalities appearing within the urban pattern that intensifies, in some cases, towards residential segregation. The historical-geographical analysis of vectors behind clusters of sensitive areas in the 20th and 21st centuries strengthens the importance of social cohesion measures in the future urban policies and territorial planning.

  6. Regional mortality by socioeconomic factors in Slovakia : a comparison of 15 years of changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Bosakova, Lucia; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Rosic, Martin; Andrejkovic, Marek; Zezula, Ivan; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Like most Central European countries Slovakia has experienced a period of socioeconomic changes and at the same time a decline in the mortality rate. Therefore, the aim is to study socioeconomic factors that changed over time and simultaneously contributed to regional differences in

  7. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  8. Advantages and disadvantages of digital education

    OpenAIRE

    Mąkosa, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...

  9. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing globalization and internationalization bring huge changes to business environment, which has been changed from a lot of dispersed local markets to a single economic market. These changes make businessmen have to think about their international business strategies, such as outsourcing. This article will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the context of global manufacturing strategy in order to help managers handle it more effectively.

  10. The Role of socioeconomic factors in fertility of Umuahia women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid population growth arising from high fertility has been argued as being disadvantageous to the economic growth of countries especially the developing country like Nigeria. This paper examines the role of socioeconomic factors in fertility. The study elicited information from 500 women of the reproductive age of 15-49 ...

  11. The relationship between socio-economic inequality and criminal victimisation: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.; Winkel, F. W.; Ybema, J. F.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of socio-economic inequality (SEI) with criminal victimisation. It is hypothesised that disadvantage in terms of SEI is associated with increased risk of being victimised and with increased distress following victimisation. Two concepts of SEI are applied:

  12. The relationship between socio-economic inequality and criminal victimization: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.D.; Winkel, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship of socio-economic inequality (SEI) with criminal victimisation. It is hypothesised that disadvantage in terms of SEI is associated with increased risk of being victimised and with increased distress following victimisation. Two concepts of SEI are

  13. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  14. Risk, Choice and Social Disadvantage: Young People’s Decision-Making in a Marketised Higher Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Sheryl; Mountford-Zimdars, Anna; Francis, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Rising tuition fees in England have been accompanied by a policy mandate for universities to widen participation by attracting students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. This article focuses on one such group of high achieving students and their responses to rising tuition fees within the context of their participation in an outreach scheme at a research-intensive university in the UK. Our findings suggest that rather than being deterred from attending university as a result ...

  15. Amazonian freshwater habitats experiencing environmental and socioeconomic threats affecting subsistence fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Cleber J R; Reis, Roberto E; Aquino, Pedro P U

    2015-09-01

    Matching the trend seen among the major large rivers of the globe, the Amazon River and its tributaries are facing aquatic ecosystem disruption that is affecting freshwater habitats and their associated biodiversity, including trends for decline in fishery resources. The Amazon's aquatic ecosystems, linked natural resources, and human communities that depend on them are increasingly at risk from a number of identified threats, including expansion of agriculture; cattle pastures; infrastructure such as hydroelectric dams, logging, mining; and overfishing. The forest, which regulates the hydrological pulse, guaranteeing the distribution of rainfall and stabilizing seasonal flooding, has been affected by deforestation. Flooding dynamics of the Amazon Rivers are a major factor in regulating the intensity and timing of aquatic organisms. This study's objective was to identify threats to the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, and to seek instruments for conservation and sustainable use, taking principally fish diversity and fisheries as factors for analysis.

  16. Measuring socio-economic position in dietary research: is choice of socio-economic indicator important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian

    2003-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet

  17. How Economic Disadvantage Affects the Availability and Nature of Mentoring Relationships During the Transition to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Erickson, Lance D; Hagler, Matthew; Rhodes, Jean E

    2018-03-01

    Supportive nonparental adults, particularly nonfamilial adults, provide critical support during the transition to adulthood, opening doors to educational and career paths. This study examined whether economic disadvantage shapes access to these relationships. Results showed that low-income adolescents had reduced access to naturally occurring mentors, and the relationships they did form tended to be close bonds with family and friends, rather than nonfamilial adults. Their mentors were more likely to focus on practical support, and less likely to serve as role models or provide career advice. These effects of socioeconomic status on natural mentoring relationships remained evident, even when accounting for youth race/ethnicity. Findings suggest that networks of support differ depending on a youth's socioeconomic context in ways that could perpetuate social and economic inequalities. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  18. Maternity experiences of mothers with multiple disadvantages in England: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-06-14

    Disadvantaged mothers and their babies are at increased risk of poor perinatal outcomes and have less positive experiences of maternity care. To explore the maternity care experiences of mothers with multiple disadvantages. A qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured interviews with 40 mothers with multiple disadvantages, using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: 'A confusing and frightening time', 'Longing to be respected as an individual', 'The importance of choice and control', and 'Needing trust to feel safe'. Mothers brought feelings of powerlessness and low self-esteem to their encounters with maternity professionals, which could be significantly worsened by disrespectful care. They needed support to navigate the complex maternity system. Positive experiences were much more likely where the mother had received continuity of care from a specialist midwife or small team. Mothers with multiple disadvantages value being treated as an individual, making informed choices, and feeling safe, but they may lack the confidence to ask questions or challenge disrespectful treatment. Training and supervision should enable maternity professionals to understand how confusing maternity care can be to very disadvantaged mothers. It should emphasise the need to provide accessible and empowering information and guidance to enable all mothers to make choices and understand the system. Leaders of maternity services need to do more to challenge negative staff attitudes and ensure that that all mothers are treated at all times with kindness, respect and dignity. Specialist midwives can deliver a high quality service to mothers experiencing multiple disadvantages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Advantages and disadvantages of interdisciplinary consultation in the prescription of assistive technologies for mobility limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Fred A; van Heerebeek, Bart; van Netten, Jaap J

    2018-03-28

    To explore the advantages and disadvantages experienced by professionals in interdisciplinary consultation involving the user, prescriber and technician in the prescription of assistive technologies for mobility limitations. Cross-sectional study. Prescribers (N = 39) and orthopaedic technicians (N = 50), who were regularly involved in an interdisciplinary consultation completed a questionnaire about advantages and disadvantages of the interdisciplinary consultation. Advantages of the interdisciplinary consultation were mentioned within all CanMEDS areas of medical practice, including better and quicker prescription of the assistive technology, shared knowledge of medical diagnosis and device possibilities, shared decision making of the device prescription and clear communication rules. Disadvantages were mentioned in the CanMEDS areas management and collaboration, including planning problems (financial) reimbursement of this type of consultation, and time efficiency. On a 10-point scale, mean (standard deviation) rates of interdisciplinary consultations were 7.9 (0.6) according to prescribers, and 7.8 (0.9) by technicians. All participants wanted to continue the interdisciplinary consultation. Prescribers and technicians in the field of assistive technologies for walking mobility limitations appreciate an interdisciplinary consultation. Advantages are found in all CanMEDS areas, whereas disadvantages only concern coordination. It should be encouraged to realize this kind of consultation in all situations where such technologies are prescribed. Implications for rehabilitation Interdisciplinary consultation involving the user, prescriber and technician to prescribe assistive technologies for mobility limitations has many advantages in all CanMEDS areas of medical practice, and few disadvantages, related to management and collaboration only. The disadvantages of interdisciplinary consultation, such as (financial) reimbursement by health insurance companies

  20. Neighbourhood Socio Economic Disadvantage Index’s Analysis of the Flood Disasters Area at East Jakarta in 1996 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranti Ristiani, Christina; Rokhmatuloh; Hernina, Revi

    2017-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters that have often happened in East Jakarta. Flood can give several negative impacts and it can affect all aspects of society lives such as economics, political, cultural, socials and others. East Jakarta is an urban area which continuously grows and establishes to become a rapid area. It can be seen from the highest population density in East Jakarta (BPS, 2016) and categorized into a region prone to flooding based on data Prone Flood Map in 1996 and 2016. The higher population exists in East Jakarta, the bigger possibility of the negative effects of disaster it gets. The negative impacts of flood disaster can affect societies especially with socio-economic disadvantage. One of the index to measure socio-economic disadvantage is NSDI (Neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage index). However, to adjust indicators used in NSDI with Indonesia statistical data compatibility, it needs further assessment and evaluation. Therefore, this paper evaluates previous main indicators used in previous NSDI studies and improves with indicators which more suitable with statistical records in Indonesia. As a result, there will be improved 19 indicators to be used in NSDI, but the groups of indicators remain the same as previous namely; income, education, occupation, housing, and population.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in outdoor food advertising at public transit stops across Melbourne suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Philippa J; Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E

    2014-10-01

    To assess and compare the number and type of outdoor food advertisements at public transit stops within suburbs of varying levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. An observational audit tool was developed and implemented to assess the number and type of food advertisements at public transit stops within Melbourne, Victoria. A total of 20 Melbourne neighbourhoods (suburbs) from across the least and the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were selected. All public transit stops, including train stations and bus and tram stops with a shelter were audited.  A similar proportion of transit stops in the least and most-disadvantaged suburbs displayed food advertisements (total n=203). However, some differences in the type of advertisements across suburbs were noted with advertisements for fast food restaurants, flavoured milk and fruit juice more common in the most-disadvantaged neighbourhoods (all padvertisements for diet soft drink, tea, coffee and convenience stores more common in the least-disadvantaged neighbourhoods (all padvertising at Melbourne transit stops found 30% displayed food advertisements, with those in more disadvantaged suburbs more frequently promoting chain-brand fast food and less frequently promoting diet varieties of soft drinks. These findings may help raise awareness of unhealthy environmental exposures. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Physical Function: The Contributions of Neighborhood-Level Perceptions of Safety From Crime and Walking for Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Venurs H Y; Rachele, Jerome N; Brown, Wendy J; Ghani, Fatima; Turrell, Gavin

    2018-04-20

    Residents of more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poorer physical function, although the reasons for this remain unknown. It is possible that neighborhood-level perceptions of safety from crime contribute to this relationship through its association with walking for recreation. Data were obtained from the fourth wave (collected in 2013) of the HABITAT (How Areas in Brisbane Influence HealTh and AcTivity) multilevel longitudinal study of middle- to older-aged adults (46-74 y) residing in 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia. The data were analyzed separately for men (n = 2190) and women (n = 2977) using multilevel models. Residents of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods had poorer physical function, perceived their neighborhoods to be less safe from crime, and do less walking for recreation. These factors accounted for differences in physical function between disadvantaged and advantaged neighborhoods (24% for men and 25% for women). This study highlights the importance of contextual characteristics, through their associations with behaviors, that can have in explaining the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and physical function. Interventions aimed at improving neighborhood safety integrated with supportive environments for physical activity may have positive impact on physical function among all socioeconomic groups.

  3. Socioeconomic, remoteness and sex differences in life expectancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Gupta, Leena; Thackway, Sarah; Broome, Richard A

    2017-01-10

    Despite being one of the healthiest countries in the world, Australia displays substantial mortality differentials by socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and sex. In this study, we examined how these mortality differentials translated to differences in life expectancy between 2001 and 2012. Population-based study using mortality and estimated residential population data from Australia's largest state, New South Wales (NSW), between 2001 and 2012. Age-group-specific death rates by socioeconomic disadvantage quintile, remoteness (major cities vs regional and remote areas), sex and year were estimated via Poisson regression, and inputted into life table calculations to estimate life expectancy. Life expectancy decreased with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage in males and females. The disparity between the most and least socioeconomically deprived quintiles was 3.77 years in males and 2.39 years in females in 2012. Differences in life expectancy by socioeconomic disadvantage were mostly stable over time. Gender gaps in life expectancy ranged from 3.50 to 4.93 years (in 2012), increased with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage and decreased by ∼1 year for all quintiles between 2001 and 2012. Overall, life expectancy varied little by remoteness, but was 1.8 years higher in major cities compared to regional/remote areas in the most socioeconomically deprived regions in 2012. Socioeconomic disadvantage and sex were strongly associated with life expectancy. The disparity in life expectancy across the socioeconomic spectrum was larger in males and was stable over time. In contrast, gender gaps reduced for all quintiles between 2001 and 2012, and a remoteness effect was evident in 2012, but only for those living in the most deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  5. Parental Socioeconomic Instability and Child Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Antwan

    2018-01-01

    Using data from the 1986 to 2010 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) and the NLSY Child and Young Adult Supplement, this research explores how changes in parental socioeconomic status relate to child obesity over time. Results from linear mixed-effects models indicate that maternal educational gains and maternal employment transitions significantly increased their child's body mass index (BMI). This finding suggests that mothers who work may have less time to devote to monitoring their child's food intake and physical activity, which places their children at higher risks of becoming overweight or obese over time. Conversely, father's work transitions and educational gains contribute to decreases in child's BMI. Thus, work instability and increasing educational attainment for the traditional breadwinner of the household corresponds to better child weight outcomes. Results also suggest that there are racial differences in child BMI that remain after adjusting for changes in socioeconomic status, which indicate that the same structural disadvantages that operate to keep minorities in lower social class standings in society also work to hinder minorities from advancing among and out of their social class. Policy implications related to curbing child obesity are discussed.

  6. ONWI socioeconomic activities in support of SRPO socioeconomic program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The introduction describes the purpose of ONWI's Socioeconomic Program for SRPO nuclear waste repository program and the organization within ONWI dedicated to socioeconomic activities. Chapter 2 of this report, Statutory Requirements and Mission Plan Strategy, documents the specific directives and guidelines contained in the NWPA and in the Mission Plan that define DOE's socioeconomic responsibilities. Chapter 3, ONWI Socioeconomic Objectives and Activities to Assist SRPO, describes ONWI's socioeconomic objectives and provides a detailed discussion of the major activities planned to assist SRPO in the impact assessment, mitigation, and monitoring phases of the program. Chapter 4 lists references cited in the report. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  8. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2) When married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial... eligibility, the net worth of an individual claiming disadvantage must be less than $250,000. For continued 8...

  9. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral

    2016-06-01

    To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Thoracoscopic versus robotic approaches: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overcoming the isolation of disadvantaged housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    Disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently subject to more thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to overcome the isolated character of the housing estates. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... penthouse flats, new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and discussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas. The analysis shows that especially everyday-route strategies adding new public functions...

  12. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kahneman (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.K. Sarin (Rakesh)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past

  13. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  14. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  15. Material Resources and Population Health: Disadvantages in Health Care, Housing, and Food Among Adults Over 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldo, Beth J.; Pagán, José A.; McCabe, John; deBlois, Madeleine; Field, Samuel H.; Asch, David A.; Cannuscio, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between material resources and late-life declines in health. Methods. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of declines in self-rated health and incident walking limitations associated with material disadvantages in a prospective panel representative of US adults aged 51 years and older (N = 15 441). Results. Disadvantages in health care (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 1.58), food (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.29, 2.22), and housing (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.35) were independently associated with declines in self-rated health, whereas only health care (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.29, 1.58) and food (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.31, 2.05) disadvantage predicted incident walking limitations. Participants experiencing multiple material disadvantages were particularly susceptible to worsening health and functional decline. These effects were sustained after we controlled for numerous covariates, including baseline health status and comorbidities. The relations between health declines and non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, poverty, marital status, and education were attenuated or eliminated after we controlled for material disadvantage. Conclusions. Material disadvantages, which are highly policy relevant, appear related to health in ways not captured by education and poverty. Policies to improve health should address a range of basic human needs, rather than health care alone. PMID:19890175

  16. Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the possible moderator effect of SDC. Data on 544 children were collected and analysed (130 SDC, 414 non-SDC, mean age = 8.0 ± 0.7). Physical fitness was measured with tests for cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Academic performance was evaluated using scores on mathematics, spelling and reading. SDC did not differ on physical fitness, compared with non-SDC, but scored significantly lower on academic performance. In the total group, multilevel analysis showed positive associations between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics (β = 0.23), and between cardiovascular fitness and spelling (β = 0.16), but not with reading. No associations were found between muscular fitness and academic performance. A significant interaction effect between SDC and cardiovascular fitness was found for spelling. To conclude, results showed a specific link between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics, regardless of socioeconomic status. SDC did moderate the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and spelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Peer- and Coach-Created Motivational Climates in Youth Sport: Implications for Positive Youth Development of Disadvantaged Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between coach- and peer-created motivational climates and Positive Youth Development is largely unexplored. This is especially true for the latter and in particular with regard to disadvantaged girls. The present study was designed to examine the relationships between perceived coach- and peer-created climates and reported developmental gains among disadvantaged girls participating in sports programmes, and to determine whether these relationships were moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 12 and 22 completed a questionnaire which included the ‘Youth Experience Survey for Sport’ (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012, the ‘Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports’ (Smith, Cumming, & Smoll, 2008, the ‘Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire’ (Ntoumanis & Vazou, 2005, and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. The analysis revealed that a mastery-oriented coach climate is a very strong predictor of perceived Positive Youth Development. This is based on both the number of developmental domains on which it had a significant impact and the explained variance based on the PRV values of the multi-level models. Unlike previous research on disadvantaged youth in general and disadvantaged girls in particular, the observed interaction effects did not show that disadvantaged girls necessarily gain more from their involvement in organised activities such as sport.

  18. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  19. Accessibility and spatial distribution of general practice services in an Australian city by levels of social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, J C; Holman, C D

    2001-12-01

    The accessibility and spatial distribution of health services provided by the main source of primary medical care in Australia--the general practice surgery--was investigated by level of social disadvantage of local catchment areas. All 459 general practice surgeries in Perth, an Australian city of 1.2 million residents, were surveyed with a 94% response. Amount of service provision was measured using weekly doctor-hours, available from consulting rooms during opening hours, and associated nurse-hours of service. Access factors were defined as the distance to the nearest surgery, provision of Sunday and evening services, ease of making a same day appointment, bulk-billing, and whether the surgery offered a choice of gender of doctor. There were relatively more surgeries in disadvantaged areas and doctor-hours of service provision were also greater (41.0 h/1,000 most disadvantaged vs. 37.9 h/1000 least disadvantaged). Bulk-billing care, at no direct cost to the patient, was more likely to be provided in most disadvantaged areas compared with least disadvantaged areas (61 vs. 38%). However, populations living in the most disadvantaged areas were less likely to be able to see the local GP at short notice (91 vs. 95%), to have access to a local female GP (56 vs. 62%) or a local service in the evenings (42 vs. 51%). While the overall picture of accessibility was favourable, there was considerable variation in the type of services provided to different socioeconomic groups. Health care planners should investigate the reasons for these differences and advise Government to ensure that access factors affecting publicly funded services are equitably distributed.

  20. Cumulative (DisAdvantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia Bask

    Full Text Available To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (disadvantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (disadvantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (disadvantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose.

  1. Psychiatric wards with locked doors--advantages and disadvantages according to nurses and mental health nurse assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, K; von Knorring, L; von Essen, L

    2006-04-01

    To describe nurses' and mental health nurse assistants' perceptions of advantages and disadvantages about working on a psychiatric ward with a locked entrance door. Psychiatric staff sometimes needs to protect patients from harming themselves or others. To keep the entrance door locked may help staff to achieve this goal. How locked entrance doors at psychiatric wards are experienced by staff, working on these wards, has been investigated to a very limited extent. The study was explorative and descriptive. Audio taped, semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions about advantages and disadvantages about working on a psychiatric ward with a locked entrance door, were conducted with 20 nurses and 20 mental health nurse assistants. Data were analyzed with content analysis. A content analysis revealed eight categories of advantages and 18 categories of disadvantages. Most advantages mentioned by nurses and mental health nurse assistants were categorized as providing staff with control over patients, providing patients with a secure and efficient care and protecting patients and staff against 'the outside'. Most disadvantages mentioned by nurses were categorized as causing extra work for staff, making patients feel confined, making patients feel dependent and creating a non-caring environment. Most disadvantages mentioned by mental health nurse assistants were categorized as causing extra work for staff, making patients feel confined, causing emotional problems for patients, making staff's power obvious and forcing patients to adapt to other patients' needs. Nurses and mental health nurse assistants mentioned more disadvantages than advantages and nurses mentioned more disadvantages than mental health nurse assistants. Nurses and mental health nurse assistants perceive a number of advantages and disadvantages for themselves, patients and significant others with a locked door at a psychiatric ward. Most of these concern patients' experiences. It is important for

  2. Seeing Disadvantage in Schools: Exploring Student Teachers' Perceptions of Poverty and Disadvantage Using Visual Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. L.; Murray, Jean

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes exploratory research into the development of innovative visual pedagogies for investigating how pre-service student-teachers articulate their views about the effects of poverty on educational attainment. Social class emerges as the strongest factor in poverty and educational disadvantage in the UK. The resulting issues are…

  3. ELECTRIC VEHICULE – A NEW DIRECTION FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN CÎRSTEA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is a major factor of economic growth and social development. The vehicle is the centrepiece of what mobility means and it is expected that, in future, the use of vehicle continues to grow, particularly in developing countries. This article wants to highlight the need to implement electric vehicles in contemporary society and, also, highlight some of the advantages and socio-economic benefits that such action entails. The aim of this paper is estimating the possible influence of such shift in different aspects of economics as a whole. The results underline the main advantages and disadvantages of adopting the electric vehicule.

  4. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typ...

  5. Associations between education and personal income with body mass index among Australian women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m2. Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage.

  6. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eFliessbach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

  7. [Run the risk: social disadvantage or capability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Duque, Luz Adriana

    2018-05-10

    This article discusses the notions of risk and risk acceptability from a social justice perspective, especially in light of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen. The article argues that risk can be the expression of restrictions on subjects' capabilities, deriving from social disadvantages that can be taken for granted in their daily realities. On the other hand, risk can be viewed as an expression of capability in cases where subjects have accepted or admitted the risk through the exercise of freedom, as long as the subjects that relate to the risk do so in keeping with their idea of a good life, the building of which implies the full development of capability for agency. The article concludes with some thoughts on the issues of risk and risk acceptability in the sphere of public health.

  8. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel; Wakker, Peter; Sarin, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce a preference for dominated options. We propose a formal normative ...

  10. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B G; Forste, R

    2014-04-01

    Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoble, Naomi B.; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Hossain, Md Jobayer

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a complex construct of multiple indicators, known to impact cancer outcomes, but has not been adequately examined among pediatric AML patients. This study aimed to identify the patterns of co-occurrence of multiple community-level SES indicators and to explore associations between various patterns of these indicators and pediatric AML mortality risk. A nationally representative US sample of 3,651 pediatric AML patients, aged 0–19 years at diagnosis was drawn from 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registries created between 1973 and 2012. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, stratified univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. Four SES factors accounting for 87% of the variance in SES indicators were identified: F1) economic/educational disadvantage, less immigration; F2) immigration-related features (foreign-born, language-isolation, crowding), less mobility F3) housing instability; and, F4) absence of moving. F1 and F3 showed elevated risk of mortality, adjusted hazards ratios (aHR) (95% CI): 1.07(1.02–1.12) and 1.05(1.00–1.10), respectively. Seven SES-defined cluster groups were identified. Cluster 1: (low economic/educational disadvantage, few immigration-related features, and residential-stability) showed the minimum risk of mortality. Compared to Cluster 1, Cluster 3: (high economic/educational disadvantage, high-mobility) and Cluster 6: (moderately-high economic/educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features) exhibited substantially greater risk of mortality, aHR(95% CI) = 1.19(1.0–1.4) and 1.23 (1.1–1.5), respectively. Factors of correlated SES-indicators and their pattern-based groups demonstrated differential risks in the pediatric AML mortality indicating the need of special public-health attention in areas with economic-educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features. PMID:27543948

  13. Women, smoking, and social disadvantage over the life course: a longitudinal study of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Margaret E; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Juon, Hee-Soon; Pearson, Jennifer L; Robertson, Judith A

    2009-10-01

    We compare life course characteristics of a cohort of African American women (N=457) by their smoking status at age 42: never smoker (34.1%), former smoker (27.8%), or current smoker (38.1%). The Woodlawn population from which our sample is drawn has been followed from first grade (1966-67) to mid adulthood (2002-3) and is a cohort of children from a disadvantaged Chicago community. Examination of the effects of cumulative disadvantage on smoking behavior showed that nearly half of women who first lived in poverty as children, dropped out of school, became teen mothers, and were poor as young adults currently smoked; less than 22% of women with none of these difficulties were current smokers. Regression analyses focusing on smoking and evidence of social disadvantage in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood showed that women with more education were much less likely to be current smokers. Women reporting low parental supervision in adolescence and less frequent church attendance in young adulthood and those whose mothers' reported regular smoking were significantly more likely to be current smokers. Poverty and marital status in young adulthood varied significantly among smoking categories in bivariate relationships, but not in final multivariate regression models. Few other studies have examined smoking careers with data from age 6-42, comparing social disadvantage characteristics over the life course. While marital status, church involvement and parental supervision are not usually included as measures of socioeconomic status, they represent advantages in terms of social capital and should be considered mechanisms for transmitting disparities.

  14. Socioeconomic status and response to antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Lisa S; Smith, Colette J; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Margaret A; Lampe, Fiona C

    2016-05-15

    It has been shown that socioeconomic factors are associated with the prognosis of several chronic diseases; however, there is no recent systematic review of their effect on HIV treatment outcomes. We aimed to review the evidence regarding the existence of an association of socioeconomic status with virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We systematically searched the current literature using the database PubMed. We identified and summarized original research studies in high-income countries that assessed the association between socioeconomic factors (education, employment, income/financial status, housing, health insurance, and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors) and virological response, immunological response, and ART nonadherence among people with HIV-prescribed ART. A total of 48 studies met the inclusion criteria (26 from the United States, six Canadian, 13 European, and one Australian), of which 14, six, and 35 analysed virological, immunological, and ART nonadherence outcomes, respectively. Ten (71%), four (67%), and 23 (66%) of these studies found a significant association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer response, and none found a significant association with improved response. Several studies showed that adjustment for nonadherence attenuated the association between socioeconomic status and ART response. Our review provides strong support that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer response to ART. However, most studies have been conducted in settings such as the United States without universal free healthcare access. Further study in settings with free access to ART could help assess the impact of socioeconomic status on ART outcomes and the mechanisms by which it operates.

  15. Intimate partner violence and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections: are the women from low socio-economic strata in Bangladesh at increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosiur; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2014-04-01

    There is little research on whether women who are either poor or illiterate and have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have a unique risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Most such research concerns families displaced by wars and conflicts. Therefore, we aimed to further this important area of inquiry by (1) addressing whether an association exists between experiences of physical and/or sexual IPV within the past year and symptoms of STI and (2) exploring the relationship between low socio-economic status and IPV and the relative roles they play as obstacles to reducing women's risk of STI in a nationally representative sample of Bangladesh. This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,195 currently married women. Exposure was determined from women's experiences of physical and sexual IPV within the past year. Genital sores and genital discharge were used as proxy outcome variables of the symptoms of STI. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in the study. Experience of any physical and/or sexual IPV were associated with genital sores (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.79; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.51) and genital discharge (AOR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.42-2.53). Severity of physical IPV appeared to have more profound consequences on the outcome measured. Findings also demonstrated that for the risk of STI, women at the nexus of poverty or illiteracy and IPV were not more uniquely disadvantaged. The results suggest that for the risk of STI, the negative effect of having experienced IPV extends across all socio-economic backgrounds and is not limited to women at either at the nexus of poverty or illiteracy and IPV. Findings underscore the calls for protecting women from all forms of physical and sexual violence from their husbands as a part of interventions to reduce the risk of STI.

  16. Socioeconomic status and chronic child malnutrition: Wealth and maternal education matter more in the Peruvian Andes than nationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga B; Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the association of parents' socioeconomic status (SES) with child stunting in the Peruvian Andes and in Peru nationally. It was hypothesized that the relationship of SES to child stunting would be weaker in the Andean compared with the national sample. This is consistent with earlier research indicating that the relationship of SES to health may be weak in poor regions. The data were from the Demographic and Health Survey 2004 to 2006. Two samples of children 3 to 60 months old were compared: a national sample (n = 1426) and an Andean sample (n = 543). Malnutrition was measured using the indicator "stunting," which is small stature for age. Socioeconomic status was measured using parental education, occupation, and household wealth index (WI). In both samples, SES was significantly related to stunting. The odds of stunting in the poorest WI quintile were significantly higher than in the richest quintile. The same pattern was observed in children of mothers having incomplete primary education compared with children of mothers having complete secondary or higher education. The odds of stunting were significantly lower in children of mothers working at home compared with mothers in professional occupations. The associations of WI and maternal education with stunting were significantly stronger in the Andean compared with the national sample; the study did not find support for the hypothesis. Even in very poor regions such as the Andes, SES may be associated with child health, suggesting the importance of public health measures to overcome the health disadvantages experienced by children living in low SES households. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between health care seeking and socioeconomic and demographic determinants among people reporting alarm symptoms of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke P; Jarbol, Dorte E; Larsen, Pia V

    2013-01-01

    Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population...... and socioeconomic differences are found in cancer incidence and survival. We therefore hypothesise that socioeconomic and demographic differences in health care-seeking behaviour are present among people with alarm symptoms....

  18. Socioeconomic differences in the cost, availability and quality of healthy food in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Belinda; Byun, Roy; Mitchell, Emily; Thompson, Susan; Jalaludin, Bin; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2017-12-01

    To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables. Two major supermarket retailers, a discount supermarket chain and independent grocery stores were surveyed. The food basket was significantly cheaper in low compared to high socioeconomic suburbs ($177 vs $189, ptype and socioeconomic status of suburb. Implications for public health: A nationwide food and nutrition surveillance system is required to inform public health policy and practice initiatives. In addition to the food retail environment, these initiatives must address the underlying contributors to inequity and food insecurity for disadvantaged groups. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  20. 'They all supported me but I felt like I suddenly didn't belong anymore': an exploration of perceived disadvantages to online support seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sumaira; Coulson, Neil S

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the number of online support communities dedicated to issues surrounding infertility. The aim of this study was to focus on investigating the perceived disadvantages of online infertility support communities from the perspective of those who access and participate in them. A total of 295 participants completed an online questionnaire about their use of online support communities. Responses were analysed using inductive content analysis. Since the majority of respondents were women, the results of the study largely reflect the experiences of the female population. Over half of the sample (57.9%) reported experiencing disadvantages to online support. Content analysis revealed that the most commonly cited disadvantages were reading about negative experiences (10.9%), reading about other peoples pregnancies (8.8%), inaccurate information (7.8%) and its addictive (5.8%). These results suggest that there are many perceived disadvantages to online infertility support communities. While some of these disadvantages reflect fears commonly cited in the literature, there are also unique disadvantages associated with the experience of infertility and its treatment. The study highlights a number of important areas in which health professionals and community moderators could intervene to better support and improve the online experiences of patients experiencing infertility.

  1. Training people from disadvantaged groups in computer use: Is the backlog not too big to overcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Blignaut

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The digital divide is both a matter of having access to technology and being able to use it. There are several initiatives to roll out Information and Communication Technology (ICT in public places in South Africa, but the question arises as to whether people will be able to use it effectively. Is the backlog with regard to general education and training not so insurmountable that people from disadvantaged communities are not educable for computer usage? This paper reports on the experiences and observations of instructors during a word processing training course for people from such communities. An interaction model that incorporates user and interface limitations with the difficulties experienced, serves as framework for the discussion. It became clear that most of the difficulties that attendees experienced were related to lack of technological experience, a limitation that can be eliminated through practice and perseverance. Enough practice might also result in an attenuation of the effects of some psychological limitations.

  2. Treatment Outcome for Low Socioeconomic Status African American Families in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A.; Butler, Ashley M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    The course and efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) were examined in 18 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American families of preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders. Mothers reported significant improvements in child disruptive behavior but not in maternal depressive symptoms or parenting stress. Attrition was 56%,…

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E.; Richter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys

  4. Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah; Amos, Amanda; Clifford, David; Platt, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and November 2010 that examined the socioeconomic impact of six tobacco control interventions in adults: that is, price increases, smoke-free policies, advertising bans, mass media campaigns, warning labels, smoking cessation support and community-based programmes combining several interventions. We included English-language articles from countries at an advanced stage of the tobacco epidemic that examined the differential impact of tobacco control interventions by socioeconomic status or the effectiveness of interventions among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. All articles were appraised by two authors and details recorded using a standardised approach. Data from 77 primary studies and seven reviews were synthesised via narrative review. We found strong evidence that increases in tobacco price have a pro-equity effect on socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Evidence on the equity impact of other interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of non-targeted smoking cessation programmes which have a negative equity impact due to higher quit rates among more advantaged smokers. Increased tobacco price via tax is the intervention with the greatest potential to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Other measures studied appear unlikely to reduce inequalities in smoking without specific efforts to reach disadvantaged smokers. There is a need for more research evaluating the equity impact of tobacco control measures, and development of more effective approaches for reducing tobacco use in disadvantaged groups and communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. A Disadvantaged Advantage in Walkability: Findings from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition, region, and urbanicity across the United States. Using linear regression models and 2000-2001 US Census data, we investigated the relationship between 5 neighborhood census characteristics (income, education, racial/ethnic composition, age distribution, and sex) and 5 walkability indicators in almost 65,000 census tracts in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the built environment were obtained from the RAND Corporation's (Santa Monica, California) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (median block length, street segment, and node density) and the US Geological Survey's National Land Cover Database (proportion open space and proportion highly developed). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and those with more educated residents were more walkable (i.e., shorter block length, greater street node density, more developed land use, and higher density of street segments). However, tracts with a higher proportion of children and older adults were less walkable (fewer street nodes and lower density of street segments), after adjustment for region and level of urbanicity. Research and policy on the walkability-health link should give nuanced attention to the gap between perso

  6. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  7. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  8. Socioeconomic variation in the financial consequences of ill health for older people with chronic diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Nicole K; Hanratty, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Chronic disease has financial consequences for older adults, but it is unclear how this varies between conditions with different disease trajectories. The aim of this study was to review evidence on the financial burden associated with cancer, heart failure or stroke in older people, to identify those most at risk of financial adversity. We systematically searched nine databases for studies with data on the illness-related financial burden (objective), or on the perception of financial hardship (subjective), of older patients and/or their informal caregivers in high-income countries. We identified thirty-eight papers published in English between 1984 and 2012. Studies fell into three categories: those reporting direct, out of pocket, costs (medical and/or non-medical); studies of the indirect costs associated with illness (such as wage or income loss); and papers reporting general financial or economic burdens secondary to illness. Three out of four studies focused on people with cancer. More affluent people had greater out of pocket costs, but were less financially burdened by illness, compared with older adults from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Disadvantaged patients and families were more likely to report experiences of financial hardship, and spend a higher proportion of their income on all expenses related to their diagnoses. This review illustrates how little is known about the financial adversity experienced by patients with some common chronic conditions. It raises the possibility that higher expenditure by more affluent older people may be creating inequalities in how chronic illness is experienced. The development of effective strategies for financial protection at older ages will require more information on who is affected and at which point in their illness trajectory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2002-01-01

    Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. Experienced teachers' informal learning from classroom teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Beijaard, D.; Brekelmans, M.; Korthagen, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year,

  11. Preparing Experienced Elementary Teachers as Mathematics Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    High quality teaching is critical to student learning, yet takes considerable time to develop in particular content areas. Students in high-poverty, urban settings are less likely to encounter experienced and trained teachers. Administrators from a large school district and university mathematics education faculty partnered and attempted to…

  12. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included

  13. On value differences experienced by sector switchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; van der Wal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines experienced differences in values between employees in the public and private sector. To elucidate them, the authors interviewed 30 employees of the public sector previously employed in the private sector and 30 employees of the private sector previously employed in the public

  14. Experienced Teachers' Informal Learning from Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year, data were collected through observations of and…

  15. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experien...

  16. Correlates of Disadvantaged Children and Literacy Achievements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the correlates of disadvantaged children and literacy achievement in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to carry out the study, 3 determinant factors of disadvantaged children which relate to children literacy achievement were identified. These factors include, group identity, family expectation and ...

  17. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  18. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  19. Post-modern career assessment for traditionally disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-modern career assessment for traditionally disadvantaged South African learners: Moving away from the 'expert opinion' ... Perspectives in Education ... This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career ...

  20. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged business for general statistical purposes... Business Status. 52.219-22 Section 52.219-22 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.219-22 Small Disadvantaged Business Status. As prescribed in 19.308(b), insert the following...

  1. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., employment and business history, where applicable, to see if the totality of circumstances shows disadvantage... nonprofessional or non-business fields. (C) Business history. SBA considers such factors as unequal access to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who is socially disadvantaged? 124...

  2. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  3. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes.......how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  4. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small...

  5. Special Education and Programs for Disadvantaged Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Abraham J. Ed.

    Nine conference papers consider the application of knowledge and methods known to special education to the instruction of disadvantaged children. Edmund W. Gordon views the disadvantaged population; Frank B. Wilderson discusses behavior disorders in children from deprived backgrounds; Harriet Green Kopp describes problems of perception and…

  6. Socioeconomic conditions and number of pain sites in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannestad Toril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in deprived socioeconomic situations run a high pain risk. Although number of pain sites (NPS is considered highly relevant in pain assessment, little is known regarding the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and NPS. Methods The study population comprised 653 women; 160 recurrence-free long-term gynecological cancer survivors, and 493 women selected at random from the general population. Demographic characteristics and co-morbidity over the past 12 months were assessed. Socioeconomic conditions were measured by Socioeconomic Condition Index (SCI, comprising education, employment status, income, ability to pay bills, self-perceived health, and satisfaction with number of close friends. Main outcome measure NPS was recorded using a body outline diagram indicating where the respondents had experienced pain during the past week. Chi-square test and forward stepwise logistic regression were applied. Results and Conclusion There were only minor differences in SCI scores between women with 0, 1-2 or 3 NPS. Four or more NPS was associated with younger age, higher BMI and low SCI. After adjustment for age, BMI and co-morbidity, we found a strong association between low SCI scores and four or more NPS, indicating that there is a threshold in the NPS count for when socioeconomic determinants are associated to NPS in women.

  7. Whetting disadvantaged adults' appetite for nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S

    2017-10-01

    To identify the features of a nutrition education programme for disadvantaged adults deemed most attractive and useful by participants. A two-year, multi-method, qualitative evaluation of pre and post data collected from programme participants. Data were imported into NVivo10 for coding to facilitate a thematic analysis. Western Australia. Participants Individuals attending the Western Australian FOODcents nutrition education programme that is designed to provide knowledge and skills needed to consume a healthy diet on a budget. Focus groups were conducted several weeks after course completion (five groups, forty-seven participants), observations were conducted during FOODcents sessions (thirty-one observation episodes, 237 participants), and open-ended questions were asked in pre-post hard-copy surveys administered in sessions (n 927) and an online survey administered on average six weeks after course completion (n 114). The course attributes that were found to be especially important to participants were: (i) user-friendly, practical information that could be immediately translated to their daily lives; (ii) experiential learning that involved direct contact with food products; and (iii) opportunities for social interaction. These aspects of nutrition education were described as being highly influential in the decision to participate in the course, the application of the information in their subsequent food purchase and preparation activities, and their word-of-mouth communications with others about the course. Incorporating aspects of most importance to participants into nutrition education programme delivery and promotion may increase joining rates, enjoyment, satisfaction with course content and, ultimately, the uptake of recommended behaviours.

  8. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz Landy, Christine; Sword, Wendy; Ciliska, Donna

    2008-10-03

    Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA) postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000) who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01-2.18)], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35-0.67)], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64-4.4)]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47-3.40)]. Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar health service needs and utilization patterns to more SEA women

  9. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Methods Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000 who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. Results When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01–2.18], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35–0.67], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64–4.4]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47–3.40]. Conclusion Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar

  10. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Australian adults: prevalence, persistence, conduct problems and disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L Ebejer

    Full Text Available The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP.Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i full DSM-IV criteria; (ii excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion; (iii participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms.Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP.The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.

  12. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vicky P K H; Sarkari, Feroz; Macneil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours' Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults' capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud.

  13. [Intelligence and the explanation for socio-economic inequalities in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, M; Mackenbach, J P

    2007-05-12

    Attention is increasingly being paid to the role of cognitive ability to explain socio-economic inequalities in health. The universal socio-economic gradient in health, where each rung lower on the socio-economic ladder implies worse health, has still not been satisfactorily explained scientifically. Because cognitive ability is related to a multitude of social outcomes in a similarly graded manner, hypothesising that cognitive ability plays a major role in health inequalities by socio-economic status is appealing. Recent empirical studies have shown that at least part of socio-economic health inequalities can indeed be explained by differences in cognitive ability. However, this does not imply that we should be pessimistic about future attempts to break the chain that links socio-economic status and cognitive ability with health. During some life stages, environmental factors may be able to influence cognitive ability. Interventions may therefore be targeted in order to optimize these effects. In addition, there is evidence that cognitive ability is correlated with health-related behaviours such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and obesity. Therefore, another opportunity for reducing health inequalities related to cognitive ability and socio-economic status would be to develop tailored interventions to improve health-related behaviours in disadvantaged groups. However, the first priority is to further investigate the role of cognitive ability in health inequalities by examining various health outcomes, different age groups and variations across the life course.

  14. Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: the effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although

  15. The absence of birthweight paradox as a marker of disadvantages faced by low maternal education children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, P V; Fonseca, S C; Pinheiro, R S; Aguiar, F P; Camargo, K R; Coeli, C M

    2017-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the birthweight paradox would not be observed when assessing the effect of maternal education on neonatal mortality in the presence of socioeconomic inequality in access to health care. Non-concurrent cohort study. Passive follow-up of live-born infants using probabilistic record linkage of birth and death records for Rio de Janeiro (2004-2010; n = 1 445 367). Maternal age, birthweight and neonatal death were evaluated according to maternal educational level strata (disadvantages faced by low maternal education women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Socioeconomic consequences of obesity : Population-based longitudinal studies of Swedish men

    OpenAIRE

    Karnehed, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of the thesis was to study if Swedish obese male adolescents become socioeconomicly disadvantaged in later life. Among Swedish men born 1951-79, who went through military conscription examination at age 18-20 years, the associations between obesity and attained education, occupation, income, and disability pension have been studied. The target populations were identified in the Multi-Generation Register. A record linkage was made between this register and...

  17. Childhood disadvantages and the timing of the onset of natural menopause in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Beatriz; Lozano-Keymolen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of early life factors with the timing of the onset of natural menopause in Costa Rica and Puerto Rico. We use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of the onset of menopause. Our results suggest that socioeconomic disadvantages, as expressed by difficulties attending school due to economic hardships or parents never living together, increase the risk of the onset of natural menopause among Puerto Rican women. Among Costa Rican women, early life nutrition, estimated using anthropometric measures, is related to the timing of the onset of natural menopause.

  18. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  19. A systematic review of cognitive functioning among young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Charlotte E; Langley, Kate; Shelton, Katherine H

    2017-11-01

    Young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty are among the most disadvantaged in society. This review examines whether young people who have these experiences differ from their non-disadvantaged peers with respect to their cognitive skills and abilities, and whether cognitive profiles differ between these three groups. Three electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 1 February 2015 on cognitive functioning among young people aged 15 to 24 years who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. Articles were screened using pre-determined inclusion criteria, then the data were extracted, and its quality assessed. A total of 31 studies were included. Compared to non-disadvantaged youth or published norms, cognitive performance was generally found to be impaired in young people who had experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. A common area of difficulty across all groups is working memory. General cognitive functioning, attention, and executive function deficits are shared by the homeless and poverty groups. Creativity emerges as a potential strength for homeless young people. The cognitive functioning of young people with experiences of impermanent housing and poverty has been relatively neglected and more research is needed to further establish cognitive profiles and replicate the findings reviewed here. As some aspects of cognitive functioning may show improvement with training, these could represent a target for intervention.

  20. The Occupational Wellbeing of People Experiencing Homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...

  1. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  2. The impact of oral health on the academic performance of disadvantaged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirawan, Hazem; Faust, Sharon; Mulligan, Roseann

    2012-09-01

    We measured the impact of dental diseases on the academic performance of disadvantaged children by sociodemographic characteristics and access to care determinants We performed clinical dental examinations on 1495 disadvantaged elementary and high school students from Los Angeles County public schools. We matched data with academic achievement and attendance data provided by the school district and linked these to the child's social determinants of oral health and the impact of oral health on the child's school and the parents' school or work absences. Students with toothaches were almost 4 times more likely to have a low grade point average. About 11% of students with inaccessible needed dental care missed school compared with 4% of those with access. Per 100 elementary and high school-aged children, 58 and 80 school hours, respectively, are missed annually. Parents averaged 2.5 absent days from work or school per year because of their children's dental problems. Oral health affects students' academic performance. Studies are needed that unbundle the clinical, socioeconomic, and cultural challenges associated with this epidemic of dental disease in children.

  3. Disadvantages of VKA and requirements for novel anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Raji; Ansell, Jack

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  5. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged...

  7. Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendes Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of ethical conflicts experienced by medical students. This study is a cross-sectional and analytical research that was conducted in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were presented in absolute and percentage values. For the analytical statistical treatment of the data, the level of significance was considered p <0.05. The outcome variables were: Experiences of ethical conflicts in interpersonal relations within the medical course and Ethical conduct in health care. The identification of the prevalence of ethical conflicts in the undergraduate program adopted the perspective of different interpersonal relations (academic-teaching, academic-academic, academic-employee, academic-patient, teacher-teacher, teacher-patient, teacher-employee and employee-patient. (Importance of identifying themselves to the health services user and requesting consent to perform the physical examination, assistance without the supervision of the teacher, issuance of health documents without the signature of the professional responsible and use of social networks to share data Of patient. It was verified the association of the outcome variables with sex, year of graduation and course evaluation. A total of 281 undergraduate students enrolled in all undergraduate courses in Medicine of both sexes, with a predominance of female (52.7%. The students reported having experienced conflicting situations in interpersonal relations with teachers (59.6%, provided assistance without proper supervision of a teacher (62.6%, reported having issued health documents without the accompaniment of teachers (18, 5%. The highest frequency was observed among those enrolled in the most advanced years of the undergraduate program (p <0.05. The use of social networks for the purpose of sharing patient

  8. Social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis and its treatment: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagane, Yuriko; Murai, Hiroyuki; Imai, Tomihiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Tsuda, Emiko; Minami, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasushi; Kanai, Tetsuya; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Masuda, Masayuki; Konno, Shingo; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Aoki, Masashi; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki

    2017-02-23

    To clarify the social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis (MG) and examine associations with its disease and treatment. Cross-sectional study. We evaluated 917 consecutive cases of established MG seen at 13 neurological centres in Japan over a short duration. All patients completed a questionnaire on social disadvantages resulting from MG and its treatment and a 15-item MG-specific quality of life scale at study entry. Clinical severity at the worst condition was graded according to the MG Foundation of America classification, and that at the current condition was determined according to the quantitative MG score and MG composite. Maximum dose and duration of dose ≥20 mg/day of oral prednisolone during the disease course were obtained from the patients' medical records. Achievement of the treatment target (minimal manifestation status with prednisolone at ≤5 mg/day) was determined at 1, 2 and 4 years after starting treatment and at study entry. We found that 27.2% of the patients had experienced unemployment, 4.1% had been unwillingly transferred and 35.9% had experienced a decrease in income, 47.1% of whom reported that the decrease was ≥50% of their previous total income. In addition, 49.0% of the patients reported feeling reduced social positivity. Factors promoting social disadvantages were severity of illness, dose and duration of prednisolone, long-term treatment, and a depressive state and change in appearance after treatment with oral steroids. Early achievement of the treatment target was a major inhibiting factor. Patients with MG often experience unemployment, unwilling job transfers and a decrease in income. In addition, many patients report feeling reduced social positivity. To inhibit the social disadvantages associated with MG and its treatment, greater focus needs to be placed on helping patients with MG resume a normal lifestyle as soon as possible by achieving the treatment target. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  9. Telemedicine in healthcare. 1: Exploring its uses, benefits and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Firas

    This first in a two part series on telemedicine in healthcare outlines the background and context for using this technology. It discusses the levels of telemedicine and its possible applications in healthcare, and examines its advantages and disadvantages.

  10. [Impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Frédéric; Perriot, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Smoking addiction and tobacco dependence are related to social deprivation and time perspective. The objective of this study was to understand how these factors influenced the results of smoking cessation in order to optimize the care of this population. We included 200 patients from our outpatient clinic from March 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. This study focused on the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. Time perspective was measured with the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, social disadvantages with Epices scale. Information on each individual's characteristics, smoking addiction, and smoking cessation was collected. One hundred and ninety-two patients (of whom 45% were socially disadvantaged) participated. Socially disadvantaged people tend to lean towards dimensions "Past Negative" (Pdisadvantages and time perspective in helping these addicted patients to stop smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  12. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disadvantaged business enterprises. (a) The STD shall schedule contract lettings in a balanced program providing... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply...

  13. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  14. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the

  15. The role of hardship in the association between socio-economic position and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Olesen, Sarah C; Leach, Liana S

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that socio-economic position is associated with depression. The experience of financial hardship, having to go without the essentials of daily living due to limited financial resources, may explain the effect. However, there are few studies examining the link between financial hardship and diagnosable depression at a population level. The current paper addresses this gap and also evaluates the moderating effect of age. Data were from 8841 participants aged 16-85 years in Australia's 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Measures of socio-economic position included: financial hardship, education, labour-force status, occupational skill, household income, main source of income, and area-level disadvantage. Financial hardship was more strongly associated with depression than other socio-economic variables. Hardship was more strongly associated with current depression than with prior history of depression. The relative effect of hardship was strongest in late adulthood but the absolute effect of hardship was greatest in middle age. The results demonstrate the critical role of financial hardship in the association between socio-economic disadvantage and 12-month depressive episode, and suggest that social and economic policies that address inequalities in living standards may be an appropriate way to reduce the burden attributable to depression.

  16. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.

  17. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  18. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  19. Socioeconomic and urban-rural differentials in exposure to air pollution and mortality burden in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Ai; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Pearce, Jamie; Milner, James; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-10-06

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations often have higher exposures to particulate air pollution, which can be expected to contribute to differentials in life expectancy. We examined socioeconomic differentials in exposure and air pollution-related mortality relating to larger scale (5 km resolution) variations in background concentrations of selected pollutants across England. Ozone and particulate matter (sub-divided into PM 10 , PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , primary, nitrate and sulphate PM 2.5 ) were simulated at 5 km horizontal resolution using an atmospheric chemistry transport model (EMEP4UK). Annual mean concentrations of these pollutants were assigned to all 1,202,578 residential postcodes in England, which were classified by urban-rural status and socioeconomic deprivation based on the income and employment domains of the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation for the Lower-level Super Output Area of residence. We used life table methods to estimate PM 2.5 -attributable life years (LYs) lost in both relative and absolute terms. Concentrations of the most particulate fractions, but not of nitrate PM 2.5 or ozone, were modestly higher in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. Relationships between pollution level and socioeconomic deprivation were non-linear and varied by urban-rural status. The pattern of PM 2.5 concentrations made only a small contribution to the steep socioeconomic gradient in LYs lost due to PM 2.5 per 10 3 population, which primarily was driven by the steep socioeconomic gradient in underlying mortality rates. In rural areas, the absolute burden of air pollution-related LYs lost was lowest in the most deprived deciles. Air pollution shows modest socioeconomic patterning at 5 km resolution in England, but absolute attributable mortality burdens are strongly related to area-level deprivation because of underlying mortality rates. Measures that cause a general reduction in background concentrations of air pollution may modestly

  20. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women. Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Ahmady, A Ebn; Ghasemi, E; Zwi, A B

    2015-03-01

    To identify the socioeconomic distribution of perceived oral health among adults in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional population study. A stratified random sample of 1,100 adults aged 18-84 years living in Tehran. Self-report data were obtained from the 2010 dental telephone interview survey. Oral health was evaluated using self-assessed non-replaced extracted teeth (NRET), and a three-item perceived dental health instrument. Socioeconomic status was measured by combining the variables of education and assets using principal component analysis. Inequalities in oral health were examined using prevalence ratios and concentration index. The poorest quintile was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.30; 1.98) times as likely to have any NRET compared with the richest quintile, indicating a disparity. Inequality was most pronounced in the 35-59 age group with prevalence ratio 2.01 (95% CI 1.26; 3.05). The concentration index of NRET in adults in Tehran was -0.22 (95% CI -0.28; -0.16). No significant differences were found in perceived dental health between socioeconomic classes. Adults from lower socioeconomic classes experienced more disabilities due to missing their teeth, specifically in the middle-age group. Inequalities in perceived dental health were not apparent in the studied population.

  2. Nutrition Beliefs of Disadvantaged Parents of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…

  3. Walking to Work: The Roles of Neighborhood Walkability and Socioeconomic Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cheryl M; Lian, Min; Struthers, Jim; Kammrath, Anna

    2015-06-16

    There are few studies that aimed to find a relationship between transportation-related physical activity and neighborhood socioeconomic condition using a composite deprivation index. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic deprivation with percentage of adults walking to work. A walkability index and a socioeconomic deprivation index were created at block group-level. The outcome variable, percentage of adults who walk to work was dichotomized as walkability and socioeconomic deprivation with walking to work. Individuals in the most walkable neighborhoods are almost 5 times more likely to walk to work than individuals in the least walkable neighborhoods (OR = 4.90, 95% CI = 2.80-8.59). After adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighborhoods are almost 3 times more likely to walk to work than individuals in the least walkable neighborhoods (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.62-5.49). Walkability (as measured by the walkability index) is a very strong indicator of walking to work even after controlling for neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage.

  4. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  5. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  6. Limited socioeconomic opportunities and Latina teen childbearing: a qualitative study of family and structural factors affecting future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Marchi, Kristen; Ralph, Lauren; Biggs, M Antonia; Combellick, Sarah; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D; Braveman, Paula

    2013-04-01

    The decrease in adolescent birth rates in the United States has been slower among Latinas than among other ethnic/racial groups. Limited research has explored how socioeconomic opportunities influence childbearing among Latina adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 65 pregnant foreign- and US-born Latina women (31 adolescents; 34 adults) in two California counties. We assessed perceived socioeconomic opportunities and examined how family, immigration and acculturation affected the relationships between socioeconomic opportunities and adolescent childbearing. Compared with women who delayed childbearing into adulthood, pregnant adolescents described having few resources for educational and career development and experiencing numerous socioeconomic and social barriers to achieving their goals. Socioeconomic instability and policies limiting access to education influenced childbearing for immigrant adolescents. In contrast, family disintegration tied to poverty figured prominently in US-born adolescents' childbearing. Limited socioeconomic opportunities may play a large role in persistently high pregnancy rates among Latina adolescents.

  7. Integrating environmental and socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Cluett, C.; Page, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, considerable scientific and regulatory attention has been given to the preparation of environmental impact assessments. Part of this attention has been directed to definition of the proper scope of an environmental assessment and to debate about how the ''human environment'' should be addressed. This debate continues, and is reflected in the ongoing evolution of the definition of and relationship between the ''environmental'' and ''socioeconomic'' components of an integrated environmental impact assessment. This paper discusses the need for close integration between the environmental and socioeconomic assessment efforts and examines some of the benefits and difficulties of achieving this integration

  8. Socio-economic predictors of performance in the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette

    2013-11-29

    Entry from secondary school to Australian and New Zealand undergraduate medical schools has since the late 1990's increasingly relied on the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) as one of the selection factors. The UMAT consists of 3 sections - logical reasoning and problem solving (UMAT-1), understanding people (UMAT-2) and non-verbal reasoning (UMAT-3). One of the goals of using this test has been to enhance equity in the selection of students with the anticipation of an increase in the socioeconomic diversity in student cohorts. However there has been limited assessment as to whether UMAT performance itself might be influenced by socioeconomic background. Between 2000 and 2012, 158,909 UMAT assessments were completed. From these, 118,085 cases have been identified where an Australian candidate was sitting for the first time during that period. Predictors of the total UMAT score, UMAT-1, UMAT-2 and UMAT-3 scores were entered into regression models and included gender, age, school type, language used at home, deciles for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage score, the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), self-identification as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin (ATSI) and current Australian state or territory of abode. A lower UMAT score was predicted by living in an area of relatively higher social disadvantage and lower social advantage. Other socioeconomic indicators were consistent with this observation with lower scores in those who self-identified as being of ATSI origin and higher scores evident in those from fee-paying independent school backgrounds compared to government schools. Lower scores were seen with increasing age, female gender and speaking any language other than English at home. Divergent effects of rurality were observed, with increased scores for UMAT-1 and UMAT-2, but decreasing UMAT-3 scores with increasing ARIA score. Significant state-based differences

  9. Gender patterns of socioeconomic differences in premature mortality: follow-up of the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Mária S; Skrabski, Arpád; László, Krisztina D; Janszky, Imre

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in premature mortality rates and in the size of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary across countries. We aimed to quantify the gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and premature all-cause mortality and to analyse whether psychosocial factors might associate between SES and mortality among men and women separately in the middle-aged Hungarian population. Men (n = 1130) and women (n = 1529), aged 40-69 years, participants in the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel (2002) were followed up for 3.5 years for total mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between several socioeconomic measures and total death. During the follow-up, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died. The age-adjusted hazard ratios and the Rothman's synergy indexes showed that each measure of socioeconomic position was more deleterious in men compared with women. When investigating potential explanatory factors for the SES-mortality association, we found that adjustment for severe depression resulted in the most pronounced reduction in the regression coefficients for the association between most socioeconomic factors and male premature death. There was no indication that depression would mediate between SES and mortality in women. Work stress factors, poor lifestyle and low social support also contributed to the explanation of the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and premature death in men. Middle-aged Hungarian men seem to be considerably more vulnerable to the chronic stress of material disadvantage than women. This effect modification by gender might partly be explained by a stronger connection between low SES and depressive symptoms in men.

  10. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard

    2014-03-06

    Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.

  11. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  12. Experiencing the enchantment of place and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    2016-01-01

    in several layers of reality. To better understand experiences taking place in intersections between realities, J.R.R. Tolkien’s concept of how real enchantment produces a Secondary World suggests that we see fantasy as real, and this proposition is compared to Georg Simmel’s more modernist suggestion......Experiences of place and mobility play central roles not only in what was traditionally understood as tourism, but also in the broader practices of travelling and visiting sites and sights. On the one hand, such experiences are performed to an extent where it is difficult to isolate the sites...... and movements experienced per se, since visitors and travellers take part in ‘doing’ places and mobility. On the other, experience sites and routes stand out with specific traces and characteristics affording some – and not other – experiences. This paper discusses conceptual understandings that may help...

  13. Cognitive dissonance experienced by nurse practitioner faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Hawkins, Joellen W; Weiss, Josie A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explicate the concept of cognitive dissonance as experienced and reported by nurse practitioner (NP) faculty members. Responses from NP faculty members to an online survey about their experiences with cognitive dissonance. The respondents detailed their experiences with cognitive dissonance, citing differences between expectations for which they are rewarded and those for which they are paid. Expecting all faculty members to excel in practice, research, teaching, and service may create unrealistic workloads for NP faculty members. Examining expectations and considering creation of a clinical track for faculty who practice may be options administrators of NP programs might explore. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Challenges experienced by debt counsellors in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgomotso Masilo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng, Province of South Africa is experiencing a decreasing number of registered and practising debt counsellors. This paper investigates and assesses the challenges that debt counsellors in Gauteng experiences. Fifteen debt counsellors from three municipalities of Gauteng were interviewed. Data was analysed using ATLAS ti. The paper concluded that though debt counsellors are complying with the regulations in rendering debt counselling service, they still had challenges regarding backlogs in debt review. The paper recommends that debt counsellors should be adequately trained and should restructure their rehabilitation methods on the one hand and the National Credit Regulator should monitor debt counsellors’ practices and assist them with their queries on the other hand.

  15. Socioeconomic disparities in access to ART treatment and the differential impact of a policy that increased consumer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, G M; Hoang, V P; Illingworth, P J

    2013-11-01

    What was the impact on access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment by different socioeconomic status (SES) groups after the introduction of a policy that increased patient out-of-pocket costs? After the introduction of a policy that increased out-of-pocket costs in Australia, all SES groups experienced a similar percentage reduction in fresh ART cycles per 1000 women of reproductive age. Higher SES groups experienced a progressively greater reduction in absolute numbers of fresh ART cycles due to existing higher levels of utilization. Australia has supportive public funding arrangements for ARTs. Policies that substantially increase out-of-pocket costs for ART treatment create financial barriers to access and an overall reduction in utilization. Data from the USA suggests that disparities exist in access to ART treatment based on ethnicity, education level and income. Time series analysis of utilization of ART, intrauterine insemination (IUI) and clomiphene citrate by women from varying SES groups before and after the introduction of a change in the level of public funding for ART. Women undertaking fertility treatment in Australia between 2007 and 2010. Women from higher SES quintiles use more ART treatment than those in lower SES quintiles, which likely reflects a greater ability to pay for treatment and a greater need for ART treatment as indicated by the trend to later childbearing. In 2009, 10.13 and 5.17 fresh ART cycles per 1000 women of reproductive age were performed in women in the highest and lowest SES quintiles respectively. In the 12 months after the introduction of a policy that increased out-of-pocket costs from ∼$1500 Australian dollars (€1000) to ∼$2500 (€1670) for a fresh IVF cycle, there was a 21-25% reduction in fresh ART cycles across all SES quintiles. The absolute reduction in fresh ART cycles in the highest SES quintile was double that in the lowest SES quintile. In this study, SES was based on the average relative

  16. Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Schulenberg, John E

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social disparities in obesity and overweight differ by age and historical period using longitudinal data with repeated measures. We used panel data from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2004) to examine social disparities in trajectories of body mass index (BMI) over adulthood (age 18-45). Self-reported height and weight were collected in this annual US survey of high-school seniors, followed biennially since 1976. Using growth curve models, we analysed BMI trajectories over adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime SEP (measured by parents' education and respondent's education). BMI trajectories exhibit a curvilinear rate of change from age 18 to 45, but there was a strong period effect, such that weight gain was more rapid for more recent cohorts. As a result, successive cohorts become overweight (BMI>25) at increasingly earlier points in the life course. BMI scores were also consistently higher for women, racial/ethnic minority groups and those from a lower SEP. However, BMI scores for socially advantaged groups in recent cohorts were actually higher than those for their socially disadvantaged counterparts who were born 10 years earlier. Results highlight the importance of social status and socio-economic resources for maintaining optimal weight. Yet, even those in advantaged social positions have experienced an increase in BMI in recent years.

  17. The link between ethnicity, social disadvantage and mental health problems in a school-based multiethnic sample of children in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke

    2014-11-01

    To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups.

  18. Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to review the literature regarding the barriers to sampling, recruitment, participation, and retention of members of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in health research and strategies for increasing the amount of health research conducted with socially disadvantaged groups. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Searches of electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Social Science Index via Web of Knowledge and CINHAL were conducted for English language articles published up to May 2013. Qualitative and quantitative studies as well as literature reviews were included. Articles were included if they reported attempts to increase disadvantaged group participation in research, or the barriers to research with disadvantaged groups. Groups of interest were those described as socially, culturally or financially disadvantaged compared to the majority of society. Eligible articles were categorised according to five phases of research: 1) sampling, 2) recruitment and gaining consent, 3) data collection and measurement, 4) intervention delivery and uptake, and 5) retention and attrition. Results In total, 116 papers from 115 studies met inclusion criteria and 31 previous literature reviews were included. A comprehensive summation of the major barriers to working with various disadvantaged groups is provided, along with proposed strategies for addressing each of the identified types of barriers. Most studies of strategies to address the barriers were of a descriptive nature and only nine studies reported the results of randomised trials. Conclusions To tackle the challenges of research with socially disadvantaged groups, and increase their representation in health and medical research, researchers and research institutions need to acknowledge extended timeframes, plan for higher resourcing costs and operate via community partnerships. PMID:24669751

  19. A social and academic enrichment program promotes medical school matriculation and graduation for disadvantaged students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L; Hollar, D

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of a pre-medical pipeline program on successful completion of medical school and the capacity of this program to address achievement gaps experienced by disadvantaged students. The University of North Carolina (USA) Medical Education Development (MED) program provides intensive academic and test skills preparation for admission to medical, dental, and other allied health professions schools. This retrospective study evaluated the academic progress of a longitudinal sample of 1738 disadvantaged college students who completed MED between 1974 and 2001. Data sources included MED participant data, medical school admissions data for the host school, aggregate data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and individual MED participant data from AAMC. Methods of analysis utilized Chi-square, independent samples t test, and logistic regression to examine associations between factors. Of the 935 students in MED from 1974 to 2001, who had indicated an interest in medical school, 887 (94.9%) successfully matriculated and 801 (85.7%) successfully earned the MD degree. Using logistic regression, factors that were significantly correlated with earning the medical degree included the student's race, college undergraduate total and science grade point averages, with Hispanic, African American, and Native American participants earning the medical degree at rates comparable to Caucasian participants. MED students successfully earned the MD degree despite having significantly lower Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores and undergraduate grade point averages compared to all United States medical school applicants: MCAT scores had little relationship with student's success. These findings suggest that an intensive, nine-week, pre-medical academic enrichment program that incorporates confidence-building and small-group tutoring and peer support activities can build a foundation on which disadvantaged students can successfully earn

  20. Food and families' socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, J D

    1994-09-01

    This paper explores the relationship between food expenditures and consumption patterns and families' socioeconomic status in the United States. Three themes follow through the paper. One is that as income rises over time and across socioeconomic groups, a smaller percent of that income is spent of food. Simultaneously, a larger percent of the food dollar buys services and food preparation moves farther away from the home. Second, characteristics of people like age and ethnicity contribute to diversity in food consumption but labor force participation by women has led the trend in away-from-home-food preparation. New scientific information and technology have changed attitudes about nutrition and food safety and their linkages to health. Finally, the continuous introduction of affordable new foods into the diet and culture of families in all socioeconomic groups has been a quiet evolution. Trying to differentiate socioeconomic groups in the United States by their food and nutritional status is almost a nonstory except for fascinating intragroup diversities that change rapidly in the postmodern society.

  1. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  2. Socio-Economic Status and Peritonitis in Australian Non-Indigenous Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587

  3. Episodic Memory Development: Theory of Mind Is Part of Re-Experiencing Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Gornik, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments with 3 1/2- to 6 1/2-year-old children showed that theory-of-mind development is associated with the growth of episodic memory. Episodic memory was assessed by manipulating informational conditions such that they permit or prevent the formation of episodic memories in terms of re-experiencing the recalled event. Only experienced…

  4. Socioeconomic disparities in home health care service access and utilization: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Hawranik, Pamela; Duncan, Vicky; Turner, Hollie

    2012-10-01

    Home health care services are expanding at a rapid pace in order to meet the needs of the growing population of older adults and those with chronic illnesses. Because of current restrictions on home health care as an insured service in some countries, individuals may be required to pay for some or all of their home care services out of pocket. These payments may potentially limit access to needed home care services for persons in the lowest socioeconomic strata. Previous research demonstrates a clear socioeconomic gradient in access to acute and primary care services, where those most in need of services are the most disadvantaged and under-serviced. There has been little attention paid thus far, however, to the way in which socioeconomic status may affect the receipt of home health care services. To determine what is known from existing literature about socioeconomic disparities in home health care access and utilization. A scoping review was used to map the extent and nature of the literature in this area. A search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, SocIndex and Sociological Abstracts as well as Dissertations International. A total of 206 potentially relevant articles were published between 2000 and April 2011. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 15 research articles to be included in the scoping review. The majority of articles reported secondary analyses of administrative datasets related to utilization of home health care. Several studies examined access and utilization using qualitative approaches. The distinction between professional and supportive home care services was not always clear in the articles. Individual and composite measures of socioeconomic status were reported, with the most frequently used indicator being income. Several studies used more complex composite ecological indicators of socieconomic status. There was general agreement that utilization of home health services favored persons with greater economic disadvantage

  5. A Disadvantaged Advantage in Walkability: Findings from Socioeconomic and Geographic Analysis of National Built Environment Data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition,...

  6. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in

  7. The association between acculturation and health insurance coverage for immigrant children from socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-06-01

    Among immigrant children whose parents have historically had lower education, the study explored which immigrant children were most likely to have coverage based on maternal region of origin. The direct and indirect relationship of acculturation on immigrant children's coverage was also assessed. A subsample of US-born children with foreign-born mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort was analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions (n = 1,686). Children whose mothers emigrated from the Caribbean or Indochina had greater odds of being insured compared to children whose mothers emigrated from Mexico. Moreover, Latin American children did not statistically differ from Mexican children in being uninsured. Maternal citizenship was positively associated with children's coverage; while living in a household with a mother who migrated as a child was negatively associated with private insurance. To increase immigrant children's coverage, Latin American and Mexican families may benefit from additional financial assistance, rather than cultural assistance.

  8. Socio-Economic Segregation of Disadvantaged Children between Schools in Pakistan: Comparing the State and Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of children in different school-types and regions in Pakistan suggests that access and opportunities in education are not evenly accessible for many children. Segregation at school level is an important concern for equity and social justice because the adverse effects of segregation increase the pre-existing gap in opportunities…

  9. An Analysis of the Impact of Socio-Economic Disadvantage and School Quality on the Probability of School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuteau, S.; Mavromaras, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper combines the Australian Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) micro-level data with its longitudinal continuation, the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth data, to measure the association between individual PISA scores and early school dropouts. We use multilevel modelling to distinguish between student and school…

  10. Two steps forward, one step back: Achievements and limitations of university-community partnerships in addressing neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Warr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a partnership initiative that involved a major Australian research university (University of Melbourne, a local government and a network of local community service organisations. The partnership projects aimed to promote public access to university infrastructure for poor and marginalised residents, enhance the local value of research and teaching activities, and create employment opportunities. The article draws on an evaluation of the partnership, which focused on four keynote projects. It found that the partnership appeared to achieve positive outcomes for residents but was limited by tensions associated with the university’s ambivalent commitment to the value of such partnerships. These tensions remained difficult to resolve because they signalled present contestation over the foundational values of contemporary public universities. Keywords: university-community partnerships, neoliberalism, neighbourhoods, community development

  11. Socio-economic differences in predictors of frequent dairy food consumption among Australian adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient dairy food consumption during adolescence is necessary for preventing disease. While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume few dairy foods, some eat quantities more in line with dietary recommendations despite socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic variations in factors supportive of adolescents' frequent dairy consumption remain unexplored. The present study aimed to identify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and adolescents' frequent dairy consumption at baseline and two years later across socio-economic strata, and to examine whether socio-economic position moderated observed effects. Online surveys completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007) included a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions based on social ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental dietary influences. Thirty-seven secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Australian adolescents (n 1201) aged 12-15 years, drawn from a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents (response rate=33%). While frequent breakfast consumption was cross-sectionally associated with frequent dairy consumption among all adolescents, additional associated factors differed by socio-economic position. Baseline dairy consumption longitudinally predicted consumption at follow-up. No further factors predicted frequent consumption among disadvantaged adolescents, while four additional factors were predictive among advantaged adolescents. Socio-economic position moderated two predictors; infrequently eating dinner alone and never purchasing from school vending machines predicted frequent consumption among advantaged adolescents. Nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving adolescents' dairy consumption should employ multifactorial approaches informed by social ecological models and address socio-economic differences in influences on eating behaviours; e.g., selected intrapersonal factors among all

  12. Unpacking Socio-Economic Risks for Reading and Academic Self-Concept in Primary School: Differential Effects and the Role of the Preschool Home Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and…

  13. Exploring the Academic and Psychosocial Impact of El Sistema-Inspired Music Programs within Two Low Socio-Economic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Margaret S.; McPherson, Gary E.; Faulkner, Robert; Davidson, Jane W.; Barrett, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to understand the potential for positive non-musical outcomes for economically and socially disadvantaged primary school students who are involved in instrumental music learning programs. Two schools with students experiencing generational poverty, current or first-generation immigrant or refugee status who were running El-Sistema…

  14. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  15. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preliminary socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.A.; Malhotra, S.; McStay, J.R.; Slingsby, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report was prepared as a part of the continuing site characterization activities for a proposed nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) to be located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The purpose of this study is to assess the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of the proposed NWRB facility. The specific objectives of this study are to describe historical socioeconomic trends in the study area, to describe current conditions, to project future baseline conditions without the NWRB, to project potential impacts due to the proposed NWRB under two alternative regional development scenarios and assess their significance, and to suggest an overall impact management and mitigation strategy. A closely related objective is to assemble a comprehensive socioeconomic data base that can be easily updated for future analyses. This study examines employment, labor supply, population change, housing, local transportation, revenues, and expenditures for public services. This report documents the marked demographic and economic decline that has occurred in the study area since 1981 and concludes that future baseline growth will resume at a relatively slower pace after further expected declines have been experienced through about 1985. The projected socioeconomic impacts of the NWRB development are assessed under two alternative baseline scenarios and are not expected to be significant in either case. With careful planning and attention to impact mitigation, including public participation and interaction with local and regional planning agencies, potential socioeconomic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Recommendations are made for providing frequent updating of the data base and for improving the analysis of socioeconomic impacts. 68 references, 19 figures, 38 tables

  16. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, C; Etches, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.

  17. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    been used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on perinatal health. Conclusion: Danish register data is an invaluable source of information on socioeconomic differences in perinatal health. Danish registers continue to provide excellent opportunities for research and surveillance...

  18. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  19. Mentoring disadvantaged nursing students through technical writing workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Molly K; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian; Landson, Margie J; Carroll, Theresa L

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a problematic gap for nursing students between terse clinical writing and formal academic writing. This gap can create a potential barrier to academic and workplace success, especially for disadvantaged nursing students who have not acquired the disciplinary conventions and sophisticated writing required in upper-level nursing courses. The authors demonstrate the need for writing-in-the-discipline activities to enhance the writing skills of nursing students, describe the technical writing workshops they developed to mentor minority and disadvantaged nursing students, and provide recommendations to stimulate educator dialogue across disciplines and institutions.

  20. Socially disadvantaged women's views of barriers to feeling safe to engage in decision-making in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lyn; Bellchambers, Helen; Ferguson, Alison; Browne, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Although midwifery literature suggests that woman-centred care can improve the birthing experiences of women and birth outcomes for women and babies, recent research has identified challenges in supporting socially disadvantaged women to engage in decision-making regarding care options in order to attain a sense of control within their maternity care encounters. The objective of this paper is to provide an understanding of the issues that affect the socially disadvantaged woman's ability to actively engage in decision-making processes relevant to her care. The qualitative approach known as Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to gain an understanding of maternity care encounters as experienced by each of the following cohorts: socially disadvantaged women, registered midwives and student midwives. This paper focuses specifically on data from participating socially disadvantaged women that relate to the elements of woman-centred care-choice and control and their understandings of capacity to engage in their maternity care encounters. Socially disadvantaged women participants did not feel safe to engage in discussions regarding choice or to seek control within their maternity care encounters. Situations such as inadequate contextualised information, perceived risks in not conforming to routine procedures, and the actions and reactions of midwives when these women did seek choice or control resulted in a silent compliance. This response was interpreted as a consequence of women's decisions to accept responsibility for their baby's wellbeing by delegating health care decision-making to the health care professional. This research found that socially disadvantaged women want to engage in their care. However without adequate information and facilitation of choice by midwives, they believe they are outsiders to the maternity care culture and decision-making processes. Consequently, they delegate responsibility for maternity care choices to those who do belong

  1. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-02-05

    China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.

  2. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... presumption of disadvantage. (1) If the statement of personal net worth that an individual submits under...

  3. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  4. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  5. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  6. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  7. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  8. Neonatal encephalopathy and socioeconomic status: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently

  9. Can Locus of Control Compensate for Socioeconomic Adversity in the Transition from School to Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Schoon, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Internal locus of control is associated with academic success and indicators of wellbeing in youth. There is however less understanding regarding the role of locus of control in shaping the transition from school to work beyond the more widely studied predictors of socioeconomic background and academic attainment. Guided by a socio-ecological model of agency, the current study examines to which extent internal locus of control, understood as an indicator of individual agency, can compensate for a lack of socioeconomic resources by moderating the association between parental disadvantage and difficulties in the transition from school to work. We draw on data collected from a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of 15,770 English youth (48% female) born in 1989/90, following their lives from age 14 to 20. The results suggest that the influence of agency is limited to situations where socioeconomic risk is not overpowering. While internal locus of control may help to compensate for background disadvantage regarding avoidance of economic inactivity and unemployment to some extent, it does not provide protection against long-term inactivity, i.e. more than 6 months spent not in education, employment or training.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood overweight: heterogeneity across five countries in the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, L; Wijnhoven, T M A; Mehlig, K; Sjöberg, A; Kunesova, M; Yngve, A; Petrauskiene, A; Duleva, V; Rito, A I; Breda, J

    2016-05-01

    Excess risk of childhood overweight and obesity occurring in socioeconomically disadvantaged families has been demonstrated in numerous studies from high-income regions, including Europe. It is well known that socioeconomic characteristics such as parental education, income and occupation are etiologically relevant to childhood obesity. However, in the pan-European setting, there is reason to believe that inequalities in childhood weight status may vary among countries as a function of differing degrees of socioeconomic development and equity. In this cross-sectional study, we have examined socioeconomic differences in childhood obesity in different parts of the European region using nationally representative data from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden that were collected in 2008 during the first round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Heterogeneity in the association between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight or obesity was clearly observed across the five countries studied. Positive as well as negative associations were observed between parental socioeconomic indicators and childhood overweight, with statistically significant interactions between country and parental indicators. These findings have public health implications for the WHO European Region and underscore the necessity to continue documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in all countries through international surveillance efforts in countries with diverse geographic, social and economic environments. This is a prerequisite for universal as well as targeted preventive actions.

  11. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline...

  12. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  13. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  14. Hunger of Memory: The Metamorphosis of a Disadvantaged Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Hunger of Memory," a 1981 book by Richard Rodriguez. Contrasts demands by university students that they be taught by minority faculty members with Rodriguez's awareness that cultural differences between instructors and disadvantaged students are an important factor in enabling such students to join the educational elite in…

  15. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  16. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  17. What's in a Name? Categorising "Disadvantaged Older Workers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The institutionalised categorisation of adults who are over 55 years of age, unemployed and low-skilled as "older" and "disadvantaged" may adversely affect their employment prospects and their self-esteem. This paper reports on the findings of a study that explored the experiences of a small group of such adults; in particular,…

  18. Citizenship experiences of young migrants: Optimism and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation

  19. philo's de decalogo: educating to respect the socially disadvantaged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proper perspective, this study highlights the following aspects of his interpretation ... to these laws, people increasingly become in harmony with nature and reason, and ... socially disadvantaged persons in society be taken seriously in such a way ...... Hellenization revisited: Shaping a Christian response within the Greco-.

  20. Application of generalized perturbation theory to flux disadvantage factor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, O.H.; Akimov, I.S.; Naguib, K.; Hamouda, I.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using the generalized perturbation theory to calculate the perturbation of the flux disadvantage factors of reactor cell, resulting from the variation of the cell parameters, is studied. For simplicity the one-group diffusion approximation is considered. All necessary equations are derived for variations both of the cell dimensions. Numerical results are presented in the paper

  1. Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

  2. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  3. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  4. Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yukti

    2012-01-01

    This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

  5. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of untrimmed wood in the supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John. Klepac

    2014-01-01

    Very few companies that purchase forest products accept untrimmed trees (whole-trees including limbs and tops). Those that do accept untrimmed trees have been doing so for decades. A potential benefit of hauling untrimmed trees is higher in-woods productivity due to less processing of the trees. Disadvantages for the logging contractor can include specialized trailers...

  7. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... Business Enterprise (DBE) Program. In a later notice published on October 25, 2012, the Department extended... writing on specific aspects of the NPRM noted below. DATES: A public listening session will be held on...

  8. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

  9. Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

    This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

  10. Connecting Disadvantaged Youth to Quality Employment using ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first phase of the program supported 35 projects involving more than 19 000 youths ... learning, job coaching and online access to job market opportunities. ... United States ... Reports. Connecting disadvantaged youth to quality employment through the ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  12. TEACHING FORMAL OPERATIONS TO PRESCHOOL ADVANTAGED AND DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED

    TO DETERMINE HOW TRAINING WOULD AFFECT CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT, FIVE DISADVANTAGED AND FIVE ADVANTAGED PRESCHOOLERS WERE GIVEN SPECIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING TRAINING TO PREPARE TO SOLVE A CRITERION PROBLEM. THIS STUDY WAS AN ATTEMPT TO DISPROVE PIAGET'S THEORY THAT CHILDREN MUST HAVE REACHED A CERTAIN STAGE OF CONCRETE-OPERATIONAL…

  13. Bold Action Programs for the Disadvantaged: Elementary Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Gertrude

    The following five characteristics of successful reading projects for the disadvantaged are discussed as a basis for appraising ESEA/Title I programs: (1) a child need-centered emphasis, (2) provision for teacher education, (3) use of multidisciplinary and paraprofessional personnel, (4) parent involvement, and (5) evaluation procedures. Current…

  14. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... the PRA's procedural requirements. Today, the Department is correcting this omission by including discussion of the Uniform Report collection and providing the public with 60 days from today to comment both...

  15. “Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2016-01-01

    studies. In the fall of 2014 we carried out ethnographic fieldwork (Hastrup 2010, Spradley 1980) in the city of Horsens in Denmark in relation to our research on unstructured socialization among urban youth in urban public spaces. Despite our efforts to explain the young people about our field work......“Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth As pointed out by Hammersley and Atkinson (2007) the field observer can experience being perceived as a spy and feeling undeniably unwelcome, especially in the beginning of observation...... and our role as non-SSP (a special Social services, School and Police unit) and non-police, we repeatedly experienced the youngsters questioning our presence. The confusion and skepticism that we experienced emphasized the importance of reflecting our position as researchers (Bourdieu 1999, Goodson...

  16. Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children – a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Loc G; Scott, Jane A; Thomson, W Murray; Stamm, John W; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Wong, Ching; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health,...

  17. Socio-Economic Status or Caste? Inequities in Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gautham, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Many inequities in the coverage of essential interventions in pregnancy, childbirth and newborn and child health, especially those that require contact with the health system, persist within countries. \\ud \\ud Although economic inequities may be the most visible and profound, there can be other sources of social disadvantage. \\ud \\ud Poverty and caste are important determinants of health, including maternal healthcare. \\ud \\ud IDEAS conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-economic and caste...

  18. Temporal Effects of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Neighborhood Disadvantage on Black/White Disparities in Young Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from birth through age 17 years on obesity incidence in early adulthood and black/white disparities therein. Individual- and household-level data from the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods (n = 1,498). Marginal structural models with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights are used to quantify the probability of being obese at least once between ages 18 and 30 years as a function of cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage throughout childhood and adolescence or during each of three developmental stages therein. Longer term exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from ages 0-17 years is more common among blacks than among whites and is associated with significantly greater odds of being obese at least once in early adulthood. Exposure to neighborhood-level deprivation during adolescence (ages 10-17 years) appears more consequential for future (young adult) obesity than exposure that occurs earlier in childhood. The duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage during childhood and adolescence are associated with obesity incidence in early adulthood for both blacks and whites. However, given inequalities in the likelihood and persistence of experiencing neighborhood disadvantage as children and youth, such adverse effects are likely to be more concentrated among black versus white young adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term impact of childhood disadvantage on late-life functional decline among older Japanese: Results from the JAGES prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Tani, Yukako; Amemiya, Airi; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Nagamine, Yuiko; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-09-11

    Increasing evidence suggests an impact of childhood disadvantage on late-life functional impairment in Western countries. However, the processes by which childhood disadvantage affects functional capacity are influenced by several factors unique to particular societies. We examined the impact of childhood disadvantage on functional decline among older Japanese, using a large-scale prospective cohort study. Data came from surveys conducted in 2010 and 2013 as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a nationwide cohort study targeting community-dwelling people aged 65 years and over. Childhood disadvantage included subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES), body height and educational level. The sample was stratified by age at baseline (65-69 y, 70-74 y, 75-79 y, and ≥ 80 y). A total of 11,601 respondents were analyzed. In the 65-69 y group, lower childhood SES was associated with functional decline, but this association was mediated by adult SES. In contrast, childhood SES was independently associated with functional decline in the older cohort. In the 75-79 y group, lower childhood SES was associated with functional decline. However, in the ≥ 80 y group, people with higher childhood SES were more likely to experience functional decline. Shorter height was associated with functional decline in the 70-74 y group. Higher education was related to functional decline in all age groups except the ≥ 80 y group. These findings suggest that childhood disadvantage affects functional decline, but its effect varies by age cohort. The mechanisms underlying the association between childhood disadvantage and functional decline may be influenced by social and historical context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and social function of Wisconsin 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie A; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether (1) neighborhood disadvantage is associated with social function in 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and (2) the association between social function and child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is moderated by neighborhood disadvantage. Cross-sectional study using the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants born at very low birth weight in 2003 and 2004 in Wisconsin. Wisconsin. This study includes the subgroup of 626 non-Hispanic black or white infants who were followed up at ages 24 to 43 months with parent-reported health and developmental information. An index of neighborhood disadvantage was derived by principal component analysis of 5 census tract variables (percentage of families in poverty, percentage of households with income higher than the state median, percentage of women with bachelor's degree or more, percentage of single mothers, and percentage of mothers of young children unemployed). Children were then classified (based on index tertiles) as living in either disadvantaged, middle advantage, or advantaged neighborhoods. Children's HRQoL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Social function was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Adjusting for child medical and family socioeconomic attributes, social function was lower (mean difference, -4.60; 95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -0.8) for children living in disadvantaged vs advantaged neighborhoods. We also found that the ill effects of lower HRQoL are particularly bad for children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood. Children born at very low birth weight have disparities in social function at ages 2 and 3 years that are associated with both HRQoL and neighborhood characteristics.

  1. Health returns to education by family socioeconomic origins, 1980–2008: Testing the importance of gender, cohort, and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Andersson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies find that health returns to education are elevated among those who come from disadvantaged families. These findings suggest that education may be a health resource that compensates or “substitutes” for lower parental socioeconomic status. Alternatively, some studies find support for a cumulative (disadvantage perspective, such that educational health returns are higher among those who already were advantaged, widening initial health (disadvantages across the life course. However, it remains unclear whether these findings are dependent on gender or cohort, and this is a fundamental oversight given marked differences between men and women in educational and health inequalities across the twentieth century. Drawing on national US data (1980–2002 General Social Survey with 2008 National Death Index Link, I indeed find that the presence or strength of resource substitution or cumulative (disadvantage depends upon health measure as well as gender and cohort. For self-rated health, cumulative (disadvantage explains educational health disparities, but among men only. Cumulative (disadvantage in avoiding fair or poor health is partly explained by cohort and age variation in health returns to education, and cumulative (disadvantage in excellent health is more robust in earlier cohorts and at older ages. For mortality, resource substitution is instead supported, but for women only. Among those from disadvantaged families, educational mortality buffering increases with cohort but diminishes with age. Taken together, these findings confirm prior research showing that adult health inequalities linked to education depend on family background, and extend this work by demonstrating that the nature and extent of these dynamics differ considerably depending on the health outcome being assessed and on an individual's historical context, life course stage, and gender. Keywords: Self-rated health, Mortality, Education, Gender, Cohort, Age

  2. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-03-30

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  3. Are the Poor Dying Younger in Malaysia? An Examination of the Socioeconomic Gradient in Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariapun, Jeevitha; Hairi, Noran N; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health represent unfairness in the health distribution of a population. Efforts to produce information on mortality distributions in many low and middle income countries (LMICs) are mostly hampered by lack of data disaggregated by socioeconomic groups. In this paper we describe how mortality statistics obtained from multiple data sources were combined to provide an evaluation of the socioeconomic distribution of mortality in Malaysia, a LMIC located in the Asia Pacific region. This study has an ecological design. As a measure of socioeconomic status, we used principal component analysis to construct a socioeconomic index using census data. Districts were ranked according to the standardised median index of households and assigned to each individual in the 5-year mortality data. The mortality indicators of interest were potential years of life lost (PYLL), standardised mortality ratio (SMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Both socioeconomic status and mortality outcomes were used compute the concentration index which provided the summary measure of the magnitude of inequality. Socially disadvantaged districts were found to have worse mortality outcomes compared to more advantaged districts. The values of the concentration index for the overall population of the Peninsula are C = -0.1334 (95% CI: -0.1605 to -0.1063) for the PYLL, C = -0.0685 (95% CI: -0.0928 to -0.0441) for the SMR, C = -0.0997 (95% CI: -0.1343 to -0.0652) for the IMR and C = -0.1207 (95% CI: -0.1523 to -0.0891) for the U5MR. Mortality outcomes within ethnic groups were also found to be less favourable among the poor. The findings of this study suggest that socioeconomic inequalities disfavouring the poor exist in Malaysia.

  4. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

  5. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this ......The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance...

  6. Socio-economic database online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tamisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.

  7. Household food insecurity, diet, and weight status in a disadvantaged district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thuy Ngoc; Gallegos, Danielle; Ramsey, Rebecca

    2015-03-08

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, economic and socially acceptable access to safe, sufficient, and adequately nutritious food in order to meet their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. For high income countries and those experiencing the nutrition transition, food security is not only about the quantity of available food but also the nutritional quality as related to over- and under-nutrition. Vietnam is currently undergoing this nutrition transition, and as a result the relationship between food insecurity, socio-demographic factors and weight status is complex. The primary objective of this study was to therefore measure the prevalence of household food insecurity in a disadvantaged urban district in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam using a more comprehensive tool. This study also aims to examine the relationships between food insecurity and socio-demographic factors, weight status, and food intakes. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling. Adults who were mainly responsible for cooking were interviewed in 250 households. Data was collected on socioeconomic and demographic factors using previously validated tools. Food security was assessed using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) tool and households were categorized as food secure or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Questions regarding food intake were based on routinely used and validated questions in HCMC, weight status was self-reported. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87, showing the ELCSA had a good internal reliability. Approximately 34.4% of households were food insecure. Food insecurity was inversely related to total household income (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.22) and fruit intakes (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.31 - 4.22). There was no association between weight and food security status. Despite rapid industrialization and modernization, food insecurity remains an important

  8. Challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhumulani M. Mulaudzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by other countries worldwide in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4, 5 and 6, South Africa is experiencing a challenge in attaining positive outcomes for these goals. Objective and setting: To describe the challenges experienced by South Africa regarding the successful implementation of MDGs 4, 5 and 6. Methods: An integrative literature review was used to identify and synthesise various streams of literature on the challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining MDGs 4, 5 and 6. Results: The integrative review revealed the following themes: (1 interventions related to child mortality reduction, (2 implementation of maternal mortality reduction strategies, and (3 identified barriers to zero HIV and TB infections and management. Conclusion: It is recommended that poverty relief mechanisms be intensified to improve the socio-economic status of women. There is a need for sectoral planning towards maternal health, and training of healthcare workers should emphasise the reduction of maternal deaths. Programmes addressing the reduction of maternal and child mortality rates, HIV, STIs and TB need to be put in place. Keywords: Millennium Development Goals; maternal and child morbidity and mortality; HIV and AIDS; STI and TB

  9. Association between competitive food and beverage policies in elementary schools and childhood overweight/obesity trends: differences by neighborhood socioeconomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N; Crawford, Patricia B; Egerter, Susan

    2015-05-01

    To our knowledge, few published studies have examined the influence of competitive food and beverage (CF&B) policies on student weight outcomes; none have investigated disparities in the influence of CF&B policies on children's body weight by school neighborhood socioeconomic resources. To investigate whether the association between CF&B policies and population-level trends in childhood overweight/obesity differed by school neighborhood income and education levels. This cross-sectional study, from July 2013 to October 2014, compared overweight/obesity prevalence trends before (2001-2005) and after (2006-2010) implementation of CF&B policies in public elementary schools in California. The study included 2 700 880 fifth-grade students in 5362 public schools from 2001 to 2010. California CF&B policies (effective July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2007) and school neighborhood income and education levels. Overweight/obesity defined as a body mass index at or greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. Overall rates of overweight/obesity ranged from 43.5% in 2001 to 45.8% in 2010. Compared with the period before the introduction of CF&B policies, overweight/obesity trends changed in a favorable direction after the policies took effect (2005-2010); these changes occurred for all children across all school neighborhood socioeconomic levels. In the postpolicy period, these trends differed by school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage. From 2005-2010, trends in overweight/obesity prevalence leveled off among students at schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods but declined in socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods. Students in the lowest-income neighborhoods experienced zero or near zero change in the odds of overweight/obesity over time: the annual percentage change in overweight/obesity odds was 0.1% for females (95% CI, -0.7 to 0.9) and -0.3% for males (95% CI, -1.1 to 0.5). In contrast, in the highest-income neighborhoods, the annual percentage

  10. Disadvantaged Social Groups and the Cigarette Epidemic: Limits of the Diffusion of Innovations Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Khlat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The original four-stage model of the cigarette epidemic has been extended with diffusion of innovations theory to reflect socio-economic differences in cigarette use. Recently, two revisions of the model have been proposed: (1 separate analysis of the epidemic stages for men and women, in order to improve generalization to developing countries, and; (2 addition of a fifth stage to the smoking epidemic, in order to account for the persistence of smoking in disadvantaged social groups. By developing a cohort perspective spanning a 35-year time period in France and the USA, we uncover distinctive features which challenge the currently held vision on the evolution of smoking inequalities within the framework of the cigarette epidemic. We argue that the reason for which the model may not be fit to the lower educated is that the imitation mechanism underlying the diffusion of innovations works well with regard to adoption of the habit, but is much less relevant with regard to its rejection. Based on those observations, we support the idea that the nature and timing of the epidemic differs enough to treat the stages separately for high and low education groups, and discuss policy implications.

  11. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    This study identifies and analyses the solid waste management service gaps and situations in these different socio-economic ... identifying gaps existing at primary (household) SW ... internal structure is based on land uses and income levels.

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15...... regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...

  13. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood.

  14. Thermal disadvantage factor calculation by the multiregion collision probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, B.; Ozgener, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-region collision probability formulation that is capable of applying white boundary condition directly is presented and applied to thermal neutron transport problems. The disadvantage factors computed are compared with their counterparts calculated by S N methods with both direct and indirect application of white boundary condition. The results of the ABH and collision probability method with indirect application of white boundary condition are also considered and comparisons with benchmark Monte Carlo results are carried out. The studies show that the proposed formulation is capable of calculating thermal disadvantage factor with sufficient accuracy without resorting to the fictitious scattering outer shell approximation associated with the indirect application of the white boundary condition in collision probability solutions

  15. Ingroup friendship and political mobilization among the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Milojev, Petar; Barlow, Fiona K; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of ingroup contact in a large, national sample of Māori (a disadvantaged ethnic group; N = 940) on political attitudes relevant to decreasing ethnic inequality in New Zealand. We tested the role of 2 mediating mechanisms-ethnic identification and system justification-to explain the effects of ingroup contact on the dependent variables. Time spent with ingroup friends predicted increased support for the Māori Party and support for symbolic and resource-specific reparative policies benefiting Māori. These effects were partially mediated by increased ethnic identification. Although ingroup contact also reduced levels of system justification among Māori, its effects on policy attitudes and party preference were not mediated by system justification. This suggests that a key antecedent to system challenging political attitudes is an increased sense of identification with a disadvantaged group resulting, in part, from interactions with ingroup friends. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Inter-regional metric disadvantages when comparing countries’ happiness on a global scale. A Rasch based consequential validity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Rojas-Gualdrón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurement confounding due to socioeconomic differences between world regions may bias the estimations of countries’ happiness and global inequality. Potential implications of this bias have not been researched. In this study, the consequential validity of the Happy Planet Index, 2012 as an indicator of global inequality is evaluated from the Rasch measurement perspective. Differential Item Functioning by world region and bias in the estimated magnitude of inequalities were analyzed. The recalculated measure showed a good fit to Rasch model assumptions. The original index underestimated relative inequalities between world regions by 20%. DIF had no effect on relative measures but affected absolute measures by overestimating world average happiness and underestimating its variance. These findings suggest measurement confounding by unmeasured characteristics. Metric disadvantages must be adjusted to make fair comparisons. Public policy decisions based on biased estimations could have relevant negative consequences on people’s health and well-being by not focusing efforts on real vulnerable populations.

  17. Neutron disadvantage factors in heavy water and light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1966-01-01

    A number od heavy water and light water reactor cells are analyzed in this paper by applying analytical methods of neutron thermalization. Calculations done according to the one-group Amouyal-Benoist method are included in addition. Computer codes for ZUSE Z-23 computer were written by applying both methods. The obtained results of disadvantage factors are then compared to results obtained by one-group P 3 approximation and by multigroup K7-THERMOS code [sr

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of advertising and promotion in the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Dudnikova, A. V.; Дудникова, А. В.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, advertising plays an important role in the promotion and advancement of any brand, product or service. Advertising influences on the image and style of life. Internet is a tool which is used for creation of advertising. It represents an ideal opportunity for the development of communication with consumers in an electronic environment. Online advertising is used by companies worldwide for promotion their products and services. Features, advantages and disadvantages of the Internet - ...

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  20. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  1. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Steven E; Arai, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

  2. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Mock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

  3. Interactions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. McCormack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI in a sample of Canadian adults (n=851 from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods. WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight. The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary.

  4. Interactions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine; McLaren, Lindsay; Potestio, Melissa; Sandalack, Beverly; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES) and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Canadian adults (n = 851 from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods). WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns) and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight). The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary. PMID:29056976

  5. Assessing socioeconomic inequalities of hypertension among women in Indonesia's major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Y; Byles, J E; Tavener, M; Dugdale, P

    2015-11-01

    Although hypertension has been recognized as one of the major public health problems, few studies address economic inequality of hypertension among urban women in developing countries. To assess this issue, we analysed data for 1400 women from four of Indonesia's major cities: Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan and Bandung. Women were aged ⩾15 years (mean age 35.4 years), and were participants in the 2007/2008 Indonesia Family Life Survey. The prevalence of hypertension measured by digital sphygmomanometer among this population was 31%. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, socioeconomic disadvantage (based on household assets and characteristics) as well as age, body mass index and economic conditions were significantly associated with hypertension (Pwork highlights the importance of socioeconomic inequality in the development of hypertension, and particularly the effects of education level.

  6. Older Adults' Internet Use for Health Information: Digital Divide by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Vaughan, Phillip W; Garcia, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Building upon literature suggesting low Internet use among racial/ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, this study examined how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the Internet use for health information, addressing both independent and interactive effects. Using data from 17,704 older adults in the California Health Interview Survey, logistic regression models were estimated with race/ethnicity (Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians), SES index, and the interaction between race/ethnicity and SES index. Overall, approximately 40% of participants were Internet-users for health information. Direct effects of race/ethnicity and SES-and their interactions-were all found to be significant. Minority status combined with the lowest levels of SES substantially reduced the odds of using Internet for health information. Findings suggest the combination of racial/ethnic minority status and low SES as a source of digital divide, and provide implications for Internet technology training for the target population.

  7. [Anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Indications, technique, advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Weidenfeld, M; Uckmann, F P

    2015-02-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for lumbar interbody fusion from L2 to the sacrum has been an established technique for decades. The advantages and disadvantages of ALIF compared to posterior interbody fusion techniques are discussed. The operative technique is described in detail. Complications and avoidance strategies are discussed. This article is based on a selective literature search using PubMed and the experience of the authors in this medical field. The advantages of ALIF compared to posterior fusion techniques are the free approach to the anterior disc space without opening of the spinal canal or the neural foramina. This gives the possibility of an extensive anterior release and placement of the largest possible cages without the risk of neural structure damage. The disadvantages of ALIF are the additional anterior approach and the related complications. The most frequent complication is due to damage of vessels. The rate of complications is significantly increased in revision surgery. The ALIF technique meaningfully expands the repertoire of the spinal surgeon especially for the treatment of non-union after interbody fusion, in patients with epidural scar tissue at the index level and spinal infections. Advantages and disadvantages should be considered when evaluating the indications for ALIF.

  8. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  9. Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ghana's community-based primary health care: Why women and children are 'disadvantaged' by its implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinga, Roger A; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Esena, Reuben K

    2018-03-01

    Policy analysis on why women and children in low- and middle-income settings are still disadvantaged by access to appropriate care despite Primary Health Care (PHC) programmes implementation is limited. Drawing on the street-level bureaucracy theory, we explored how and why frontline providers (FLP) actions on their own and in interaction with health system factors shape Ghana's community-based PHC implementation to the disadvantage of women and children accessing and using health services. This was a qualitative study conducted in 4 communities drawn from rural and urban districts of the Upper West region. Data were collected from 8 focus group discussions with community informants, 73 in-depth interviews with clients, 13 in-depth interviews with district health managers and FLP, and observations. Data were recorded, transcribed and coded deductively and inductively for themes with the aid of Nvivo 11 software. Findings showed that apart from FLP frequent lateness to, and absenteeism from work, that affected care seeking for children, their exercise of discretionary power in determining children who deserve care over others had ripple effects: families experienced financial hardships in seeking alternative care for children, and avoided that by managing symptoms with care provided in non-traditional spaces. FLP adverse behaviours were driven by weak implementation structures embedded in the district health systems. Basic obstetric facilities such as labour room, infusion stand, and beds for deliveries, detention and palpation were lacking prompting FLP to cope by conducting deliveries using a patchwork of improvised delivery methods which worked out to encourage unassisted home deliveries. Perceived poor conditions of service weakened FLP commitment to quality maternal and child care delivery. Findings suggest the need for strategies to induce behaviour change in FLP, strengthen district administrative structures, and improve on the supply chain and logistics

  11. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient......-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11 994....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...

  12. Session II-E. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Major tasks of the socioeconomic program are designed to address and resolve issues raised by federal, state, and local agencies and the public, and to meet legal and regulatory requirements. The tasks are intended to: (1) characterize socioeconomic and other nontechnical issues, and recommend possible resolution, (2) develop socioeconomic impact methodologies and provide impact assessments, (3) design and implement a community development approach to impact mitigation, and (4)conduct institutional and organizational analyses. The following papers relate to these socioeconomic tasks: (1) an integrated approach to socioeconomic considerations in nuclear waste management; (2)ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste isolation and mitigation; (3) institutional issues in transportation of nuclear wastes; (4) framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting; (5)special issues in impact mitigation; (6) effective programs for public participation in siting large public facilities; (7) a program for community development assistance; and (8) examination of factors affecting socioeconomic mitigation costs

  13. Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Julia F; Baade, Peter D; Yu, Yan; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-08-01

    Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters. We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units. We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels. We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival

  14. Risk factor assessment to anticipate performance in the National Developmental Screening Test in children from a disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Alejandro; Pazos, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Identifying children at risk of failing the National Developmental Screening Test by combining prevalences of children suspected of having inapparent developmental disorders (IDDs) and associated risk factors (RFs) would allow to save resources. 1. To estimate the prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs. 2. To identify associated RFs. 3. To assess three methods developed based on observed RFs and propose a pre-screening procedure. The National Developmental Screening Test was administered to 60 randomly selected children aged between 2 and 4 years old from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area from Puerto Madryn. Twenty-four biological and socioenvironmental outcome measures were assessed in order to identify potential RFs using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The likelihood of failing the screening test was estimated as follows: 1. a multivariate logistic regression model was developed; 2. a relationship was established between the number of RFs present in each child and the percentage of children who failed the test; 3. these two methods were combined. The prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs was 55.0% (95% confidence interval: 42.4%-67.6%). Six RFs were initially identified using the bivariate approach. Three of them (maternal education, number of health checkups and Z scores for height-for-age, and maternal age) were included in the logistic regression model, which has a greater explanatory power. The third method included in the assessment showed greater sensitivity and specificity (85% and 79%, respectively). The estimated prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs was four times higher than the national standards. Seven RFs were identified. Combining the analysis of risk factor accumulation and a multivariate model provides a firm basis for developing a sensitive, specific and practical pre-screening procedure for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  15. Systematic reviews need to consider applicability to disadvantaged populations: inter-rater agreement for a health equity plausibility algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Vivian; Brand, Kevin; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Smylie, Janet; Wells, George; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-12-19

    Systematic reviews have been challenged to consider effects on disadvantaged groups. A priori specification of subgroup analyses is recommended to increase the credibility of these analyses. This study aimed to develop and assess inter-rater agreement for an algorithm for systematic review authors to predict whether differences in effect measures are likely for disadvantaged populations relative to advantaged populations (only relative effect measures were addressed). A health equity plausibility algorithm was developed using clinimetric methods with three items based on literature review, key informant interviews and methodology studies. The three items dealt with the plausibility of differences in relative effects across sex or socioeconomic status (SES) due to: 1) patient characteristics; 2) intervention delivery (i.e., implementation); and 3) comparators. Thirty-five respondents (consisting of clinicians, methodologists and research users) assessed the likelihood of differences across sex and SES for ten systematic reviews with these questions. We assessed inter-rater reliability using Fleiss multi-rater kappa. The proportion agreement was 66% for patient characteristics (95% confidence interval: 61%-71%), 67% for intervention delivery (95% confidence interval: 62% to 72%) and 55% for the comparator (95% confidence interval: 50% to 60%). Inter-rater kappa, assessed with Fleiss kappa, ranged from 0 to 0.199, representing very low agreement beyond chance. Users of systematic reviews rated that important differences in relative effects across sex and socioeconomic status were plausible for a range of individual and population-level interventions. However, there was very low inter-rater agreement for these assessments. There is an unmet need for discussion of plausibility of differential effects in systematic reviews. Increased consideration of external validity and applicability to different populations and settings is warranted in systematic reviews to meet this

  16. Career Counselling: A Mechanism to Address the Accumulation of Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmani, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Discussions pertaining to social inclusion quickly arrive at the issues that surround work, employment and career. This paper presents data from a large Indian survey to describe the differential impact of socioeconomic status on career preparation self-efficacy, the perception of career development barriers and career beliefs. The psychosocial…

  17. How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

  18. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  19. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  20. Public Housing Relocations and Relationships of Changes in Neighborhood Disadvantage and Transportation Access to Unmet Need for Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Linton, Sabriya; Luo, Ruiyan; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Adimora, Adaora A; Wingood, Gina M; Bonney, Loida; Ross, Zev; Cooper, Hannah L

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that neighborhood characteristics and transportation access shape unmet need for medical care. This longitudinal analysis explores relationships of changes in neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and trans- portation access to unmet need for medical care. We analyzed seven waves of data from African American adults (N = 172) relocating from severely distressed public housing complexes in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveys yielded individual-level data and admin- istrative data characterized census tracts. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to explore relationships. Unmet need declined from 25% pre-relocation to 12% at Wave 7. Post-relocation reductions in neighborhood disadvantage were inversely associated with reductions in unmet need over time (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.51-0.99). More frequent transportation barriers predicted unmet need (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02-1.31). These longitudinal findings support the importance of neighborhood environments and transportation access in shaping unmet need and suggest that improvements in these exposures reduce unmet need for medical care in this vulnerable population.