Hesapçıoğlu, Selma Tural; Tural, Mustafa Kemal; Kandil, Sema
This study aimed to investigate comorbidity, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome (TS) and chronic motor or vocal tic disorder (CMVTD), and to determine the predictors of tic disorders. In all, 57 children and adolescents with TS and CMVTD were compared with a control group. Data were obtained using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Turgay DSM-IV-Based Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Disorders (SCARED), Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Mean age of the patients was 10.5 ± 2.4 years. In all, 56 (98.2%) of the patients had simple motor tics, 50 (87.7%) had complex motor tics, and 43 (75.4%) had vocal tics. Self-injurious behavior was observed in 24 (42.1%) patients. In total, 46 (80.7%) of the patients had ≥1 comorbid disorder. Among the observed comorbid disorders, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the most common (observed in 40.4% of the patients), followed by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (19.3%). A higher-level of maternal education and absence of ADHD were associated with a reduction in the risk of a tic disorder. A family history of psychiatric disorder increased the risk of a tic disorder 5.61-fold, and nail biting increased the risk of a tic disorder 8.2-fold. Every 1-unit increase in CDI score increased the risk of a tic disorder by 12%. Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) are often accompanied by other psychiatric disorders. Both child- and family-related factors are associated with the risk of developing a tic disorder. Determination of both the protective and risk factors would be beneficial for improving the mental health of the general public.
Julia Estela Willrich Böell
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between resilience and sociodemographic variables and the health of people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional observational study performed with 603 people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A tool to collect socio-demographic and health data and the Resilience Scale developed by Connor and Davidson were applied. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed. Results: the study participants had on average 61 years old (SD= 13.2, with a stable union (52.24%, religion (96.7%, retired (49.09%, with primary education (65% and income up to three minimum wages. Participants with kidney disease showed less resilience than people with diabetes. Conclusion: the type of chronic illness, disease duration, body mass index and religious beliefs influenced the resilience of the study participants.
Böell, Julia Estela Willrich; Silva, Denise Maria Guerreiro Vieira da; Hegadoren, Kathleen Mary
to investigate the association between resilience and sociodemographic variables and the health of people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. a cross-sectional observational study performed with 603 people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A tool to collect socio-demographic and health data and the Resilience Scale developed by Connor and Davidson were applied. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed. the study participants had on average 61 years old (SD= 13.2), with a stable union (52.24%), religion (96.7%), retired (49.09%), with primary education (65%) and income up to three minimum wages. Participants with kidney disease showed less resilience than people with diabetes. the type of chronic illness, disease duration, body mass index and religious beliefs influenced the resilience of the study participants. verificar a associação entre resiliência e variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde de pessoas com diagnóstico de doença renal crônica e/ou diabetes mellitus tipo 2. estudo observacional transversal realizado com 603 pessoas com diagnóstico de doença renal crônica e/ou diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Aplicação de instrumento para coletar dados sociodemográficos e de saúde e Escala de Resiliência desenvolvida por Connor e Davidson. Foi realizada análise descritiva e multivariada dos dados. os participantes do estudo possuíam, em média, 61 anos de idade (DP=13,2), com união estável (52,24%), crença religiosa (96,7%), aposentados (49,09%), com ensino fundamental (65%) e renda de até três salários mínimos. Os participantes com doença renal apresentaram menor resiliência do que pessoas com diabetes. o tipo de doença crônica, o tempo de doença, o índice de massa corporal e a crença religiosa influenciaram a resiliência dos participantes do estudo. verificar la asociación entre resiliencia y variables sociodemográficas y de salud de personas con diagnóstico de
Baltov, Petko; Côte, Julie; Truchon, Manon; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann
Identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors (measured prior to treatment) that were associated with post-treatment self-perceived pain and disability and two secondary outcomes: psychological distress, and return to work in patients undergoing multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Interviews were conducted with 28 patients with chronic WAD at entry to and completion of an intensive rehabilitation program, and a telephone interview was carried out three months later. Participants completed pain and disability, and psychological distress questionnaires, at baseline and at both follow-ups. They also completed psychosocial questionnaires and provided socio-demographic information. The effect of each of the independent variables on the outcomes was first evaluated by simple regressions, and then subsequently by multiple regression analysis. Higher baseline pain and disability predicted higher pain and disability at both follow-ups (p factor that affected pain and disability post-rehabilitation. Psychosocial factors played a role in the prognosis of psychological distress and return to work.
Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Amer Hayat; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hamzah, Azhar Bin Amir; Ahmed, Nafees; Khan, Amjad
Creatinine is normally used to evaluate kidney function among elderly patients in clinical practice, which has been reported to be affected by socio-demographic factors like BMI and age. Cystatin C a newly introduced biomarker may be more efficient in identifying kidney function in obese and aged CKD patients. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of BMI on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly CKD patients in Malaysia, a first such study in the country. The current study was conducted at the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. A total of 300 elderly Malay participants ≥ 65 years, with CKD, were taken in study. Demographic data, blood pressure, weight, and height were documented. Serum creatinine was assayed by Chemistry Analyzer Model Architect-C8000 (Jaffe Method), while serum cystatin C was examined by Human cystatin C ELISA kit (Sigma-Aldrich) using Thermo Scientific Varioskan Flash ELISA reader. The study participants were divided into three groups on the basis of age. There was a statistically significant difference at the p value C levels were observed on the basis of patient's age and BMI. Cystatin C is not related to BMI and age among elderly chronic kidney disease patients. The study clearly evaluates the role of serum cystatin C as a good competitor of creatinine among the elderly CKD patients.
single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this
Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei
Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.
This literature review seeks to explore the factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide. A poll conducted by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) showed that 49% of nurses supported assisted suicide while 40% were opposed to it. A literature review resulted in 16 articles being identified for data synthesis using a recognised critiquing framework. The articles revealed four key themes: nursing specialty, level of education, geographical location and religion. It was concluded that these four themes are key to understanding a nurse's attitude towards assisted suicide. Nursing staff need to be aware of their own influences on this topic, since they will inevitably be involved in the process in some way or another, in countries where assisted suicide has been legalised.
The study was designed to identify the sociodemographic factors, which significantly affect the visual acuity of glaucoma patients at presentation. It is a prospective study of 154 new patients with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma seen over 1 year and 8 months at the eye clinic of the University of Benin Teaching ...
Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Job Burnout and Satisfaction among ... (ii) female medical personnel showed significantly greater degree of job satisfaction than ... level of job satisfaction than older employees and, (iv) married employees found significantly more job satisfaction than their unmarried counterparts.
Objective: To determine the socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute diarrhoea. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Children's Emergency Room and Children's Outpatient Clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects: One hundred and seventy-four ...
García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Tucker, Katherine L
Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables. 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012). Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5-11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012. Four DP were identified: 'Traditional', 'Industrialized', 'Varied' and 'Modern'. Reported energy intake (mean (sd)) was lowest in the 'Traditional' and highest in the 'Industrialized' DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, P<0·05). Significant differences in fat and fibre intakes were seen across DP. Non-indigenous v. indigenous children were 22·0 times (95 % CI 5·1, 93·6) more likely to have a 'Modern' rather than 'Traditional' DP. Relative likelihood of having an 'Industrialized' rather than 'Traditional' DP was 6·2 (95 % CI 3·9, 9·9) among schoolchildren from high SES v. low SES. Among Mexican schoolchildren, DP were associated with sociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a 'Modern' than a 'Traditional' DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an 'Industrialized' pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.
Maria Beatriz Trindade De Castro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socio-demographic factors and dietary patterns in pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with baseline data from a cohort of 421 postpartum women aged 18 and 45 years resident in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Dietary intake was evaluated with a validated food frequency questionnaire at 15 days following delivery, having as time frame the second and third pregnancy trimesters. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis for principal components analysis. The association between socio-demographic factors and the identified dietary patterns was assessed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified: i healthy: fruits; green vegetables; vegetables; fish; roots, corn and potato; milk and dairy and herbal tea mate, and negatively loadings for alcohol and coffee and ii mixed: rice; bean; flour and pasta; breads; cake and cookies; soda and juice; sugar and sweets; fatty foods; meats; chicken; and eggs. The linear regression showed that the income (β=0.0002; 95%CI: 0.0002-0.0004 and schooling (β=0.0491; 95%CI: 0.0264-0.0718 were positively associated with healthy pattern, and parity (β=-0.1044; 95%CI: -0.1665- -0.0423 and skin color (β=-0.3102; 95%CI: -0.5256- -0.0947 were negatively associated. Skin color (β=0.1647; 95%CI: 0.0378- 0.2916 and marital status (β=0.1065; 95%CI: 0.0062- 0.2067 were positively associated with mixed pattern and income (β=-0.0001; 95%CI:-0.0002- -0.0001 and schooling (β=-0.0281; 95%CI: -0.0417- -0.0146 were negatively associated. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic factors such as income, schooling, skin color, marital status and parity were associated with dietary patterns in this sample of postpartum women residents in Rio de Janeiro.
Azim, M A; Sultana, N; Chowdhury, S; Azim, E
The objectives of this study were to assess the sociodemographic profile and to identify the risk factors of ante-partum fetal death which occurs after the age of viability of fetus. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics department of Ad-din Women Medical College Hospital during the period of June, 2009 to July, 2010. A total of 14,015 pregnant patients were admitted in the study place after the age of viability, which was taken as 28 weeks of gestation for our facilities. Eighty-three (0.59%) of them were identified as intrauterine fetal death. Assessment of maternal sociodemographic characteristics and maternal-fetal risk factors were evaluated with a semi structured questionnaire pretested. Majority (81.92%, n=68) of the patients were below 30 years of age, 78.31% belonged to middle socioeconomic group. Almost 58% women had education below SSC level and 28.91% took regular antenatal checkup. About 61.45% patients were multigravida. Most (59.04%) ante-partum deaths were identified below 32 weeks of pregnancy. Out of 83 patients, maternal risk factors were identified in 41(49.59%) cases where fetal risk factors were found in 16(19.27%) cases; no risk factors could be determined in rests. Hypertension (48.78%), diabetes (21.95%), hyperpyrexia (17.3%), abruptio placentae (4.88%) and UTI (7.36%) were identified as maternal factors; and congenital anomaly (37.5%), Rh incompatibility (37.5%), multiple pregnancy (12.5%) and post-maturity (12.5%) were the fetal risk factors. Here, proximal biological risk factors are most important in ante-partum fetal deaths. More investigations and facilities are needed to explain the causes of antepartum deaths.
Giridhara R. Babu
Full Text Available BackgroundThe increasing recognition of antenatal depression is an emerging area of concern in developing countries. We conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of antenatal mental distress and its relation with sociodemographic factors, obstetric factors, and physiological wellbeing in pregnant women attending public health facilities in Bengaluru, South India.MethodsNested within a cohort study, we assessed the mental status in 823 pregnant women in two public referral hospitals. Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10 scale was used to assess maternal depression. We collected information related to social-demographic characteristics and recent medical complaints. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios were calculated using SPSS version 20.ResultsResults show that 8.7% of the women exhibited symptoms of antenatal depression. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as respondent occupation, husband education, husband’s occupation, total family income showed significance. First time pregnancy, anemia, and high blood pressure were also associated with mental distress.ConclusionOur study has demonstrated feasibility of screening for mental health problems in public hospitals. Early detection of mental distress during pregnancy is crucial as it has a direct impact on the fetus. The public health facilities in low- and middle-income countries such as India should consider piloting and scaling up screening services for mental health conditions for pregnant women.
Molina-García, Javier; Sallis, James F; Castillo, Isabel
Commuting to university represents an opportunity to incorporate physical activity (walking or biking) into students' daily routines. There are few studies that analyze patterns of transport in university populations. This cross-sectional study estimated energy expenditure from active commuting to university (ACU) and examined sociodemographic differences in findings. The sample included 518 students with a mean age of 22.4 years (59.7% female) from 2 urban universities in Valencia, Spain. Time spent in each mode of transport to university and sociodemographic factors was assessed by self-report. Nearly 35% of the students reported walking or biking as their main mode of transport. ACU (min/wk) were highest for walkers (168) and cyclists (137) and lowest for motorbike riders (0.0) and car drivers (16). Public transport users, younger students, low socioeconomic status students, and those living ≤ 2 km from the university had higher energy expenditure from active commuting than comparison groups. Biking was highest among those living 2-5 km from the university. Our findings suggest that active commuting and public transit use generated substantial weekly energy expenditure, contributed to meeting physical activity recommendations, and may aid in obesity prevention.
Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances
Bharti T Talreja
Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John
Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.
Newman, Andrea K; Van Dyke, Benjamin P; Torres, Calia A; Baxter, Jacob W; Eyer, Joshua C; Kapoor, Shweta; Thorn, Beverly E
Chronic pain is a pervasive condition that is complicated by economic, educational, and racial disparities. This study analyzes key factors associated with chronic pain within an understudied and underserved population. The sample is characterized by a triple disparity with respect to income, education/literacy, and racial barriers that substantially increase the vulnerability to the negative consequences of chronic pain. The study examined the pretreatment data of 290 participants enrolled in the Learning About My Pain trial, a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial of psychosocial interventions (B.E.T., Principal Investigator, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Contract No. 941; clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01967342) for chronic pain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses evaluated the relationships among sociodemographic (sex, age, race, poverty status, literacy, and education level) and psychological (depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing) variables and pain interference, pain severity, and disability. The indirect effects of depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing on the sociodemographic and pain variables were investigated using bootstrap resampling. Reversed mediation models were also examined. Results suggested that the experience of chronic pain within this low-income sample is better accounted for by psychological factors than sex, age, race, poverty status, literacy, and education level. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing mediated the relationships between age and pain variables, whereas pain catastrophizing mediated the effects of primary literacy and poverty status. Some reversed models were equivalent to the hypothesized models, suggesting the possibility of bidirectionality. Although cross-sectional findings cannot establish causality, our results highlight the critical role psychological factors play in individuals with chronic pain and multiple health disparities.
Abma, Joyce C.
This study analyzed the roles of trends in sociodemographic factors known to be related to the risk of a teen birth. The goal was to analyze the roles of these trends in maternal education, family structure and mother’s age at first birth in the likelihood of adolescents becoming teen mothers across multiple birth cohorts of women covering the years since 1991. Data are from the 1995, 2002, 2006–2010 and 2011–2013 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Consecutive birth cohorts of female respondents were constructed and retrospectively followed to estimate the risk of a teen birth for each cohort. Logistic regression models estimate the odds of a teen birth across cohorts and within strata of the predictors across cohorts. Maternal education rose across cohorts; the proportion who were non-Hispanic white declined. In general, the likelihood of an adolescent birth did not change within categories of the predictors that are considered at higher risk for a teen birth across birth cohorts. Specifically, there was no change in the odds of a teen birth among women whose mothers did not finish high school, those born to teen mothers and those not from two-parent families. The odds of a birth declined across cohorts for black women. The findings suggest that much of the decline in teen birth rates is due to declines in the proportion of teens in higher risk categories, rather than to declines within those categories. PMID:25680702
Full Text Available Khaled Gamal Ibraheem Abueleinen1, Hany El-Mekawey1, Yasser Sayed Saif2, Amr Khafagy1, Hoda Ibrahim Rizk3, Eman M Eltahlawy41Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Public Health, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Public Health and Community Medicine National Research Center, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate factors behind the delay in diagnosis and treatment among Egyptian patients who present with complicated diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Observational cross-sectional study of diabetic patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire to assess the impact of several sociodemographic factors.Results: A total of 397 patients agreed to take the questionnaire. Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage was the most common ocular complication and was found in 359 patients (90.4%. A total of 158 (39.8% patients knew that diabetes mellitus can be sight threatening, while 240 (60.2% were not aware until they developed sight threatening complication. A total of 179 patients (45.1% had early retirement because of visual loss related to diabetes mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression has shown that education, internist, contact with other patients, and media were respectively significant in predicting the awareness of patients about the sight-threatening effect of diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: Patient education regarding diabetes and diabetic eye disease is essential for early detection and compliance with treatment. Illiteracy has a significant impact on development of sight-threatening diabetic complications. The internist is the first line of prophylaxis. Media has to participate more in patient education.Keywords: blindness, education, laser photocoagulation, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage
Khambalia, Amina Z; Lim, Siew S; Gill, Tim; Bulgiba, Awang M
For many developing countries undergoing rapid economic growth and urbanization, trends in nutritional status indicate a decrease in malnutrition with an associated rise in the prevalence of obesity. An understanding of the situation among children in Malaysia is lacking. To examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic factors described for underweight and overweight children in Malaysia. The literature from January 1996 to November 2010 on the prevalence of underweight and overweight among children in Malaysia was reviewed. Twelve studies were identified that reported on both underweight and overweight among children in Malaysia, of which only one was a nationally representative survey. Based on the National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006, 13.2% (95% CI, 12.6 to 13.9) of children aged 0 to 18 years were underweight (weight-for-age +2SD). Both underweight and overweight were more prevalent in males than females. Children in rural areas were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than urban children. Ethnic differences between Malays, Chinese, and Indians were inconsistent across studies and less clear. Aborigines were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than the general population. The available evidence, although limited and sparse, suggests that over the past decade the prevalence of both underweight and overweight among children in Malaysia has been stable or has shown an increasing trend. Long-term national monitoring and longitudinal cohort studies will be critical for understanding, preventing, and managing the double burden of malnutrition among children in Malaysia.
G. J. Eckert
Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...... 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log...
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren
308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log.......23-0.50) compared with married men with a higher education. Lower incidence rates were also observed among unemployed or early-retirement pensioners, whereas there were no differences in incidence rates across the broad groups of occupations and across the types of districts. Sociodemographic indicators were...
Capisizu, Ana; Aurelian, Sorina; Zamfirescu, Andreea; Omer, Ioana; Haras, Monica; Ciobotaru, Camelia; Onose, Liliana; Spircu, Tiberiu; Onose, Gelu
To assess the impact of socio-demographic and comorbidity factors, and quantified depressive symptoms on disability in inpatients. Observational cross-sectional study, including a number of 80 elderly (16 men, 64 women; mean age 72.48 years; standard deviation 9.95 years) admitted in the Geriatrics Clinic of "St. Luca" Hospital, Bucharest, between May-July, 2012. We used the Functional Independence Measure, Geriatric Depression Scale and an array of socio-demographic and poly-pathology parameters. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests for ordinal variables, linear bivariate correlations, general linear model analysis, ANOVA. FIM scores were negatively correlated with age (R=-0.301; 95%CI=-0.439 -0.163; p=0.007); GDS scores had a statistically significant negative correlation (R=-0.322; 95% CI=-0.324 -0.052; p=0.004) with FIM scores. A general linear model, including other variables (gender, age, provenance, matrimonial state, living conditions, education, respectively number of chronic illnesses) as factors, found living conditions (p=0.027) and the combination of matrimonial state and gender (p=0.004) to significantly influence FIM scores. ANOVA showed significant differences in FIM scores stratified by the number of chronic diseases (p=0.035). Our study objectified the negative impact of depression on functional status; interestingly, education had no influence on FIM scores; living conditions and a combination of matrimonial state and gender had an important impact: patients with living spouses showed better functional scores than divorced/widowers; the number of chronic diseases also affected the FIM scores: lower in patients with significant polypathology. These findings should be considered when designing geriatric rehabilitation programs, especially for home--including skilled--cares.
The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex information on romantic love levels among Jimma university students. ... Socio-demographic factors including gender, religion, ethnicity, place of origin (urban/rural), and level of education did not have a statistically significant effect on the romantic love level of the ...
Correlational Research design was adopted to examine the predictive influence of some socio-demographic variables on perspectives of parents towards the inclusion of HIV and AIDS education in Lagos State schools. Four hundred parents of pupils and students of four primary and secondary schools with diverse ...
Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.
Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that non-adherence is a common and increasing problem regarding those with chronic illnesses, including chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoinghemodialysis (HD.Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the influence of sociodemographic features as well as beliefs about medicines on adherence to medication treatment among HD patients.Methodology: A sample of 168 individuals was recruited from six General Hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of patients undergoing in - centre HD. Measurements were conducted withthe following instruments: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ.Results: Medication adherence was associated positively with family (r= 0.24, p= 0.00 and work status (r= 0.26, p= 0.00 as well as BMQ - concern (r= 0.19, p= 0.02.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the importance of sociodemographic characteristics in understanding medication adherence in HD patients as well as the contribution of beliefs aboutmedicines.
Okech, David; McGarity, Stephen Vandiver; Hansen, Nathan; Burns, Abigail C; Howard, Waylon
Improving the economic well-being of the girls and women is a key to reducing re-trafficking and in providing stability that survivors can use to rebuild their lives. The study looks at how various sociodemographic traits affected the financial capability of n = 144 women and girls who received intervention at a residential care facility in Ghana, West Africa. Three domain of financial capability are assessed in this, i.e., financial risk, financial planning, and financial saving. A scaled likelihood ratio test (chi-square difference test) was used to evaluate the significance of each direct covariate effect(%). Each of the overall goodness-of-fit indices suggested that the initial CFA model fit the data well, χ 2 (19, N = 144) = 31.45, p = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.067 (90% CI: 0.017-0.108), TLI = 0.923, CFI = 0.948. Older women reported lower levels of financial savings than younger women. We found that women with secondary school education or higher reported significantly higher financial risk than women with less education. Women with children reported lower levels of financial saving than women without children. Married women indicated significantly more financial saving than single women. There was a significant negative effect of time spent in trafficking conditions on financial saving, indicating the highest average level of financial savings at intervention and decreased thereafter. Programs and policies in resource-scarce contexts that aim to assist trafficking survivors must go beyond providing psychosocial counseling and focus also on economic development opportunities.
Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira
Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...
de Souza, Edson Marques; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; de Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão; Aragão, José Aderval; de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto Bitencurt
Venous ulcers account for 70% of chronic leg ulcers and affect about 2-7% of the population, causing much socioeconomic impact and reducing patients' quality of life. In this study we aimed to describe the clinical features of venous ulcers and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with ulcers due to chronic venous disease (CVD). This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at the Vascular Surgery Service, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil. The study included a consecutive series of 154 patients with active venous ulcers (CEAP C6) in the lower limb due to CVD. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, monthly income, education, occupation, and caregiver) and clinical data (affected limb, ulcer site, etiopathogenesis, recurrence, and time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer) were collected. A possible correlation of time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer and number of recurrences with primary or secondary etiology was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test. Of the 154 patients analyzed, 79% were female, 94% were ethnically black or brown, 90% had a monthly income less than or equal to minimum wage, 47% were illiterate, 35% had not completed elementary school, 50% had informal jobs, 19.5% were retired, and 18.2% received sick pay from the social security system. The mean age was 53.7 years. Both limbs were affected similarly, and venous ulcers were located predominantly on the medial aspect of the leg (84%). The median time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer was 36 months, being significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P < 0.0003). The prevalence of recurrence was also significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P < 0.001). According to CEAP classification, 65% of ulcers were primary (Ep), 94.1% demonstrated reflux involving the superficial system (As), 92% had incompetent perforators (Ap), 35% demonstrated reflux involving the deep system
Background: In Morocco, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. The cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed at a late stage: 43.7% presented at stage II of diagnosis (FIGO) and 38.1% in advanced stage (stage III and IV). The main objective of this study is to investigate factors associated to late the ...
Bemis, Heather; Yarboi, Janet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Desjardins, Leandra; Murphy, Lexa K; Rodriguez, Erin M; Compas, Bruce E
To examine associations between sociodemographic factors (single parenthood, family income, education level, race), stress, and psychological distress among pediatric cancer patients and their mothers. Participants completed measures assessing sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, general stress, and cancer-related stress within the first year of the child's (ages 5-17 years) cancer diagnosis or relapse. Mothers (N = 318) provided self-reports and parent report of their children; children aged 10-17 years (N = 151) completed self-reports. Each sociodemographic variable demonstrated unique associations with mothers' and children's stress and distress in bivariate analyses. A cumulative sociodemographic risk measure was positively correlated with all stress and distress variables. In regression analyses predicting mothers' and children's distress, independent and cumulative sociodemographic measures were no longer significant when accounting for levels of stress. Findings highlight the need to consider the ecological context of pediatric cancer, particularly the impact of sociodemographic disadvantage on stress and distress in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W
. Risk differences were found for all injury mechanisms; however the risk for burns was 1.9 (1.6-2.3) times higher in the lowest-income group than in the highest-income group, the relative risk for poisoning was 1.7(1.4-2.1). For scalds from hot water, tea or coffee, the relative risk for the lowest......-income group was 2.4(1.8-3.2). Living in a one- or two-parent family and size of the dwelling had little or no effect on risk. CONCLUSION: Childhood injury incidence depended on sociodemographic factors. The effect of the sociodemographic factors varied between injury mechanisms and products involved......BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...
Chaaya, Monique; Phung, Kieu; Atweh, Samir
Little evidence from the Arab region is available on dementia and its associated risk factors. This study is the first in Lebanon to examine the association between community older adults' socio-demographics and cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) and dementia in the aim of closing...
Lai, Kwok-Wing; Smith, Lee
In 2014, we investigated how socio-demographic factors such as gender, teaching disciplines, teaching experience and academic seniority were related to the perception and use of digital mobile technologies in learning and teaching of a group of university teachers from one research-intensive university in New Zealand. Three hundred and eight…
Conclusion: Accordingly, it is seen that in youth, risky behavior is seen more in males and affected by various socio-demographic factors.We hope that the data obtained from this work will be a guide for health education to be done. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 348-354
Objective: To determine socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in women in Mangaung. Design and setting: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mangaung, Bloemfontein. Subjects and methods: A representative group of 500 black women (25–44 years) was randomly selected to participate.
Adman Câmara Soares Lima
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables.METHOD: cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected.RESULTS: the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000, age (p=0.004 and marital status (p=0.012, as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018 and marital status (p=0.007 and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033.CONCLUSION: distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight.
Alnababtah, Khalid; Khan, Salim; Ashford, Robert
In most countries, socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of burns in children. The aims of this literature review were therefore to identify which of those factors are linked to an increase in the prevalence and identify ways of enhancing burn prevention programmes and preventing practices which play a role in the occurrence of burns in children. A comprehensive search (no time limit) of primary studies, titles and abstracts was undertaken in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Socio-demographic factors which were linked to an increased incidence of burns include low household income, living in deprived areas, living in rented accommodation, young mothers, single-parent families and children from ethnic minorities. The level of parental education, parental occupation, and the type and size of accommodation were also cited. A range of socio-demographic factors result in an increase in the prevalence of burns, and the risk is even greater in children who are exposed to a number of these factors. Such information will be useful for planning prevention strategies and identifying further research questions that need to be answered.
Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...
The object of the research is observing the effects of socio-demographic factors and work-life balance on employees’ emotional exhaustion. The sample of the research consists of 261 participants in retailing, education, service, industry and logistics sectors. In line with the theoretical background, proper methods that are hierarchical regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are implemented. The contribution of the research to the existing literature is exploring the relationshi...
Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette
OBJECTIVE: To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were es...
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...
Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel
Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to determine the gender differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL and to indicate to what extent this difference can be explained by differential in demographic and chronic disease conditions in Iranian elderly people. Methods: This analysis was carried out on cross-sectional data of QoL assessment among 750 elderly individuals aged 60–90 years who were dwelling in urban population of Babol, the North of Iran. The multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the association between gender and HRQoL after controlling sociodemographic characteristics and chronic disease conditions. Results: Women had significantly lower score in HRQoL in all subscales compared with men after adjusting several confounding factors (P = 0.001. The unadjusted mean difference in overall HRQoL scores was −11.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −13.8, −8.6 points, but it was reduced to −6.5 (95% CI: −9.0, −3.9 points between gender after adjusting by age, educational level, living status, physical activity, smoking, abdominal obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions: Adjusting for sociodemographic and chronic disease conditions reduced the effect size of poorer HRQoL for women compared with men but did not remove the sex differences. The poorer scores of HRQoL in Iranian women needs further physical, psychological, and social supports in elderly.
Full Text Available Bartosz Uchmanowicz,1 Bernard Panaszek,2 Izabella Uchmanowicz,1 Joanna Rosinczuk3 1Department of Clinical Nursing, 2Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatry and Allergology, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL of patients with bronchial asthma. Patients diagnosed with asthma experience a number of problems with regard to everyday activities and functions, which adversely affects their health-related QoL. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the sociodemographic factors affecting the QoL of patients with asthma. Patients and methods: The study comprised of 100 patients (73 females and 27 males aged 18–84 years (mean age 45.7 years treated in the Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University. All patients with asthma who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. We used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ and the asthma control test. Up-to-date sociodemographic data were collected from all participants, including sex, age, marital status, education, and sources of income. Results: The sociodemographic variables that correlated positively with QoL in all domains of the AQLQ were professional activity and higher education level of respondents. Factors that negatively influenced the AQLQ domains were older age and lack of professional activity. Conclusion: This study shows that age, physical work, and lack of professional activity decreased the QoL in this patient group. It was found that higher education contributes to better QoL scores. Keywords: bronchial asthma, health related quality of life, sociodemographic factors
Full Text Available It is essential to determine the key health risk factors among populations to specifically plan future services and explore interventions that modify risk factors for communities. This aims to reduce risks and delay the onset of chronic conditions, which frequently results in dementia, particularly for small rural communities which experience health workforce shortages, a higher proportion of those in the chronic conditions age group, and reduced access to care. The aim of the study was to determine existing rates of chronic disease, and current lifestyle and sociodemographic factors which may predispose the population to higher risk of dementia. Residents from three shires in rural Victoria, Australia were recruited by random and non-random sampling techniques to complete a survey regarding health perceptions, pre-existing illnesses, health behaviors and social activity in their community. A total of 1474 people completed the survey. Positive factors reported were social participation and low rates of smoking. Negative factors included low rates of physical activity, high rates of obesity and high rates of chronic conditions that indicate significant risk factors for dementia in these communities. Although some factors are modifiable, these communities also have a large population of older residents. This study suggests that community interventions could modify lifestyle risk factors in these rural communities. These lifestyle factors, age of residents and the current chronic conditions are also important for rural service planning to increase preventive actions, and warn of the likely increase in the number of people developing chronic conditions with predispositon to dementia.
Clara Mockdece NEVES
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.
Salomé, Geraldo Magela; de Almeida, Sergio Aguinaldo; Mendes, Bruno; de Carvalho, Maiume Roana Ferreira; Bueno, José Carlos; Massahud, Marcelo Renato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
To evaluate levels of spirituality and hope in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) according to sociodemographic factors. This was a primary, prospective, descriptive, analytical, and clinical study. Questionnaires assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the Spirituality Self-rating Scale (SSRS), and the Herth Hope Index (HHI) were administered to all participants. University-affiliated skilled nursing center and outpatient wound care clinic in Pouso Alegre, Brazil. Fifty adult patients with DFUs participated in the study. Patients with ischemic diabetic foot and mixed ulcers were excluded from the study. On average, patients with DFUs had low levels of spirituality (mean SSRS score, 12.6) and low hope for cure (mean HHI, 16.5). Patients younger than 60 years reported significantly lower levels of spirituality (mean SSRS scores, 11.0), and those older than 70 years had significantly lower hope for cure (mean HHI, 12.5) than other age groups (P = .040). Level of spirituality was significantly lower among women (P = .015) and those living with an ulcer for more than 2 years, who also reported significantly lower hope for cure (P = .029) compared with patients having an ulcer for less than 2 years. On average, patients with DFUs, especially women and older adults, had a low sense of hope and spirituality. Except for gender, age, and ulcer duration, other sociodemographic and ulcer characteristics had no significant effect on the study population's spirituality and hope.
Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.
Jean, Raymond A; Chiu, Alexander S; O'Neill, Kathleen M; Lin, Zhenqiu; Pei, Kevin Y
Current guidelines for small bowel obstruction (SBO) recommend a limited trial of nonoperative management of no more than 3-5 d. For patients requiring surgery, it is uncertain if sociodemographic factors are associated with disparities in the duration of the trial of nonoperative therapy. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample from 2012 to 2014 was queried for discharges with a primary diagnosis of SBO. Primary outcomes of interest were the effects of sociodemographic factors, including race, insurance status, and income on the rate of receiving any operative management for SBO, and subsequently, among patients managed surgically, the risk of operative delay, defined as operative management ≥ 5 d after admission. We did this by using logistic hierarchical generalized linear models, accounting for hospital clustering and adjusted for sex, age, comorbidity, and hospital factors. Of the 589,850 admissions for SBO between 2012 and 2014, 22.0% underwent operations. Overall, 26.2% were non-White, including 12.2% Black and 8.6% Hispanic patients, and the majority (56.0%) had Medicare insurance coverage. Income quartiles were evenly distributed across the overall study population. In adjusted logistic regression, operative delay was associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.30 95% confidence interval [1.10, 1.54]). Adjusted for patient and hospital factors, Black patients were significantly more likely to receive operations for SBO, whereas Medicaid and Medicare patients were significantly less likely. However, Black, Medicaid, and Medicare patients who were managed operatively were significantly more likely to have an operative delay of 5 or more d. There was no significant association between income and operative management in adjusted regression models. Significant disparities in the operative management were based on race and insurance status. Further research is warranted to understand the causes of, and
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu
Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A
This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program.
Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate; Tunstall, Helena
This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marita...
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.
Contreras-Manzano, Alejandra; Villalpando, Salvador; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo
To describe the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and insufficiency (VDI), and the main dietary sources of vitamin D (VD) in a probabilistic sample of Mexican women at reproductive age participating in Ensanut 2012, stratified by sociodemographic factors and body mass index (BMI) categories. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(25-OH-D) were determined using an ELISA technique in 4162 women participants of Ensanut 2012 and classified as VDD, VDI or optimal VD status. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and dietary data were also collected. The association between VDD/VDI and sociodemographic and anthropometry factors was assessed adjusting for potential confounders through an estimation of a multinomial logistic regression model. The prevalence of VDD was 36.8%, and that of VDI was 49.8%. The mean dietary intake of VD was 2.56 μg/d. The relative risk ratio (RRR) of VDD or VDI was calculated by a multinomial logistic regression model in 4162 women. The RRR of VDD or VDI were significantly higher in women with overweight (RRR: 1.85 and 1.44, p<0.05), obesity (RRR: 2.94 and 1.93, p<0.001), urban dwelling (RRR:1.68 and 1.31, p<0.06), belonging to the 3rd tertile of income (RRR: 5.32 and 2.22, p<0.001), or of indigenous ethnicity (RRR: 2.86 and 1.70, p<0.05), respectively. The high prevalence of VDD/VDI in Mexican women calls for stronger actions from the health authorities, strengthtening the actual policy of food supplementation and recommending a reasonable amount of sun exposure.
Full Text Available Objective. To describe the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD and insufficiency (VDI, and the main dietary sources of vitamin D (VD in a probabilistic sample of Mexican women at reproductive age participating in Ensanut 2012, stratified by sociodemographic factors and body mass index (BMI categories. Materials and methods. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(25-OH-D were determined using an ELISA technique in 4 162 women participants of Ensanut 2012 and classified as VDD, VDI or optimal VD status. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and dietary data were also collected. The association between VDD/VDI and sociodemographic and anthropometry factors was assessed adjusting for potential confounders through an estimation of a multinomial logistic regression model. Results. The prevalence of VDD was 36.8%, and that of VDI was 49.8%. The mean dietary intake of VD was 2.56 μg/d. The relative risk ratio (RRR of VDD or VDI was calculated by a multinomial logistic regression model in 4 162 women. The RRR of VDD or VDI were significantly higher in women with overweight (RRR: 1.85 and 1.44, p<0.05, obesity (RRR: 2.94 and 1.93, p<0.001, urban dwelling (RRR:1.68 and 1.31, p<0.06, belonging to the 3rd tertile of income (RRR: 5.32 and 2.22, p<0.001, or of indigenous ethnicity (RRR: 2.86 and 1.70, p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion. The high prevalence of VDD/VDI in Mexican women calls for stronger actions from the health authorities, strengthtening the actual policy of food supplementation and recommending a reasonable amount of sun exposure.
Boyede, Gbemisola O; Lesi, Foluso Ea; Ezeaka, Veronica C; Umeh, Charles S
In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6-15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget's staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6-11 years) and the formal operational stage (12-15 years). All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM). Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0-47.0) which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0-52.0) for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001). On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6-11 years), positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Younger age, poor socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education were factors apart from HIV infection that were significantly associated with low cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.
Gabriela Dutra Gesualdo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cognitive impairment and dementia commonly occur in individuals with chronic kidney disease, especially in advanced stages, but are still poorly diagnosed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cognitive ability of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis and its relationship with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit in the interior of the State of São Paulo involving 99 patients. The data were collected through an individual interview, using the Sociodemographic and Clinical Characterization questionnaires and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised (ACE-R questionnaire. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly male, with a mean age of 54.68 years. The mean ACE-R score was 64.26 points, and 76.76% of patients had lower-than-expected scores, suggesting the presence of cognitive impairment. A moderate, negative correlation was found between total score on the ACE-R and age (r= –0.38, p≤0.001, a moderate positive correlation with years of education (r=0.52, p≤0.001, and a weak positive correlation of total score with hemodialysis time (r=0.26, p≤0.001. CONCLUSION: A relationship was found between cognitive ability and age, years of education and hemodialysis time, suggesting that individuals who were older, had less education and longer hemodialysis time presented greater cognitive impairment.
Gesualdo, Gabriela Dutra; Duarte, Juliana Gomes; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Kusumota, Luciana; Say, Karina Gramani; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza
ABSTRACT Cognitive impairment and dementia commonly occur in individuals with chronic kidney disease, especially in advanced stages, but are still poorly diagnosed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cognitive ability of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis and its relationship with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit in the interior of the State of São Paulo involving 99 patients. The data were collected through an individual interview, using the Sociodemographic and Clinical Characterization questionnaires and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised (ACE-R) questionnaire. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly male, with a mean age of 54.68 years. The mean ACE-R score was 64.26 points, and 76.76% of patients had lower-than-expected scores, suggesting the presence of cognitive impairment. A moderate, negative correlation was found between total score on the ACE-R and age (r= –0.38, p≤0.001), a moderate positive correlation with years of education (r=0.52, p≤0.001), and a weak positive correlation of total score with hemodialysis time (r=0.26, p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: A relationship was found between cognitive ability and age, years of education and hemodialysis time, suggesting that individuals who were older, had less education and longer hemodialysis time presented greater cognitive impairment. PMID:29213518
Magen Mhaka-Mutepfa PhD
Full Text Available Very few studies have examined quality of life (QOL in elderly carers of orphaned children in African settings. This study explored sociodemographic factors and health-related characteristics that influence QOL of grandparent carers in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study stratified by district was done to collect information on socioeconomic factors, health-related characteristics, and QOL of grandparent carers ( N = 327; age: M = 62.4, SD = 11.2. Data were collected on socioeconomic factors, self-perceived health, health care access, chronic disease condition, health insurance status, types of health care services, and medications taken using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the associations between QOL and the predictor variables. Caregivers’ level of education (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; confidence interval [95% CI] = [1.0, 27], fostering orphans only (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = [0.2, 0.7], self-perceived health (OR = 10.2; 95% CI = [4.5, 25], medical insurance (OR = 9.8; 95% CI = [1.9, 54], and satisfaction with health care services (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = [1.2, 4.4] were associated with QOL, after adjusting for all influencing factors. The results confirm that QOL is compromised by specific demographic and self-rated health characteristics. Thus, eradicating poverty and providing services and changing caregiver’s perceptions about self-rated health may enhance QOL among grandparent caregivers.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.
Full Text Available Object: The aim of this study was to examine children driving to committing crime who were brought to psychiatry clinic for forensic evaluation because of the crimes they committed to. Additionally, evaluation of these children's psychiaytric disorders, crime characteristics, sociodemographic data, factors driving to committing crime and forensic reports arranged by the physician were other aims. Methods: In this study 204 children, who were brought to the clinic in order to be evaluated whether they perceive the legal meaning and consequences of that action or possess sufficient ability to channel their behaviors, were included. In order to diagnose any psychiatric disorder, a structured interrogation schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for present and lifetime was applied all children and families and sociodemographic data form was completed. Results: At least one psychiatric disorder was present in 47% (n =96 of children driving to committing crime. The most common disorders were Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder. Almost none of them have been treated before. 45% of them dropped out their school, and 40% were smoking. Additionally, most of their parents who had low socioeconomical level also had very low education level. Discussion: It was determined that being male, living in a low socioeconomic family environment, living in large families, using drugs, smoking, not attending school and having parents with low education level were significant related factors for juvenile delinquency.
Dubuc, Marie-Maude; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Karelis, Antony D
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA), handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) (Bruce Protocol) and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO 2 max ( r = 0.32), intrinsic motivation toward knowledge ( r = 0.23), intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment ( r = 0.27) and external regulation ( r = -0.30, P = 0.002). In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance ( P breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.
Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia
Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.
Weiss, Marianne; Ryan, Polly; Lokken, Lisa; Nelson, Magdalen
The impact of reductions in postpartum length of stay have been widely reported, but factors influencing length of hospital stay after vaginal birth have received less attention. The study purpose was to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and readiness for discharge of new mothers and their newborns at 3 discharge time intervals, and to determine which variables were associated with postpartum length of stay. The study sample comprised 1,192 mothers who were discharged within 2 postpartum days after uncomplicated vaginal birth at a tertiary perinatal center in the midwestern United States. The sample was divided into 3 postpartum length-of-stay groups: group 1 (18-30 hr), group 2 (31-42 hr), and group 3 (43-54 hr). Sociodemographic and readiness-for-discharge data were collected by self-report and from a computerized hospital information system. Measures of readiness for discharge included perceived readiness (single item and Readiness for Discharge After Birth Scale), documented maternal and neonatal clinical problems, and feeding method. Compared with other groups, the longest length-of-stay group was older; of higher socioeconomic status and education; and with more primiparous, breastfeeding, white, married mothers who were living with the baby's father, had adequate home help, and had a private payor source. This group also reported greater readiness for discharge, but their newborns had more documented clinical problems during the postbirth hospitalization. In logistic regression modeling, earlier discharge was associated with young age, multiparity, public payor source, low socioeconomic status, lack of readiness for discharge, bottle-feeding, and absence of a neonatal clinical problem. Sociodemographic characteristics and readiness for discharge (clinical and perceived) were associated with length of postpartum hospital stay. Length of stay is an outcome of a complex interface between patient, provider, and payor influences on discharge timing
Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown. Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.
Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro
Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.
Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia
Openly available online sources can be very valuable for executing in silico case-control epidemiological studies. Adjustment of confounding factors to isolate the association between an observing factor and disease is essential for such studies. However, such information is not always readily available online. This paper suggests natural language processing methods for extracting socio-demographic information from content openly available online. Feasibility of the suggested method is demonstrated by performing a case-control study focusing on the association between age, gender, and income level and lung cancer risk. The study shows stronger association between older age and lower socioeconomic status and higher lung cancer risk, which is consistent with the findings reported in traditional cancer epidemiology studies.
Birbilis, M; Moschonis, G; Mougios, V; Manios, Y
To record the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in relation to perinatal risk factors, parental body mass index and sociodemographics. A sample of 2294 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years was examined in municipalities from four Greek counties. Weight and height were measured using standard procedures, whereas international thresholds were used for the definition of overweight and obesity. Perinatal and parental data were also recorded via standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 30.5% and 11.6%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of obesity in boys compared with girls (13.7% vs 9.5%, Pcharacteristics (that is, younger fathers, Greek nationality, less educated and overweight parents) as important risk factors for children's overweight and obesity, indicating the multifactorial nature of their etiology and the need to extend our understanding beyond positive energy equilibrium.
Gabriel Renaldo de Sousa
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior based on screen time (≥ 2-hour day and to identify the association with sociodemographic factors among adolescents in a city in southern Brazil. This is an epidemiological survey of school-based cross-sectional study with students aged 14-19 years in the city of São José/SC - Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was used, containing information sociodemographic, level of physical activity and about screen time. Descriptive statistics were performed, and odds ratios were estimated using binary logistic regression and 95% confidence level. The prevalence of excess screen time was 86.37% followed by computer use (55.24%, TV use (51.56% and Videogame use (15.35%. Boys had higher prevalence of excessive video game use. Those of skin color different from white and mothers who studied less than eight years were more likely to watch too much TV, and those of low economic level were more likely of having excessive screen time. Girls of skin color different from white were more likely to watch too much TV, and those aged 14-16 years were more likely to have videogame use time and total time screen above recommended.
Sousa, Gabriel Renaldo de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
The aim of this study to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior based on screen time (≥ 2-hour day) and to identify the association with sociodemographic factors among adolescents in a city in southern Brazil. This is an epidemiological survey of school-based cross-sectional study with students aged 14-19 years in the city of São José/SC - Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was used, containing information sociodemographic, level of physical activity and about screen time. Descriptive statistics were performed, and odds ratios were estimated using binary logistic regression and 95% confidence level. The prevalence of excess screen time was 86.37% followed by computer use (55.24%), TV use (51.56%) and Videogame use (15.35%). Boys had higher prevalence of excessive video game use. Those of skin color different from white and mothers who studied less than eight years were more likely to watch too much TV, and those of low economic level were more likely of having excessive screen time. Girls of skin color different from white were more likely to watch too much TV, and those aged 14-16 years were more likely to have videogame use time and total time screen above recommended.
Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane
Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background. The determinants of injuries and their reoccurrence in Indonesia are not well understood, despite their importance in the prevention of injuries. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the environmental, spatial, and sociodemographic factors associated with the reoccurrence of injuries among Indonesian people. Methods. Data from the 2013 round of the Indonesia Baseline Health Research (IBHR 2013 were analysed using a two-part hurdle regression model. A logit regression model was chosen for the zero-hurdle part, while a zero-truncated negative binomial regression model was selected for the counts part. Odds ratio (OR and incidence rate ratio (IRR were the measures of association, respectively. Results. The results suggest that living in a household with distant drinking water source, residing in slum areas, residing in Eastern Indonesia, having low educational attainment, being men, and being poorer are positively related to the likelihood of experiencing injury. Moreover, being a farmer or fishermen, having low educational attainment, and being men are positively associated with the frequency of injuries. Conclusion. This study would be useful to prioritise injury prevention programs in Indonesia based on the environmental, spatial, and sociodemographic characteristics.
Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S
The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. © The Author(s) 2016.
Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W
Transportation bicycling is a behavior with demonstrated health benefits. Population-representative studies of transportation bicycling in United States are lacking. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors, population density, and transportation bicycling and described transportation bicyclists by trip purposes, using a US-representative sample. This cross-sectional study used 2009 National Household Travel Survey datasets. Associations among study variables were assessed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. On a typical day in 2009, 1% of Americans older than 5 years of age reported a transportation bicycling trip. Transportation cycling was inversely associated with age and directly with being male, with being white, and with population density (≥ 10,000 vs transportation. Twenty-one percent of transportation bicyclists reported trips to work, whereas 67% reported trips to social or other activities. Transportation bicycling in the United States is associated with sociodemographic characteristics and population density. Bicycles are used for a variety of trip purposes, which has implications for transportation bicycling research based on commuter data and for developing interventions to promote this behavior.
Dubuc, Marie-Maude; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Karelis, Antony D.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA), handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (Bruce Protocol) and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2 max (r = 0.32), intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23), intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27) and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002). In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P academic performance in female undergraduate students. PMID:28479964
Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O
Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study has been to determine if sociodemographic factors: age, sex and duration of employment as well as the presence of chronic comorbidities exert significant effect on subjective assessment of psychosocial working conditions of nurses. Moreover, we analyzed whether the abovementioned variables influenced the level of absenteeism at work during a year preceding the study. Material and Methods: The study, conducted between December 2012 and January 2013, included 789 nurses employed at public and private healthcare institutions in Białystok. The participants were surveyed by means of the “Psychosocial Working Conditions” questionnaire. Results: Women accounted for significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Well-being Scale as compared to men. Respondents’ age and duration of employment correlated significantly with the scores of the Demands and Desired Changes Scales. Moreover, we documented significant inverse correlations between the age and tenure and the scores of the Social Support and Well-being Scales. Furthermore, duration of employment was inversely correlated with the results of the Control Scale. The respondents with chronic conditions showed significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Control and Well-being Scales. We found an inverse correlation between the number of sick leave days and the value of the Well-being Scale, which was also the case with a subset of nurses without chronic conditions. Conclusions: Similar to other professional groups, a nursing team management requires the use of human resources management techniques and identification of a person being responsible for coordination of the group and diagnosis of its psychosocial needs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(5:615–624
Agardh, Anette; Tumwine, Gilbert; Östergren, Per-Olof
More knowledge is needed about structural factors in society that affect risky sexual behaviors. Educational institutions such as universities provide an opportune arena for interventions among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and religious factors and their impact on sexual behavior among university students in Uganda. In 2005, 980 university students (response rate 80%) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to assess socio-demographic and religious factors and sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses were applied. Our findings indicated that 37% of the male and 49% of the female students had not previously had sex. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more sexual partners, and 32% of the males and 38% of the females did not consistently use condoms. For those who rated religion as less important in their family, the probability of early sexual activity and having had a high number of lifetime partners increased by a statistically significant amount (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, respectively). However, the role of religion seemed to have no impact on condom use. Being of Protestant faith interacted with gender: among those who had debuted sexually, Protestant female students were more likely to have had three or more lifetime partners; the opposite was true for Protestant male students. Religion emerged as an important determinant of sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. Our findings correlate with the increasing number of conservative religious injunctions against premarital sex directed at young people in many countries with a high burden. of HIV/AIDS. Such influence of religion must be taken into account in order to gain a deeper understanding of the forces that shape sexual behavior in Uganda.
Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic
Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to
Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete
Sexual dysfunctions and difficulties are common experiences that may impact importantly on the perceived quality of life, but prevalence estimates are highly sensitive to the definitions used. We used questionnaire data for 4415 sexually active Danes aged 16-95 years who participated in a national......%), and dyspareunia (0.1%); among women: lubrication insufficiency (7%), anorgasmia (6%), dyspareunia (3%), and vaginismus (0.4%). Highest frequencies of sexual dysfunction were seen in men above age 60 years and women below age 30 years or above age 50 years. In logistic regression analysis, indicators of economic...... health and morbidity survey in 2005 to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and difficulties and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Overall, 11% (95% CI, 10-13%) of men and 11% (10-13%) of women reported at least one sexual dysfunction (i.e., a frequent sexual difficulty...
Teresa Cervera Mata
Full Text Available The socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the high school students determine their possibilities to change their attitude towards the reading and, in this way, encourage their reading habit. A program of workshops to inspire Reading carried out in an educational compensation center shows how a relationship between sociodemographic factors and the change happened with their reading habit is established. This methodology is introduced in the classroom as a tool that intends to produce a transformation in their literary education through playful elements, which are required in the necessary contexts of social transformation. An attitude towards reading are the first aspects that must be positively modified to strengthen the relationship between books and students and thus, encourage the reading as an habit. Therefore, the knowloedge of the social and family influential environment will contribute to the application of this methodology in the classroom, enhancing or mitigating the effects of this relationship.
Hassapidou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Frossinis, Athanasios; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Tzotzas, Themistoklis
To investigate sociodemographic, ethnic and dietary factors associated with the development of childhood obesity. 276 children, aged 8-12 years, randomly selected from seven schools in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece, participated in the study. 13% of the children were immigrants from neighboring Balkan countries and ex-Soviet Union countries. Data was collected using specific validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity assessment were carried out for all children. 26.1% of the boys and 22.4% of the girls were overweight and a further 11.6% of boys and 10.9% of girls were obese. The overweight and obesity rate was significantly lower in immigrants (10% and 3.3%) compared to Greeks (25.8% and 12.7%), p=0.024. Obese children compared to their non-obese counterparts a) had parents who were obese at a higher percentage (p=0.001), b) reported that food preparation was carried out by their grandmother (p=0.006) and c) had less pocket money (p=0.004). Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in immigrants compared to Greeks (1611+/-599Kcal vs 1363+/-471Kcal, p=0.036 and 188.31+/-70.63g vs 149.87+/-56.41g, p=0.001) and the same was true for exercise (6.38+/-7.22 h/w vs 4.14+/-4.18 h/w, p=0.049). In planning interventions for childhood obesity, sociodemographic factors in addition to food intake and physical activity patterns have to be considered.
López Pereira, Patricia; Gandarillas Grande, Ana María; Díez Gañán, Lucía; Ordobás Gavín, María
Asthma is an important public health issue. The goal of this study is to analyse the trends in self-reported asthma prevalence in the Madrid Region and its association with socio-demographic and health factors. Data from the "Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System" in adult population (SIVFRENT-A) 1996-2013 were used. Prevalences and 95% CI were estimated for: current asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack in the last 12 months, in five periods. Changes in inter-period prevalence were estimated by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI by Poisson regression. The association between asthma prevalence socio-demographic and health variables was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma increased per study period an average of 14%. Asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months increased an average of 19%. It was associated (statistically significant) to an increase of current prevalence of asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months: being a woman, ORa: 1.55; ORa: 1.35 and ORa: 1.46 respectively; have poor self-perceived health, ORa: 3.09; ORa: 2.63 and ORa: 2.89; and intense physical activity, ORa: 1.48; ORa: 1.32 and ORa: 1.49. In the case of current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma also be studying, ORa: 1.34 and ORa: 1.46 respectively. Self-reported asthma prevalence increased in the last decades. The prevalence was higher in woman, persons with poor self-perceived health and adults with intense physical activity.
Begum, Shahina; Donta, Balaiah; Nair, Saritha; Prakasam, C.P.
Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence. PMID:26205021
Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Utter, Jennifer; McNaughton, Sarah A; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne; Rasmussen, Mette
To investigate: (i) how lunch frequency of adolescents varies between schools and between classes within schools; (ii) the associations between frequency of lunch and individual sociodemographic factors and school characteristics; and (iii) if any observed associations between lunch frequency and school characteristics vary by gender and age groups. Cross-sectional study in which students and school headmasters completed self-administered questionnaires. Associations were estimated by multilevel multivariate logistic regression. The Danish arm of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study 2010. Students (n 4922) aged 11, 13 and 15 years attending a random sample of seventy-three schools. The school-level and class-level variations in low lunch frequency were small (intraclass correlation coefficient lunch frequency was most common among students who were boys, 13- and 15-year-olds, from medium and low family social class, descendants of immigrants, living in a single-parent family and in a reconstructed family. School-level analyses suggested that having access to a canteen at school was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·47; 95% CI 1·14, 1·89). Likewise not having an adult present during lunch breaks was associated with low lunch frequency (OR=1·44; 95% CI 1·18, 1·75). Cross-level interactions suggested that these associations differed by age group. Lunch frequency among Danish students appears to be largely influenced by sociodemographic factors. Additionally, the presence of an adult during lunch breaks promotes frequent lunch consumption while availability of a canteen may discourage frequent lunch consumption. These findings vary between older and younger students.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.
Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao
Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.
Salomé, Geraldo Magela; de Almeida, Sergio Aguinaldo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of sociodemographic factors with hope for cure and levels of religiosity and spirituality in patients with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). This was a primary, prospective, descriptive, analytical, clinical, nonrandomized study. The study was performed at a nursing care and education center of a university hospital in interior Minas Gerais, Brazil. A convenience sample of 50 adult patients with VLUs and Doppler ankle-brachial index ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 participated in the study. Patients with mixed ulcers, arterial ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers were excluded from the study. A questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients, the Spirituality Self-rating Scale (SSRS), and the Herth Hope Index (HHI) were administered to all patients. The mean SSRS score was 10.20, and the mean HHI was 25.5, corresponding to low levels of spirituality and moderate hope for cure, respectively. Patients aged between 50 and 59 years, men, nonsmokers, and those who were unemployed had the lowest mean SSRS scores. The lowest mean HHI values were reported by patients whose ulcers had exudate and odor, those aged 20 to 39 years, retired, and living with the wound for 1 year or less. Patients who had no religion or were not practicing a religion and those who considered living with an ulcer as a punishment reported low SSRS scores. The results showed that most patients with VLUs had low levels of spirituality, did not perceive divine intervention in their daily life or practice religious activities such as prayer, and had moderate hope for cure.
Adewuya, Abiodun O; Adeyeye, Olufunke O
To estimate the rate of anxiety and depression in adult asthma patients and examine the possible association with sociodemographic, clinical and other significant variables. Adult asthmatics (n = 203) were recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic and assessed for sociodemographic and clinical profiles, their levels of disability, social support, asthma treatment stigma and personality traits. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) was used to assess for the diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in comparison with matched healthy controls (n = 205). Seventy (34.5%) of the patients with asthma have a diagnosis of Anxiety or Depression compared with 15 (7.3%) of matched healthy controls and the difference was significant (OR 6.67, 95% CI 3.58-13.04). Although older age, lower income, use of oral corticosteroid, patients perceived severity of asthma, disability, social support and personality traits were initially significant in univariate analysis, a subsequent logistic regression analysis revealed that only disability scores above the group mean (OR 4.50, 95% CI 2.28-8.87) and not having a strong social support (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.443-5.78) were the only variables independently associated with diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in the group of patients with asthma. Anxiety and depression are significantly more common in adult outpatients with asthma when compared with healthy control in Nigeria and was significantly associated with levels of disability and social support. These factors should be considered while formulating predictive models for management of psychosocial problems in asthma in this environment.
Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N.; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G.; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A.; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L.; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.
INTRODUCTION: Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with
Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł
Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.
Arnildo A. Hackenhaar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections.METHODS:this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression.RESULTS:of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge.CONCLUSIONS:the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.
Nwizu, E N; Iliyasu, Z; Ibrahim, S A; Galadanci, H S
Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. The burden and underlying factors are varied even within countries. We studied the prevalence of anaemia at booking and underlying factors in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Using the capillary technique and blood film, the packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell morphology of 300 pregnant women was determined. Additional information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and past medical history using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 51 (17%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)=12.9%-21.7%] were anaemic. Specifically, 12.7% and 4.3% of the women had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed normochromic normocytic, haemolytic and microcytic hypochromic pictures respectively. Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low educational and economic status especially among women with background obstetric risk factors calls for vigilance, sustained health education and chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women.
Alhamlan, F S; Khayat, H H; Ramisetty-Mikler, S; Al-Muammar, T A; Tulbah, A M; Al-Badawi, I A; Kurdi, W I; Tulbah, M I; Alkhenizan, A A; Hussain, A N; Ahmed, M; Al-Ahdal, M N
To determine the prevalence and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a hospital-based cohort of women in Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens and questionnaire data were collected from women attending clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens were examined for abnormal cytology using a standard Pap test and for the presence of HPV-DNA using PCR and reverse line blot hybridization tests. Approximately 73% of the 400 women tested were Saudi nationals. Nearly 50% were under 40 years old (range 22-80 years, mean±standard deviation 41.20±10.43 years). Approximately 17% of the women were HPV-positive. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-18 (34%) and HPV-16 (19%), with multiple infections detected in 10% of positive specimens. Multivariate analyses revealed that smoking and multiple partners were significant risk factors for HPV infection (pSaudi women. However, a high prevalence of HPV infection was found, with smoking and multiple partners as significant risk factors, in this hospital-based cohort of predominantly Saudi women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Momin, Mohmmedirfan H; Desai, Vikas K; Kavishwar, Abhay B
Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension are increasing in developing countries especially among high-risk group people like bank employees. A cross-sectional study of 1493 bank employees of Surat city was conducted during August, 2004 to September, 2005 to study the prevalence of hypertension among bank employees and the effects of socio-demographic factors on prevalence of hypertension. Data were analyzed using epi 6 software. The χ -test was applied as a nonparametric test of statistical significance. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.4% and prehypertension was 34.5%. Out of 455 found as hypertensive, 258 (56.70%) were not having any symptoms at the time of examination. Prevalence was high among persons with age 50 years and above (48.5%); among male (32.5%) as compared to female (23.1%); among employees having small family size; among separated/divorcee person (40.0%). Prevalence of hypertension increased with seniority of the official position of bank employee with highest prevalence among managers (45.9%). Prevalence of hypertension was noted highest among the higher socioeconomic group; SEC I (35.0%) followed by class II (20.4%). Effects of different risk factors of hypertension were observed here. This study may help in identifying the common profile of hypertensive or persons at risk, which may further help in identifying the risk group and planning the group specific IEC interventions.
Full Text Available Background: In Latin America there are few data about the factors that influence the control and severity of asthma. Objective: To describe the association between IgE sensitization to intra-home allergens and housing conditions in the severity of asthma. Methods: Sensitization to aero-allergens was evaluated by skin prick test and socio-demographic data by a questionnaire in a population between 6 and 14 years of age with diagnosis of asthma. Asthma control was measured according to spirometric results and to the application of the ACT (Asthma Control Test; the severity and symptom control was evaluated according to the GINA guideline. Results: A total of 150 resident patients from the Aburra Valley (Colombia were included. The median age of participants was 11 years, 95 (63.3 % male. 92 % of the patients resided in the urban area. Mite sensitization was the most prevalent in controlled and uncontrolled patients. Sensitization to cockroach and some poverty conditions were risk factors for asthma severity. Conclusion: Poverty conditions appear to favor the development of severe asthma and in turn IgE sensitization to cockroaches. This sensitization could serve as a biomarker of severity.
Cuadros, José Luis; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo R; López-Baena, María Teresa; Cuadros-Celorrio, Angela M; Fernández-Alonso, Ana María
To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the influence of socio-demographic, biological, and psychological factors on the formation of anxiety-depressive disorders (ADD in children. Material and methods: 160 6–14-year-old children with (ADD being treated at the Sumy Oblast Pediatric Hospital and Sumy regional clinical psychoneurologic dispensary were examined. The diagnosis of standard ADD was conducted by ICD-10 and DSM_IV criteria. We used clinical psychopathological, somatoneurological, pathopsychological methods (depression rating scale CDRS-R; reactive and personal anxiety Spielberger—Hanin scale, L.K.Yahyn, D.M.Mendelevych questionnaires as well as socio-psychological interviewing and surveys («Scale of family environment» S.Y. Kupriyanov, «Scale of family adaptability and cohesion» — FACES-3, D.H. Olson. Results. The formation of ADD in children is associated with the child being exposed to a number of social, psychological and biological factors, among which the most important are: pathological forms of upbringing, incomplete family and labor migration of parents, education progenitors, bad habits of parents, disharmonious social relations between mothers and children, severe chronic illness of a parent, conflicts in the family and at school, excessive psycho-emotional pressure on the child and school bullying, genetics, burdened perinatal period, psychopathological symptoms during the first year of life and frequent respiratory infections in children. Conclusions. Determined the descriptiveness of the factors that should be considered when developing programs of early socio-therapeutically intervention in the rehabilitation of children with ADD and predicting the formation of resistance to treatment of the psychopathology at the later stages of ontogenesis.
Shih, Chiung-Yu; Huang, Chiu-Ya; Huang, Mei-Lun; Chen, Chyong-Mei; Tang, Fu-In
To explore the association between the sociodemographic factors and the needs of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Taiwan. Concomitant discomfort, including physical and mental aspects, affects the patients' quality of life and their willingness to undergo hemodialysis. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a well-known tool to assess different levels of human needs. We conducted a small-scale cross-sectional observational study using a structured needs assessment questionnaire on 159 patients from the Taipei Veterans General Hospital hemodialysis unit. The overall mean scores of physical, mental, spiritual, other needs, and needs in relation to medical staff care were 4.0±0.8, 3.2±0.8, 2.7±1.0, 3.1±0.9, and 4.1±0.7, respectively. The results showed that the patients' highest need was in relation to medical staff care, followed by physical needs. Further analysis showed that patients who are still employed during the treatment process have higher mental, spiritual, and other needs. Patient who are financially supported by their family have higher physical needs. Patients taken cared of by paid caregivers have lower spiritual needs and other needs. This is also the same with patients who are religious as opposed to those who are non-religious. Patients who have attained tertiary education have higher other needs compared to patients who have only achieved up to primary or secondary education. The study is the first in Taiwan to identify and quantify the needs of patients undergoing hemodialysis. When the needs of the patients are identified in relation to their sociodemographic factors, the medical staff can give the appropriate treatment in order to meet the needs and improve the patients' well-being. Healthcare providers should not only focus on the patients' physiological needs, but should determine and address their other needs in various aspects in order to improve the quality and efficacy of the dialysis care process. This article is protected by copyright
Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon
This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to find the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 400 school-going children of age 11–14 years. The severity of malocclusion was determined by Treatment Priority Index. The sociodemographic factors were evaluated using a questionnaire that enquired about age, gender, parents' monthly income, and their educational status. Periodontal status was assessed using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN index. To know about dental caries, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index was used in this study. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to find an association between variables. The effect of sociodemographic factors on treatment priority index (TPI scores was examined using Chi-square test. Student's t-test (to compare TPI scores of different genders and analysis of variance (to compare TPI scores among different age groups were used in this study. Results: Out of a total of 400 children included in the study, 19.5% students had normal occlusion whereas a majority of them (80.5% showed some sort of malocclusion. CPITN scores revealed that 3.1% pupils had no sign of the disease, 57.5% showed gingival bleeding after gentle probing, and 39.4% had supra or subgingival calculus. Conclusions: No statistically significant correlation was found between the orthodontic treatment need, periodontal status, and sociodemographic factors while a significant relation is observed of TPI with DMFT.
Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer
This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…
Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...
Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo
men are more interested in health safety and are more responsible for their health. Among young men, lower self-esteem can be found. The analysis conducted revealed that groups of consumers are significantly different from each other in the evaluation of the significance of each of the variables in the selection of functional food. Sociodemographic factors differentiate the motivations for consumption of functional food.
Baran, İlgi; Ergün, Gülfem; Semiz, Mustafa
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between the socio-demographic and economic factors of patients and the reasons of admission, usage periods of the two types of clinics, frequencies of denture changes, satisfaction levels and preferences of prosthetic dental treatment. Materials and Methods 510 partially and/or totally edentulous patients were studied using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions; age, gender, education level, income status, problems with dentures, necessity for new dentures. Also asked was the place that the subjects would prefer to get their denture treatment, irrespective of their income level. In this study, Z-test was used to analyze two-sample proportions, T-test was used to determine two-sample means and Chi-square test was used to determine relationship between two classified variables. Results The number of male patients with complete dentures was more than the number of females, with an opposing trend for partial dentures. Irrespective of gender, each patient had had nearly two dentures by the time of questioning. It was also observed that the university clinics were generally preferred by patients from higher income levels with a higher educational level (x2=25.206, Pdenture treatment, regardless of cost, private practice was the preferred-choice. Conclusions With respect to dental condition and the acceptance of removable dentures, there were differences among gender, educational level and income status. PMID:19212485
Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2 Methods: We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3 Results: 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0% and improving diet (39.6%. Bistros (61.7% and hot-pot restaurants (41.1% were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%. (4 Conclusions: The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students’ perspectives.
Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Neves, Érick Tássio; Perazzo, Matheus França; Souza, Emilly Gabrielle Carlos de; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia
The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with sleep bruxism in five-year-old preschool children. A preschool-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 761 pairs of children and their parents/caregivers. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed using a questionnaire administered to the parents/caregivers, who also answered questionnaires addressing sociodemographic data and parent's/caregiver's sense of coherence. Clinical oral evaluations of the children to determine dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion and tooth wear were performed by two researchers who had undergone a training exercise (interexaminer Kappa: 0.70 to 0.91; intraexaminer Kappa: 0.81 to 1.00). Descriptive analysis and logistic regression for complex samples were carried out (α = 5%). The prevalence of sleep bruxism among the preschool children was 26.9%. The multivariate analysis revealed that bruxism was associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 2.93; 95 CI: 1.52-5.65) and tooth wear (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.39-3.96). In the present study, sleep bruxism among preschool children was associated with tooth wear and poor sleep quality of the child. In contrast, psychosocial aspects (sense of coherence) were not associated with sleep bruxism.
Irinyi, Tamás; Németh, Anikó; Lampek, Kinga
Violence against health care providers is getting more awareness nowadays. This topic is in the focus of international scientific attention also, although in Hungary exact data is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the correlations between violent acts against health care workers and their effects with different sociodemographic and workplace-related factors. A quantitative cross-sectional online survey was conducted enrolling 1201 health care providers. Data were analysed trough chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, where appropriate. Verbal and physical aggression was experienced more frequently by nurses who were males, above the age of fifty, working in in-patient care or in 12 hours shifts or constant night shifts. The same groups of health care providers suffered more from the negative emotional consequences of violent acts. Aggression is a serious problem in the Hungarian health care system, therefore employees have to be prepared for these acts. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(6), 229-237.
Full Text Available Rosa Maria Sternberg, Kathryn A Lee University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Family Health Care Nursing, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Immigrant Latinas may have different cultural attitudes toward menopause and aging, and may experience higher levels of distress associated with adaptation to their new environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to describe the frequency of depressive symptoms experienced by premenopausal Latinas (40–50 years of age living in the United States and compare Latinas born in the US with immigrant Latinas on stress and sociodemographic factors that influence depressive symptom experience. Analysis was conducted on a subsample of 94 self-identified Latinas who participated in a longitudinal study and completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D scale at enrollment and 6 months. Immigrant Latinas had a significantly higher CES-D (14.4 ± 11.1 than US-born Latinas (10.0 ± 7.9 and the difference remained at 6 months. There was no difference in age, body mass index (BMI, self-report of general health, or perceived stress. Higher BMI, work-related stress, and insufficient income for essential daily needs were associated with depressive symptom scores in immigrant Latinas. High BMI and less education were associated with depressive symptom scores in the US-born Latinas. Keywords: Hispanic women, Latinas, immigration, depression, midlife, menopause
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child
Iliyasu, Z; Arotiba, J T; Babashani, M
There has been no description of the characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients that are referred to this antiretroviral treatment centre. The information could be useful in planning for prevention, care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and people affected by AIDS (PABA). To describe the socio-demographic characteristics and identify risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients presenting to Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Analysis of a prospectively collected data on 205 consecutive patients presenting to Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital from May 2002 to June 2003. Out of the 205 HIV positive patients seen, there were 112 (54.6%) males and 93 (45.4%) females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. The age range was 18 to 61 years with an overall mean S.D of 33.7 +/- [corrected] 8 years. The mean for males was 37.3 +/- [corrected] 7.8 years compared to 29.56 years for females. This difference was statistically significant (t = 8.1 DF = 201 P homosexuality. The need for a sustained multi-sectoral preventive effort and the scaling up of treatment and community care initiatives were stressed.
Hu, Ping; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lu; Zeng, Huan; Shi, Zu-Min; Sharma, Manoj; Xun, Lei; Zhao, Yong
(1) Objective : We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2) Methods : We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology) were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3) Results : 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0%) and improving diet (39.6%). Bistros (61.7%) and hot-pot restaurants (41.1%) were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%). (4) Conclusions : The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students' perspectives.
Hackenhaar, Arnildo A; Albernaz, Elaine P; da Fonseca, Tânia M V
this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR=2.43), age > 29 years (PR=2.49), and smokers (PR=2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR=1.68) and preterm labor, (PR=3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Benjamin; Iliffe, Steve; Fox, Kenneth R; Jefferis, Barbara J; Hamer, Mark
Of all age groups, older adults spend the most time watching TV, which is one of the most common sedentary behaviours. Such sedentary activity in older adulthood is thought to risk deterioration of physical and mental functioning, health and wellbeing. Identifying the characteristics of older adults whose TV viewing increases over time may help to target sedentary behaviour reduction interventions to those in most urgent need. Yet, studies of the factors associated with TV viewing have predominantly been cross-sectional. This study used a prospective design to describe changes in TV viewing over a two-year follow-up period, and to model socio-demographic, behavioural and health factors associated with observed changes in viewing time. A two-year follow-up of 6,090 male and female older adults (mean age 64.9 ± 8.9 years) was conducted in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a cohort of community dwelling older adults. TV viewing time was self-reported at baseline and at follow-up. The sample was categorised according to baseline TV viewing duration (TV viewing time between baseline and follow-up. Mean self-reported TV viewing time increased from 5.32 ± 4.08 hrs/d at baseline to 5.53 ± 4.19 hrs/d at follow-up (p TV viewing (23% of all participants by 60 minutes or more), 41% decreased their viewing, and 10% reported no change in viewing duration. Increases in TV viewing at follow-up were associated with lower socioeconomic status, presence of depressive symptoms, higher BMI, physical inactivity, and being a smoker at baseline. Findings call for the development of effective behaviour change interventions to counter increases in inactive TV viewing among older adults, and point to subgroups who may need to be prioritised for such interventions.
Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.
Full Text Available Introduction. Old age is a natural, individual and inherent part of life, conditioned by numerous factors. Its advent is often surprising, so it is worth to prepare for it. Poland is one of the aging countries, where the proportion of older people is increasing and life expectancy is on the rise. Aim. Determining the expectations of youth in relation to old age in terms of sociodemographic factors. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in 2016 in Sanok among 360 respondents (120 students and 120 gymnasium students and 120 high school students. Diagnostic survey and survey technique were used. The research tool was the author's questionnaire survey. Statistical tests used were: the V Kramer, Chi-square and Phi tests. The significance level of p <0.05 was assumed. Results. More than half of the youth surveyed thought of their old age. A significant percentage declared that they were afraid of old age and the fear was more often expressed by women. Young people in their old age are most afraid of diseases. Main expectations regarding old age in the opinion of young people are the maintenance of health and the ability to fulfill dreams. A significant percentage of respondents indicated that in the old age they would have an excess of free time. Only about one-third of young people indicated that they had been preparing for retirement all their lives. Half of the respondents declared that when they would get older they would like te continue education. Conclusions. A conscious entry into the old age stage favors the acceptance of inevitable changes and adaptations to this period of life. This process should begin at the stage of lifelong learning.
Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.
Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle
The aim of this study was to explore the associations between socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors and self-reported health (SRH) in the European working population. Another objective was to examine whether these associations varied according to occupation and country. This study was based on data from the European quality of life survey 2007 including 17,005 workers from 31 European countries. SRH was measured using a single item. Factors were classified into four different groups: socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors. The associations between these factors and SRH were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses including interaction tests. When all four groups of factors were studied together, age, occupation, urbanization level, origin, trust level, social exclusion, material deprivation, financial and neighbourhood problems, access to medical services, quality of public services, psychological job demands, job reward, work-life imbalance and dangerous/unhealthy working conditions were associated with poor SRH. Almost no differences were found in these associations according to occupation and country. Various factors were associated with poor SRH. This study gave a first European overview of the associations between socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors and SRH in Europe and could provide better advice to policy-makers at a European level. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Eisner Mark D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization. Results Thirty-nine subjects (16% reported hospitalization for asthma during the 18-month follow-up period. On controlling for asthma severity in multiple logistic regression analysis, non-white race (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–8.8 and lower income (OR, 1.1 per $10,000 decrement; 95% CI, 0.9–1.3 were associated with a higher risk of asthma hospitalization. The severity-of-asthma score (OR, 3.4 per 5 points; 95%, CI 1.7–6.8 and recent asthma hospitalization (OR, 8.3; 95%, CI, 2.1–33.4 were also related to higher risk, after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Reliance on emergency department services for urgent asthma care was also associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.0–9.8. In multivariate analysis not controlling for asthma severity, low income was even more strongly related to hospitalization (OR, 1.2 per $10,000 decrement; 95% CI, 1.02–1.4. Conclusion In adult asthmatics with access to health care, non-white race, low income, and greater asthma severity were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. Targeted interventions applied to high-risk asthma patients may reduce asthma morbidity and mortality.
Sathwara, Jignasa Amrutlal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh; Bobdey, Saurabh C; Jain, Aanchal; Saoba, Sushama
Context: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the major causes of cancer mortality in India. Late-stage diagnosis of BC is associated with poor survival. Identification of factors affecting late presentation of the disease could be an effective step to reduce BC mortality. Aims: To study the association of sociodemographic factors with BC stage at diagnosis. Settings and Design: The study is a retrospective analysis from the case records from a single institution. Subjects and Methods: Data for the y...
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life (QOL in 45-65-year-old women. Material and methods : The research by means of a survey method, postal questionnaire technique, comprised 2143 women – a representative sample of the female population living in Lublin Province. Three standardized questionnaires – WHOQOL-BREF, Women’s Health Questionnaire and SF-36 – as well as an original questionnaire were used as research tools. In statistical analysis Student’s t-test for two groups, an analysis of variance, Dunnett’s T3 test for multiple comparisons, a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA and a stepwise logistic regression analysis were used. Results : In the population of peri- and postmenopausal women a significantly better quality of life in comparison with the rest of the studied women was established in women aged 45-49 years, respondents living permanently in urban areas as well as better educated women, those with full-time employment, especially those doing intellectual work, women remaining in a long-lasting relationship, and women assessing their financial situation and living conditions as well. Logistic regression analysis showed that the strong predictors of poor quality of life were as follows: self-assessment of living conditions as poor, self-assessment of financial situation as poor, permanent place of residence in the country, lower education level (incomplete primary education, primary education. Conclusions : The group of women with worse quality of life should become the main addressee of preventive programmes and health policy programmes designed for peri- and postmenopausal women.
Seclén-Palacín, Juan A; Jacoby, Enrique R
To determine the frequency of sports physical activity in the urban population of Peru and to identify the sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors associated with that activity. This study utilized information collected by the country's National Household Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Hogares) in the second quarter of 1997. That Survey is overseen by Peru's National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática). The Survey was based on a probabilistic, multistage sample that was stratified for all the urban areas of the country, which was divided into eight geographic regions: metropolitan Lima, northern coast, central coast, southern coast, northern mountains, central mountains, southern mountains, and jungle. In total, 14 913 homes were visited and 45 319 people at least 15 years of age were interviewed. The frequency of engaging in sports physical activity was classified as daily, every other day, weekly, or occasional. "Regular sports activity" (RSA) was defined as engaging in sports either every day or every other day. The preferences for and obstacles to sports practice were also examined. A descriptive analysis of the levels of RSA was carried out for gender, using the chi-square test. The factors associated with RSA were analyzed through conditional multiple logistic regression and analysis of residuals, multicollinearity, and interactions. The level of significance was set at P jungle (15.3%), central mountains (12.8%), and central coast (12.1%). RSA was least common in two regions: southern mountains (9.7%) and metropolitan Lima (10.6%). The income bracket was not associated with RSA. However, other variables associated indirectly with the socioeconomic level - such as having more formal education, being employed, and having access to the Internet or cable television - and consumption of sports information were significantly and directly associated with RSA. The most frequent barriers to
Bashar, Kabirul; Al-Amin, H M; Reza, Md Selim; Islam, Muzahidul; Asaduzzaman; Ahmed, Touhid Uddin
A clear understanding of the social and behavioral risk factors, and knowledge gaps, related to exposure to malaria are essential when developing guidelines and recommendations for more effective disease prevention in many malaria endemic areas of the world including Bangladesh and elsewhere in the South East Asia. To-date, the level of knowledge that human populations, residing in moderate to high malaria risk zones, have with respect to the basic pathogen transmission dynamics, risk factors for malaria or disease preventative strategies, has not been assessed in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by conducting surveys of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of people, from variable socio-demographic backgrounds, residing in selected rural malaria endemic areas in Bangladesh. The KAP survey was conducted in portions of six different malaria endemic districts in Bangladesh from July to October 2011. The survey consisted of interviewing residence of these malaria endemic districts using a structured questionnaire and interviewers also completed observational checklists at each household where people were interviewed. The study area was further divided into two zones (1 and 2) based on differences in the physical geography and level of malaria endemicity in the two zones. Data from the questionnaires and observational checklists were analysised using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 468 individuals from individual households were interviewed, and most respondents were female. Monthly incomes varied within and among the zones. It was found that 46.4% and 41% of respondents' family had malaria within the past one year in zones 1 and 2, respectively. Nearly 86% of the respondents did not know the exact cause of malaria or the role of Anopheles mosquitoes in the pathogen's transmission. Knowledge on malaria transmission and symptoms of the respondents of zones 1 and 2 were
Voortman, Trudy; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Franco, Oscar H.
There is concern about a reemergence of vitamin D deficiency in children in developed countries. The aims of this study were to describe vitamin D status in the Generation R study, a large multiethnic cohort of 6-y-old children in The Netherlands, and to examine sociodemographic, lifestyle, and
Wasilewska, Małgorzata; Bergier, Józef
The introduction and maintenance of healthy habits in the field of physical activity at the early stage of life is particularly important for public health. With increasing of public awareness in physical activity, researchers are increasingly questioning its determinants in different age groups. In this paper we focus on variables such as age, sex and place of residence. To determine what selected socio-demographic factors influence the level of physical activity of school youth from the eastern region of Poland in different domains of daily life. A random sample of 916 Polish school youth from Secondary Schools from Eastern Region of Poland aged 16-18 was interviewed in spring 2016 by diagnostic survey method with the use of the official Polish long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Analysing the relationship between gender and the level of physical activity statistically significant differences were found in all domains in favour of boys. The level of total physical activity in girls was 5345.5 MET-min./week, whereas in boys – 6556.6 MET-min./week. In the area of total physical activity, the highest values were observed in pupils from small towns and villages, with lower values in the youth living in large and medium-sized cities. When the relationship of age with the level of physical activity in particular domains was examined, only the activity in the work/ school domain (p = 0.0129) spoke in favour of the youngest pupils (2578.7 MET-min./week) when compared to the oldest ones (2226.4 MET-min./week). The level of physical activity in young people from the Eastern region of Poland is decreasing with age, both in girls and boys. It is therefore important, especially for the group emerging adulthood, to offer a wide variety of updated, involving, age and gender-oriented school physical activity classes that could be easily practised outside the school environment to improve the level of physical activity in leisure domain
Milena Sia Perin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.
Letice Ericeira Valente
Full Text Available Caring for a demented family member has been associated with burden. Studies concerning health self-perception of family caregivers are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregivers perceived health and to look into relationships with patients and caregivers' sociodemographic and clinical data. METHOD: Dyads of dementia outpatients and family caregivers (n=137 were assessed with Mini Mental State Examination, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Dementia Rating. Caregivers answered Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Zarit Burden Interview and Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers poor perceived health was associated with emotional exhaustion, burden, depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses revealed caregivers' age, anxiety and physical problem as the main predictors of health self-perception. CONCLUSION: Aged family caregivers with anxiety who also report physical problem characterize a group at risk for poor self-perceived health. Evaluation of health self-perception may be useful for designing interventions to improve anxiety and physical health.
Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i
This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...
Gaspar, Joice; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Reis, Renata Karina; Gir, Elucir
OBJECTIVE: to identify the association between HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative status and the sociodemographic and clinical variables of women with genital HPV infection.METHOD: cross-sectional, retrospective study in a reference service in Ribeirão Preto. A total of 824 women undergoing HIV testing who had high or low grade cervical intraepithelial lesions or condylomatous genital lesions caused by HPV were studied. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis with the calculati...
Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E.; Tunstall, Helena
This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile. PMID:23211607
Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena
This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.
Full Text Available This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants. Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes. Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population, material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality and migration related (country of origin and length of stay. Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%, visual (1.00% and physical disability (0.38%. Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth
This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.
Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa
We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.
Leinwand, Sarah E; Glanz, Karen; Keenan, Brendan T; Branas, Charles C
We explored how restaurant inspection frequency and restaurant neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics are related to food safety inspection outcomes in chain and nonchain restaurants to better understand external factors that may influence inspection outcomes. We categorized the results of restaurant inspections in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 2013 and 2014 by restaurant type (chain or nonchain), inspection frequency (1, 2, or ≥3 per 2-year study period), and violation type (total number of violations, foodborne-illness risk factor violation, or good retail practice violation). We collected 2013 US Census block group sociodemographic data for each restaurant neighborhood. We used nested mixed-effects regression analyses to determine the association between restaurant inspection frequency and inspection violations, as well as between inspection violations and restaurant neighborhood sociodemographic variables, stratified by restaurant type. Compared with nonchain restaurants, chain restaurants had significantly fewer total violations per inspection (mean [SD]: 6.5 [4.6] vs 9.6 [6.8] violations, P chain restaurants. For nonchain restaurants, a higher proportion of black residents in a restaurant neighborhood was associated with 0.6 ( P food safety inspection frequency, based on whether or not restaurants are part of chains, could reduce the frequency of violations, particularly in restaurants with the most violations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group
Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar
Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC
Full Text Available In the article the data on the study of the etiological factors of various types of chronic gastritis in children are presented. Based on revealing of the auto antibodies to parietal gastric cells in 40,0% of children autoimmune gastritis (a type gastritis is diagnosed. Helicobacterr pylori infection is revealed in 44,8% of children. In 27,6% of children type c gastritis is diagnosed. Autoimmune gastritis in children has been linked to the active phase of chronic epsteinbbarr virus infection. the etiological factors of nonautoimmune gastritis are Helicobacter pylori infection (type b gastritis and multiple duodenogastric refluxes (type c gastritis.Key words: children, chronic gastritis, etiological factors, autoimmune gastritis, nonautoimmune gastritis, active phase of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, Helicobacter pylori infection.
Full Text Available Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality. Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January 1, 2004 and December 30, 2014, were included into this retrospective cross-sectional study. Relationship between suicide attempt and mortality was investigated in regard to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they survived or died. Results: Of the 107 patients included in the study, 68.2% were female and 31.8% were male; 34.6% were married. Common reasons for suicide attempt were depression (34.6% and domestic violence (30.8%. Analgesics (33.6% were the most common drugs used in suicide attempts. The analysis of the factors related to suicide attempt and mortality revealed that significant factors were loneliness, being widowed, being retired, having adjustment disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Loneliness, being widowed, being retired, adjustment disorder, and anxiety disorder were found as the risk factors affecting mortality in geriatric suicide attempts.
Full Text Available Background: Renal failure is a chronic disease that can have serious effects on patients’ quality of life (QoL.Objective: Gender, age, education and marital status were investigated in end-stage renal disease patients. Specifically, the relationship of QoL and mental health to sociodemographic variables was examined.Methodology: 144 patients in-centre haemodialysis (HD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD were administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument (WHOQOLBREF, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, the depression CES-D scale, the State-TraitAnxiety Inventory (STAI and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLC.Results: Female patients reported lower scores in the psychological and environmental QoL domains and higher scores in the Trait Anxiety measure. Elder patients reported higher scores in the GHQ-28 sub-scale of social dysfunction and in the CES-D depression scale, while less educated patients presented higher scores in the GHQ-28 sub-scales of anxiety/insomnia and severe depression. Divorced/widowed patients presented lower scores in the physical, social and environmental QoL domains and higher scores in the severe depression sub-scale. Regarding health locus of control, females and less educated patients reported higher scores in the attitudinal dimension of chance, while younger patients in the dimension of internal.Conclusions: Findings provide evidence that sociodemographic variables, like being female, older, less educated and divorced/widowed, relate to a more compromised QoL.
Arnildo A. Hackenhaar
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. Methods: this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. Results: of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. Conclusions: the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach. Resumo: Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência da ruptura prematura das membranas fetais pré-termo em gestações únicas e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos maternos e infecções geniturinárias autorreferidas. Métodos: estudo transversal de base populacional onde foram incluídas todas as mães dos recém-nascidos dos partos únicos ocorridos no ano de 2010, com peso ao nascer igual
Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani
To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.
Holland, W W; Reid, D D
A questionnaire and lung function survey were conducted of groups of van drivers employed either in central London or in 3 rural English towns. Consistent with similar studies, urban/rural respiratory morbidity gap was prominent, even after accounting for smoking, socio-economic class, physique, and occupation. Other major variable was air pollution. Smoking exacerbated symptoms. Londoners had lower peak flow rate, lower FEV/sub 1/ /sub 0/, greater incidence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis, greater proportion of purulent sputum, and greater incidence of cough. Differences accentuated in men aged 50 and older. Differences in some variables between urban and rural areas (e.g., cough) show little effect of air pollution on non-smokers.
Park, Sohyun; Thompson, Frances E; McGuire, Lisa C; Pan, Liping; Galuska, Deborah A; Blanck, Heidi M
Reducing added sugars intake is one of the Healthy People 2020 objectives. High added sugars intake may be associated with adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study identified sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with added sugars intake among US adults (18 years and older) using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data (n=24,967). The outcome variable was added sugars intake from foods and beverages using scoring algorithms to convert dietary screener frequency responses on nine items to estimates of individual dietary intake of added sugars in teaspoons per day. Added sugars intake was categorized into tertiles (lowest, middle, highest) stratified by sex. The explanatory variables were sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for the highest and middle tertile added sugars intake groups as compared with the lowest tertile group. Estimated median added sugars intake was 17.6 tsp/d for men and 11.7 tsp/d for women. For men and women, those who had significantly greater odds for being in the highest tertile of added sugars intake (men: ≥22.0 tsp/d; women: ≥14.6 tsp/d) were younger, less educated, had lower income, were less physically active, were current smokers, and were former or current infrequent/light drinkers, whereas non-Hispanic other/multiracial and those living in the West had significantly lower odds for being in the highest tertile of added sugars intake. Different patterns were found by sex. Non-Hispanic black men had lower odds for being in the highest tertile of added sugars intake, whereas non-Hispanic black women had greater odds for being in the highest tertile. One in three men consumed ≥22.0 tsp added sugars and one in three women consumed ≥14.6 tsp added sugars daily. Higher added sugars intake was associated with various sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics; this information can inform efforts to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5, and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25. Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 12.9-16.0% versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%. After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic
Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Mora-Marín, Rafael; Hernández-Gaspar, Carmen; Pardo-Guerra, Lidón; Pardo-Guerra, María; Belda-Martínez, Adela; Palmer-Viciedo, Ramón
Studies have pointed to rurality as an important factor influencing suicide. Research so far suggests that several sociodemograpic and psychiatric factors might influence urban-rural differences in suicide. Also, their contribution appears to depend on sex and age. Unfortunately, studies including a comprehensive set of explanatory variables altogether are still scare and most studies have failed to present their analyses split by sex and age groups. Also, urban-rural differences in suicide in Spain have been rarely investigated. The present study aimed at explaining rural-urban differences in suicidality in the province of Castellon (Spain). A comprehensive set of sociodemographic and psychiatric factors was investigated and analyses were split by sex and age. The sample comprised all suicides recorded in the province of Castellon from January 2009 to December 2015 (n=343). Sociodemographic data included sex, age, and suicide method. Psychiatric data included the history of mental health service utilization, psychiatric diagnosis, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalization. Consistent with past research, suicide rates were highest in rural areas, especially in men and older people. We also found that urban-rural differences in sociodemographic and psychiatric variables were sensitive to sex and age. Our results indicated that specialized mental health service use and accessibility to suicide means might help understand urban-rural differences in suicide, especially in men. When exploring urban-rural differences as a function of age, general practitioner visits for psychiatric reasons were more frequent in the older age group in rural areas. Study implications for suicide prevention strategies in Spain are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hu, Lizhen; Sekine, Michikazu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu
Few studies have examined the individual and social impact of smoking behavior in the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, mental health and work characteristics of Japanese civil servants. A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,439 employees (821 men and 618 women) aged 20-64 yr was conducted in a local government department in 2001. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic factors, education level, grade of employment, lifestyle, affect balance scale, and work characteristics. Smoking status was divided into current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoked. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between smoking and the other items. Men presented a higher smoking prevalence rate than women (53.1% vs. 4.9%). In men, a strong relationship between current smoker and advanced age (40 yr or older), low education level, less physical activity, irregular breakfast and negative affect balance was found. Among men with a low education, the prevalence of smoking cessation was significantly lower in comparison to men with a high education. In women, being young (20-29 yr), unmarried (single or other), having a hobby, and irregular breakfast were associated with smoking behavior. Furthermore, smoking cessation was significantly associated with having a hobby and negative affect balance. The above results suggest that socio-demographic, lifestyle and mental health characteristics are independently associated with current smoking. These factors should be considered in smoking cessation policies as program components.
Full Text Available The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1 virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27, hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71, chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16 and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88 and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43. The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08 or for three or more (OR 4.86 risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population.
Carmelita Naiara de Oliveira Moreira
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical factors related to patients with intestinal stoma and correlate them to the health locus of control, spirituality and hope for a cure. Method: This study was conducted at the Polo of Ostomized Patients of the city of Pouso Alegre, Minas Gerais. Participants were 52 patients with intestinal stoma. The scale for Health Locus of Control, the Herth Hope Scale, and the Self-rating Scale for Spirituality were used for data collection. Results: The patients were aged up to 50 years, with the following means: Herth Hope Scale: 17.53; Self-rating Scale for Spirituality: 19.33. With regard to marital status, single people had a mean of 21.00 for the Herth Hope Scale. Retired ostomized patients had a mean of 20.53 for the Herth Hope Scale, of 10.38 for the Self-rating Scale for Spirituality, and of Scale for Health Locus of Control, of 18.79. The patients whose cause of making the stoma was neoplasia attained a mean of 19.43 for the Self-rating Scale for Spirituality. Regarding the character of the stoma, the mean for the Herth Hope Scale was 18.40. In the ostomized individuals who lived with the stoma for less than four years the means for the Herth Hope Scale, Self-rating Scale for Spirituality, and Scale for Health Locus of Control were 17.39, 20.35, and 23.09, respectively. Patients who did not participate of an association or support had means for the Herth Hope Scale, Self-rating Scale for Spirituality, and Scale for Health Locus of Control of 19.08, 17.25, and 20.63 respectively. Conclusion: Ostomized patients believe they can control their health and that those involved in their care and rehabilitation can contribute to their improvement. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos relativos aos pacientes com estoma intestinal e correlacioná-los ao locus de controle da saúde, espiritualidade e esperança de cura. Métodos: Este estudo foi realizado no Polo dos
Fernanda Cerveira Fronza
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p469 Exposure to sedentary behavior may contribute to health problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of exposure to simultaneous sedentary behavior domains and verify associated sociodemographic characteristics among technical and administrative servers of a Brazilian university. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out with 623 technical and administrative servers. Sedentary behavior was identified through a questionnaire in the following domains: commuting (active / passive, sitting time at work, daily time spent watching television and computer use (≥3 hours / day. Sociodemographic variables were age, sex and educational level. The prevalence of servers that had one, two, three and four simultaneous sedentary behavior was 28.4%, 43.2%, 22.5% and 4.3%, respectively. Women were more likely to have three sedentary behavior simultaneously (OR = 1.61, CI 95% = 1.02, 2.56. Servers with 9-11 years of schooling were less exposed to two (OR = 0.27, CI 95% = 0.17, 0.44, three (OR = 0.39, CI 95% = 0.23, 0.66 and four (OR = 0.22, CI 95% = 0.07; 0.69 sedentary behavior simultaneously and those over 12 years of schooling were less likely of having two (OR = 0.22, CI 95% = 0.10; 0.49 and three (OR = 0.15, CI 95% = 0.05, 0.46 sedentary behavior simultaneously. More than half of servers have two sedentary behavior during the week. Having sedentary behavior in more than one domain simultaneously was associated with sex and educational level.
Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde
Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.
Wholey, Douglas R; Finch, Michael; Kreiger, Rob; Reeves, David
Performance measurement and public reporting are increasingly being used to compare clinic performance. Intended consequences include quality improvement, value-based payment, and consumer choice. Unintended consequences include reducing access for riskier patients and inappropriately labeling some clinics as poor performers, resulting in tampering with stable care processes. Two analytic steps are used to maximize intended and minimize unintended consequences. First, risk adjustment is used to reduce the impact of factors outside providers' control. Second, performance categorization is used to compare clinic performance using risk-adjusted measures. This paper examines the effects of methodological choices, such as risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors in risk adjustment and accounting for patients clustering by clinics in performance categorization, on clinic performance comparison for diabetes care, vascular care, asthma, and colorectal cancer screening. The population includes all patients with commercial and public insurance served by clinics in Minnesota. Although risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors has a significant effect on quality, it does not explain much of the variation in quality. In contrast, taking into account the nesting of patients within clinics in performance categorization has a substantial effect on performance comparison.
Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.
Fernández Sánchez, J C; Pérez Mármol, J M; Peralta Ramírez, M I
Palliative care health professionals have reported high levels of burnout. An understanding of factors associated with this syndrome in this population could foster new prevention and intervention strategies. The objectives were to evaluate the levels of burnout in each of its dimensions in a sample of palliative care health professionals and to analyze the relationship between levels of burnout and sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics in this sample. The total sample was composed of 92 palliative care health professionals. Sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics were registered. The levels of burnout syndrome were evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). The total sample was divided into three groups, depending on the level of burnout (non-burnout group, burnout group meeting one criterion, and burnout group meeting two or three criteria). Comparisons were performed amongst groups for all characteristics evaluated. The non-burnout professionals were significantly older and slept more than the professionals with more than one altered dimension; in addition, they had greater job seniority in the unit than those with a single altered dimension and did physical exercise more frequently than either of the burnout groups. The younger professionals, with more job seniority in the units of palliative care, and less hours of sleep and physical activity showed higher levels of burnout. Therefore, these factors should be considered for enhancing prevention and intervention strategies for these health professionals.
Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua
The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.
d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe
Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk ... The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants.
Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Soller, Lianne; Harrington, Daniel W; Knoll, Megan; La Vieille, Sebastian; Fragapane, Joseph; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Wilson, Kathie; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E
Studies suggest an increase in food allergy prevalence over the last decade, but the contributing factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the most common food allergies and atopic history, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. We conducted a case-control study nested within the SPAACE study (Surveying Prevalence of Food Allergy in All Canadian Environments) – a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Cases consisted of individuals with probable food allergy (self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis) to milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, shellfish, fish, wheat, soy, or sesame. Controls consisted of nonallergic individuals, matched for age. Cases and controls were queried on personal and family history of atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits with probable food allergy. Between September 2010 and September 2011, 480 cases and 4,950 controls completed the questionnaire. For all 9 allergens, factors associated with a higher risk of probable allergy were as follows: (1) personal history of eczema (in the first 2 years of life), asthma or hay fever (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.5; OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6, and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0, respectively), (2) maternal, paternal or sibling's food allergy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.6; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-5.1, and OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.2-4.2), (3) high household income (top 20%; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0). Males and older individuals were less likely to have food allergy (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, and OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). Eczema in the first 2 years of life was the strongest risk factor for egg, peanut, tree nut and fish allergy. This is the largest population-based nested case-control study exploring factors associated with food allergies. Our results reveal that, in addition to previously reported
Full Text Available Background: In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design: The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP. Results: This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4 when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2, while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5 were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5 consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3 had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1 of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2 had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate
Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)
Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe
The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual's sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability.
Clare R. Wall
Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.
Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Annen, Hubert; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roos, Lilian; Van Uum, Stan; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; La Marca, Roberto
The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a promising new biomarker for retrospective measurement of chronic stress. The effect of basic military training (BMT) on chronic stress has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week BMT on HCC, while further exploring the role of known and novel covariates. Young healthy male recruits of the Swiss Army participated twice, 10 weeks apart, in data collection (1st examination: n = 177; 2nd examination: n = 105). On two occasions, we assessed HCC, perceived stress and different candidate variables that may affect HCC (e.g. socioeconomic status, meteorological data). Military training increased perceived stress from the first to the second examination, but did not affect HCC. In line with this, there was no correlation between HCC and perceived stress ratings. This could be interpreted as a missing influence of mainly physical stress (e.g. exercise) on HCC. In contrast, significant correlations were found between HCC and ambient temperature, humidity and education. Future studies should control for meteorological data and educational status when examining HCC.
Diana Rocío Higuera-Mendieta
Full Text Available During the last few decades, several studies have analyzed and described knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of populations regarding dengue. However, few studies have applied geometric data analytic techniques to generate indices from KAP domains. Results of such analyses have not been used to determine the potential effects of sociodemographic variables on the levels of KAP. The objective was to determine the sociodemographic factors related to different levels of KAP regarding dengue in two hyper-endemic cities of Colombia, using a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA technique. In the context of a cluster randomized trial, 3,998 households were surveyed in Arauca and Armenia between 2012 and 2013. To generate KAP indexes, we performed a MCA followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis to classify each score in different groups. A quantile regression for each of the score groups was conducted. KAP indexes explained 56.1%, 79.7%, and 83.2% of the variance, with means of 4.2, 1.4, and 3.2 and values that ranged from 1 to 7, 7 and 11, respectively. The highest values of the index denoted higher levels of knowledge and practices. The attitudes index did not show the same relationship and was excluded from the analysis. In the quantile regression, age (0.06; IC: 0.03, 0.09, years of education (0.14; IC: 0.06, 0.22, and history of dengue in the family (0.21; IC: 0.12, 0.31 were positively related to lower levels of knowledge regarding dengue. The effect of such factors gradually decreased or disappeared when knowledge was higher. The practices indexes did not evidence a correlation with sociodemographic variables. These results suggest that the transformation of categorical variables into a single index by the use of MCA is possible when analyzing knowledge and practices regarding dengue from KAP questionnaires. Additionally, the magnitude of the effect of socioeconomic variables on the knowledge scores varies according to the levels of
Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy
Aims To examine the transitions in smoking status among nondaily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as nondaily smokers over a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Design Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Setting USA Participants Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were nondaily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13,673 or 14.5% of current smokers). Measurements Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of nondaily-to-daily, stable nondaily, and nondaily-to-former smoking transitions among nondaily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Findings 2.6% of adults in our sample were nondaily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained nondaily smokers (stable nondaily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (nondaily-to-daily smokers), and 11.9% quit smoking (nondaily-to-former smokers) after 12 months. The nondaily-to-daily vs. stable nondaily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (p=0.018), male (pnon-Hispanic Asian (p=0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (p=0.013) or never married (p=0.011), and current users of cigars (p=0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. Conclusions While over two-thirds of nondaily smokers in the USA remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or quit. The likelihood of remaining stable nondaily smokers and of transition from nondaily-to-daily and nondaily-to-former smokers is associated with socio-demographics factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27886652
Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are two of the world's most important infectious diseases. Our objective was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc prevalences among adult HIV-infected patients and identify the associations between socio-demographic variables and these HBV infection markers. Methods This study was performed from October 2012 to March 2013. Three hundred HIV-seropositive patients were monitored by the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Professor Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The blood tests included HBsAg, anti-HBc immunoglobulin M (IgM and total anti-HBc. Patients reported their HIV viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts using a questionnaire designed to collect sociodemographic data. Results The mean patient age was 44.6 years, the mean CD4 T-cell count was 525/mm3, the mean time since beginning antiretroviral therapy was 7.6 years, and the mean time since HIV diagnosis was 9.6 years. The overall prevalences of HBsAg and total anti-HBc were 2.3% and 29.3%, respectively. Among the individuals analyzed, 0.3% were positive for HBsAg, 27.3% were positive for total anti-HBc, and 2.0% were positive either for HBsAg or total anti-HBc and were classified as chronically HBV-infected. Furthermore, 70.3% of the patients were classified as never having been infected. Male gender, age >40 years and Caucasian ethnicity were associated with an anti-HBc positive test. Conclusions The results showed an intermediate prevalence of HBsAg among the studied patients. Moreover, the associations between the anti-HBc marker and socio-demographic factors suggest a need for HBV immunization among these HIV-positive individuals, who are likely to have HIV/HBV coinfection.
Jan E. Zejda
Among non-medical determinants of undiagnosed asthma the age of a child plays a major role. Another factors of importance is the large distance between residence and health centre, and low parental attention at home.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.
Kamila Rafaela Alves
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are few data in the literature on the frequency of cholecystectomy in Brazil. The frequency of cholecystectomy and associated risk factors were evaluated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study using baseline data on 5061 participants in São Paulo. METHODS: The frequency of cholecystectomy and associated risk factors were evaluated over the first two years of follow-up of the study and over the course of life. A multivariate regression analysis was presented: odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 4716 individuals (93.2% with information about cholecystectomy were included. After two years of follow-up, 56 had undergone surgery (1.2%: 1.7% of the women; 0.6% of the men. A total of 188 participants underwent cholecystectomy during their lifetime. The risk factors associated with surgery after the two-year follow-up period were female sex (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.53-5.32, indigenous ethnicity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 2.28-15.85 and body mass index (BMI (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.19 per 1 kg/m2 increase. The risk factors associated over the lifetime were age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05 per one year increase, diabetes (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.34-2.76 and previous bariatric surgery (OR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.53-18.82. No association was found with parity or fertile age. CONCLUSION: Female sex and high BMI remained as associated risk factors while parity and fertile age lost significance. New factors such as bariatric surgery and indigenous ethnicity have gained importance in this country.
Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna
Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806
Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.
Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.
Bruening, Meg; Afuso, Kevin; Mason, Maureen
Background: School breakfast may contribute to increased risk for obesity because children may be consuming two breakfasts: at home and at school. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of preschoolers consuming two breakfasts and to assess relationships with overweight/obesity and other factors. Method: Head Start parents (n =…
Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life
Santos, Raissa; Baldin, Yago; Carlini, Claudia M; Sanchez, Zila M
Nightclubs are favorable environments for alcohol abuse and the use of other drugs among patrons. To identify patterns of alcohol use in a high-risk population and their relationship with sociodemographic factors and illicit drug use. A portal survey technique was used to recruit patrons in 31 nightclubs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A two stage sampling method allowed the selection of nightclubs and patrons within a nightclub. A total of 1057 patrons answered to a three stages-survey (nightclub entrance and exit face-to-face interviews and a day-after online questionnaire). Entrance survey offered information on sociodemographic data and history of drug use. The day-after survey used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT) that identified patterns of alcohol abuse disorders. Data were modeled using an ordered logit regression analysis, considering sample weights. Almost half of the nightclub patrons presented any alcohol use disorder (AUDIT score ≥8). Being male (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.09-2.60) and single (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.05-2.76) increased the chances for more severe alcohol use disorders. Having a graduate degree (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.38-0.87) and age ≥35 years (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.85) decreased the chances of patrons' alcohol use disorders. The prevalence rates of past-year marijuana, cocaine and inhalants use increased with the increased level of alcohol use disorders. Patrons of nightclubs show higher prevalence rates for any alcohol use disorders than the general population. Patrons could benefit from governmental brief intervention or referral to treatment for alcohol used disorders disclosed in nightclubs.
Geraldine U. Ndukwu
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequately studied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Association between variables was analysed using the Chi-square test. Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to 40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobin concentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of 142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent in women within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was no statistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05. The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severe anaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associated with educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primary health centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economic status was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economic status of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals to prevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.
Zejda, Jan E; Farnik, Małgorzata; Smółka, Irena; Lawson, Joshua; Brożek, Grzegorz M
Introduction. The presented study of 4,535 children aged 7-17 years in the Upper Silesian region of Poland yielded 186 cases of previously known asthma, and 44 children with newly diagnosed asthma. The aim of the presented study was to identify non-medical factors that could explain why children with a newly established diagnosis ('undiagnosed asthma') had not been diagnosed in the past. Materials and method. The study was performed according to a case-control design. Parents of the children answered questionnaires on socio-economic status and family-related factors. Statistical determinants of undiagnosed asthma were explored using raw (OR) and logistic odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals (logOR, 95%CI). Results. Children with undiagnosed asthma were younger compared to the group with previously known asthma (11.3±2.1 vs. 12.6±2.5 years; p=0.0008). Newly diagnosed cases were more frequent in children who had less parental attention (less than 1 hour/day spent by parent with child - OR=4.36; 95%CI: 1.76-10.81) and who were not registered with specialized health care (OR=2.20; 95%CI: 0.95-5.06). Results of logistic regression analysis suggest that under-diagnosis of asthma is related to age below 12 years - logOR = 3.59 (95%CI: 1.28-10.36), distance to a health centre > 5 km - logOR = 3.45 (95%CI: 1.05-11.36), time spent with child Conclusion. Among non-medical determinants of undiagnosed asthma the age of a child plays a major role. Another factors of importance is the large distance between residence and health centre, and low parental attention at home.
Magdalena Sylwia Kamińska
Full Text Available Background . A fall is defined as an event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level. Falls are the leading cause of injuries among geriatrics and a factor which significantly lowers their quality of life. Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify fall risk factors in the elderly with regard to their environmental situation and sociodemographic data. Material and methods. This epidemiological population-based study involved 304 patients from selected outpatient clinics. The median age was 79 years. Our study employed a diagnostic survey-based method using an environmental inquiry of our devising, as well as the Tinetti Test (TT. Results . A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of falls and such variables as age, the family structure and family care efficiency (p 0.05. Regardless of whether the respondents experienced falls or not, a vast majority of them showed a need for information support concerning the reduction of fall risk in the future. Conclusions . 1. Risk factors for falls among geriatric patients include age, falls in the medical history, solitude as an adverse social situation and the unpreparedness of the family for taking non-professional care of their elderly relatives. 2. According to the respondents, information support may improve their knowledge of fall prevention and ways of handling the situation with increasingly limited self- -reliance, and the preparation of their families for taking care of them may reduce the risk of falls.
Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael
Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.
Lewer, Dan; O'Reilly, Claire; Mojtabai, Ramin; Evans-Lacko, Sara
Prescribing of antidepressants varies widely between European countries despite no evidence of difference in the prevalence of affective disorders. To investigate associations between the use of antidepressants, country-level spending on healthcare and country-level attitudes towards mental health problems. We used Eurobarometer 2010, a large general population survey from 27 European countries, to measure antidepressant use and regularity of use. We then analysed the associations with country-level spending on healthcare and country-level attitudes towards mental health problems. Higher country spending on healthcare was strongly associated with regular use of antidepressants. Beliefs that mentally ill people are 'dangerous' were associated with higher use, and beliefs that they 'never recover' or 'have themselves to blame' were associated with lower and less regular use of antidepressants. Contextual factors, such as healthcare spending and public attitudes towards mental illness, may partly explain variations in antidepressant use and regular use of these medications. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Peltner, Jonas; Thiele, Silke
The present study aimed to derive food purchase patterns considering the convenience level of foods. Associations between identified patterns and dietary quality were analysed, as well as household characteristics associated with the dietary patterns. A Convenience Food Classification Scheme (CFCS) was developed. After classifying basic food groups into the CFCS, the formed groups were used to apply a factor analysis to identify convenience-based food purchase patterns. For these patterns nutrient and energy densities were examined. Using regression analysis, associations between the adherence to the patterns and household characteristic and attitude variables were analysed. The study used representative German food purchase data from 2011. Approximately 12 million purchases of 13 131 households were recorded in these data. Three convenience-based patterns were identified: a low-convenience, a semi-convenience and a ready-to-eat food pattern. Tighter adherence to the semi-convenience pattern was shown to result in the lowest nutrient and highest energy densities. Important factors influencing adherence to the patterns were household size, presence of children and attitudes. Working full-time was negatively associated with adherence to the low-convenience pattern and positively with the ready-to-eat pattern. Convenience foods were an important part of households' food baskets which in some cases led to lower nutritional quality. Therefore, it is important to offer convenience foods higher in nutrient density and lower in energy density. Interventions targeted on enhancing cooking skills could be an effective strategy to increase purchases of unprocessed foods, which, in turn, could also contribute to an improved diet quality.
Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Martinez, David; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine
Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort. We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors. GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. 6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Connor, Kathleen; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Schenker, Marc B
Nervios is a culturally defined condition of psychological stress with important implications for Latino health. Using epidemiological research methods, we examined the prevalence of nervios and associated risk factors, including drug and alcohol use, acculturation, and housing conditions in a population-based study of farm worker families in Mendota, CA (the MICASA Study). A household enumeration procedure was used for sampling, and 843 individuals were interviewed in 2006-2007. In this analysis, we present data on 422 men, 381 accompanied (family) males and 41 unaccompanied males. The prevalence of nervios was 22%, with no difference in prevalence by household status. Low family incomes, drug use, medium/high acculturation, and poor housing conditions were associated with increased odds of nervios. Self-reported poor/fair health, depressive symptoms, and high perceived stress were also associated with nervios. Since nervios has been shown to be a clinical indicator of psychiatric vulnerability among Latinos, this analysis furthers public health goals of reducing health disparities.
Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Mostafa Amr; Sabry Hammad
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).
El-Ghilany, A.; Amr, M.; Hammad, S.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: The pattern of skin diseases in any community is influenced by genetic constitution, climate, socioeconomic status, occupation, education, hygienic standards, customs and quality of medical care. The burden of skin disease also has an impact on the Quality of Life of adolescents. This study aims to investigate the level of awareness and assess the prevalence of different types of skin diseases among adolescents in Mauritius. Material and Methods: 500 adolescents and young adults of both sexes and aged between 11-23 years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to elicit information and to assess the knowledge status of skin diseases and to determine possible risk factors. In addition, a validated questionnaire based on Quality of Life Index was used to determine the psychosocial effect of adolescents suffering from skin diseases. Data was analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: Incidence of skin diseases was 22.9% in males and 24.7% females respectively. Acne was the most common skin problems in both gender followed by fungal infection (2.9% in males and eczema (2.4% in females. Climatic conditions (e.g summer, consumption of oily and spicy foods, sports practice and familial history were correlated positively with prevalence of skin diseases. Conclusion: Acne, eczema and fungal infection were the most common skin diseases identified. The findings also indicate that more respondents between 15-19 years old were more prone to skin diseases.
Doyle, F; McGee, H M; Conroy, R M; Delaney, M
Depression is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but some argue that elevated depression is actually a marker of cardiovascular disease severity. Therefore, disease indices should better predict depression than established theoretical causes of depression (interpersonal life events, reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, type D personality). However, little theory-based research has been conducted in this area. In a cross-sectional design, ACS patients (n = 336) completed questionnaires assessing depression and psychosocial vulnerabilities. Nested logistic regression assessed the relative contribution of demographic or vulnerability factors, or disease indices or vulnerabilities to depression. In multivariate analysis, all vulnerabilities were independent significant predictors of depression (scoring above threshold on any scale, 48%). Demographic variables accounted for vulnerabilities accounting for significantly more (pseudo R² = 0.16, χ²(change) = 150.9, df = 4, p vulnerabilities increased the overall variance explained to 22% (pseudo R² = 0.22, χ² = 58.6, df = 4, p vulnerabilities predicted depression status better than did either demographic or disease indices. The presence of these proximal causes of depression suggests that depression in ACS patients is not simply a result of cardiovascular disease severity.
Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz
Escalating pharmaceutical costs have become a global challenge for both governments and patients. Generic substitution is one way of decreasing these costs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with patients' choice between generic drugs and innovator drugs. The survey was conducted in June 2013, 1000 people from across Poland were chosen as a representative population sample. The outcome (a preference for generics/a preference for innovator pharmaceuticals/no preference) was modeled by multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for several variables describing patients' sensitivity to selected generic features (price, brand, and country of origin), to third-party opinions about generics (information on generics in the mass media, opinions of health professionals (i.e. physicians, pharmacists), relatives/friends), as well as patients' personal experiences and income per household. The results supported the predictive capacity of most independent variables (except for patient sensitivity to the country of origin and to the information on generics in the mass media), denoting patients' preferences toward generic substitution. Patient sensitivity to recommendations by physicians, generic brand, and household income were the strongest predictors of the choice between generic and innovator pharmaceuticals (P brand or their physician's opinion, as well as in respondents who were sensitive to recommendations by pharmacists or attached a greater value to a past experience with generics (their own experience or that of relatives/friends). In consideration of the foregoing, awareness-raising campaigns may be recommended, supported by a variety of systemic solutions and tools to encourage generic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess how the chosen socio-demographic factors effect the quality of life in the patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted in 2007 among 250 women operated in the Department of Reproduction and Gynaecology, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In this survey-based study, we used a standardized quality of life questionnaire, the Women’s Health Questionnaire (WHQ, developed by Dr Myra Hunter at London University. Results: The most numerous patients were those with sleep disorders (38,8%, 37,6% of the surveyed complained of troublesome menstrual symptoms, 26,8% of respondents had disturbing somatic symptoms, short memory and problems with concentration. The lowest percentage of women (12,4% felt anxiety and fear associated with the past gynaecological surgical procedure. Conclusions: 1. General satisfaction and good disposition is declared by the majority of patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. 2. Age, education, having a partner, place of residence, and the number of children are the factors which have significant effect on the quality of life in women after gynaecological procedures.
Amanda de Carvalho Mello
Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.
Abu S. Muyibi
Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors. Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents. Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00. Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.
Dankwah, Emmanuel; Steeves, Megan; Ramsay, Dana; Feng, Cindy; Farag, Marwa
Pregnancy termination is an illegal medical procedure in Ghana and 88% of induced abortions are performed in unsafe conditions, thus recipients face an elevated risk of abortion-related complications. This study aims to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and reporting having terminated a pregnancy among Ghanaian women. Logistic regression models were estimated using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=9396). ORs were computed for the associations between reporting pregnancy termination and select demographic and socio-economic factors. Education level, employment status, financial status and marital status of women are significantly associated with reporting having terminated a pregnancy. Women who are employed, cohabit with a partner and are considered middle class or wealthy are more likely than their counterparts to report having terminated a pregnancy. Ghanaian women with intermediate levels of education are more likely than both their more- and less-educated counterparts to report having terminated a pregnancy. These findings highlight the need for the development of policies aimed at reducing unsafe abortions associated with unintended pregnancies. Specific recommendations include providing family planning education and outreach to high-risk groups to reduce unintended pregnancies and improving working conditions for expectant mothers, including provisions for paid maternity leave and job protection.
Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Lu; Xie, Yaojie; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error ( SE ) = 0.016, p women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = -0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035), and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = -0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.42-0.74). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy ( OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55). Conclusions: The high prevalence rate of prolonged TV, computer, and mobile phone viewing times was common for pregnant women in their first and second pregnancy. This study preliminarily explored the relationship between
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error (SE = 0.016, p < 0.001 and computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.053, SE = 0.022, p = 0.015. Pregnant women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001 and long computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.049, SE = 0.020, p = 0.015 were likely have long mobile phone viewing times. Pregnant women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = −0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035, and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = −0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.42–0.74. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (OR 1.25, 95
Parro Moreno, Ana; Serrano Gallardo, Pilar; Ferrer Arnedo, Carmen; Serrano Molina, Lucía; de la Puerta Calatayud, M Luisa; Barberá Martín, Aurora; Morales Asencio, José Miguel; de Pedro Gómez, Joan
To analyze the perception of nursing professionals of the Madrid Primary Health Care environment in which they practice, as well as its relationship with socio-demographic, work-related and professional factors. Cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Questionnaire sent to a total of 475 nurses in Primary Health Care in Madrid (former Health Care Areas 6 and 9), in 2010. Perception of the practice environment using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) questionnaire, as well as; age; sex; years of professional experience; professional category; Health Care Area; employment status and education level. There was a response rate of 69.7% (331). The raw score for the PES-NWI was: 81.04 [95%CI: 79.18-82.91]. The factor with the highest score was "Support from Managers" (2.9 [95%CI: 2.8-3]) and the lowest "Workforce adequacy" (2.3 [95%CI: 2.2-2.4]). In the regression model (dependent variable: raw score in PES-NWI), adjusted by age, sex, employment status, professional category (coefficient B=6.586), and years worked at the centre (coefficient B=2.139, for a time of 0-2 years; coefficient B=7.482, for 3-10 years; coefficient B=7.867, for over 20 years) remained at p≤0.05. The support provided by nurse managers is the most highly valued factor in this practice environment, while workforce adequacy is perceived as the lowest. Nurses in posts of responsibility and those possessing a higher degree of training perceive their practice environment more favourably. Knowledge of the factors in the practice environment is a key element for health care organizations to optimize provision of care and to improve health care results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed
Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.
Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Kruijtzer, Boudewijn P.; van Pelt, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; DeRijk, Roel H.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda
Background: Cortisol levels are increasingly often assessed in large-scale psychosomatic research. Although determinants of different salivary cortisol indicators have been described, they have not yet been systematically studied within the same study with a Large sample size. Sociodemographic,
Boudet-Berquier, Julie; Salanave, Benoit; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Castetbon, Katia
In light of the adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring related to maternal obesity, identification of subgroups of women at risk of prepregnancy obesity and its related-adverse issues is crucial for optimizing antenatal care. We aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with prepregnancy obesity, and we tested the effect modification of parity on these associations. In 2012, 3368 mothers who had delivered in 136 randomly selected maternity wards were included just after birth in the French birth cohort, Epifane. Maternal height and weight before and at the last month of pregnancy were self-reported. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected in medical records. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (pBMI) was classified into underweight (pregnancy outcomes was stratified on parity (1335 primiparous and 1814 multiparous). Before pregnancy, 7.6% of women were underweight, 64.2% were of normal weight, 18.0% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. Among the primiparous, maternal age of 25-29 years (OR = 2.09 [1.13-3.87]; vs. 30-34 years), high school level (OR = 2.22 [1.33-3.73]; vs. university level), gestational diabetes (OR = 2.80 [1.56-5.01]) and hypertensive complications (OR = 3.80 [1.83-7.89]) were independently associated with prepregnancy obesity. Among the multiparous, primary (OR = 6.30 [2.40-16.57]), junior high (OR = 2.89 [1.81-4.64]) and high school (OR = 1.86 [1.18-2.93]) education levels (vs. university level), no attendance at antenatal classes (OR = 1.77 [1.16-2.72]), excess gestational weight gain (OR = 1.82 [1.20-2.76]), gestational diabetes (OR =5.16 [3.15-8.46]), hypertensive complications (OR = 8.13 [3.97-16.64]), caesarean delivery (OR = 1.80 [1.18-2.77]) and infant birth weight ≥ 4 kg (OR = 1.70 [1.03-2.80]; vs. birth weight between 2.5 kg and 4 kg) were independently associated with prepregnancy obesity. Obesity before pregnancy is associated with a set of
Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi
To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.
Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T
Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (pObese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.
Verney, Allison; Reed, Barbara A; Lumumba, Jude B; Kung'u, Jacqueline K
Antenatal care (ANC) offers remarkable opportunities to reach a large number of women with effective nutrition and health interventions, including iron (Fe) supplementation. However, all women do not equally seek nor benefit from ANC. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with ANC and Fe use among women in hard-to-reach areas in Afar, Ethiopia; Sedhiou and Kolda, Senegal; and Kakamega, Kenya. Women who gave birth within 1 year preceding the survey (n = 4,575) from 15 different sub-regions were randomly selected and surveyed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations of socio-demographic characteristics with ANC and Fe use. Factors that showed positive associations with ANC uptake included education, income, possession of a mobile phone, and the occupation of the mother or another household member. Beginning ANC in the first trimester associated positively with achievement of 4 or more ANC visits, and having any ANC visits related positively with Fe intake. Distance to the nearest health facility was negatively associated, and type of nearest facility and counselling and health education were positively associated with some outcomes. The results from these surveys demonstrate the need to ensure access of services across all population groups and can help identify ANC programming needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti MBBS, MMed, PhD
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF (cases = 27 and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P < .01 and exposure to cigarette smoke (P = .04 compared with the controls. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with working mother (P = .05 and positive tuberculin skin test (TST; P = .02. Thus, pneumonia in SAM children is a common presentation of PTB and further highlights the importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings.
Background Physical inactivity has been acknowledged as a public health issue and has received increasing attention in recent years. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the barriers to physical activity among Malaysian men. These barriers were analyzed with regards to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level, BMI and waist circumference. Methods Subjects in this study included 308 Malay men and 422 Chinese men aged 20 years and older. Subjects completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a questionnaire on barriers to physical activity, categorized into personal and psychological, physical and social environment barriers. Weight, height and waist circumference were also measured and BMI was calculated. Results Descriptive analyses showed that 79.3% of subjects were married, 52.1% had secondary educational level, 68.8% were still working, and 39.7% had household income between RM1500 to RM3500. The perception that other recreational activities with family and friends were more fun was the most frequently reported barrier, followed by weather, lack of discipline, lack of free time, lack of money, and lack of friends. Marriage status, educational level, household income, BMI, and physical activity status were shown to be associated with perceived barriers. Conclusions To increase participation in physical activity, policy makers should consider significant personal, social and environmental barriers when developing appropriate intervention programmes. Health-promoting strategies that increase awareness, knowledge, skills and motivation related to physical activity are required. PMID:23530696
Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu Syeed Golam; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus
We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF) (cases = 27) and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children) were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P P = .04) compared with the controls. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with working mother (P = .05) and positive tuberculin skin test (TST; P = .02). Thus, pneumonia in SAM children is a common presentation of PTB and further highlights the importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:27335971
Bonsaksen, Tore; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners
Living with chronic illnesses can be stressful and may negatively impact persons’ self-esteem. Personal factors, like self-efficacy and illness perceptions, and also factors related to the environment, activity, and participation may be associated with self-esteem in chronic illness populations. This cross-sectional comparative study explored sociodemographic variables, work, physical activity, illness perceptions, and general self-efficacy in relation to self-esteem in persons with morbid ob...
Li, Li; Liu, Panpan; Li, Ji; Xie, Hongfu; Kuang, Yehong; Li, Jie; Su, Juan; Zhu, Wu
To study the psychosocial factors in patient with chronic hand eczema (CHE). Methods: Personality traits, emotional state, and quality of life of 240 patients with CHE and 221 normal control (NC) subjects were assessed by General Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS), and Eczema Quality of Life Scale (EQOLS). Results: In comparison, EPQ scores, scores of extraversion (E) factor in patients with CHE were significantly lower than those in NC subjects (P0.05). Patients with CHE had significantly higher scores in SDS and SAS compared with the NC subjects (Pemotional instability of introverts.Patients with CHE have a higher level of depression and anxiety, and exert a negative effect on their quality of life, which is related to severity of disease.
Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.
Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474
Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R
Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.
Castañeda Aguilera, Enrique; García de Alba García, Javier E
To determine the prevalence of professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) in dentists and to analyze possible sociodemographic and occupational risk factors . An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional survey of 203 dental staff of the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara, Mexico, from the Mexican Social Security Institute, University of Guadalajara, and those in private practice. A self-reported identification form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics and inferential analyzes were performed using SPSS 15.0 support and EpiInfo V6.1. There was an 88.3% response. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) was detected in 52.2% of them. Significant differences were obtained depending on the employment contract. A negative correlation was observed between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and a positive one between the lack of personal accomplishment at work. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) is common (52.2%) for dentists, their possible risk factors: working in a public institution, being male, over 40 years, without a regular partner, and with more than 15 years with a partner, not having children, being a specialist with 10 years or more in an institution and the current job, morning shift, permanent recruitment, and having another job. The involvement of emotional exhaustion behaves like the syndrome. Average levels of the subscales are generally near normal. A negative correlation was found between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and positive between the lack of personal fulfillment at work with the presence of the syndrome. This leads us to consider the need for preventive measures in the workplace and personnel, as well as intervention programs at an individual, social or organizational level to reduce the prevalence found. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Samuel N. Forjuoh
Full Text Available Background. This study examined the association between selected sociodemographic, health, and built environmental factors and walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight/obese adults. Methods. Subjective data were obtained from surveys administered to community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged ≥50 years residing in four Texas cities from October 2013 to June 2014, along with objective data on neighborhood walkability (Walk Score™. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting the odds of walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose. Results. Of 253 participants, the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.8%, married (74.5%, and male (53.4% and reported an annual income of ≥$50,000 (65.5%. Approximately, half were employed (49.6% or had at least a college degree (51.6%. Walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose (n=57, 22.5% was significantly associated with having at least a college degree (OR=5.55, 95% CI = 1.79–17.25, having no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile (OR=5.18, 95% CI = 1.30–20.83, and being unemployed (OR=3.25, 95% CI = 1.18–8.93 as well as perceived presence of sidewalks/protected walkways (OR=3.56, 95% CI = 1.10–11.50 and perceived absence of distracted drivers in the neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI = 1.47–11.36. Conclusion. Addressing neighborhood conditions related to distracted drivers and pedestrian infrastructure may promote walking among middle-aged and older overweight/obese individuals.
Full Text Available There is a clear relationship between the way of life and the health of individuals, and therefore, we can speak of healthy and unhealthy lifestyles. There are different surveys and questionnaires that evaluate the lifestyles of adolescents, but none of them offers a final score that can quantify the healthfulness of an adolescent's lifestyle. It was with this goal that the VISA-TEEN questionnaire is developed and validated. The objective of this study is to apply the questionnaire to a sample of adolescents who attend school in Catalonia to evaluate the healthfulness of their lifestyles and to relate the scores obtained to different sociodemographic variables.Cross-sectional study. A total of 2,832 students from 25 schools in Catalonia responded to the questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was performed, calculating the mean (Standard deviation, median (p25, p75, and confidence interval. The results were calculated for the total population, factoring according to gender, age, urban/rural population, origin (native/immigrant, and family wealth, which was based on the Family Affluence Scale (FAS II. The significance of the difference was calculated for each factor with the appropriate statistical test.For the total score of healthy lifestyle, the youngest students and those with the highest family wealth obtained higher scores. With respect to eating habits, girls scored higher than boys, and higher scores were observed in natives and those with high family wealth. For physical activity, boys scored higher, as well as younger individuals, natives, and those from rural areas. With respect to substance abuse, the worst scores were found in older individuals, students from rural areas, and natives. The rational use of leisure technology was only associated with age (worsening scores with older age. Lastly, hygiene was better with girls, decreased with age, and was worse with natives than immigrants.
Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S; Ziegler, Regina G; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C
Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a
Eleanor L Watts
Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass
Geraldo Magela Salomé
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic factors and correlate them to the self-image and self-esteem. Methods: A study conducted at Ostomy Pole of PousoAlegre. The data were collected between December 2012 and May 2013. This was a non-probabilistic, by convenience, sample. For data collection, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM and Body Investment Scale were used. For statistical analysis, chi-squared test, Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman correlation were used. Levels of significance of 5% (p ≤ 0.05 were considered. Results: Participants had a mean score of 10.81 in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP. Regarding Body Investment Scale results, the mean total score was 38.79; the mean in the domain of body image was 7.74, and for personal touch, 21.31. When comparing data related to the stoma and sociodemographic profiles with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP and Body Investment Scale, we realize that all patients demonstrated a decrease in self-esteem and self-image. Individuals were over 60 years old, male, retired, married and were not participants in support group/association. With regard to the characteristics of the stoma, those permanent colostomized had as causes of stoma implementation inflammatory disease and neoplasia; stomata measured between 20 and 40 mm; these people used two-piece devices. People who have not been notified that would be subjected to the stoma and in whom no demarcation was done showed worsening in self-esteem and self-image in relation to other features related to injury and sociodemographic data. Conclusion: Patients who participated in this study had low self-image and self-esteem in all characteristics of the stoma and in sociodemographic data, meaning that these individuals had negative feelings about their own bodies. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos e correlacioná-los à autoimagem e autoestima. Métodos: Estudo realizado no Polo
Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16. Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly
Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Girvalaki, Charis; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Ward, Brian; Gratziou, Christina; Vardavas, Constantine I
To explore whether exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the European Union (EU) showed any association with sociodemographic factors and/or the extent of national tobacco control policies. A secondary analysis was performed on data from 26 751 individuals ≥15 years old from 27 EU member states (EU MS), collected during the 2012 Special Eurobarometer survey (wave 77.1). Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS in eating or drinking establishments during the past 6 months, and/or in their workplace. Data on smoke-free policies were extracted from the European Tobacco Control Status Report and the European Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) in 2013. In total, 29.0% of non-smoking participants reported being exposed to SHS in indoor areas. Males (vs. females) as well as individuals with difficulties to pay bills (vs. those with no difficulties), had significantly greater odds of being exposed to SHS in bars, restaurants and workplaces. For every unit increase of a country's score on the Smoke-free Component of the TCS (indicating greater adherence to smoke-free legislations) the odds ratio of reporting exposure to SHS was 0.82 in bars, 0.85 in restaurants and 0.94 in workplaces. Differences in exposure to SHS clearly exist between and within EU MS, despite the fact that they all have signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, with the burden found to disproportionally affect younger people and individuals with financial difficulties. Moreover, enforcement of smoke-free legislation was inversely associated with SHS exposure, highlighting the importance of enforcing comprehensive smoking bans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Christiansen, David Høyrup; Frost, Poul; Frich, Lars Henrik; Falla, Deborah; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
Background Physiotherapy with exercises is generally recommended in the treatment of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Objective We aimed to investigate the use of physiotherapy in patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings as part of initial non-surgical treatment and after SIS-related surgery and to evaluate to which extent sex, socio-demographic and clinical factors predict the use of physiotherapy. Methods Using national health registers, we identified 57,311 patients who had a first hospital contact with a diagnosis of ICD-10, groups M75.1–75.9, 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2011. Records of physiotherapy were extracted within 52 weeks after first contact (or until surgery), and for surgically treated patients within 26 weeks after surgery. Predictors of the use of physiotherapy after first contact and after surgery were analysed as time-to-event. Results Within 52 weeks after first contact, 43% of the patients had physiotherapy and 30% underwent surgery. Within 26 weeks after surgery, 80% had a record of physiotherapy. After first contact and after surgery, exercise was part of physiotherapy in 65% and 84% of the patients, respectively. A public hospital contact, physiotherapy before hospital contact, administrative region, female sex, a diagnosis of other or unspecified disorders (M75.8-M75.9), and surgical procedure predicted higher use of physiotherapy. Low education level predicted slightly lower use of physiotherapy after first contact, but not after surgery. Conclusion In patients with SIS in Danish hospital settings, physiotherapy was more often used after surgery than as part of initial non-surgical treatment. The use of physiotherapy was less common among men than women, whereas unequal use of physiotherapy in relation to education level was not noticeable. The use of physiotherapy with exercises in initial non-surgical treatment was relatively limited. PMID:26954692
Full Text Available Introduction: Though adolescence is recognised as a critical period for smoking prevention, there is a lack of research focused on this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this study has been to examine the gender-specific factors of influence (predictors for smoking among adolescents in Pristina, Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised 1002 adolescents at the age of 17–18 (366 boys, 636 girls, all of whom were in the school’s 12th grade. The predictors included sociodemographic variables, familial (i.e., parental monitoring, parents’ educational background, and sport-related factors. The Chi2 and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses with a dichotomous criterion (smoking vs. non-smoking were applied. Results: The incidence of smoking was high (31% and 40% smokers, including 7% and 12% daily smokers for girls and boys, respectively. The regression model revealed more frequent absence from school (odds ratio (OR: 1.544; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–2.243, more unexcused school absences (OR: 1.360; 95% CI: 1.029–1.796, and frequent parental questioning (OR: 1.530; 95% CI: 1.020–2.295 to be significant predictors of smoking among boys. For girls, a higher risk of smoking was associated with lower scholastic achievement (OR: 1.467; 95% CI: 1.089–1.977, more frequent absence from school (OR: 1.565; 95% CI: 1.137–2.155, increased conflict with parents (OR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.405–2.789, and a self-declared perception of less parental care (OR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.377–0.962. Sports were not found to be strongly related to smoking. However, a high risk of daily smoking was found among boys who participated in team sports and subsequently quit. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for gender- and culture-specific approaches to studying the factors that influence smoking among adolescents. Med Pr 2015;66(2:153–163
Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J.; Williams, Frances M. K.
Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n = 8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry
Hall, LaCheata, And Others
Employees (n=62) from large telephone communications company completed questionnaires assessing relationship between likelihood to use Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services and five domains: sociodemographic, social-psychological, sociocultural, organizational, and community. Found that women and individuals in higher income and educational…
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio-demographic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the socio-behavioral distribution of periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnancy emanating from sub Saharan Africa is sparse. This study examined periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnant Ugandan women and assessed the relationship with socio-demographics factors, parity, dental care and oral hygiene. Methods Mothers were participants of a multicentre cluster-randomized behavioral intervention study (PROMISE-EBF Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding Promotion in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, these were pregnant women resident in Mbale district, recruited into the PROMISE EBF study between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 886 women were eligible to participate of whom information became available for 877 (participation rate 98.9%, mean age 25.6 women who participated in the recruitment interview and 713 (mean age 25.5 women who got a clinical oral examination. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN. Results The prevalence of tooth loss was 35.7%, 0.6% presented with pockets shallow pockets (4–5 mm, whereas 3.3% and 63.4% displayed bleeding and calculus, respectively. A total of 32.7% were without any sign of periodontal disease. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, women from larger households and those presenting with microbial plaque were respectively, 3.4, 1.4 and 2.5 times more likely to have CPI score >0. Rural (OR = 0.9, nulliparous (OR = 0.4 and women who never visited a dentist (OR = 0.04 were less likely, whereas women from larger households (OR = 1.5 were more likely to have lost at least one tooth. Conclusion The results revealed moderate prevalence of bleeding and tooth loss, high prevalence of calculus, low frequency of pockets 4–5 mm. Disparity in pregnant women's oral health related to parity suggests that education of maternity care providers concerning oral health in
José A Serrano-Sánchez
Full Text Available The aim is to examine the differences between participation at low and zero moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in relation to their trends and associations with known socio-demographic and health factors. We hypothesised that the number of people at zero MVPA level could be rising despite a parallel increase in the population meeting the recommended MVPA level. We also hypothesised that graded associations of sociodemographic and health factors exist across MVPA levels.Two independent population-based samples (n = 4320  and n = 2176 , were recruited with a stratified and random sampling procedure and interviewed at home by professional interviewers. The MVPA was assessed by validated questionnaire. The participants were classified into three MVPA levels: zero, low and recommended MVPA. The trend of each MVPA level was analysed with the standardized prevalence ratios. Correlates of low and zero MVPA levels were examined using multinomial logistic regression.The population at zero and recommended MVPA levels rose between 1997-2004 by 12% (95% CI, 5-20% and 7% (95% CI,-4-19% respectively, while the population at low MVPA level decreased. At zero MVPA level, associative patterns were observed with sociodemographic and health factors which were different when compared to the population at low MVPA level.Despite the slight increase of population meeting the recommended MVPA level, a higher trend of increase was observed at zero MVPA level. Both recommended and low MPVA levels increased their participation by absorbing participants from the low MVPA level. The sociodemographic profile of those with low MVPA was more similar to the population at recommended MVPA than at zero MVPA level. Methodological implications about the combination of light and moderate-intensity PA could be derived. The prevention of decline in actual low MVPA could change the trend of increase in the population at zero MVPA level, particularly among
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta
Studies have shown that some sociodemographic factors, such as marital status, employment status or social class, can affect mental health in different ways for each gender. However, up until now, few research projects have tried to ascertain if the role that reproductive work or psychosocial factors play in mental health is different for men and women. The aim of this study is to assess the differences between men and women in terms of how reproductive work, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors are linked to psychological distress in Spain. A cross-sectional study of 29,478 male and female adults using data gathered for the Spanish National Health Survey 2006 was carried out. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12. The independent variables analyzed were: sociodemographic, psychosocial (family functionality and functional social support) and those related to reproductive work (living with or being in charge of different types of people needing care and number of hours devoted to caregiver tasks). Different independent logistic regression models were developed for men and women. In general, with the exception of men who were more prone to psychological distress if they were signed off work for 3 months or more, no major differences were observed regarding the effect of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics on psychological distress. With regard to reproductive work, the likelihood of psychological distress doubles in both sexes when the person lives with someone who needs care. In women, a greater number of hours devoted to caring for another person is associated with an increase in distress. Men play a less frequent role in caregiving, but the impact on psychological distress is similar to that in women. Women experienced more psychological distress when they had to live with or be in charge of a disabled person or different types of persons needing care, while men were not affected by this. Major differences have been identified in
and to the population's sociodemographic characteristics. Low socioeconomic groups show increased utilization of certain resources. Emergency department utilization could also be affected by socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to identify differences in emergency department utilization among different socioeconomic groups. Material and methods: A population-based study was performed. Census sections of the city of Santander in Spain were grouped according to sociodemographic variables (age, educational and professional attinment. Areas of the city with similar socioeconomic characteristics were established by cluster analysis. The place of residence of patients visiting the emergency department of th Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla was identified and the utilization rate was calculated for each cluster. Results: Cluster analysis was able to identify four different groups, each with different socioeconomic characteristics, which were closely related to the districts of Santander. Comparison of clusters 1 and 4 showed that increased emergency department utilization was found amongst groups with lowest socioeconomic status and higher mean age, with an odds ratio of 1.91 (95% CI: 1.73-2.1. Patients from higher socioeconomic groups were more likely to be admitted to hospital while those from lower socioeconomic groups made more repeat visits to the emergency department. Conclusion: Emergency department utilization is affected by the sociodemographic characteristics of patients' area of residence. Patients with lower socioeconomic status show greater use of the emergency department.
Sobkin V. S.
Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the
Ozge, C; Toros, F; Bayramkaya, E; Camdeviren, H; Sasmaz, T
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the most important sociodemographic factors on smoking status of high school students using a broad randomised epidemiological survey. Using in-class, self administered questionnaire about their sociodemographic variables and smoking behaviour, a representative sample of total 3304 students of preparatory, 9th, 10th, and 11th grades, from 22 randomly selected schools of Mersin, were evaluated and discriminative factors have been determined using appropriate statistics. In addition to binary logistic regression analysis, the study evaluated combined effects of these factors using classification and regression tree methodology, as a new statistical method. The data showed that 38% of the students reported lifetime smoking and 16.9% of them reported current smoking with a male predominancy and increasing prevalence by age. Second hand smoking was reported at a 74.3% frequency with father predominance (56.6%). The significantly important factors that affect current smoking in these age groups were increased by household size, late birth rank, certain school types, low academic performance, increased second hand smoking, and stress (especially reported as separation from a close friend or because of violence at home). Classification and regression tree methodology showed the importance of some neglected sociodemographic factors with a good classification capacity. It was concluded that, as closely related with sociocultural factors, smoking was a common problem in this young population, generating important academic and social burden in youth life and with increasing data about this behaviour and using new statistical methods, effective coping strategies could be composed.
Gesualdo, Gabriela Dutra; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Say, Karina Gramani; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza
The scope of this article is to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the frailty of elderly people with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. This involved a correlational, cross-sectional study conducted in a dialysis center in the state of São Paulo. The sample consisted of 60 participants. The Participant Characterization Instrument was used for extracting sociodemographic and clinical data and the Edmonton Frail Scale was used to evaluate the level of frailty. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with frailty. The mean age of the 60 patients included was 71.1 (± 6.9) years, predominantly male (70%), of which 36.7% were classified as frail. With respect to the factors associated with frailty among the variables of gender, age, self-reported skin color, schooling, monthly per capita income, hemodialysis time, number of associated diseases, falls in the year, hematocrit level, parathyroid hormone and use of calcitriol, it was found that only the monthly per capita income was significantly associated with frailty (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.1-0.9; p = 0.04). There was an association between frailty and income, showing that the elderly most at risk of frailty were those with lower income.
Cheah, Y K
Given the importance of physical activity to health, this study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang. Through convenience sampling, a total of 398 adults agreed to answer a prepared questionnaire on their socio-demographic background and physical activity participation. The data were analysed using the binary logit model. Frequent physical activity participation is defined as taking part more than 11 times in leisure-time physical activity such as swimming and jogging, each time lasting more than 15 minutes in a typical month, whereas participation that is less than the frequency and time duration specified above is referred to as infrequent physical activity. Age, male, being Chinese, high educational attainment, self-rated excellent health status and presence of family illnesses are positively associated with the likelihood of frequent participation in physical activity. On the contrary, being married, having low income and residing in rural areas are inversely related with the propensity of frequent physical activity participation. The majority in this sample of adults do not participate in physical activity frequently, and the reasons given include lack of health awareness, limited leisure time, budget constraints, and lack of sports amenities.
Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.
Kaye Ervin; Julie Pallant; Daniel R. Terry; Lisa Bourke; David Pierce; Kristen Glenister
It is essential to determine the key health risk factors among populations to specifically plan future services and explore interventions that modify risk factors for communities. This aims to reduce risks and delay the onset of chronic conditions, which frequently results in dementia, particularly for small rural communities which experience health workforce shortages, a higher proportion of those in the chronic conditions age group, and reduced access to care. The aim of the study was to de...
Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago
Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic
Mishra, Gyanendra; Thakur, Seema; Singhal, Parul; Ghosh, Shiv Nath; Chauhan, Deepak; Jayam, Cheranjeevi
Children and adolescents comprise a group of individuals representing a large variation in size, competence, maturity, personality, temperament and emotions experience, oral health, family background, culture, etc. Furthermore, a growing child is in a constant state of flux as he grows up and actively interacts with the environment. Many factors contribute to the dental behavior of the child. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index (BMI), and role of multimedia on the child behavior (CB) in the dental operatory. Three hundred and one children aged 3-14 years and their parents participated in the study. In the first visit, the questionnaire was filled by the parent and general examination was done. During the second visit, the required dental procedure was rendered, and the behavior was recorded by a single examiner. Among sociodemographic factors, increasing age is directly related to child's positive behavior, whereas other factors such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are not significantly related. General anxiety significantly affects the child's behavior. BMI of the child is not related to child's behavior in dental operatory. Multimedia was not found to be significantly affecting the behavior of the child in dental operatory. Interpretations and Conclusion: The principle conclusion of this study is that there is a significant association of age and treatment procedure rendered with the CB in the dental operatory whereas gender, SES, general anxiety, BMI, and multimedia do not show any significant association with the CB in the dental operatory.
Gordon JG Asmundson
Full Text Available Clinicians often encounter patients who present with both chronic pain and elevated levels of anxiety. In some cases, the source of the anxiety is vague and diffuse. For others, there is an identifiable precipitating object, event or situation. For example, some patients with chronic pain are able to attribute their anxiety to the possibility of not regaining lost functional abilities, financial difficulties, feelings of social inadequacy, or uncertainty about the meaning and consequences of pain. The association between chronic pain and anxiety may not be particularly surprising when one considers that, in the acute phase, both pain and target-oriented anxiety (or fear motivate actions that serve to minimize the threat and maximize the likelihood of successful escape. As well, their neurobiology, while distinct, interacts in the reticular system (1. Evaluations of the association between chronic pain and fear-relevant constructs were initiated in the 1960s and 1970s (2,3. It has only been of late, however, that theorists and researchers have begun to focus their attention on delineating the precise nature of the relationship and its specific implications for the assessment and management of pain.
Background: Inguinal hernia is a common surgical condition. Whereas complications associated with hernia repair are well documented, chronic postoperative groin pain has received less attention. Objective: To review the frequency and associated risk factors for chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain at a tertiary urban ...
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Nardi, Antônio Carlos Figueiredo; Dos Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
To describe the prevalence of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in Brazilian adult population in 2014 and investigate the associated sociodemographic factors. Analyses were performed based on data from telephone interviews (Vigitel 2014) on probabilistic samples of adult population (≥ 18 years old) from the capitals of the 26 Brazilian States and the Federal District, living in households with landline phones. Prevalence is presented by gender, age and educational level, and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) are estimated using Poisson Regression model. Among the 40.853 adults who were interviewed, 10.8% were smokers and 21.2% ex-smokers. Among the respondents, 16.5% reported alcohol abuse and 52.5% were overweight, factors that were more frequent among men. The prevalence of recommended intake of fruits and vegetables was 24%, intake of sweets was 18.1% and replacements of main meals for snacks was 16.2%, factors that were higher among women. Leisure time physical activity reached 35.3% and increased with the level of education. Hypertension was the most frequent disease achieving 24.8%, which was higher among women and increased with age. The results from Vigitel 2014 indicate that risk factors are, in general, more frequent among men, older adults and less educated individuals, characterizing the socioeconomic and cultural dimensions in determining chronic diseases.
Harris, Francesca; Green, Rosemary F; Joy, Edward J M; Kayatz, Benjamin; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D
Agriculture accounts for ~90% of India's fresh water use, and there are concerns that future food production will be threatened by insufficient water supply of adequate quality. This study aimed to quantify the water required in the production of diets in India using the water footprint (WF) assessment method. The socio-demographic associations of dietary WFs were explored using mixed effects regression models with a particular focus on blue (irrigation) WF given the importance for Indian agriculture. Dietary data from ~7000 adults living in India were matched to India-specific WF data for food groups to quantify the blue and green (rainfall) WF of typical diets. The mean blue and green WF of diets was 737l/capita/day and 2531l/capita/day, respectively. Vegetables had the lowest WFs per unit mass of product, while roots/tubers had the lowest WFs per unit dietary energy. Poultry products had the greatest blue WFs. Wheat and rice contributed 31% and 19% of the dietary blue WF respectively. Vegetable oils were the highest contributor to dietary green WF. Regional variation in dietary choices meant large differences in dietary blue WFs, whereby northern diets had nearly 1.5 times greater blue WFs than southern diets. Urban diets had a higher blue WF than rural diets, and a higher standard of living was associated with larger dietary blue WFs. This study provides a novel perspective on the WF of diets in India using individual-level dietary data, and demonstrates important variability in WFs due to different food consumption patterns and socio-demographic characteristics. Future dietary shifts towards patterns currently consumed by individuals in higher income groups, would likely increase irrigation requirements putting substantial pressure on India's water resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Azim, A K; Sultana, N; Chowdhury, S; Azim, E
The objectives of this study were to assess the socio-demographic profile and to identify the risk factors of ante-partum fetal death which occurs after the age of viability of fetus. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Ad-din Women Medical College Hospital from June 2009 to July 2010. A total of 14,015 pregnant patients were admitted in the study place after the age of viability, which was taken as 28 weeks of gestation for our facilities. Eighty-three (0.59%) of them were identified as intrauterine fetal death. Assessment of maternal socio-demographic characteristics and maternal-fetal risk factors were evaluated with a semi structured questionnaire which was pre-tested before executing in this study. Majority (81.92%, n=68) of the patients were below 30 years of age, 78.31% belonged to middle socioeconomic group. Almost 58% women had education below secondary school certificate (SSC) level and 28.91% took regular antenatal checkup. About 61.45% patients were multi-gravida. Most (59.04%) ante-partum deaths were identified below 32 weeks of pregnancy. Out of 83 patients, maternal risk factors were identified in 41(49.59%) cases where fetal risk factors were found in 16(19.27%) cases; no risk factors could be determined in rests. Hypertension (48.78%), diabetes (21.95%), hyperpyrexia (17.3%), abruptio placentae (4.88%) and UTI (7.36%) were identified as maternal factors; and congenital anomaly (37.5%), Rh incompatibility (37.5%), multiple pregnancy (12.5%) and post-maturity (12.5%) were the fetal risk factors. Here, proximal biological risk factors are most important in ante-partum fetal deaths. More investigations and facilities are needed to explain the causes of ante-partum deaths.
Shea, M. T; Hebert, Norman J
The primary research aims are to examine the early longitudinal course of PTSD symptoms and test hypotheses regarding risk factors for chronic PTSD in military personnel returning from Iraq or Afghanistan...
Sitting Time and Associated Factors among Chronic Disease Patients in Cambodia, ... comprising those who had cardiovascular disease (n = 804), hypertension (n ... physical activity, no problem drinking and not having depression symptoms.
Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijayasimha, R
Chronic cough and chronic phlegm are important indicators of respiratory morbidity, accelerated lung function decline, increased hospitalization and mortality. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm in the absence of dyspneoa and wheezing and to study its associated factors in a representative population of Mysore district. A cross-sectional survey was planned in a representative population of Mysore taluk. Eight villages were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. Trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire carried out a house-to-house survey. A total of 4333 adult subjects were enrolled in the study with 2333 males and 2000 females. The prevalence of chronic cough in the community was 2.5 per cent and that of chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent. A significant association was observed between chronic cough and age, gender, occupation and smoking and chronic phlegm with age, gender, occupation, indoor animals and smoking. A multivariate analysis confirmed independent association of age, occupation and smoking for chronic cough and age and smoking for chronic phlegm. On sub-group analysis of males, heavy smokers had higher prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm as compared to light smokers and non smokers. The prevalence of chronic cough was 2.5 per cent and chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent in the general population in Mysore which is lower than that observed in other studies. Heavy smoking was an important preventable risk factor identified in this study and efforts towards smoking cessation are crucial to achieve good respiratory health in the community.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.
Busschaert, Cedric; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien
Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults’ sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller (p moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles. PMID:29088089
Baker, Fiona C; Wolfson, Amy R; Lee, Kathryn A
To investigate factors associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in women living in the United States. Data are presented from the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America Poll that included 959 women (18-64 years of age) surveyed by telephone about their sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Poor sleep quality was reported by 27% and daytime sleepiness was reported by 21% of respondents. Logistic multivariate regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were both independently associated with poor health, having a sleep disorder, and psychological distress. Also, multivariate analyses showed that women who consumed more caffeinated beverages and those who had more than one job were more likely to report poor sleep quality but not daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, was independently associated with being black/African American, younger, disabled, having less education, and daytime napping. Poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are common in American women and are associated with health-related, as well as sociodemographic, factors. Addressing sleep-related complaints in women is important to improve their daytime functioning and quality of life.
Yang, Shu; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhao, Dingtao
This research explores the possibilities for further energy saving in households in the Chinese context by conducting of a survey on energy curtailment behaviors. We examine how people's demographic characteristics and psychological factors affect their direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors at home, as well as the different effects of these antecedents. Results suggest that people with high sense of environmental responsibility and curtailment attitude are more likely to engage in both direct and indirect energy curtailment actions. Generally, indirect energy curtailment behavior is more strongly related to psychological and socio-demographic factors than direct behavior, and these socio-demographic factors vary for direct and indirect behaviors. Interesting patterns emerged with respect to gender, age, family structure, family income, and level of education. Results indicate that strengthening publicity and education to increase environmental awareness among Chinese urban residents would be effective in reducing household energy consumption, especially when the said measures target a specific population and specific behaviors. - Highlights: •A survey is used to explore Chinese urban residents' energy curtailment behaviors. •Make a distinction between direct and indirect energy curtailment behaviors. •Effects of demographic and psychological variables are different on two behaviors. •Policy should target at specific behaviors and specific population.
Full Text Available Contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age has showed a substantial progress over the last few decades in Bangladesh. This study explores the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive use among ever-married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh by utilizing the information extracted from three of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs in 1993–1994, 2004 and 2014. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing chi-squared test of independence to explore the relationship between selected sociodemographic factors and dependent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular binary logistic regression model was considered. Respondents’ current age, place residence, division religion, education, age at first marriage, family planning (FP media exposure, ideal number of children and fertility preferences are the significant determinants according to the most recent survey, BDHS 2014. However, wealth index and a respondent’s current working status were found to be significant factors only in BDHS 2004. The results of the study strongly recommend efforts to increase the education level among poor people, particularly among women in Bangladesh. Program interventions, including health behavior education and family planning services and counselling, are especially needed for some categories of the population, including those living in rural areas, Sylhet, Chittagong and Dhaka divisions, as well as illiterate and Muslim ever-married women.
Haq, Iqramul; Sakib, Saifullah; Talukder, Ashis
Contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age has showed a substantial progress over the last few decades in Bangladesh. This study explores the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive use among ever-married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh by utilizing the information extracted from three of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs) in 1993-1994, 2004 and 2014. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing chi-squared test of independence to explore the relationship between selected sociodemographic factors and dependent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular binary logistic regression model was considered. Respondents' current age, place residence, division religion, education, age at first marriage, family planning (FP) media exposure, ideal number of children and fertility preferences are the significant determinants according to the most recent survey, BDHS 2014. However, wealth index and a respondent's current working status were found to be significant factors only in BDHS 2004. The results of the study strongly recommend efforts to increase the education level among poor people, particularly among women in Bangladesh. Program interventions, including health behavior education and family planning services and counselling, are especially needed for some categories of the population, including those living in rural areas, Sylhet, Chittagong and Dhaka divisions, as well as illiterate and Muslim ever-married women.
Kim, J H; Shim, S R; Lee, W J; Kim, H J; Kwon, S-S; Bae, J H
This study investigated the influence of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) self-perception period and International Prostate Symptom Score. This cross-sectional study examined 209 men aged ≥ 40 years with non-treated LUTS who participated in a prostate examination survey. Questions included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) items with self-perception periods for each item. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were also assessed. Participants were divided by mild LUTS (IPSS less than 8) and moderate-to-severe LUTS (IPSS 8 or higher). Self-perception period of the moderate-to-severe LUTS (n = 110) was affected by BMI; the self-perception period of the mild LUTS (n = 90) was affected by age, income, occupation and concomitant disease. Moderate-to-severe LUTS were affected by self-perception period (p = 0.03). Self-perception period was affected by concern for health (p = 0.005) by multivariate analysis, and self-perception period of mild LUTS was affected by BMI (p = 0.012). Moderate-to-severe LUTS were affected by age, number of family members, concern for health and drinking (p self-perception period. In moderate-to-severe LUTS, age, concern for health and drinking were affecting factors of self-perception period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wang, Dandan; Shi, Lintao; Li, Leling; Guo, Xiaohui; Li, Yufeng; Xu, Yuan; Yin, Shinan; Wu, Qiaozhen; Yang, Yu; Zhuang, Xiaoming; Gai, Yingli; Li, Quanmin; Liu, Yanjun
This study explores the prevalence of subthreshold depression (SubD) and its association with factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This cross-sectional study involved 808 outpatients with T2DM from ten hospitals in Beijing between September 2015 and January 2016. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) to evaluate depressive status, with scores between 5 and 14 considered SubD. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to investigate the variables associated with SubD in T2DM patients. T2DM patients with SubD comprised 11.6% (n = 94) of the sample. The odd ratios for the variables having significant positive associations with SubD were: being a women (OR = 1.90; 95%CI: 1.09-3.32), divorced/widowed (OR = 3.27; 95%CI: 1.46-7.30), comorbidity of cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.06-3.76), more diabetic complications (OR = 8.04; 95%CI: 2.77-23.31), and higher HbA1c in men (OR = 2.41; 95%CI: 1.25-4.64). Being older (OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.62-0.98), exercising more (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.22-0.91) and poverty (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.19-0.69) were negatively related to SubD. The sample was mainly recruited from hospital settings, which limits generalization. The study's cross-sectional design precludes making causal inferences. The proportion of SubD was estimated to be 11.6% among T2DM patients in Beijing. Having more diabetic complications and being divorced/widowed made the odds of having SubD 8-fold and 3-fold higher than not having it, respectively. The relationship between SubD and diabetes necessitates early screening for milder forms of depression, which can alleviate the social burden and individual impairment from major depression or other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mais, Laís Amaral; Warkentin, Sarah; Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo
The present study aimed to identify food patterns among 2-9-year-olds and investigate sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural predictors of less healthy dietary patterns. Cross-sectional study. Parents of 2-9-year-olds completed an FFQ and factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Parents also completed questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural characteristics of parents and children, including parental feeding practices. Participants were recruited from private schools of Campinas and São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between April and June 2014. Parents of 2-9-year-olds (n 929). Two dietary patterns emerged: 'traditional food' and 'ultra-processed food'. Lower maternal education (OR=2·05, P=0·010) and higher maternal weight status (OR=1·43, P=0·044) were associated with a greater likelihood of the ultra-processed food pattern. Lower perceived parental responsibility for adequacy of food group intake (OR=2·41, P=0·020), and lower scores on the parental feeding practices of 'Healthy Eating Guidance' (OR=1·83, P<0·001) and 'Monitoring' (OR=2·52, P<0·001), were also associated with the presence of this pattern, as was higher child's screen use during mealtimes (OR=1·61, P=0·004). The present study is the first to evaluate associations between less healthy dietary patterns of Brazilian 2-9-year-olds and parental feeding practices. Our findings highlight sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural factors within families that could be used to target tailored policies to at-risk populations.
Kh. S. Zhyvago
Full Text Available Aim. To identify the constitutional-biological, socio-demographic (microsocial and clinical-dynamic (the debut of the disease factors of predisposition to the depressive symptoms development in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and methods. A clinical-anamnestic, socio-demographic, clinical-psychopathological and pathopsychological examinations of 82 patients with paranoid schizophrenia with depressive symptoms identified and compared with 47 patients with paranoid schizophrenia without depressive symptoms. The study was managed using the PANSS, CDSS, HDRS scales and a questionnaire for the assessment of social functioning and quality of the mentally ill life. Groups did not differ in the basic demographic indicators. The study of constitutional and biological predisposition factors included the study of heredity and premorbid characterological features of patients. Socio-demographic (before the onset of the disease microsocial conditions and the current stage factors –family relationships; characteristics of living conditions; financial position; the quality of nutrition. To factors of the disease onset were attributed: age debut; factors that preceded the first episode; syndromes of the first episode; the first reference to a psychiatrist; suicidal statements and intentions. Results. It was evaluated the prognostic significance of individual predisposing factors to depression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and found the following factors of predisposition (p<0.05: the heredity of schizophrenia and affective disorders; low level of erudition, combined with emotional and volitional immaturity, anxiety, prone to mood swings; low income and the cost of food, clothing and leisure; poor living conditions; unstable or conflictual family relationships; the presence of the first episode of affective symptoms, such as depressive, which is stored in the further course of the disease, as well as anhedonia, sleep and appetite
Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Lalani, Saima; Azam, Iqbal Syed; Ali, Badar Sabir; Jabbar, Abdual; Dhanani, Raheem
Background. We evaluated the prevalence and clustering pattern of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related lifestyle factors and their association with CVD among patients with type 2 diabetes. We also examined the association of these factors with various socio-demographic characteristics. Methods. A total of 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed in a cross-sectional, multi-center study in out-patient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. Results. In this study 30.3% study participants had CVD. Majority of the patients were physically inactive and had adverse psychosocial factors. Forty percent of the study participants were exposed to passive smoking while 12.7% were current smokers. Only 8.8% of study subjects had none of the studied lifestyle factor, 27.5% had one, while 63.7% had two or three factors. CVDs were independently associated with physical inactivity, adverse psychosocial factors, passive smoking and clustering of two or three lifestyle factors. Physical inactivity was more prevalent among females and patients with no/less education. Proportion of adverse psychosocial factors were higher among females, elders and patients with no/less education. Clustering of these lifestyle factors was significantly higher among females, elderly and no/less educated patients. Conclusion. These results suggest the need of comprehensive and integrated interventions to reduce the prevalence of lifestyle factors. PMID:21837274
Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T
Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.
Hoefelmann, Luana Peter; Lopes, Adair da Silva; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Moritz, Pablo; Nahas, Markus Vinicius
We aimed to identify and compare the sociodemographic and economic factors associated with perceived sleep quality and sleep duration in high school students from Santa Catarina, Brazil (2001 and 2011). Our study used a school-based, cross-sectional survey administered in 2001 and 2011 to high school students aged 15-19 years (n=5028 in 2001; n=6529 in 2011) enrolled in public schools in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The students responded to a questionnaire that asked about the number of hours slept on school days (insufficient, or = 8 h), perceived sleep quality (adequate or poor), sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, and area), economic factors (work and family income), and school-related variables (grade and shift). The prevalence of poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep increased by 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively, between 2001 and 2011. Remunerated employment, urban environment, male gender, and high family income were strongly associated with these outcomes. There was a notable increase in insufficient sleep and the perception of poor sleep quality among the students in Santa Catarina in the last decade. Public policies are needed to ameliorate this situation, which has disastrous consequences for the health of adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin, Jyy-I; Wang, Jing-Jy; Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Chiung-Ying; Cheng, Su-Fen
The World Health Organization has predicted that arthritis will rise to become the fourth ranked global disability among the elderly. Arthritis is already a main cause of chronic pain, depression, and institutionalization in this group. Chronic pain resulting from arthritis is a serious threat to the elderly population. Study purposes were to: (1) explore chronic pain in elderly residents with arthritis residing at long-term care facilities and to understand the relationship between associated chronic pain and associated factors, and (2) identify the predictive factors of chronic pain. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational research design. A sample of 114 elderly residents, 65 years of age and older, were recruited from five long-term care facilities in Kaohsiung and Pingtung, Taiwan. Findings showed that the average pain intensity resulting from chronic arthritis during the three months of study was medium (4.51 ± 1.75). There were positive relationships amongst average pain intensity, previous pain intensity, self-perception of arthritis severity and depression status. Negative correlations were found amongst age, self-perception of arthritis severity, number of chronic illnesses experienced, function of daily activity and social support. Previous pain intensity, self-perception of arthritis severity, number of chronic illnesses experienced, function of daily activity and depression status were all found to predict chronic pain. Together, these factors explained 40.4% of total variance. Study results provide information for nurses to consider the physical, psychological, and social aspects of chronic pain when caring for the elderly. Healthcare providers should design individualized health care interventions for elderly people to promote their quality of life.
Full Text Available Association between common mental disorders (CMDs, equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population, were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs. Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.
Johns, Elizabeth A; Jin, Harry; Auerswald, Colette L; Wilson, Erin C
Trans*female youth (TFY) are an underserved population at risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, in part related to barriers to accessing health and mental health care. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected with 250 TFY aged 16-24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area from 2012 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and barriers to gender identity-based medical and mental health care. Having a history of unstable housing was associated with significantly higher odds of problems accessing both medical care (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.13) and mental health care due to gender identity (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.45). Conversely, identifying as genderqueer/genderfluid, Latina, or living in dependent housing was associated with access to either medical or mental health care. Interventions are needed to address housing and discrimination barring access to health care among TFY. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh
Background & objectives: In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM - obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. Methods: The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Results: Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level. PMID:26609041
Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh
In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM--obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level.
Thomas, Susie; Halbert, Julie; Mackintosh, Shylie; Quinn, Stephen; Crotty, Maria
To determine self-reported physical activity barriers, behaviors, and beliefs about exercise of a representative sample and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Face-to-face interviews conducted between September and December 2008, using a random stratified sampling technique. Barriers injury and illness were associated with being older, single, and not engaged in full-time work; lack of time was associated with being married, younger, female, and working full-time; and lack of motivation and cost were associated with being younger than 65 years. Advancing age was significantly associated (p exercise in, while all age groups (74%) felt that walking was the most important type of exercise for older adults. A better understanding of these factors may improve uptake of and adherence to exercise programs across the ages.
Geraldine U. Ndukwu
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia, though a common problem in Nigeria, has not been adequatelystudied amongst pregnant women in primary health care facilities.Objective: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia and sociodemographicfactors associated with anaemia in pregnancy in a primary health centre inRivers State, Nigeria.Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health centre. Associationbetween variables was analysed using the Chi-square test.Results: Two hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women whose ages ranged from 16 to40 years with a mean age of 26.8 ± 4.3 years were recruited for the study. The haemoglobinconcentration ranged from 6 g/dL – 15 g/dL with a mean of 10.10 ± 1.27g/dL. A total of142 (62.6% participants were anaemic. Anaemia was observed to be least prevalent inwomen within the extremes of reproductive age (≤ 20 years and 36–40 years. There was nostatistically significant association between age, educational level and marital status (p > 0.05.The association of anaemia with social class was statistically significant (p = 0.000. Severeanaemia was not a common finding amongst the patients but it was significantly associatedwith educational status (p = 0.02 and socio-economic status (p = 0.03.Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia amongst the pregnant participants in the primaryhealth centre was high. Out of all the socio-demographic characteristics, only socio-economicstatus was significantly associated with anaemia. It is recommended that the socio-economicstatus of women should be enhanced in line with the Millennium Development Goals toprevent anaemia and to enhance pregnancy outcomes.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Children and adolescents comprise a group of individuals representing a large variation in size, competence, maturity, personality, temperament and emotions experience, oral health, family background, culture, etc. Furthermore, a growing child is in a constant state of flux as he grows up and actively interacts with the environment. Many factors contribute to the dental behavior of the child. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index (BMI, and role of multimedia on the child behavior (CB in the dental operatory. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and one children aged 3-14 years and their parents participated in the study. In the first visit, the questionnaire was filled by the parent and general examination was done. During the second visit, the required dental procedure was rendered, and the behavior was recorded by a single examiner. Results: Among sociodemographic factors, increasing age is directly related to child′s positive behavior, whereas other factors such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES are not significantly related. General anxiety significantly affects the child′s behavior. BMI of the child is not related to child′s behavior in dental operatory. Multimedia was not found to be significantly affecting the behavior of the child in dental operatory. Interpretations and Conclusion: The principle conclusion of this study is that there is a significant association of age and treatment procedure rendered with the CB in the dental operatory whereas gender, SES, general anxiety, BMI, and multimedia do not show any significant association with the CB in the dental operatory.
Koriakin, A M; Epifantseva, N N; Dadyka, I V; Gorbatovskiĭ, Ia A
The levels of homocysteine (HC) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) as cardiovascular risk factors were studied in patients with Stage II chronic alcoholism. Forty-one men with Stage II chronic alcoholism without clinical signs of somatic and infectious diseases were examined. Their median age was 37 (range 32-40) years; the alcoholization period was 12 (range 8-17) years. Plasma HC and VWF (amount and activity) levels were determined. In 63.4% of chronic alcoholic patients, HC levels was twice as high as in the controls; in 80.6%, both the content and activity of VWF were increased. There was no correlation between the levels of HC and VWF. Vascular endothelial damage concurrent with hyperhomocysteinemia increases a cardiovascular risk in patients with Stage II chronic alcoholism.
Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R
In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items), basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items), and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item). The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.
Hong, Seo Ah; Lwin, Kyi Tun; Aung, La Seng
Background The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. Material and methods In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18–49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23.0–27.4 kg/m2), and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and weight status. Results The prevalence of underweight was 14.1%, overweight 28.1% and obesity 13.1%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of underweight was the highest among 18 to 29 year-olds (20.2%), while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 49 years (around 50%). In multinomial logistic regression, being 30 to 49 years old, poorer and richer wealth status, living in all the other regions of Myanmar and ever contraceptive use were inversely and current tobacco use, not working and having less than two children ever born were positively associated with underweight relative to normal weight. Older age, having secondary education, urban residence, wealthier economic status, living with a partner, living in the Northern and Southern regions of Myanmar, having less than two children ever born and having ever used contraceptives were positively and current tobacco use was negatively associated with overweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Conclusions A dual burden of both underweight and overweight or obesity among female adults was found in Myanmar. Sociodemographic and health risk behaviour factors were identified for underweight and overweight or obesity that can guide public health interventions to
Compernolle, Sofie; Busschaert, Cedric; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien
Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults' sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller ( p vehicles (95% CI = 0.001, 0.12) was positively associated with the odds of participation in transport-related sitting time. The latter two associations were moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles.
Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Partula, Valentin; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde
While many cancer patients are affected by weight loss, others tend to gain weight, which may impact prognosis and risk of recurrence and of second cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis and socio-demographic, economic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain. 1051 incident cases of first primary cancer were diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. Weight was prospectively collected every 6 months since subjects' inclusion (i.e. an average of 2y before diagnosis). Mean weights before and after cancer diagnosis were compared with paired Student's t-test. Factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain (≥5% of initial weight) were investigated by age and sex-adjusted logistic regression. Weight loss was observed in men (-3.54±4.39kg in those who lost weight, p=0.0002) and in colorectal cancer patients (-3.94±4.40kg, p=0.001). Weight gain was observed in breast and skin cancers (2.83±3.21kg, p=0.04, and 2.96±2.75kg, p=0.04 respectively). Women (OR=1.75[1.06-2.87],p=0.03), younger patients (2.44[1.51-3.70],pgain weight. In breast cancer patients, induced menopause was associated with weight gain (OR=4.12[1.76-9.67]), but no association was detected for tumor characteristics or treatments. This large prospective cohort provided original results on weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis, highlighting different weight trajectories. Socio-demographic and economic factors appeared to influence the risk of weight gain, illustrating social inequalities in health.
Conclusion: Vaginal delivery is associated with a twofold increased risk of postpartum SUI in primipara women compared with elective cesarean section. Age and birth weight are the main risk factors of postpartum SUI in both modes of delivery. Tool-assisted delivery and episiotomy were determined as the risk factors of postpartum SUI in vaginal delivery.
Full Text Available Background Non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors can co-exist with disability and cause a greater burden on the health status of adults with disabilities. A lack of egalitarian social policies in China may result in gender disparities in the NCD risk factors of adults with disabilities. However, little is known about the gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities in China; consequently, we examined this association among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China. Methods We used the health examination data of 44,896 adults with disabilities in Shanghai in 2014. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were conducted to estimate gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics, disability characteristics, and four selected NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities—including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood lipids, and being overweight. We estimated marginal effects (MEs on NCD risk factors between gender and other confounders. Results Women with disabilities were about 11.6 percentage points more likely to suffer from high blood lipids and less likely to develop the other three risk factors than men were. The association of age group, residence permit, education level, marital status, and disability type with health outcomes varied by gender among adults with disabilities. The difference in age effects between men and women was more pronounced in older age groups. Urban residence was associated with less risk of high blood pressure risk among women (ΔME = − 0.035, p < 0.01, but no significant difference in other NCD risk factors. Education remained a major protective factor against high blood pressure, high blood glucose and being overweight among women with disabilities (MEs < 0, p < 0.05; however, this did not hold for men. The difference in marriage effects between men and women was observed in
Full Text Available Introduction Oral cancer is a challenging health problem globally. Delay in diagnosis is an important factor in determining the outcome of the disease. It is a major determinant of mortality and morbidity of oral cancer patients. Present observational study was conducted with the objective of finding the factors responsible for delay in diagnosis of oral cancer in patients. Materials and Methods Hospital based observational study where patient register was used as data source from 15th Nov, 2013-15th Jan, 2014. Results Among the causes for delay in reporting to hospital, financial constraint (84% and illiteracy (56.5% have been found to contribute the most. The risk of primary delay is 3.53 times more among illiterate in comparison with literate. Age, gender, stage of cancer, religion, caste, tobacco use and delayed referral from the first physician were the other factors found to be significant in relation to primary delay. Discussion Early diagnosis is a major factor for favorable outcome of a disease and several factors hinder early diagnosis. Some of these factors can be easily modified through Information, Education and Communication (IEC. Conclusion Some important factors that lead to delay are identified and some of them are preventable. So, IEC regarding cancer among general population will not only provide knowledge to them, but also will break myths regarding cancer and reduce the burden of disease. These identified predictors of delay may be used for designing an educational intervention program for patients with oral cancers.
Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Driskell, Luke; Zhu, Jun
On 12 May 2008, a devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Among the large number of dead or missing were children, particularly children aged less than five years old, a fact which drew significant media attention. To obtain relevant information specifically to aid further studies and future preventative measures, a neural network model was proposed to explore some geological and socio-demographic factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that topographic slope (mean 35.76%), geomorphology (mean 24.18%), earthquake intensity (mean 13.68%), and average income (mean 11%) had great contributions to child mortality. These findings could provide some clues to researchers for further studies and to policy makers in deciding how and where preventive measures and corresponding policies should be implemented in the reconstruction of communities.
Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-section-al population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.
Deborah Carvalho Malta
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify associations of chronic back pain with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, body mass index, self-reported chronic diseases and health assessment, according to sex. METHODS We analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Survey, estimated the prevalence and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI of chronic back pain, according to selected variables and performed adjustment by age and education. RESULTS 18.5% of the Brazilian population reported chronic back pain, 15.5% (95%CI 14.7–16.4 of them being men and 21.1% (95%CI 20.2–22.0 being women. The characteristics that remained associated and statistically significant (p < 0.05 after adjustment, in men, were: age group, higher in men with 65 years or older (ORa = 6.06; low education level; living in rural area; history of smoking, high salt intake, increase in the time of heavy physical activity at work and at home; being overweight (ORa = 1.18 or obese (ORa = 1.26; diagnostic of hypertension (ORa = 1.42, high cholesterol (ORa = 1.60; and worse health assessment in comparison with very good (good [ORa = 1.48]; regular [ORa = 3.22]; poor [ORa = 5.00], very poor [ORa = 8.60]. Among women, they were: increase with age, higher among women with 55-64 years (ORa = 3.64; low education level; history of smoking, regular candy consumption, high salt intake, heavy physical activity at work and at home and increase in the time of these activities; being overweight (ORa = 1.23 or obese (ORa = 1.32; diagnosis of hypertension (ORa = 1.50, high cholesterol (ORa = 1.84; and worse health assessment than very good (good [ORa = 1.43]; regular [ORa = 3.16]; poor [ORa = 5.44], very poor [ORa = 8.19]. CONCLUSIONS Our findings point out differences by sex and contribute to the knowledge of the panorama of chronic back pain, which, besides affecting individuals, generate negative socioeconomic impacts, by causing work-related disabilities and hindering everyday
Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T
Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157
Xiang, Yu-Tao; Weng, Yong-Zhen; Leung, Chi-Ming; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor S
This study compared the subjective quality of life (SQOL) in schizophrenia patients living with their families in Hong Kong (HK) and Beijing (BJ) and explored the relationship between SQOL and basic socio-demographic and clinical factors. Two hundred and sixty-four clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia were randomly selected in HK and 258 counterparts matched according to age, sex, age at onset, and length of illness in BJ. SQOL and psychiatric status were assessed with standard rating instruments. There was no significant difference in any of SQOL domains between the two cohorts after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Positive, depressive and anxiety symptoms and drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) were all significantly correlated with SQOL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only depressive symptoms predicted all SQOL domains in both groups. Having removed depressive symptoms from the model, positive symptoms predicted all domains, anxiety predicted all but social domains, use of benzodiazepines (BZD) predicted all but physical domains, EPS predicted physical domain, and history of suicide predicted social domain in HK; anxiety predicted all domains, positive symptoms predicted all but physical domains, EPS, use of BZD and history of suicide all predicted physical domains, and length of illness predicted environmental domain in BJ. Despite considerable differences between the two sites in terms of health care delivery and the economic conditions of the subjects, SQOL did not differ between HK and BJ. The conclusion is in line with previous studies that suggested that patients' SQOL was independent of their living standard as long as it reached a certain minimum level. SQOL was more strongly related to the severity of depressive symptoms and had weak association with socio-demographic factors.
Full Text Available Joseph Finkelstein1, Eunme Cha1, Steven M Scharf 21Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USARationale: Recent studies described association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In their analysis none of these studies accounted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and patient comorbidities simultaneously.Objective: To study whether COPD diagnosis is an independent risk factor for CVD. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years and older (N = 18,342 from the sample adult file of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included in the analysis. Chi-squared tests and odds ratios (OR were utilized to compare the data. Multiple logistic regression was employed to analyze the association between COPD and CVD with simultaneous control for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race, marital status, education, income, health behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and patient comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity. The analysis employed NHIS sampling weights to generate data representative of the entire US population.Results: The COPD population had increased prevalence of CVD (56.5% vs 25.6%; P < 0.0001. Adjusted logistic regression showed that COPD patients (N = 958 were at higher risk of having coronary heart disease (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.5, angina (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6–2.7, myocardial infarction (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8, stroke (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1, congestive heart failure (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.8–5.5, poor circulation in lower extremities (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 2.0–3.0, and arrhythmia (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0–2.8. Overall, the presence of COPD increased the odds of having CVD by a factor of
Mboto, Clement Ibi; Andy, Iniobong Ebenge; Eni, Ogban Ibor; Jewell, Andrew Paul
The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in developing countries where intravenous drug use (IDU) is uncommon its poorly understood. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence of HCV and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Calabar municipality. A total of 506 out of 716 antenatal care (ANC) patients seen at the General Hospital, Mary Slessor Avenue, Calabar between August and November 2005 and the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between October and November 2005 were evaluated for their HCV status using the One Step HCV Test kit (Binomial diagnostics, UK), with reference to the subjects' demographic and behavioural risk factors. HCV prevalence was determined to be 0.4% (2/506) and was only seen in women aged 38 years and over. Histories of blood transfusion, surgery, involvement in polygamous marriage, sharing of a toothbrush and female circumcision were all non-significant risk factors for the infecion. This study reveals a low HCV prevalence among pregnant women in Calabar municipality with no identifiable risk factor. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the transmission modes of HCV especially in developing countries where intravenous drug use is rare.
Background: Improving Quality of Life (QOL) is the ultimate goal of treatment for patients with depression. A large store of studies have ... Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients over a period of 6 months. Sociodemographic variables ..... schizophrenia: relationship to sociodemographic factors,.
Brusque, Corinne; Alauzet, Aline
In France, as in many other countries, phoning while driving is legally restricted because of its negative impact on driving performance which increases accident risk. Nevertheless, it is still a frequently observed practice and one which has not been analyzed in detail. This study attempts to identify the profiles of those who use mobile phones while at the wheel and determine the forms taken by this use. A representative sample of 1973 French people was interviewed by phone on their driving practices and mobile phone use in everyday life and their mobile phone use while driving. Logistics regressions have been conducted to highlight the explanatory factors of phoning while driving. Strong differences between males and females have been shown. For the male population, age is the main explanatory factor of phoning while driving, followed by phone use for work-related reasons and extensive mobile phone use in everyday life. For females, high mileage and intensive use of mobile phone are the only two explanatory factors. We defined the intensive phone use at the wheel group as drivers who receive or send at least five or more calls per day while driving. There is no socio-demographic variable related to this practice. Car and phone uses in everyday life are the only explanatory factors for this intensive mobile use of the phone at the wheel.
Berg, Carla J; Thrasher, James F; Westmaas, J Lee; Buchanan, Taneisha; Pinsker, Erika A; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
To examine factors associated with perceiving different types of pictorial cigarette health warning labels as most effective in motivating smokers to quit or preventing smoking initiation among college students. We administered an online survey to 24,055 students attending six Southeast colleges in Fall, 2010. We obtained complete data for the current analyses from 2600. Current smoking prevalence was 23.5%. The largest majority (78.6%) consistently rated gruesome images as most effective, 19.5% rated testimonial images as most effective, and only a small proportion rated either standard (1.6%) or human suffering images (0.3%) as most effective. Subsequent analyses focused on differences between those endorsing gruesome images or testimonials as most effective. Factors related to ranking testimonials versus gruesome images as most effective included being female (pmarketing (p=0.01). Among smokers, factors related to ranking testimonials as most effective versus gruesome images included being female (p=0.03), being White (p=0.03), higher autonomous motivation (p=0.03), and greater extrinsic self-efficacy (p=0.02). Understanding factors related to perceived effectiveness of different pictorial warnings among subpopulations should inform health warning labels released by the FDA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…
Tucker, Tameka M.
Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…
Digby, Cynthia L. B.
Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a…
Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, Harry
This paper investigates the role of location factors in task and time allocation at the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and
Thurber, Katherine Ann; Joshy, Grace; Korda, Rosemary; Eades, Sandra J; Wade, Vicki; Bambrick, Hilary; Liu, Bette; Banks, Emily
High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales. Age-sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity by sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status were estimated (multivariable log-binomial regression) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants separately. We quantified the extent to which key factors (physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness, area-level disadvantage) accounted for any excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. Obesity prevalence was 39% among Aboriginal and 22% among non-Aboriginal participants (PR=1.65, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.76). Risk factors for obesity were generally similar for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and included individual-level and area-level disadvantage, physical inactivity, and poor physical and mental health, with steeper gradients observed among non-Aboriginal participants for some factors (P interaction 40% of the excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. A substantial proportion of the excess obesity prevalence among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants was explained by physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness and area-level disadvantage. Socioeconomic and health behaviour factors are potential targets for promoting healthy BMI, but these must be considered within the context of upstream social and cultural factors. Adults with health needs and disability require particular attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted
Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M
Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Engler, Tânia Mara Nascimento de Miranda; Aguiar, Márcia Helena de Assis; Furtado, Íris Aline Brito; Ribeiro, Samile Pereira; de Oliveira, Pérola; Mello, Paulo Andrade; Padula, Marcele Pescuma Capeletti; Beraldo, Paulo Sérgio Siebra
The objective of this study was to define which stroke-related factors constitute independent variables in the incidence of intestinal constipation (IC) of chronic patients admitted to a hospital rehabilitation program. All patients consecutively admitted for rehabilitation were recruited for the study. In the Poisson multiple regression analysis using a hierarchical model, sociodemographic variables, comorbidities, medication, previous history of constipation, life habits, and stroke-related variables were considered for defining factors associated with IC. A 31% prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.3-37.1) of IC was detected. Among the factors associated, female gender (adjusted prevalence ratio [PRadjusted] = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.20-2.68), intestinal complaints prior to stroke (PRadjusted = 3.71; 95% CI: 2.60-5.31), intake of less than 800 ml of fluid per day (PRadjusted = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20- 2.45), age greater than 65 years at brain injury (PRadjusted = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.01-2.75), and partially impaired anterior brain circulation (PRadjusted = 3.35; 95% CI: 1.02-10.97) were associated with IC. Female gender, elderly, prior history of IC, low fluid intake, and partial impairment of anterior brain circulation were factors independently associated with IC in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. These findings require further validation and may serve toward improving bowel retraining programs for this patient group.
Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Rinaldi, Giulia; Shahnavazi, Hossein; Bouraghi, Hamid; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A
Suicide is a major global health problem, especially among youth. Suicide is known to be associated with a variety of social, economic, political and religious factors, vary across geographical and cultural regions. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of socioeconomic factors on suicide mortality rate across different regions in Iran. The data on distribution of population and socio-economic factors (such as unemployment rate, divorce rate, urbanization rate, average household expenditure etc.) at province level were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran and the National Organization for Civil Registration. The data on the annual number of deaths caused by suicide in each province was extracted from the published reports of the Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization. We used a decomposition model to distinguish between spatial and temporal variation in suicide mortality. The average rate of suicide mortality was 5.5 per 100,000 population over the study period. Across the provinces (spatial variation), suicide mortality rate was positively associated with household expenditure and the proportion of people aged 15-24 and older than 65 years and was negatively associated with the proportion of literate people. Within the provinces (temporal variation), higher divorce rate was associated with higher suicide mortality. By excluding the outlier provinces, the results showed that in addition to the proportion of people aged 15-24 and older than 65, divorce and unemployment rates were also significant predictors of spatial variation in suicide mortality while divorce rate was associated with higher suicide mortality within provinces. The findings indicate that both spatial and temporal variations in suicide mortality rates across the provinces and over time are determined by a number of socio-economic factors. The study provides information that can be of importance in developing preventive strategies.
Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Smith, Alexander; Lee, Kathryn A; Huthwaite, Mark; Reid, Papaarangi; Gander, Philippa
To compare the prevalence of self-reported abnormal sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness in pregnancy among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and non-Māori women versus the general population, and to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors. Self-reported total sleep time (TST) in 24-hrs, Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores and socio-demographic information were obtained from nullipara and multipara women aged 20-46 yrs at 35-37 weeks pregnant (358 Māori and 717 non-Māori), and women in the general population (381 Māori and 577 non-Māori). After controlling for ethnicity, age, socio-economic status, and employment status, pregnant women average 30 min less TST than women in the general population. The distribution of TST was also greater in pregnant women, who were 3 times more likely to be short sleepers (≤6 h) and 1.9 times more likely to be long sleepers (>9 h). In addition, pregnant women were 1.8 times more likely to report excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Pregnant women >30 years of age experienced greater age-related declines in TST. Identifying as Māori, being unemployed, and working at night increased the likelihood of reporting abnormal sleep duration across all women population in this study. EDS also more likely occurred among Māori women and women who worked at night. Pregnancy increases the prevalence of abnormal sleep duration and EDS, which are also higher among Māori than non-Māori women and those who do night work. Health professionals responsible for the care of pregnant women need to be well-educated about the importance of sleep and discuss sleep issues with the women they care for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla
Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Using data from the World Health Survey (WHS) carried out in South Africa in 2003, the aim of this study is to establish chronic diseases risk factors and access to preventive exams for cervical and breast cancer among South African women. The sample included in this analysis included 1236 women 18 years and above.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira, Max Moura de; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata
To identify associations of chronic back pain with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, body mass index, self-reported chronic diseases and health assessment, according to sex. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Survey, estimated the prevalence and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of chronic back pain, according to selected variables and performed adjustment by age and education. 18.5% of the Brazilian population reported chronic back pain, 15.5% (95%CI 14.7-16.4) of them being men and 21.1% (95%CI 20.2-22.0) being women. The characteristics that remained associated and statistically significant (p consumo elevado de sal, aumento do tempo de prática de atividade física pesada no trabalho e atividade pesada no domicílio; ter sobrepeso (ORa = 1,18) ou obesidade (ORa = 1,26); diagnóstico de hipertensão (ORa= 1,42), colesterol elevado (ORa = 1,60); e pior avaliação do estado de saúde (bom [ORa = 1,48]; regular [ORa = 3,22]; ruim [ORa = 5,00], muito ruim [ORa = 8,60]). Entre mulheres: aumento com a faixa etária, sendo maior entre as mulheres com 55-64 anos (ORa = 3,64); menor escolaridade; histórico de tabagismo, consumo de doces regularmente, consumo elevado de sal, atividade e aumento do tempo de prática de atividade física pesada no trabalho e atividade pesada no domicílio; ter sobrepeso (ORa = 1,23) ou obesidade (ORa = 1,32); diagnóstico de hipertensão (ORa = 1,50), colesterol elevado (ORa = 1,84); e piora da avaliação do estado de saúde (bom [ORa = 1,43]; regular [ORa = 3,16]; ruim [ORa = 5,44], muito ruim [ORa = 8,19]). Os achados apontam diferenças por sexo e contribuem no conhecimento do panorama da dor crônica na coluna, que além de afetar o indivíduo, geram impactos socioeconômicos negativos, por ocasionar incapacidades relacionadas ao trabalho e realização de atividades cotidianas.
Das, Sumon Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sarker, Mohammad Habibur Rahman; Das, Jui; Ahmed, Shawnawaz; Shahunja, K M; Nahar, Shamsun; Gibbons, Nora; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Rahman, Mustafizur; J Fuchs, George; Al Mamun, Abdullah; John Baker, Peter
There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition) with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh. Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity). Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors. The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010). In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (pchildhood malnutrition is significantly associated with increasing rotavirus diarrhoea among under-5 children. Thus mass vaccination in addition to interventions directed at man-made modifiable predictors for prevention and control is warranted.
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the common diseases that are attributed by many factors. Many from the adult population are afflicted with dental caries. This study aimed to determine the predictors of developing dental caries among adults. Three hundred and thirty four adults participated in this study. Information gathered includes their socio-demographic backgrounds, oral health behaviour, physical activity level, body mass index, body fat percentages, visceral fat level, and dental missing filled extracted teeth (DMFX index. All standard protocols were observed and DMFX was examined using the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Prevalence of dental caries was 87.4%, inclusive of 61.3% of female respondents with caries experience. Most of the study participants were overweight. Only the consumption of high sugar food (p=0.03 was found to be connected between dental caries and oral health behaviours. Regression analysis (p<0.001 showed that older age (p<0.001, regular visits to dental clinic per year (p=0.012, lower education level (p=0.025, and lower physical activity (p=0.008 were significant factors in developing dental caries among this study population. Older aged adults, frequent appointment with the dentist, lower education in oral health, and lower physical activity were possible factors for dental caries presence.
Oltean, Hanna N; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer F; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D
Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.
Hanna N. Oltean
Full Text Available Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis. Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90 and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61. Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67 and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72. Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84 and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97. This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.
Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen
Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People all around the world are more concerned with living a long and healthy life, rather than just living longer. Many studies have examined the effects of lifestyle on the risk of developing chronic diseases, but typically, they focus on only one specific behavior. Individuals often follow a lifestyle pattern which combines more than one behavior. This paper examines the combined effect of several lifestyle factors on the number of chronic diseases.OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine how different lifestyle factors influence the number of chronic diseases a person can have.METHODS: Data from the survey “Health and Well-being in the Transitions” (2000 were used. Dependent variable was number of chronic diseases which ranged from zero to five. Independent variables included the level of physical activity, variables based on food frequency questions, and other behavioral activities, adjusted for age and gender. Generalized linear model with Poisson distribution was used for analysis.RESULTS: The analysis showed that males have more diseases than females if other factors are controlled (B=0.182, p=0.001. Diseases increase by age (B=0.021, p=0.000. Those who used dairy products daily had smaller number of diseases (B= -0.145, p=0.012. Those who used vegetable oil 3-7 days a week had smaller number of diseases than those who use it 0-2 days a week (B= -0.224, p=0.058. Other food frequencies and ever smoking had no clear association with number of diseases.CONCLUSION: Increasing age and male gender are two factors which are associated with larger number of chronic diseases. Regular use of vegetable oil and dairy products seems to be important towards the path of a healthier life.
Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.
Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; de Sá, Naiza Nayla Bandeira; de Moura, Lenildo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho
To describe protection from chronic diseases and the prevalence of risk factors with data from a telephone survey in 2010. Telephone interviews in a random sample of adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District with residential landline telephones. The prevalence of these factors was stratified by sex, age and level of education. High prevalence of soft drink consumption (28.1%), fatty meat consumption (34.2%), and alcohol abuse (18%) and low fruit and vegetable intake (18%) and leisure time physical activity (15%) was verified. Approximately half the population was overweight and reported no sun protection practices. Physical inactivity and smoking afflicted almost 15% of adults. In general, risk factors were more prevalent in men, predominantly young adults with lower education levels. The results revealed differing health behavior according to socio-demographic variables. These variables should be taken into consideration in health promotion campaigns.
Obindo, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Nwefoh, Emeka; Agbir, Michael; Nwoga, Charles; Armiya'u, Aishatu; Davou, Francis; Maigida, Kurkat; Otache, Emmanuel; Ebiloma, Ajuma; Dakwak, Samuel; Umaru, John; Samuel, Elisha; Ogoshi, Christopher; Eaton, Julian
Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above) were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%), Moderate (31.6%) and Severe (26.3%). History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008); Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years) and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003) were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, pdepression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low levels of life satisfaction.
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%, Moderate (31.6% and Severe (26.3%. History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008; Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003 were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, p<0.004.Prevalence of depression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low
Full Text Available Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG, especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1 year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2% and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment.
Full Text Available Accelerometers, initially waist-worn but increasingly wrist-worn, are used to assess physical activity free from reporting-bias. However, its acceptability by study participants is unclear. Our objective is to assess factors associated with non-consent to a wrist-mounted accelerometer in older adults.Data are from 4880 Whitehall II study participants (1328 women, age range = 60-83, requested to wear a wrist-worn accelerometer 24 h every day for 9 days in 2012/13. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors were assessed by questionnaire and weight, height, blood pressure, cognitive and motor function were measured during a clinical examination.210 participants had contraindications and 388 (8.3% of the remaining 4670 participants did not consent. Women, participants reporting less physical activity and less favorable general health were more likely not to consent. Among the clinical measures, cognitive impairment (Odds Ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.00 and slow walking speed (Odds Ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.86 were associated with higher odds of non-consent.The rate of non-consent in our study of older adults was low. However, key markers of poor health at older ages were associated with non-consent, suggesting some selection bias in the accelerometer data.
Agrawal, Sutapa; Taylor, Fiona C; Moser, Kath; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah
Migration is suspected to increase the risk for psychological distress for those who enter a new cultural environment. We investigated the association between sociodemographic characteristics, premigratory and migratory factors and psychological distress in rural-to-urban migrants just after migration and after resettlement. Data from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (IMS, 2005-2007) were used. The analysis focused on 2112 participants aged ≥18 years from the total IMS sample ( n = 7067) who reported being migrant. Psychological distress was assessed based on the responses of the 7-questions in a five-point scale, where the respondents were asked to report about their feelings now and also asked to recall these feelings when they first migrated. The associations were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. High prevalence of psychological distress was found just after migration (7.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-8.4) than after settlement (4.7%; 95% CI: 3.8-5.6). Push factors as a reason behind migration and not being able to adjust in the new environment were the main correlates of psychological distress among both the male and female migrants, just after migration. Rural-urban migration is a major phenomenon in India and given the impact of premigratory and migratory related stressors on mental health, early intervention could prevent the development of psychological distress among the migrants.
The Modalities of Nonadherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and the Associated Factors Related to Patients' Sociodemographic Characteristics and Their Caregiving Perceptions in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).
Guira, Oumar; Kaboré, Delwendé S R; Dao, Ginette; Zagré, Nicaise; Zohoncon, Théodora M; Pietra, Virginio; Drabo, Joseph Y; Simporé, Jacques
The authors studied the modalities of nonadherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and its sociodemographic associated factors and those in relation to caregiving perception in Ouagadougou. A cross-sectional study was performed from December 2013 to February 2014 in 2 health centers. Adults receiving HAART for at least 3 months were included. Adherence was studied according to the quantitative, qualitative, and global criteria. Factors associated with nonadherence were analyzed with chi-square and Fisher tests. A logistic regression model was applied for multivariate analysis. The authors studied 152 patients: mean age 40.7 ± 7.8 years and sex ratio 0.34. Frequencies were 7.2% for self-reported quantitative, 20.4% for calculated quantitative, 31.6% for qualitative, and 38.2% for global nonadherence. Married status (P = .02), patient's dissatisfaction regarding clinical monitoring (P = .01), and therapeutic education (P = .03) were associated with nonadherence. In multivariate analysis, married status remains associated (odds ratio = 7.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.89-25.8, P = .0004). Nonadherence to HAART needs to be correctly managed during HIV/AIDS monitoring. © The Author(s) 2015.
Marijanović, Inga; Pavleković, Gordana; Buhovac, Teo; Martinac, Marko
In the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the prevalence and incidence of breast cancer has been increasing, and the national programme of early prevention, administered locally, is sporadic and without quality assurance. While many factors may influence women's decision to adopt prevention-oriented behaviours regarding breast cancer, this study has emphasised the importance of sociodemographic factors, psychological factors and mental wellbeing. Participants in the study were all patients who, during one year, were admitted for the first time for diagnosis and treatment in the biggest Clinical hospitals of the Herzegovina-Neretva region Patients were divided into two groups based on their TNM classification: "early stage" and "late stage". Three instruments were used in this study: an individual questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the woman, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The majority of patients diagnosed with advanced disease were admitted to hospital in the late/advanced stages of the disease. Multi-variant analysis showed that the most statistically significant positive predictor for early admittance in hospital is living with family and marital status while religiosity has a negative predictive value. The results indicate that 59.7% of respondents do not have depression, while the remainder do have some degree of depression. There was no statistically significant difference in the degree of depression between women who were diagnosed and treated early and those who were not. The employment status of the respondents was the only significant factor related to degree of depression. Although health locus of control and depression are not statistically significant predictors of early hospital treatment, the recommendation is that further studies focus on the implementation of MHLC and HDRS scales within the community. This could be useful in planning appropriate and
Patil, Crystal L; Klima, Carrie S; Leshabari, Sebalda C; Steffen, Alana D; Pauls, Heather; McGown, Molly; Norr, Kathleen F
The links between empowerment and a number of health-related outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been documented, but empowerment related to pregnancy is under-investigated. Antenatal care (ANC) is the entry point into the healthcare system for most women, so it is important to understand how ANC affects aspects of women's sense of control over their pregnancy. We compare pregnancy-related empowerment for women randomly assigned to the standard of care versus CenteringPregnancy-based group ANC (intervention) in two sub-Saharan countries, Malawi and Tanzania. Pregnant women in Malawi (n = 112) and Tanzania (n = 110) were recruited into a pilot study and randomized to individual ANC or group ANC. Retention at late pregnancy was 81% in Malawi and 95% in Tanzania. In both countries, individual ANC, termed focused antenatal care (FANC), is the standard of care. FANC recommends four ANC visits plus a 6-week post-birth visit and is implemented following the country's standard of care. In group ANC, each contact included self- and midwife-assessments in group space and 90 minutes of interactive health promotion. The number of contacts was the same for both study conditions. We measured pregnancy-related empowerment in late pregnancy using the Pregnancy-Related Empowerment Scale (PRES). Independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regressions were employed to assess whether group ANC led to higher PRES scores than individual ANC and to investigate other sociodemographic factors related to pregnancy-related empowerment. In Malawi, women in group ANC had higher PRES scores than those in individual ANC. Type of care was a significant predictor of PRES and explained 67% of the variation. This was not so in Tanzania; PRES scores were similar for both types of care. Predictive models including sociodemographic variables showed religion as a potential moderator of treatment effect in Tanzania. Muslim women in group ANC had a higher mean PRES score than those in
Rivero, Maria Romina; De Angelo, Carlos; Nuñez, Pablo; Salas, Martín; Motta, Carlos E; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D; Liang, Song
Intestinal parasitoses are a major concern for public health, especially in children from middle and low-income populations of tropical and subtropical areas. We examined the presence and co-infection of parasites in humans as well as parasitic environmental contamination in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We explored the environmental and socio-demographic characteristics of the persistence of parasites in children and their environment. This cross-section survey was conducted among children population comprised into the area of the public health care centers of Iguazú during June 2013 to May 2016. Copro-parasitological status of 483 asymptomatic children was assessed. Simultaneously, a design-based sampling of 744 soil samples and 530 dog feces was used for characterize the environmental contamination. The 71.5% of these sites were contaminated. Sixteen genera were detected in the environment being hookworms (62.0%) the main pathogens group detected followed by Toxocara spp (16.3%), Trichuris spp (15.2%) and Giardia (6.5%). Total children prevalence raised 58.8%, detecting twelve genera of parasite with Giardia intestinalis as the most prevalent pathogen (29.0%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (23.0%), Hymenolepis nana (12.4%) and hookworms (4.4%). Through questionnaires and census data, we characterized the socio-demographics conditions at an individual, family and neighborhood levels. A multi-level analysis including environmental contamination data showed that the ´presence of parasites´ was mostly determined by individual (e.g. age, playing habits, previous treatment) and household level (e.g. UBN, WASH, mother's literacy) determinants. Remarkably, to define the level of 'parasite co-infection', besides individual and household characteristics, environmental factors at a neighborhood level were important. Our work represents the major survey of intestinal parasites in human and environmental samples developed in the region. High prevalence was detected in
Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Arikan, Duygu; Ozyazicioğlu, Nurcan
Pediatric vaccinations have decreased the incidence and mortality from infectious diseases in children, but adolescents continue to be adversely affected by vaccine preventable disease. The present study was performed to determine the status of adolescents immunization and to investigate the effect of several socio-demographic factors on immunization. Using the cluster-sampling method, 817 adolescents were selected in 24 high schools (15,000 students) in central district of Erzurum (Turkey). Adolescents were categorized as completely vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, unvaccinated or vaccination status unknown. Of the 817 adolescents, 6.9% were completely vaccinated, 24.4% were incompletely vaccinated and 64.1% were unvaccinated. The vaccination status of 4.6% of adolescents was unknown. A significantly correlation was seen between the number of siblings, the level of mother and father education, the level of parent's socio-economics status, health insurance and immunization status. Our findings indicated a small percentage of adolescents receive all of the recommended vaccine. In immunization programs in Turkey, priority should be given to increase adolescent immunization rate with a middle school and/or adolescents, vaccination.
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.
Dietrich, Janan Janine; Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari
Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Mobile phone-based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions.
Jedy-Agba, Elima; McCormack, Valerie; Olaomi, Oluwole; Badejo, Wunmi; Yilkudi, Monday; Yawe, Terna; Ezeome, Emmanuel; Salu, Iliya; Miner, Elijah; Anosike, Ikechukwu; Adebamowo, Sally N; Achusi, Benjamin; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Adebamowo, Clement
Advanced stage at diagnosis is a common feature of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), contributing to poor survival rates. Understanding its determinants is key to preventing deaths from this cancer in SSA. Within the Nigerian Integrative Epidemiology of Breast Cancer Study, a multicentred case-control study on breast cancer, we studied factors affecting stage at diagnosis of cases, i.e. women diagnosed with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer between January 2014 and July 2016 at six secondary and tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. Stage was assessed using clinical and imaging methods. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine associations of sociodemographic, breast cancer awareness, health care access and clinical factors with odds of later stage (I, II, III or IV) at diagnosis. A total of 316 women were included, with a mean age (SD) of 45.4 (11.4) years. Of these, 94.9% had stage information: 5 (1.7%), 92 (30.7%), 157 (52.4%) and 46 (15.3%) were diagnosed at stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. In multivariate analyses, lower educational level (odds ratio (OR) 2.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 5.29), not believing in a cure for breast cancer (1.81: 1.09, 3.01), and living in a rural area (2.18: 1.05, 4.51) were strongly associated with later stage, whilst age at diagnosis, tumour grade and oestrogen receptor status were not. Being Muslim (vs. Christian) was associated with lower odds of later stage disease (0.46: 0.22, 0.94). Our findings suggest that factors that are amenable to intervention concerning breast cancer awareness and health care access, rather than intrinsic tumour characteristics, are the strongest determinants of stage at diagnosis in Nigerian women.
Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B
The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Friis, Karina; Ekholm, Ola; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen
Denmark is facing a shortage of nurses and this trend is anticipated to worsen within the next decades. The major reason for this shortage is that only very few nurses remain employed until the general retirement age. Every year several nurses are expelled from the labour market prematurely which causes a problem not only for the disabled nurses but also because it can affect the morale and productivity among the remaining personnel while new staff members are hired and trained. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between lifestyle, working environment, socio-demographic factors and disability pension (DP) among nurses. The study was based on 12,028 nurses above the age of 44 who in 1993 completed a questionnaire. The survey information was combined with longitudinal data from a register compiled by Statistics Denmark. The follow-up period was from 1993 to 2002. Nurses with relatively low gross incomes were more likely to become disability pensioners compared to nurses with high incomes (hazard ratio, HR 1.33 and HR 2.17). Also, nurses who were singles had a higher probability of entering DP (HR 1.63). Nurses who worked fixed evening or night shifts had higher risks of DP than nurses who worked daytime exclusively (HR 1.51 and HR 1.45). Smoking, obesity and having a sedentary lifestyle were also risk indicators for DP (HR 1.42, HR 1.63 and HR 1.50). Furthermore, low influence and high physical demands at work increased the probability of entering DP (HR 1.39 and HR 1.22). DP among nurses is influenced by a number of factors. Nurses who have poor working environments and/or unhealthy lifestyles have higher risks of becoming disability pensioners. Also, nurses who are singles and/or have low gross incomes have higher probability of entering DP.
Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling
Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Aghdassi, Ali A; Weiss, F Ulrich; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Simon, Peter
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas and frequently associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. Since only a small proportion of alcoholics eventually develop chronic pancreatitis genetic susceptibility factors have long been suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Smaller studies in ethnically defined populations have found that not only polymorphism in proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, such as Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, can confer a risk for developing chronic pancreatitis but also mutations that had previously been reported in association with idiopathic pancreatitis, such as SPINK1 mutations. In a much broader approach employing genome wide search strategies the NAPS study found that polymorphisms in the Trypsin locus (PRSS1 rs10273639), and the Claudin 2 locus (CLDN2-RIPPLY1-MORC4 locus rs7057398 and rs12688220) confer an increased risk of developing alcohol-induced pancreatitis. These results from North America have now been confirmed by a European consortium. In another genome wide approach polymorphisms in the genes encoding Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) non-secretor status and blood group B were not only found in association with higher serum lipase levels in healthy volunteers but also to more than double the risk for developing alcohol-associated chronic pancreatitis. These novel genetic associations will allow to investigate the pathophysiological and biochemical basis of alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis on a cellular level and in much more detail than previously possible. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tahir, A.; Malik, F.R.; Akhtar, P.
Background: Chronicity of liver disease is determined either by duration of liver disease or by evidence of either severe liver disease or physical stigmata of chronic liver disease. Chronic liver disease may be caused commonly by persistent viral infections, metabolic diseases, drugs, autoimmune hepatitis, or unknown factors. The objective of this study was to find out the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in children. Methodology: It was a descriptive, prospective study which used a structured proforma designed to collect data of cases of CLD from both indoor and outdoor Paediatrics units of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. All children under 12 years having either clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease and/or elevated liver enzymes for more than 3 months were included in this study. Results: Sixty cases of CLD were enrolled from indoor and outdoor units from January 2010 to July 201. Thirty nine (65%) cases were male and 21 (35%) were female. Eleven children were less than 1 year, 18 were 1-5 years old and 31 were 5-12 years of age. Viral hepatitis was the most common cause found in 22 (36.7%) cases. Out of these 22 patients with viral aetiology 19 (31.66%) patients had Hepatitis C and 3 (5%) had Hepatitis B. Glycogen storage disease was seen in 8.3% cases, and biliary atresia and Wilson disease in 6.7% each. Other less commonly found cases were autoimmune hepatitis, TORCH infections, hepatoma and drug induced hepatitis (1.7% each). Cause couldn't be established in 35% cases which remained idiopathic. Conclusion: Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children, with the highest incidence of chronic Hepatitis C followed by metabolic disorders (glycogen storage disease and Wilson disease) and biliary atresia. Chronic viral hepatitis was most prevalent between 11 months to 12 years of age. Wilson disease was common in 3-7 years age group, and
Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M
We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.
Sabra L. Katz-Wise
Full Text Available This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009 of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes. Models with sexual orientation only were compared to models with factors hypothesized to increase or decrease risk of pain. Significant odds ratios (OR for chronic pain frequency (daily/weekly vs. rarely with confidence intervals (CI and associated factors are reported. Compared to same-gender heterosexual females, mostly heterosexuals were more likely to report headaches (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.09, 1.79 and mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to report muscle/joint pain (mostly heterosexual OR = 1.69, CI = 1.29, 2.20; bisexual OR = 1.87, CI = 1.03, 3.38. Compared to same-gender heterosexual males, gay males were more likely to report headaches (OR = 2.00, CI = 1.06, 3.82, but less likely to report muscle/joint pain (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.11, 0.74. Significant disparities were attenuated by up to 16% when associated factors were added to the model. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain were partially explained by associated factors, but more research is needed to develop intervention and prevention strategies.
Joelma Alves de Lima
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical factors related to patients with an intestinal stoma and to correlate them with locus of health control, self-esteem and self-image. Method: 44 patients with an intestinal stoma participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Scale for Locus of Health Control, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM and Body Investment Scale. Results: With regard to Locus Health Control variables, sociodemographic variables with alterations were: unemployed (28.13; retirees (27.79; age up to 50 years (28.44; and singles (27.89. Regarding Body Investment Scale, the sociodemographic variables with alterations were: age up to 50 years (21.79; single (19.15 or married (17.53; retired (18.79 or unemployed (19.83; and can read and write (20.13. Regarding Rosenberg-EPM Self-esteem Scale, all sociodemographic variables were altered. Conclusions: Ostomized patients presented alterations in the following variables: unemployed, retired, aged up to 50 years and unmarried. There were also alterations in individuals whose cause of the stoma was neoplasia, a temporary stoma, stoma time <4 years, and ostomized non-participants of an association or support group, and who also did not practice physical activities. We conclude from these findings that ostomized individuals who participated in the study and who were included in these variables showed negative feelings about their body and believed that only they could control their health and that the people involved in their care and rehabilitation did not could contribute to their improvement. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos relativos aos pacientes com estoma intestinal e correlacioná-los a locus de controle da saúde, autoestima e autoimagem. Método: 44 pacientes com estoma intestinal participaram do estudo. Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Escala para Locus de Controle da Saúde, Escala de Autoestima de
Raychaudhuri, Sreejata; Mandal, Sukanta
Cervical cancer is common among women worldwide. A multitude of risk factors aggravate the disease. This study was conducted to: (1) determine the prevalence and (2) make a comparative analysis of the socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors of cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice between rural and urban women of North Bengal, India. Community-based cross-sectional study. A survey (first in North Bengal) was conducted among 133 women in a rural area (Kawakhali) and 88 women in an urban slum (Shaktigarh) using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were informed of the causes (including HPV), signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer and treatment, and the procedure of the PAP test and HPV vaccination. The prevalence of risk factors like multiparity, early age of marriage, use of cloth during menstruation, use of condom and OCP, early age of first intercourse was 37.2%, 82%, 83.3%, 5.4%, 15.8% and 65.6% respectively. Awareness about the cause, signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer, PAP test and HPV vaccination was 3.6%, 6.3%, 3.6%, 9.5% and 14.5% respectively. Chi-square testing revealed that in the study population, significant differential at 5% exists between rural and urban residents with respect to number of children, use of cloth/sanitary napkins, family history of cancer and awareness regarding causes of cervical cancer. Regarding KAP, again using chi-square tests, surprisingly, level of education is found to be significant for each element of KAP in urban areas in contrast to complete absence of association between education and elements of KAP in rural areas. A large number of risk factors were present in both areas, the prevalence being higher in the rural areas. The level of awareness and role of education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban areas. This pilot study needs to be followed up by large scale programmes to re-orient awareness campaigns, especially in
Uratsu Connie S
The effects of reproductive risks factors, Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, smoking history, and alcohol consumption with regard to breast cancer risk in Marin County should be further evaluated. When possible, future comparisons of breast cancer incidence rates between regions should adjust for differences in income and education in addition to age and race/ethnicity, preferably by using a sociodemographically similar comparison group.
Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, and oral cancer are the most prevalent dental diseases affecting people in the Indian community. Objective: The study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices on oral hygiene and its association with the sociodemographic factors among patients attending the general Outpatient Department (OPD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 patients attending the general OPD of the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India, from 1 April to 30 April, 2013. The study tool was a pre-designed and pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Results: About 69.20% of the participants used a toothbrush with toothpaste as a method of cleaning their teeth; 35.71% brushed twice in a day; 33.03% brushed both in the morning and at bedtime; and 8.93% used mouthwash. About 40.62% visited the dentist during the last six months; among them 61.18% attended because of pain. Almost three-fourth of the participants knew that tooth decay and bad breath were the effects of not cleaning the teeth. It was known to 71.42, 63.39, 70.53, and 73.21% of the respondents, respectively, that excess sweet, cold drink, alcohol, and smoking/pan chewing were bad for dental health. Television was the source of knowledge to 57.14% of the participants and 35.71% acquired their knowledge from a dentist. Females, literates, urban residents, users of mouthwash, and regular visitors to the dentist had good oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: Oral health awareness and practices among the study population are poor and need to improve.
Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge
To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. Findings The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2% were males while 33 (41.8% were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5 years with the dominant age group (46.2% being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8% cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2% cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. Conclusions The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients. Conflicts of Interest: None
Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Härkänen, Tommi; Tiihonen, Jari; Haukka, Jari
Background Depression ranges among the leading causes of early exit from the labor market worldwide. We aimed to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, sickness absence, health care and prescription patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension in psychiatric outpatients with depression. Methods All non-retired patients aged 18–60 years and living in Sweden 31.12.2005 with at least one psychiatric outpatient care visit due to a depressive episode during 2006 (N = 18034): were followed from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2010 with regard to granting of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension. Uni- and multivariate Rate Ratios (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were estimated for the various risk markers by Poisson Regression. Results During the four years of follow-up, 3044 patients (16.8%) were granted a disability pension, the majority due to mental disorders (2558, 84%). In the multivariate analyses, being female, below 25 or above 45 years of age, with low educational level, living alone, residing outside big cities and being born outside Europe were predictive of a granted disability pension. Frequent in- and outpatient care due to mental disorders, prescription of antidepressants and long sickness absence spells were also associated with an increased risk of disability pension (range of RRs 1.10 to 5.26). Somatic health care was only predictive of disability pension due to somatic disorders. The risk of being granted a disability pension remained at the same level as at the start of follow-up for about 1.5 years, when it started to decrease and to level off at about 20% of the risk at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Identified risk markers should be considered when monitoring individuals with depression and when designing intervention programs. PMID:24963812
Full Text Available Depression ranges among the leading causes of early exit from the labor market worldwide. We aimed to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, sickness absence, health care and prescription patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension in psychiatric outpatients with depression.All non-retired patients aged 18-60 years and living in Sweden 31.12.2005 with at least one psychiatric outpatient care visit due to a depressive episode during 2006 (N = 18,034: were followed from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2010 with regard to granting of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension. Uni- and multivariate Rate Ratios (RR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were estimated for the various risk markers by Poisson Regression.During the four years of follow-up, 3044 patients (16.8% were granted a disability pension, the majority due to mental disorders (2558, 84%. In the multivariate analyses, being female, below 25 or above 45 years of age, with low educational level, living alone, residing outside big cities and being born outside Europe were predictive of a granted disability pension. Frequent in- and outpatient care due to mental disorders, prescription of antidepressants and long sickness absence spells were also associated with an increased risk of disability pension (range of RRs 1.10 to 5.26. Somatic health care was only predictive of disability pension due to somatic disorders. The risk of being granted a disability pension remained at the same level as at the start of follow-up for about 1.5 years, when it started to decrease and to level off at about 20% of the risk at the end of follow-up.Identified risk markers should be considered when monitoring individuals with depression and when designing intervention programs.
Gao, Wen-Xiang; Ou, Chun-Quan; Fang, Shu-Bin; Sun, Yue-Qi; Zhang, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Dong-Dong; Lv, Wei; Liu, Shi-Xi; Li, P Z; Xu, Geng; Shi, Jianbo; Fu, Qing-Ling
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is defined as a condition of inflammation in the paranasal sinus mucosa persisting for more than 12 weeks. We previously reported that the prevalence of CRS was about 8 % in China. Here, we aim to investigate the occupational and environmental risk factors associated with CRS. Data were collected from seven Chinese cities: Urumqi, Changchun, Beijing, Wuhan, Chengdu, Huaian and Guangzhou. CRS was diagnosed according to the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP(3)OS) document. Participants were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire, which was developed by the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project and covered sociodemographic characteristics, CRS-related symptoms and occupational and environmental exposures. We evaluated the association between CRS and various occupational and environmental factors using odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). The total study population consisted of 10,633 subjects, 850 (7.99 %) of whom were defined as having CRS according to the EP(3)OS criteria. We found that there were significant associations between occupational and environmental factors and CRS. Specifically, having a clearance-related job, occupational exposure to dust, occupational exposure to poisonous gas, a pet at home or carpet at home or at the workplace were risk factors for CRS. Additionally, the method used to keep warm in winter, the duration of time spent using air conditioning in summer and the frequency of exposure to mouldy or damp environments were significantly different in subjects with and without CRS. Our data showed that some occupational and environmental exposures are strongly associated with CRS, which aids in understanding the epidemiology of CRS.
Sumon Kumar Das
Full Text Available There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh.Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors.The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010. In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (p<0.001; 53%-21% (p<0.001 and 32%-22% (p<0.001 respectively over the same period. Mean ambient temperature increased from 25.76°C-26.62°C (p = 0.07; mean rainfall, sea level pressure and mean humidity decreased from 234.92-111.75 mm (p = 0.5, 1008.30-1006.61 mm of hg (p = 0.02 and 76.63%-70.26% (p<0.001, respectively. In the adjusted model, a decrease in monthly proportion of underweight [coef.: -0.189 (95% CI:-0.376, -0.003] and wasting [-0.265 (-0.455, -0.075] were significantly and inversely associated with rotavirus infection. However, an inverse but insignificant association was observed for
Monge, Susana; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodríguez, Carmen; de Mendoza, Carmen; de Górgolas, Miguel; Cosín, Jaime; Dronda, Fernando; Pérez-Cecilia, Elisa; Peña, José María; Santos, Ignacio; Rubio, Rafael; Del Amo, Julia
The objective of this work is to study the impact of HAART at a population level and to identify socio-demographic factors that may affect it, which is essential for deciding interventions. An open, prospective cohort of HIV seroconverters recruited in the Centro Sanitario Sandoval (1986-2009), and followed up in collaboration with referral hospitals in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Cumulative incidence of AIDS and death was calculated by the multiple decrements method, and predictive Fine & Gray models were developed to identify associated factors. A calendar period (<1997; ≥ 1997) was introduced as a proxy of HAART availability. A total of 479 HIV seroconverters were identified. Hazard Ratio (HR) for progression to AIDS was 0.215 (95% CI: 0.11-0.519; P<.01) for the period ≥ 1997. Risk increased with age at the time of seroconversion (for each year older HR=1.071; 95% CI: 1.038-1.105; P<.01), but only prior to 1997. In the following period, only a high educational level showed to be a protective factor (HR=0.982; 95% CI: 0.936-1.031; P=.06). HR for progression to death was 0.134 (95% CI: 0.052-0.346; P<.01) for the period after 1997, 0.383 (95% CI: 0.168-0.875; P=.02) in people with high educational level and 1.048 (95% CI: 1.014-1.084; P<.01) for each year increase in age at seroconversion, both latter effects being homogeneous throughout the two periods. HAART has had a great impact on the risk of progression to AIDS and death, but this benefit appears to be influenced by age at HIV infection and educational level of the patient, which highlights the importance of a global approach to case management and of the implementation of policies that address social inequities in health. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne
This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.
Zhang, Peter H.
This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…
Full Text Available Chronic noncancer pain (CNCP is a prevalent health problem with pervasive negative effects on the individual’s quality of life. Previous epidemiological studies of CNCP have suggested a number of individual biological, psychological and societal correlates of CNCP, but it has rarely been possible to simultaneously compare the relative strengths of many such correlates in a Canadian population sample. With data provided by the 1996/1997 Canadian National Population Health Survey, ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the extent to which a number of population variables are associated with CNCP in a large (n=69,365 dataset. The analysis revealed cross-sectional correlations of varying strengths between CNCP and 27 factors. Increasing age, low income, low educational achievement, daily cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and abstention from alcohol were among the factors found to increase CNCP risk. The considerable impact of distress and depression on CNCP are also highlighted. A number of comorbid medical illnesses increased CNCP risk, including some (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy and thyroid disease that have not hitherto been associated with pain. White race and the affirmation of an important role for spirituality or faith reduced CNCP risk. In contrast to some previous studies, female sex did not emerge as an independent CNCP risk. The present exploratory analysis describes associations between CNCP and a number of characteristics from several domains, thus suggesting many areas for further research.
Pinotti, Mirko; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Branchini, Alessio; Cavallari, Nicola; Baba, Kenkichi; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bernardi, Francesco; Paul, Ketema N.; Tosini, Gianluca
Chronic sleep loss, a common feature of human life in industrialized countries, is associated to cardiovascular disorders. Variations in functional parameters of coagulation might contribute to explain this relationship. By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. This variation was consistent with a decrease (−49.8%) in the plasma activity levels of factor VII (FVII), the crucial physiologicalal trigger of coagulation, which was even more pronounced at the liver mRNA level (−85.7%). The recovery in normal sleep conditions for three days completely restored thrombin generation and FVII activity in plasma. For the first time, we demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation on its own reduces, in a reversible manner, the FVII expression levels, thus influencing the TF/FVIIa activation pathway efficiency. PMID:20418241
Li, Weiying; Zhao, Yuliang; Fu, Ping
Many studies have shown evidence that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), as a classic treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia, have several disadvantages and may trigger various adverse events with long-term use. The hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) pathway has been intensively investigated in kidney disease, especially in CKD, as research has shown that HIF-mediated erythropoiesis might work as a potential therapeutic strategy for managing CKD-related anemia. Development of prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (PHIs), as an effective HIF activator, is a valuable step toward finding a replacement for ESAs, which showed an effective erythropoiesis through a comprehensive and physiological approach by promoting erythropoietin production, increasing iron bioavailability and improving chronic inflammatory status. Heretofore no adverse events or obvious off-target effects have been reported in clinical trials of PHIs. Nevertheless, a cautious inspection with extended follow-up period is warranted to validate the safety of prolonged HIF elevation, especially considering its ambiguous role in fibrogenesis and inflammation responses and possible risks in accelerating vascular calcification and tumorigenesis. A weighed dosing strategy might be the key to circumvent the unexpected side-effect brought by pleotropic effects of HIF elevation and achieve a selective augmentation of HIF-mediated signaling pathway. New studies with longer follow-up period and adequate analysis about the risks for proinflammation, vascular calcification and tumorigenesis are needed to ensure the drugs are safe for long-term use before being widely accepted in daily clinical practice.
Kal'chenko, V.A.; Kalabushkin, B.A.; Rubanovich, A.V.
Genetic structure of two Centaurea scabiosa L. populations was studied by frequency distribution of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) locus genotypes. The experimental population has been growing under conditions of chronic irradiation, with the dose per generation amounting to 1.2 to 25.5 Gy. In it, mutational variants are observed with a frequency of 5.4.10(-3)-4.5.10(-2) per generation (as compared to control population frequency at 5.4.10(-4)). Indexes for heterozygosity, mean number of genotypes, and effective number of alleles were higher in the experimental population. Segregation analysis revealed no differences in viability in the control population, and all genotypic combinations were found to be nearly neutral. In the experimental population, however, significant differences in relative viability of the genotypes were disclosed. The relative viability of heterozygotes for mutant allele C' was nearly maximum, while heterozygotes for other mutant alleles showed minimum viability. We reach the conclusion that the differences in genetic structure of the populations under investigation can be explained by the chronic irradiation factor that brought out differences in adaptability of both normal and mutant genotypes. The suggestion is that intra-locus interactions of the C' allele with normal alleles determine plant resistance to a wide range of unfavorable environmental conditions
Yamanari, Toshio; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Onishi, Akifumi; Ogawa-Akiyama, Ayu; Kano, Yuzuki; Mise, Koki; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Shikata, Kenichi; Wada, Jun
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are increased in serum and urine in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether the levels of TFF predict the progression of CKD remains to be elucidated. We determined the TFF levels using peptide-specific ELISA in spot urine samples and performed a prospective cohort study. The association between the levels of urine TFFs and other urine biomarkers as well as the renal prognosis was analyzed in 216 CKD patients (mean age: 53.7 years, 47.7% female, 56.9% with chronic glomerulonephritis, and mean eGFR: 58.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ). The urine TFF1 and TFF3 levels significantly increased with the progression of CKD stages, but not the urine TFF2 levels. The TFF1 and TFF3 peptide levels predicted the progression of CKD ≥ stage 3b by ROC analysis (AUC 0.750 and 0.879, resp.); however, TFF3 alone predicted CKD progression in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 3.854, 95% confidence interval 1.316-11.55). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that patients with a higher TFF1 and TFF3 alone, or in combination with macroalbuminuria, had a significantly worse renal prognosis. The data suggested that urine TFF peptides are associated with renal progression and the outcomes in patients with CKD.
Oscar Soto Martínez
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con el objetivo de identificar factores de riesgo del embarazo en la adolescencia. Se estudiaron a todas las pacientes (37 con edades entre 12 y 19 años, pertenecientes al Policlínico "Emilio Daudinot", embarazadas en el año 1998 (casos y 37 adolescentes (controles que nunca han estado embarazadas, de igual área de salud y edades que los casos. Se aplicó un cuestionario a cada una de las adolescentes. Los datos se procesaron en SPSS 9.0. Estos se presentan en tablas y figuras donde se utilizan las medidas de resumen del nivel analítico. Se obtuvo la significación de la asociación mediante la prueba X2 de Mantell- Haenszel, en el que se prefijó el 95 % para el intervalo de confianza. A las variables significativas se les determinó el grado de asociación mediante el odds ratio. Resultaron significativas de forma bivariada el número de casamientos (OR 6,48 [2,39;15,56], la ocupación (OR 6,13 [2,05;14,23], el estado civil (OR 2,13 [1,26;3,86].A case-control study was conducted aimed at identifying the risk factors of pregnancy in adolescence. All the patients aged 12-19 (37 from "Emilio Daudinot" Polyclinic that got pregnant in 1998 and 37 adolescents (controls who have never been pregnant with the same age and from the same area were studied. Every adolescent answered a questionnaire. Ddata were processed in SPSS 9.0 and they were shown in tables and figures where the summary measures of the analytical level were used. The association significance was obtained by Mantell-Haenszel X2 test, in which 95 % was prefixed as the confidence interval. The association degree was determined in the significant variables by the odds ratio. The number of marriages (OR 6,48 [2,39;15,56], the occupation (OR 6,13 [2,05;14,23], and the marital status (OR 2,13 [1,26;3,86] proved to be significant in a bivariated way.
Beck, Tove Kjær; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, H.
for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects....... The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle...... ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive...
Elbinoune, Imane; Amine, Bouchra; Shyen, Siham; Gueddari, Sanae; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia
Chronic pain in rheumatology often has a psychic impact, which may aggravate the daily life of patients. Chronic neck pain, as an example, is a frequent reason for consultation. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with neck pain, and identify risk factors associated with their occurrence. It was a cross-sectional study that concerned 80 patients with neck pain lasting for more than 3 months, seen in rheumatology consultations. All patients with symptomatic neck pain or psychological history or receiving psychotropic medication were excluded from the study. For each patient, we determined the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical ones. The anxious and depressed mood was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Of the 80 patients, 67 (83.8%) were women. Average age of our population was 51.8± 11.8 years. Median duration of symptoms was 24 months [12, 48]. Mean VAS pain was 63.9% ± 12.5, mean VAS functional discomfort was 60.9% ± 14.2 and mean VAS disability was 59.8% ± 14.7. 32 patients (40%) were illiterate and 18 (22.5%) had university level. Anxiety was found in 54 (68.4%) and 44 (55.7%) patients were depressed. In univariate analysis, VAS disability was statistically linked to anxiety (OR:1.05; 95%CI: 1.01-1.08; p = 0.02). The cervicobrachial neuralgia (CBN) was significantly associated with depression (OR: 3.33; 95%CI: 1.20-9.23; p = 0.02). Primary education level had a statistically significant relationship with anxiety (OR: 6.00; 95%CI: 1.03-34.84; p = 0.04) and depression (OR: 5.00; 95%CI: 1.09-22.82; p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, VAS disability and CBN were independently associated with anxiety and depression respectively. This study underlines the fact that anxiety and depression are prevalent in chronic neck pain (CNP) patients. Furthermore, disability and CBN which are linked to CNP can predict which patient is at higher risk of psychological distress.
Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Ai; Fujisawa, Mariko; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo
The prognosis of advanced chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poor with the mortality rate approximately two-fold higher than the general population according to a survey of the prognosis of CP. From this standpoint, the concept of early CP was propagated in Japan in 2009 to encourage the medical treatment for the earlier stages of CP. That is, picking up the patients suspicious for early CP and then providing medical treatment for them are very important not only for patients, but also for health care economics. In this review, we described some potential factors associated with the development of CP (alcohol, smoking, past history of acute pancreatitis, aging, gallstone, and gender) that are extremely important to discover patients with early-stage CP.
Full Text Available Interest in chronic conditions reflects their role as the first cause of death and disability in developed countries; improving the management of these conditions is a priority for health care services. The aim of this study was to establish which sociodemographic factors influence adherence to standards of care for chronic heart failure (CHF. A generalized multilevel structural equation model was developed and applied to a sample of patients with CHF obtained from administrative data flows in six Italian regions to ascertain any associations between adherence to standards of care for CHF and sociodemographic variables. Indicators of compliance were adherence to beta-blocker therapy (BB-A and Angiotensin Convertin Enzime inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker therapy (ACE-A, and creatinine and electrolyte testing (CNK-T. All indicators were computed over a one-year follow-up. Among a cohort of 24,997 patients, the BB-A rate was 40.4%, the ACE-A rate 61.1%, and the CNK-T rate 57.0%. Factors found associated with adherence were gender, age, and citizenship. Our study shows an inadequate adherence to standards of care for CHF, particularly associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics. This suggests the need to improve the role of primary care in managing this chronic condition. The measures considered only apply to patients with a reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, hence a limitation of this analysis is the lack of information on left ventricular ejection.
Full Text Available Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver′s sociodemographic characteristics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively.
Ohba, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Yu; Nakagawa, Toru; Murakami, Hideki
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease in the elderly, and the recurrence rate of CSDH is reported to range from 2.3 to 33%. We performed a retrospective review of a number of CSDH cases and the potential factors associated with CSDH recurrence. The patient population comprised 112 men and 65 women with a mean age of 74.7 years. We analyzed the following factors: age, sex, antiplatelet and anticoagulant use, hematoma laterality, hematoma thickness, degree of midline shift and internal architecture of the hematoma in the preoperative CT films, use of irrigation, direction of the drainage tube, width of the subdural space, and degree of midline shift and the presence of a massive subdural air collection in the postoperative CT films. Univariate analysis revealed that there was a trend for different rates of recurrence among the different types of hematomas. The presence of a postoperative massive subdural air collection tended to be associated with the recurrence of hematoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that separated hematomas were significantly associated with CSDH recurrence, whereas the presence of postoperative massive subdural air collection tended to be associated with hematoma recurrence. Neither univariate nor multivariate analysis could demonstrate an association between the direction of the drainage tube and the recurrence of CSDH.
Klar, Joakim; Blomstrand, Peter; Brunmark, Charlott; Badhai, Jitendra; Håkansson, Hanna Falk; Brange, Charlotte Sollie; Bergendal, Birgitta; Dahl, Niklas
Genetic factors influencing lung function may predispose to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signalling pathway is critical for lung development and lung epithelial renewal. The hypothesis behind this study was that constitutive FGF10 insufficiency may lead to pulmonary disorder. Therefore investigation of the pulmonary functions of patients heterozygous for loss of function mutations in the FGF10 gene was performed. The spirometric measures of lung function from patients and non-carrier siblings were compared and both groups were related to matched reference data for normal human lung function. The patients show a significant decrease in lung function parameters when compared to control values. The average FEV1/IVC quota (FEV1%) for the patients is 0.65 (80% of predicted) and reversibility test using Terbutalin resulted in a 3.7% increase in FEV1. Patients with FGF10 haploinsufficiency have lung function parameters indicating COPD. A modest response to Terbutalin confirms an irreversible obstructive lung disease. These findings support the idea that genetic variants affecting the FGF10 signalling pathway are important determinants of lung function that may ultimately contribute to COPD. Specifically, the results show that FGF10 haploinsufficiency affects lung function measures providing a model for a dosage sensitive effect of FGF10 in the development of COPD.
Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population
Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. The mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and men comprised 61% of participants. Forty-two percent reported a household income less than $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, whereas unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (P < 0.05). A significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was observed with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (P = 0.004) but not in the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (P = 0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL, and it highlights the need for longitudinal studies to examine this association in the future. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ye. D. Bazdyrev
Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.
Sato, Miho; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; An, Hiromi; Naruto, Takuya; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Shima, Yoshio; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei
It is clear that inflammation plays an important role in developing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. The purpose of the present study is to investigate changes of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 levels over time in infants with chronic lung disease. The serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 were measured after delivery, and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age in 10 infants with chronic lung disease and in 18 infants without chronic lung disease. The serum level of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was significantly higher in infants with chronic lung disease than in infants without chronic lung disease after delivery. The differences between these two groups remained up to 28 days of age. Prenatal inflammation with persistence into postnatal inflammation may be involved in the onset of chronic lung disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and their related morbidity and mortality, are currently the most common public health problems and also a higher burden of disease in Brazil. They represent a real challenge for primary health care. This study describes the methodology and baseline data of an adult population with hypertension and diabetes attending in primary health care. Methods It is a cross sectional study which presents data from a longitudinal research. 3784 adults were randomly selected from the registry of a health service in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of hypertension and/or diabetes, consulted at least once in the prior 3 years and 18 years of age or older. Home data collection consisted of a questionnaire with information on demographic, medical history, life style and socio-economic factors. Results A total of 2482 users were interviewed (response rate of 71 %. The median age was 64 (IQR = 55.7 and the majority were women (68 %, and married (52 %. Whereas 66.5 % (CI 95 % 64.5-68.3 of the sample had only hypertension, 6.5 % (CI 95 % 5.5-7.5 had diabetes and 27.1 % (CI 95 % 25.3-28.8 had both diseases. The prevalence of diseases increased with age and with fewer years of study (p < 0.05. Subjects with both diseases had significantly more associated comorbidities. Conclusions Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent in older individuals, especially women, and less educated people. People suffering with both chronic conditions simultaneously are more likely to have additional comorbidities.
Baldisserotto, Julio; Kopittke, Luciane; Nedel, Fulvio Borges; Takeda, Silvia Pasa; Mendonça, Claunara Schilling; Sirena, Sérgio Antonio; Diercks, Margarita Silva; de Lima, Lena Azeredo; Nicolau, Belinda
Systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and their related morbidity and mortality, are currently the most common public health problems and also a higher burden of disease in Brazil. They represent a real challenge for primary health care. This study describes the methodology and baseline data of an adult population with hypertension and diabetes attending in primary health care. It is a cross sectional study which presents data from a longitudinal research. 3784 adults were randomly selected from the registry of a health service in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of hypertension and/or diabetes, consulted at least once in the prior 3 years and 18 years of age or older. Home data collection consisted of a questionnaire with information on demographic, medical history, life style and socio-economic factors. A total of 2482 users were interviewed (response rate of 71 %). The median age was 64 (IQR = 55.7) and the majority were women (68 %), and married (52 %). Whereas 66.5 % (CI 95 % 64.5-68.3) of the sample had only hypertension, 6.5 % (CI 95 % 5.5-7.5) had diabetes and 27.1 % (CI 95 % 25.3-28.8) had both diseases. The prevalence of diseases increased with age and with fewer years of study (p < 0.05). Subjects with both diseases had significantly more associated comorbidities. Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent in older individuals, especially women, and less educated people. People suffering with both chronic conditions simultaneously are more likely to have additional comorbidities.
Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.
Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measur...
Feldmann, M; Tenhagen genannt Emming, S; Hoedemaker, M
In a controlled field trial, 178 dairy cows with chronic endometritis and at least 21 days in lactation were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups: prostaglandin F2alpha intramuscularly (PG, 5 mg dinoprost (5 ml Dinolytic), n = 51), intrauterine antibiotics (AB; 400 mg ampicillin + 800 oxacillin (20 ml Totocillin), n = 49), intrauterine antiseptics (AS; 100 ml 4% Lotagen, n = 50); control (C, no initial treatment, n = 28). Before treatment, uterine swabs for bacteriologic examination and blood samples for determination of serum progesterone concentrations were collected. Two weeks following the first treatment, cows were reexamined. In case no clinical cure was diagnosed, treatment was repeated and control cows were treated for the first time with one of the three treatments mentioned above. The four treatment groups did not differ with respect to the clinical cure or reproductive performance. Therefore, factors that might have an influence on clinical cure and fertility were evaluated. With increasing duration of lactation, the clinical cure after a single treatment increased significantly over all treatment groups from 59.5% (treatment before day 42 postpartum) to 79.6% (treatment following day 42 postpartum) (P conception rate and a lower pregnancy index were obtained when the treatment was performed following day 42 postpartum (P size had a negative effect on clinical cure over all groups (first treatment clinical cure: 68.2% (small uteri) vs 44.4% (large uteri); P 0.05). Isolation of Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes negatively influenced first treatment clinical cure over all treatment groups (79.0% vs 31.5%) and within treatment groups (P conception increased compared with the other treatment groups, when A. pyogenes was detected. Isolation of unspecific bacteria and the presence or absence of a corpus luteum only had minor effects over all and within the PG, AS and C group. Within the AB group, presence of luteal tissue was connected with a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Three different burnout types have been described: The "frenetic" type describes involved and ambitious subjects who sacrifice their health and personal lives for their jobs; the "underchallenged" type describes indifferent and bored workers who fail to find personal development in their jobs and the "worn-out" in type describes neglectful subjects who feel they have little control over results and whose efforts go unacknowledged. The study aimed to describe the possible associations between burnout types and general sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a multi-occupational sample of randomly selected university employees (n = 409. The presence of burnout types was assessed by means of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36", and the degree of association between variables was assessed using an adjusted odds ratio (OR obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Results Individuals working more than 40 hours per week presented with the greatest risk for "frenetic" burnout compared to those working fewer than 35 hours (adjusted OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.52-12.82; p p = 0.023. Employees with more than sixteen years of service in the organisation presented the greatest risk of "worn-out" burnout compared to those with less than four years of service (adjusted OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.47-14.16; p = 0.009. Conclusions This study is the first to our knowledge that suggests the existence of associations between the different burnout subtypes (classified according to the degree of dedication to work and the different sociodemographic and occupational characteristics that are congruent with the definition of each of the subtypes. These results are consistent with the clinical profile definitions of burnout syndrome. In addition, they assist the recognition of distinct profiles and reinforce the idea of differential characterisation of the syndrome for
Martinez Steele, Euridice; Canella, Daniela Silva; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
Objectives To compare ultra-processed food consumption across sociodemographic groups and over time (2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012) in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. Participants All individuals aged ≥2 years with at least one 24-hour dietary recall were included (n=23 847). Main outcome measures Average dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods (expressed as a percentage of the total caloric value of the diet), obtained after classifying all food items according to extent and purpose of industrial food processing using NOVA classification. Data analysis Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics or NHANES cycles and dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods. Results Almost 60% of calories consumed in the period 2007–2012 came from ultra-processed foods. Consumption of ultra-processed foods decreased with age and income level, was higher for non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic blacks than for other race/ethnicity groups and lower for people with college than for lower levels of education, all differences being statistically significant. Overall contribution of ultra-processed foods increased significantly between NHANES cycles (nearly 1% point per cycle), the same being observed among males, adolescents and high school education-level individuals. Conclusions Ultra-processed food consumption in the USA in the period 2007–2012 was overall high, greater among non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic blacks, less educated, younger, lower-income strata and increased across time. PMID:29525772
Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg
Background Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful “currency” nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. Methodology A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Principal Findings Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4–29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1–24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1–2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. Conclusions/Significance We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the
Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N; Adiossan, Lukas G; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg
Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful "currency" nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4-29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1-24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1-2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the usefulness of generic QoL questionnaires in this endeavor.
Charkhchi, Paniz; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C
The proportion of the United States population with chronic illness continues to rise. Understanding the determinants of quality of care-particularly social determinants-is critical to the provision of care in this population. To estimate the prevalence of housing and food insecurity among persons with common chronic conditions and to assess the independent effects of chronic illness and sociodemographic characteristics on (1) housing and food insecurity, and (2) health care access hardship and health status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the 11 states and one territory that completed the social context module of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We estimated the prevalence of housing and food insecurity among patients with cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effects of housing and food insecurity, chronic conditions, and demographics on health care access and health status. Among the chronically ill, 36.71% (95% CI: 35.54-37.88) experienced housing insecurity and 30.60% (95% CI: 29.49-31.71) experienced food insecurity. Cardiovascular and lung disease increased the likelihood of housing (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07-2.66 and OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12-2.60, respectively) and food insecurity (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12-2.73 and OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.20-2.63, respectively). Housing and food insecurity significantly increased the risk of health care access hardship. Being insured or having an income level above 200% of the federal poverty level significantly reduced the likelihood of access hardship, while female gender significantly increased the likelihood. Chronic illness independently affects housing and food insecurity. In turn, food and housing anxiety leads to reduced access to care, likely due to cost concerns, and correlates with poorer health. A more complete understanding of the pathways by which chronic illness influences social determinants and
Barriers and facilitators to enrollment and re-enrollment into the community health funds/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania: a cross-sectional inquiry on the effects of socio-demographic factors and social marketing strategies.
Kapologwe, Ntuli A; Kagaruki, Gibson B; Kalolo, Albino; Ally, Mariam; Shao, Amani; Meshack, Manoris; Stoermer, Manfred; Briet, Amena; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Hoffman, Axel
Introduction of a health insurance scheme is one of the ways to enhance access to health care services and to protect individuals from catastrophic health expenditures. Little is known on the influence of socio-demographic and social marketing strategies on enrollment and re-enrollment in the Community Health Fund/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania. This cross-sectional study employed quantitative methods for data collection between November 2014 and March 2015 in Singida and Shinyanga regions. Relationship between variables was obtained through Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. We recruited 496 participants in the study. Majority (92.7%) of participants consented to participate, with 229 (49.8%) and 231 (50.2%) members and non members of CHF/TIKA respectively. Majority (90.9%) were aware of CHF/TIKA. Majority of CHF/TIKA members and non-members (90% and 68.3% respectively) reported health facility-based sensitization as the most common social marketing approach employed to market the CHF/TIKA. The most popular marketing strategies in the country including traditional dances, football games, radio, television, news papers, and mosques/church were reported by few CHF and non CHF members. Multivariate Logistic regression models revealed no significant association between social marketing strategies and enrollment, but only socio-demographics; including marital status (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and family size (household with ≥ 6 members) (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), were significant factors associated with enrollment/re-enrollment rate. This study indicated that low level of utilization of available social marketing strategies and socio-demographic factors are the barriers for attracting members to join the schemes. There is a need for applying various social marketing strategies and considering different facilitating and impending socio-demographic factors for the growth and sustainability of the scheme as we move towards
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome with high short-term mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. The definition of ACLF has been addressed recently in many publications, and despite regional differences the number and severity of organ failures are decisive for the prese......Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome with high short-term mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. The definition of ACLF has been addressed recently in many publications, and despite regional differences the number and severity of organ failures are decisive...... hypertension might predispose for the development of ACLF after proper injury and response. © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc....
Keywords: Chronic Pain, Inguinal Hernia Repair, Pain,. Surgery. Ann Afr ... operator's experience and method used though a special interest is ... Bilateral hernia. 4. Repair due to .... after Laparoscopic and Open Mesh Repair of. Groin Hernia.
Introduction: Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with ... and immunosupression therapy, long-term graft survival has not been consistent. ... include chronic active antibody-mediated and T cell-mediated rejection.
Kelias P Msyamboza
Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are becoming significant causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries, although local, high-quality data to inform evidence-based policies are lacking.To determine the magnitude of NCDs and their risk factors in Malawi.Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, a population-based, nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2009 on participants aged 25-64 years. Socio-demographic and behaviour risk factors were collected in Step 1. Physical anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were documented in Step 2. Blood cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were measured in Step 3.A total of 5,206 adults (67% females were surveyed. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and raised blood pressure (BP were more frequent in males than females, 25% vs 3%, 30% vs 4% and 37% vs 29%. Overweight, physical inactivity and raised cholesterol were more common in females than males, 28% vs 16%, 13% vs 6% and 11% vs 6%. Tobacco smoking was more common in rural than urban areas 11% vs 7%, and overweight and physical inactivity more common in urban than rural areas 39% vs 22% and 24% vs 9%, all with p<0.05. Overall (both sexes prevalence of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity was 14%, 17%, 22%, 10% and prevalence of raised BP, fasting blood sugar and cholesterol was 33%, 6% and 9% respectively. These data could be useful in the formulation and advocacy of NCD policy and action plan in Malawi.
Schwartz, Noah G; Rattner, Adi; Schwartz, Alan R; Mokhlesi, Babak; Gilman, Robert H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition in high-income countries, with major consequences for cardiopulmonary health, public safety, healthcare utilization, and mortality. However, its prevalence and effect in low- and middle-income countries are less well known. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of SDB symptoms in four resource-limited settings. Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort, a population-based age- and sex-stratified sample. Four resource-limited settings in Peru varying in altitude, urbanization, and air pollution. There were 2,682 adults aged 35 to 92 y. Self-reported SDB symptoms (habitual snoring, observed apneas, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sociodemographics, medical history, anthropometrics, spirometry, blood biomarkers were reported. We found a high prevalence of habitual snoring (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5-32.0%), observed apneas (20.9%, 95% CI 19.4-22.5%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (18.6%, 95% CI 17.1-20.1%). SDB symptoms varied across sites; prevalence and adjusted odds for habitual snoring were greatest at sea level, whereas those for observed apneas were greatest at high altitude. In multivariable analysis, habitual snoring was associated with older age, male sex, body mass index (BMI), and higher socioeconomic status; observed apneas were associated with BMI; and excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with older age, female sex, and medium socioeconomic status. Adjusted odds of cardiovascular disease, depression, and hypertension and total chronic disease burden increased progressively with the number of SDB symptoms. A threefold increase in the odds of having an additional chronic comorbid disease (adjusted odds ratio 3.57, 95% CI 2.18-5.84) was observed in those with all three versus no SDB symptoms. Sleep disordered breathing symptoms were highly prevalent, varied widely across four resource-limited settings in Peru, and exhibited strong
Carla V.V. Rollemberg
Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.
Association of Domestic Violence Against Women With Sociodemographic Factors, Clinical Features, and Dissociative Symptoms in Patients Who Receive Services From Psychiatric Outpatient Units in Turkey.
Kotan, Zeynep; Kotan, Vahap Ozan; Yalvaç, Hayriye Dilek; Demir, Sibel
Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious problem with its negative effects on all family members and the society. Women exposed to DV not only have physical but also psychological damage. This study investigates prevalence of DV and its relations with some descriptive and clinical features in a psychiatric outpatient population in Turkey. A total of 277 female outpatients were included in the study. After a semistructured clinical interview, they were assessed by sociodemographic data form, DV questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ). Prevalence of exposure to DV by intimate partner is found to be 58.8% ( n = 163). The current study provided strong evidence that occupation status of the woman, education level of the partner, and family type are predictors of DV. Another predictor of DV exists where the child is battered by either parent. Prevalence of depression, conversion disorder, and other somatoform disorders are higher in women exposed to DV. These women also have higher scores from HDRS, HARS, DES, and SDQ compared with female patients who have not experienced DV ( p < .001). Number of women scoring above cutoff levels for DES and SDQ were significantly higher in women exposed to DV ( p < .001).
Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William
It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.
Aka Akt?rk, ?lk?; G?rek Dilekta?l?, Asl?; ?eng?l, Aysun; Musaffa Salep?i, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; D?ger, Mustafa; Ar?k Ta?y?kan, Hale; Durmu? Ko?ak, Nagihan
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admi...
Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable
Kudo, Yujin; Kamisawa, Terumi; Anjiki, Hajime; Takuma, Kensuke; Egawa, Naoto
Pancreatic cancer sometimes occurs during the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of pancreatic cancer developing in 218 patients with chronic pancreatitis and clinical features of the chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer were studied. Nine patients developed pancreatic cancer. Average period from the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 9.6 years. All pancreatic cancers were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Only 2 patients had been followed-up periodically. There were no significant differences between chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer and those who did not in male/female ratio (3.5 vs. 8), average age on diagnosis (65.0 vs. 56.5), alcoholic/non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (1.6 vs. 2.6), smoking habits (62.5% vs. 70.7%), diabetes mellitus (77.8% vs. 54.4%), and continued alcohol drinking (37.5% vs. 53.1%). Over the period examined, 4% of chronic pancreatitis patients developed pancreatic cancer. Sex ratio, onset age, etiology, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and continued alcohol drinking were not significant risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis patients. Periodic follow-up due to the possibility of pancreatic cancer is necessary in chronic pancreatitis patients.
Generaal, Ellen; Milaneschi, Yuri; Jansen, Rick; Elzinga, Bernet M; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) disturbances and life stress, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to induce chronic pain. We examined whether (a) the BDNF pathway (val(66)met genotype, gene expression, and serum levels), (b) early and recent life stress, and (c) their interaction are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Cross-sectional data are from 1646 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain were determined using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) questionnaire. The BDNF val(66)met polymorphism, BDNF gene expression, and BDNF serum levels were measured. Early life stress before the age of 16 was assessed by calculating a childhood trauma index using the Childhood Trauma Interview. Recent life stress was assessed as the number of recent adverse life events using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. Compared to val(66)val, BDNF met carriers more often had chronic pain, whereas no differences were found for BDNF gene expression and serum levels. Higher levels of early and recent stress were both associated with the presence and severity of chronic pain (p stress in the associations with chronic pain presence and severity. This study suggests that the BDNF gene marks vulnerability for chronic pain. Although life stress did not alter the impact of BDNF on chronic pain, it seems an independent factor in the onset and persistence of chronic pain. © The Author(s) 2016.
Renal dysfunction or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found in 10% of the global population and is classified into five stages according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). No matter where a patient lives, estimation of the GFR is mandatory for decision-making and obtained by the simple measurement of a ...
Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli
Although previous studies have reported that the prevalence of low back pain in Parkinson's disease was over 50% and low back pain was often classified as chronic, risk factors of chronic low back pain have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive risk factors of chronic low back pain in Parkinson's disease. One hundred and sixty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease and 179 controls were consecutively included in the study. Demographic data of the two groups and disease characteristics of Parkinson's disease patient group were recorded. Low back pain lasting for ≥3 months was evaluated as chronic. Firstly, the bivariate correlations were calculated between chronic low back pain and all possible risk factors. Then, a multivariate regression was used to evaluate the impact of the predictors of chronic low back pain. The frequency of chronic low back pain in Parkinson's disease patients and controls were 48.2% and 26.7%, respectively (p chronic low back pain in Parkinson's disease were general factors including age (odds ratio = 1.053, p = 0.032) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscore (odds ratio = 1.218, p = 0.001), and Parkinson's disease-related factors including rigidity (odds ratio = 5.109, p = 0.002) and posture item scores (odds ratio = 5.019, p = 0.0001). The chronic low back pain affects approximately half of the patients with Parkinson's disease. Prevention of depression or treatment recommendations for managing depression, close monitoring of anti- parkinsonian medication to keep motor symptoms under control, and attempts to prevent, correct or reduce abnormal posture may help reduce the frequency of chronic low back pain in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
Full Text Available Introduction: National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 documented that nearly 57 million children are undernourished in India, which is one-third of the world's share. We planned a study to identify the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM among children aged <5 years in a rural population of Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 2 blocks of District Meerut during 2012–2014. A total of 70 villages were identified and all children in the age group 6–60 months were approached through house-to-house visits. Data on sociodemographic profile and anthropometry were collected utilizing standards methods and equipment. The Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (WHZ were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO reference data as standard. SAM (severe wasting was defined as per the WHO criteria (WHZ score −3 standard deviation or severe visible wasting or bipedal edema. Results: A total of 19,449 children were screened and 18,463 children (age, 32.6 ± 15.4 years, and 53.4% males were enrolled, and 466 were excluded due to erroneous age estimation and physical deformities. The prevalence of SAM was 2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.02–2.44%, (409/18,463. Multivariate logistic regression documented age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.98, nuclear family (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54, lower occupation of head of family (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.59, and lower paternal education (OR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.91 as independent predictor of SAM. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAM was lower (2.2% in this Northern district of India as compared to national prevalence (7.9%. Younger age, nuclear family, lower parental education, and poor occupation of the head of the family predispose a child to SAM.
Zuilen, A.D. van; Blankestijn, P.J.; Buren, M. van; Dam, M.A. ten; Kaasjager, K.A.; Ligtenberg, G.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Sluiter, H.E.; Ven, P.J. van der; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Vleming, L.; Bots, M.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression of kidney dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Despite extensive antihypertensive treatment possibilities, adequate control is notoriously hard to achieve.
Timed up and go test combined with self-rated multifactorial questionnaire on falls risk and sociodemographic factors predicts falls among community-dwelling older adults better than the timed up and go test on its own.
Ibrahim, Azianah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Mohd Azahadi
Early detection of falls risk among older adults using simple tools may assist in fall prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to identify the best parameters associated with previous falls, either the timed up and go (TUG) test combined with sociodemographic factors and a self-rated multifactorial questionnaire (SRMQ) on falls risk or the TUG on its own. Falls risk was determined based on parameters associated with previous falls. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted in a community setting. The participants were 1,086 community-dwelling older adults, with mean age of 69.6±5.6 years. Participants were categorized into fallers and nonfallers based on their history of falls in the past 12 months. Participants' sociodemographic data was taken, and SRMQ consisting of five falls-related questions was administered. Participants performed the TUG test twice, and the mean was taken as the result. A total of 161 participants were categorized as fallers (14.8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the model ( χ 2 (6)=61.0, p factors (gender, cataract/glaucoma and joint pain), as well as the SRMQ items "previous falls history" (Q1) and "worried of falls" (Q5), was more robust in terms of falls risk association compared to that with TUG on its own ( χ 2 (1)=10.3, p factors and SRMQ with TUG is more favorable as an initial falls risk screening tool among community-dwelling older adults. Subsequently, further comprehensive falls risk assessment may be performed in clinical settings to identify the specific impairments for effective management.
Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Ganança, Fernando Freitas
Daily activities can be challenging for the elderly. To study the association between functional balance, evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), sociodemographics, clinical and mobilility (Timed up and go test-TUGT, Dynamic Gait Index-DGI) variables in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorder. A series study with one hundred and twenty elderly with chronic vestibular disorder. We performed the Mann-Whitney test, the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn test and the Spearman Coefficient ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]). Statistically significant associations and correlations were observed between total BBS score and age ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]=-0.354; pfalls (p=0.010), tendency to fall (p=0.002), topographic diagnosis of central vestibular disorder (pFunctional balance in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorders evaluated by the BBS is worse when associated with aging, with a more advanced age group (80 years or more), increasing number of illnesses, presence of five or more illnesses, use of multiple medications, recurrent falls, tendency to fall, central vestibular syndromes, daily dizziness, mobility and gait impairments.
Sonia, Hmad; Jihene, Maatoug; Imed, Harrabi; Rim, Ghammem; Mylene, Belkacem; Mounir, Saadi; Souad, Amimi; Khaoula, Knani; Mustafa, Al'Absi; Harry, Lando; Najib, Mrizak; Hassen, Ghannem
The aim of our study was to explore the major non-communicable risk factors (unhealthy diet, sedentarily, alcohol consumption) of smokers and nonsmokers in workplaces. A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk factors conducted in 2009 in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. The surveyed subjects were employees in six factories spread across three delegations in the region. Overall, 1770 of 2250 employees participated in the assessment. In this study, the clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors with smoking habits was made only for male employees including in this study 1099 among 2250. Data were collected at worksites by a questionnaire, via interview or self-report. The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants. The percentage of male smokers was 54.0%(n=594). Their average age of daily smoking initiation was 19.22 (±4.24 years). The percentage of male smokers consuming 5 fruits and vegetables per day was significantly lower than nonsmokers (57.2% vs 63.5%, p=0.04). The proportion of male smokers consuming alcohol was about three times that of nonsmokers (16.5% vs 5.8%, p=0.001). The proportion of male employees who agree with anti-smoking laws in work places was higher for nonsmokers than for smokers. A strong association existed between smoking and risky lifestyles factors in the work place. Such findings are potentially useful in directing intervention efforts regarding smoking cessation in occupational settings.
Baccini, Michela; Carreras, Giulia
This paper describes the methods used to investigate variations in total alcoholic beverage consumption as related to selected control intervention policies and other socioeconomic factors (unplanned factors) within 12 European countries involved in the AMPHORA project. The analysis presented several critical points: presence of missing values, strong correlation among the unplanned factors, long-term waves or trends in both the time series of alcohol consumption and the time series of the main explanatory variables. These difficulties were addressed by implementing a multiple imputation procedure for filling in missing values, then specifying for each country a multiple regression model which accounted for time trend, policy measures and a limited set of unplanned factors, selected in advance on the basis of sociological and statistical considerations are addressed. This approach allowed estimating the "net" effect of the selected control policies on alcohol consumption, but not the association between each unplanned factor and the outcome.
Introduction: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with variable air flow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It is characterised clinically by recurrent episodes of cough, difficulty in breathing and wheezing which resolves spontaneously or with treatment. The socio-demographic and clinical ...
Bruce, S G; Riediger, N D; Lix, L M
Aboriginal populations in northern Canada are experiencing rapid changes in their environments, which may negatively impact on health status. The purpose of our study was to compare chronic conditions and risk factors in northern Aboriginal populations, including First Nations (FN), Inuit and Métis populations, and northern non-Aboriginal populations. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey for the period from 2005 to 2008. Weighted multiple logistic regression models tested the association between ethnic groups and health outcomes. Model covariates were age, sex, territory of residence, education and income. Odds ratios (ORs) are reported and a bootstrap method calculated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Odds of having at least one chronic condition was significantly lower for the Inuit (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81) than for non-Aboriginal population, but similar among FN, Métis and non-Aboriginal populations. Prevalence of many risk factors was significantly different for Inuit, FN and Métis populations. Aboriginal populations in Canada's north have heterogeneous health status. Continued chronic disease and risk factor surveillance will be important to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the impact of public health interventions.
Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status and demographic factors on infant mortality, classified by cause of death, in a group of children born in Seoul, Korea during 1999-2003. Linked infant birth and death data were collected from the Korea National Statistical Office. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on infant mortality. The results were adjusted to take into account the infants' length of gestation and birth weight. Infant death rates from all causes tended to decrease as the parents' educational level increased. We observed a similar pattern for deaths from other specific causes. We also found higher mortality rates for mothers less than 20 years of age and over 35. Our analysis shows that socioeconomic and demographic factors affect infant mortality. In the case of postneonatal infant death, we confirmed that adequate follow-up care can reduce the risks of death from these acquired factors. This suggests that these are important factors to consider in reducing infant mortality.
Sato, Renato Cesar; Zouain, Desiree Moraes
To identify and evaluate latent variables (variables that are not directly observed) for adopting and using nuclear technologies in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases. The measurement and management of these latent factors are important for health care due to complexities of the sector. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis study was conducted among 52 physicians practicing in the areas of Cardiology, Neurology and Oncology in the State of Sao Paulo who agreed to participate in the study between 2009 and 2010. Data were collected using an attitude measurement questionnaire, and analyzed according to the principal component method with Varimax rotation. Results: The component matrix after factor rotation showed three elucidative groups arranged according to demand for nuclear technology: clinical factors, structural factors, and technological factors. Clinical factors included questionnaire answers referring to medical history, previous interventions, complexity and chronicity of the disease. Structural factors included patient age, physician's practice area, and payment ability. Technological factors included prospective growth in the use of nuclear technology and availability of services. Conclusions: The clinical factors group dimension identified in the study included patient history, prior interventions, and complexity and chronicity of the disease. This dimension is the main motivating for adopting nuclear technology in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases. (author)
Rijnders, Marlies E. B.; van Diem, Mariet Th.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.
Objective: to establish which factors are associated with birthing positions throughout the second stage of tabour and at the time of birth. Design: retrospective cohort study. Setting: primary care midwifery practices in the Netherlands. Participants: 665 low-risk women who received midwife-led
Peres, Marco A; Peres, Karen G; Cascaes, Andreia M; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Menezes, Ana B
Most studies comparing prevalence of periodontal disease and risk factors by using partial protocols were performed in adult populations, with several studies being conducted in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of partial protocols in estimating the prevalence of periodontal outcomes in adolescents and young adults from two population-based birth cohorts from Pelotas, Brazil, and to assess differences in the estimation and strength of the effect measures when partial protocols are adopted compared to full-mouth examination. Gingival bleeding at probing among adolescents (n = 339) and young adults (n = 720) and dental calculus and periodontal probing depth among young adults were assessed using full-mouth examinations and four partial protocols: Ramfjord teeth (RT), community periodontal index (CPI), and two random diagonal quadrants (1 and 3, 2 and 4). Socioeconomic, demographic, and periodontal health-related variables were also collected. Sensitivity, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratio for each periodontal outcome for the risk factors was estimated. Two diagonal quadrants showed better accuracy; RT had the worst, whereas CPI presented an intermediate pattern when compared to full-mouth examination. For bleeding assessment in adolescence, RT and CPI underestimated by 18.4% and 16.2%, respectively, the true outcome prevalence, whereas among young adults, all partial protocols underestimated the prevalence. All partial protocols presented similar magnitude of association measures for all investigated periodontal potential risk factors. Two diagonal quadrants protocol may be effective in identifying the risk factors for the most relevant periodontal outcomes in adolescence and in young adulthood.
Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members
Strauss Ronald P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive approach towards disease control that addresses social factors including stigma is now advocated. Patients with TB report fears of isolation and rejection that may lead to delays in seeking care and could affect treatment adherence. Qualitative studies have identified socio-demographic, TB knowledge, and clinical determinants of TB stigma, but only one prior study has quantified these associations using formally developed and validated stigma scales. The purpose of this study was to measure TB stigma and identify factors associated with TB stigma among patients and healthy community members. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in southern Thailand among two different groups of participants: 480 patients with TB and 300 healthy community members. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, TB knowledge, and clinical factors. Scales measuring perceived TB stigma, experienced/felt TB stigma, and perceived AIDS stigma were administered to patients with TB. Community members responded to a community TB stigma and community AIDS stigma scale, which contained the same items as the perceived stigma scales given to patients. Stigma scores could range from zero to 30, 33, or 36 depending on the scale. Three separate multivariable linear regressions were performed among patients with TB (perceived and experience/felt stigma and community members (community stigma to determine which factors were associated with higher mean TB stigma scores. Results Only low level of education, belief that TB increases the chance of getting AIDS, and AIDS stigma were associated with higher TB stigma scores in all three analyses. Co-infection with HIV was associated with higher TB stigma among patients. All differences in mean stigma scores between index and referent levels of each factor were less than two points, except for
Okoronkwo, Ijeoma; Okeke, Uchenna; Chinweuba, Anthonia; Iheanacho, Peace
Adherence to treatment instructions with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is very crucial for successful treatment outcome. However, sticking to treatment instructions pose-great challenges to HIV/AIDS patients. This cross-sectional study was on HIV infected adults attending ART clinic in Nigeria to explore nonadherence factors in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Validated structured questionnaire was administered to 221 participants. Results showed a high nonadherence rate of 85....
Possa, Gabriela; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Fisberg, Mauro
The aim of this population-based cross-sectional health survey (N = 532) was to investigate the factors associated with the probability and amounts of yogurt intake in Brazilian adults and the elderly. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, socioeconomic information, presence of morbidities and lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics. Food intake was evaluated using two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Approximately 60% of the subjects were classified as yogurt consumers. In the logistic regression model, yogurt intake was associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.98), female sex (OR, 2.12), and age 20 to 39 years (OR, 3.11). Per capita family income and being a nonsmoker were factors positively associated with the amount of yogurt consumption (coefficients, 0.61 and 3.73, respectively), whereas the level of education of the head of household was inversely associated (coefficient, 0.61). In this study, probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alkov, Robert A.
Naval aviation is an unusually stressful career because of the inherent demands of the work. Stress is recognized as a cause of mishaps which involve pilot error. A questionnaire was adapted from Rahe and Homes' list of stressful life events in order to determine the relationship between pilot behavioral, personality, and life change factors on the one hand and responsibility for accidents on the other. A number of factors regarding interpersonal relationships, changes in personal behavior, personality factors, and life changes were found to discriminate between pilots who were and were not at fault in accidents.
Hruschak, Valerie; Cochran, Gerald
Chronic pain has considerable medical, social, and economic implications as its high prevalence rate and negative societal burden provides justification that it is a major health issue. The value of understanding psychological, social, and environmental factors in chronic pain has become widely recognized and accepted as a biopsychosocial phenomenon in which the social work perspective offers a valuable lens. Through the critical application of systems theory and ecological perspective, accompanied with the diathesis stress model, this article examines psychosocial and environmental influences as being contributory factors in the prognosis of individuals with chronic pain and comorbid mental health disorders. The social work profession will also be explored as playing a definite role in addressing elements pertaining to pain management depicted from these theories. Lastly, implications for research, policy, and practice will be reviewed to better understand the association between psychosocial and environmental influences of individuals with chronic pain and comorbid mental health issues.
Daneshpajouh, M; Bahrami, F; Chafii, A; Kavoussi, N; Pirouzmande, B
Because of the high frequency of chronic cor pulmonale in workers admitted to the cardiology department of the Khazaneh Hospital in Teheran, we studied the clinical aspect and the risk factors of this disease in 66 male patients. The average age of patients was 56.1 years and they often had a long history of bronchitis isolated or associated with emphysema. The ECG analysis showed that most abnormalities were localized on the QRST wave. Tobacco and a polluted working environment were the factors most frequently met in our patients. The opium habit probably acted as a risk factor for chronic bronchopneumopathy, but further studies are necessary to ascertain the fact.
Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Mines, Michael J.; Dartt, Darlene A.
Purpose To evaluate dry eye manifestations following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and determine the incidence and predictive factors of chronic dry eye using a set of dry eye criteria. Setting Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Methods This is a prospective non-randomized clinical study of 143 active duty U.S. Army personnel aged 29.9±5.2 years with myopia or myopic astigmatism (manifest spherical equivalent −3.83±1.96 diopters) undergoing either PRK or LASIK. Dry eye evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively. Main outcome measures included dry eye manifestations, incidence, and predictive factors of chronic dry eye. Results Schirmer scores, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, surface regularity index (SRI), and responses to dry eye questionnaire significantly changed over time after PRK. After LASIK, significant changes were observed in tear breakup time, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, and responses to questionnaire. At twelve months postoperatively, 5.0% of PRK and 0.8% of LASIK participants developed chronic dry eye. Regression analysis showed preoperatively lower Schirmer score will significantly influence development of chronic dry eye after PRK whereas preoperatively lower Schirmer score or higher ocular surface staining score will significantly influence the occurrence of chronic dry eye after LASIK. Conclusions Chronic dry eye is uncommon after PRK and LASIK. Ocular surface and tear film characteristics during preoperative examination may help predict chronic dry eye development in PRK and LASIK. PMID:26796443
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.
Individual socio-demographic factors and perceptions of the environment as determinants of inequalities in adolescent physical and psychological health: the Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study.
Smith, Neil R; Lewis, Daniel J; Fahy, Amanda; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Moore, Derek G; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cummins, Steven
Populations living in urban areas experience greater health inequalities as well as higher absolute burdens of illness. It is well-established that a range of social and environmental factors determine these differences. Less is known about the relative importance of these factors in determining adolescent health within a super diverse urban context. A cross-sectional sample of 3,105 adolescent participants aged 11 to 12 were recruited from 25 schools in the London boroughs of Newham, Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham. Participants completed a pseudo-anonymised paper-based questionnaire incorporating: the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale used for assessing positive mental well-being, the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire based on the DSM III-R criteria for assessment of depressive symptoms, the Youth-Physical Activity Questionnaire and a self-assessment of general health and longstanding illness. Prevalence estimates and unadjusted linear models estimate the extent to which positive well-being scores and time spent in physical/sedentary activity vary by socio-demographic and environmental indicators. Logistic regression estimated the unadjusted odds of having fair/(very)poor general health, a long standing illness, or depressive symptoms. Fully adjusted mixed effects models accounted for clustering within schools and for all socio-demographic and environmental indicators. Compared to boys, girls had significantly lower mental well-being and higher rates of depressive symptoms, reported fewer hours physically active and more hours sedentary, and had poorer general health after full adjustment. Positive mental well-being was significantly and positively associated with family affluence but the overall relationship between mental health and socioeconomic factors was weak. Mental health advantage increased as positive perceptions of the neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, walkability and services increased. Prevalence of poor health varied by
Mahlich, J; Matsuoka, K; Nakamura, Y; Sruamsiri, R
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) constitutes a huge burden for patients and studies show that IBD patients have difficulties remaining in employment. Because there is no data about the unemployment of IBD patients in Japan. We surveyed a representative sample of 1068 Japanese IBD patients regarding their employment status. We found that the labor force participation rate is lower and unemployment higher for patients with IBD compared to the general population. Factors associated with unemployment in the IBD sample are older age, female gender, and the prevalence of depression. IBD constitutes a high burden for patients in Japan regarding employment outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD constitutes a huge burden for patients and studies show that IBD patients have difficulties remaining in employment. Because there is no data about the unemployment of IBD patients in Japan. Methods We surveyed a representative sample of 1068 Japanese IBD patients regarding their employment status. Results We found that the labor force participation rate is lower and unemployment higher for patients with IBD compared to the general population. Factors associated with unemployment in the IBD sample are older age, female gender, and the prevalence of depression. Discussion IBD constitutes a high burden for patients in Japan regarding employment outcome.
F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. Methods A one-year longitudinal study was
Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T
Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...
Pahwa, Punam; Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Lawson, Joshua A.; Ramsden, Vivian R.; McMullin, Kathleen; Gardipy, P. Jenny; MacDonald, Judy; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, Jo-Ann; Dosman, James A.
Background Inadequate housing, low family income, household smoking, personal smoking status, and poor schooling are some of the conditions that have been significantly associated with the prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) and associated risk factors among First Nations people. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted as part of the First Nations Lung Health Project in 2012 an...
Sri Vengadesh Gopal; Ashley Solomon; Jaahnavi Konidala
Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterised by irreversible damage to pancreas leading to endocrine and exocrine insufficiency with considerable morbidity. Etiopathogenesis is multifactorial with interplay between genetics and environmental toxins. Alcoholism is more commonly associated with chronic pancreatitis. But it is not very clear why only certain proportion of the alcoholics develop pancreatitis. So this study was conducted to find the possible additional risk factors inv...
Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors, available at the time of trauma admission, associated with the development of chronic pain to allow testing of preventive approaches. Methods. In a retrospective observational cohort study, we included all patients ≥ 18 years old admitted for injury in 57 adult trauma centers in the province of Quebec (Canada between 2004 and 2014. Chronic pain was defined as follows: treated in a chronic pain clinic, diagnosed with chronic pain, or received at least 2 prescriptions of chronic pain medications 3 to 12 months postinjury. Results. A total of 95,134 patients were retained for analysis. Mean age was 59.8 years (±21.7, and 52% were men. The causes of trauma were falls (63% and motor vehicle accidents (22%. We identified 14,518 patients (15.3%; 95% CI: 15.1–15.5 who developed chronic pain. After controlling for confounding factors, the variables associated with chronic pain were spinal cord injury (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 3.4–4.6, disc-vertebra trauma (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.5–1.7, history of alcoholism (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2–1.7, history of anxiety (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2–1.5, history of depression (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4, and being female (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2–1.3. The area under the receiving operating characteristic curve derived from the model was 0.80. Conclusions. We identified risk factors present on hospital admission that can predict trauma patients who will develop chronic pain. These factors should be prospectively validated.
Meyer, Katie A; Guilkey, David K; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Steffen, Lyn M; Shikany, James M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Fiscal food policies (eg, taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. To estimate subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Twenty-year follow-up (5 examinations) in a biracial US prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/1986-2005/2006, baseline N = 5115). Participants were aged 18 to 30 years at baseline; design indicated equal recruitment by race (black vs white), educational attainment, age, and sex. Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research were temporally and geographically linked to study participants' home address at each examination. Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Covariates included individual-level and community-level social and demographic factors. In repeated measures regression analysis, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were nonlinear (quadratic, P fast food consumption frequency of 2.20 (95% CI, 2.07-2.33) and 1.55 (1.45-1.65) times/wk, respectively, whereas at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.86 (1.75-1.97) and 1.50 (1.41-1.59) times/wk. We observed differential price effects on HOMA-IR (inverse for lower educational status only [interaction P = .005] and at middle income only [interaction P = .02]) and BMI (inverse for blacks, less education, and middle income; positive for whites, more education, and high income [all interaction P fast food price sensitivity on fast food consumption and insulin resistance among sociodemographic groups that have a disproportionate burden of chronic disease. Our findings have implications for fiscal policy, particularly with
Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
-IR (inverse for lower educational status and at middle income) and BMI (inverse for blacks, lower education, and middle income; positive for whites, high education, and high income). Conclusions We found greater fast food price sensitivity on fast food consumption and insulin resistance among sociodemographic groups that have a disproportionate burden of chronic disease. Our findings have implications for fiscal policy approaches related to diet, particularly with respect to possible effects of fast food taxes among populations with diet-related health disparities. PMID:24424384
Rao, Chalapati; Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Marks, Geoffrey; Hoa, Nguyen Phuong
Introduction Chronic diseases account for most of the disease burden in low- and middle-income countries, particularly those in Asia. We reviewed literature on chronic disease risk factors in Viet Nam to identify patterns and data gaps. Methods All population-based studies published from 2000 to 2012 that reported chronic disease risk factors were considered. We used standard chronic disease terminology to search PubMed and assessed titles, abstracts, and articles for eligibility for inclusion. We summarized relevant study information in tables listing available studies, risk factors measured, and the prevalence of these risk factors. Results We identified 23 studies conducted before 2010. The most common age range studied was 25 to 64 years. Sample sizes varied, and sample frames were national in 5 studies. A combination of behavioral, physical, and biological risk factors was studied. Being overweight or obese was the most common risk factor studied (n = 14), followed by high blood pressure (n = 11) and tobacco use (n = 10). Tobacco and alcohol use were high among men, and tobacco use may be increasing among Vietnamese women. High blood pressure is common; however, people’s knowledge that they have high blood pressure may be low. A high proportion of diets do not meet international criteria for fruit and vegetable consumption. Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing. None of the studies evaluated measured dietary patterns or total caloric intake, and only 1 study measured dietary salt intake. Conclusion Risk factors for chronic diseases are common in Viet Nam; however, more recent and context-specific information is required for planning and monitoring interventions to reduce risk factors and chronic disease in this country. PMID:23306076
Asay, Garrett R Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E; Payne, Rebecca L; Howard, David H
Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor-specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages.
Okoronkwo, Ijeoma; Okeke, Uchenna; Chinweuba, Anthonia; Iheanacho, Peace
Adherence to treatment instructions with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is very crucial for successful treatment outcome. However, sticking to treatment instructions pose-great challenges to HIV/AIDS patients. This cross-sectional study was on HIV infected adults attending ART clinic in Nigeria to explore nonadherence factors in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Validated structured questionnaire was administered to 221 participants. Results showed a high nonadherence rate of 85.1%. The commonest occurring factors of non-adherence were forgetfulness (53.8%), busy schedule (38.8%), side effects of drugs (31.9%), and stigma (31.9%). Males were more likely to complain from busy schedule, feeling healthy, fear of partner disclosure, long waiting period, and long term regimen. Patients with no formal education were more likely to attribute non-adherence to poor communication, side effects of drugs, and stigma. Employed patients seemed to miss their drugs more than the unemployed and artisans. The high non-adherence rate has serious implications for the control of HIV in infected individuals and management of HIV in general. Nurses should intensify efforts on patient education and counseling.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men use health services less often than women and frequently delay seeking help even if experiencing serious health problems. This may put men at higher risk for developing serious health problems which, in part, may explain men’s higher rates of some serious illnesses and shorter life span relative to women. This paper identifies factors that contribute to health care utilisation in a cohort of Australian men by exploring associations between socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors and the use of general practitioner (GP services. Methods We used data from Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. Health care utilisation was defined in two ways: at least one GP visit in the past 12 months and having at least yearly health check-ups with a doctor. Associations between these two measures and a range of contextual socio demographic factors (education, location, marital status, country of birth, employment, financial problems etc. as well as individual health and lifestyle factors (self-rated health, smoking, drinking, healthy weight, pain medication were examined using logistic regression analysis. The sample included 13,763 adult men aged 18 to 55 years. Analysis was stratified by age (18 to 34 year versus 35 to 55 years. Results Overall, 81 % (95 % CI: 80.3–81.6 of men saw a GP for consultation in the 12 months prior to the study. The odds of visiting a GP increased with increasing age (p < 0.01, but decreased with increasing remoteness of residence (p < 0.01. Older men, smokers and those who rate their health as excellent were less likely to visit a GP in the last 12 months, but those on daily pain medication or with co-morbidities were more likely to have visited a GP. However, these factors were not associated with consulting a GP in the last 12 months among young men. Overall, 39 % (95 % CI: 38.3–39.9 reported having an annual health check. The odds of having an annual
Shimoe, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Fusanori; Takashiba, Shogo
Multiple risk factor syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity associated epidemiologically with insulin resistance. This report describes the clinical course of a patient suffering from severe periodontitis with multiple risk factor syndrome, and discusses the association between periodontal infection and systemic health. The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension for over 10 years. At baseline, her hemoglobin A1 c was 8.1%. However, she had no diabetic complications except periodontitis. The IgG antibody titers against Porphyromonas gingivalis FDC 381 and SU63 were elevated above the mean of healthy subjects +2 standard deviations. Intensive periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, was performed to reduce periodontal infection and bacteremia. Her systemic and periodontal conditions were evaluated longitudinally for 10 years. Following periodontal treatment, antibody titers against Porphyromonas gingivalis and hemoglobin A1c values were significantly improved. The other clinical data and medication for her systemic condition also remained stable during supportive periodontal therapy. However, she developed myocardial infarction, and showed continuous deterioration of hemoglobin A1 c level and periodontitis. The long-term clustering of risk factors, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and periodontitis, are associated with the development of myocardial infarction. Treatment of systemic conditions in combination with comprehensive periodontal treatment is important in management of patients with multiple risk factor syndrome.
Luaces-Regueira, María; Iglesias-García, Julio; Lindkvist, Björn; Castiñeira-Alvariño, Margarita; Nieto-García, Laura; Lariño-Noia, José; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique
Several recent studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, less is known about the role of smoking in the development of CP-related complications. Our aim was to investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on age of onset and complications at CP diagnosis. A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Alcohol consumption and smoking habits were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Morphologic severity was defined based on endoscopic ultrasound criteria for CP and classified as mild (3-4 criteria), moderate (5-6 criteria), and severe (≥7 criteria or calcifications). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed using the C-mixed triglyceride breath test. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CP-related complications were calculated using a case-case design. A total of 241 patients were included. Smoking was associated with PEI (OR [95% CI], 2.4 [1.17-5.16]), calcifications (OR [95% CI], 2.33 [1.10-4.95]), and severe morphologic changes (OR [95% CI], 3.41 [1.31-8.85]) but not with pseudocysts or diabetes. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was associated with age of onset. Tobacco, but not alcohol, is associated with PEI, calcifications, and severe morphologic (≥7 criteria or calcifications) CP at diagnosis. Smoking cessation should be encouraged in patients with CP.
Tarcan, Menderes; Hikmet, Neşet; Schooley, Benjamin; Top, Mehmet; Tarcan, Gamze Yorgancıoglu
Burnout among emergency medical practitioners and personnel negatively affects career satisfaction and job performance and can lead to mental health issues, including anxiety, depression, and suicide. This study investigated the relationship between the perceptions of burnout and job satisfaction of those working in two different hospital's emergency departments assessing the effect of burnout dimensions and additional factors (age, position, marital status, annual income, employment type, gender, patient encounters, and household economic well-being) on job satisfaction. This study addresses a gap in the literature of the relationships between a) burnout and job satisfaction of emergency department's health care personnel (physicians, nurses, technicians) and b) the factors that are associated with emergency department employees' job satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey of two hundred and fifty participants was interviewed, using validated instruments (the Maslach Burnout Scale and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire). Participants include 38 physicians, 89 nurses, and 84 medical technicians, and 39 information technicians. The Maslach Burnout Inventory Scale, which assesses emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA), and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), which assesses intrinsic satisfaction (IS), extrinsic satisfaction (ES) and overall satisfaction (OS), were used for data collection. Study findings indicate that significant relationship exists between burnout and job satisfaction; annual income and household economic-well-being had a positive association with job satisfaction, whereas gender, age, education, marital status had no significant effect on any form of satisfaction. Moreover, this study reveals that emotional exhaustion (EE) is a significant predictor of all three dimensions of job satisfaction while depersonalization (DP) had no significant showing. Results of this study suggest that it is
George A Jelinek
Full Text Available Emerging evidence links modifiable lifestyle risk factors to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS. We sought further evidence around this hypothesis through detailed analysis of the association with disability of lifestyle behaviours of a large international sample of people with MS.A total of 2469 people with MS from 57 countries provided self-reported data via cross-sectional online survey on lifestyle (mostly with validated tools and the primary outcome measure, disability (Patient Determined Disease Steps, categorised from 8 steps into 3 categories, mild, moderate and major disability. Multinomial logistic regression modelling derived relative risk ratios (RRRs for disability categories.RRRs of having moderate vs mild disability were: diet (per 30 points on 100 point scale 0.72 (95%CI 0.52-0.98, ever smoking 1.32 (1.06-1.65, exercise (moderate/high vs low 0.35 (0.28-0.44, latitude (per degree from the equator 1.02 (1.01-1.04, and number of comorbidities (2 vs none 1.43 (1.04-1.95, (3 vs none 1.56 (1.13-2.16. RRRs of having major vs mild disability were: exercise (moderate/high vs low 0.07 (0.04-0.11, alcohol consumption (moderate vs low 0.45 (0.30-0.68, plant-based omega 3 supplementation 0.39 (0.18-0.86, and disease-modifying medication use 0.45 (0.29-0.70.Healthier lifestyle has strong associations with disability in our large international sample of people with MS, supporting further investigation into the role of lifestyle risk factors in MS disease progression.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases have become the leading causes of mortality in China and related behavioral risk factors (BRFs changed dramatically in past decades. We aimed to examine the prevalence, co-variations, clustering and the independent correlates of five BRFs at the national level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance, in which multistage clustering sampling was adopted to collect a nationally representative sample of 49,247 Chinese aged 15 to 69 years. We estimated the prevalence and clustering (mean number of BRFs of five BRFs: tobacco use, excessive alcohol drinking, insufficient intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity. We conducted binary logistic regression models to examine the co-variations among five BRFs with adjustment of demographic and socioeconomic factors, chronic conditions and other BRFs. Ordinal logistic regression was constructed to investigate the independent associations between each covariate and the clustering of BRFs within individuals. Overall, 57.0% of Chinese population had at least two BRFs and the mean number of BRFs is 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.78-1.83. Eight of the ten pairs of bivariate associations between the five BRFs were found statistically significant. Chinese with older age, being a male, living in rural areas, having lower education level and lower yearly household income experienced increased likelihood of having more BRFs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current BRFs place the majority of Chinese aged 15 to 69 years at risk for the future development of chronic disease, which calls for urgent public health programs to reduce these risk factors. Prominent correlations between BRFs imply that a combined package of interventions targeting multiple BRFs might be appropriate. These interventions should target elder population, men, and rural residents, especially those with lower SES.
Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.
Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Results Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor–specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Conclusion Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages. PMID:27710764
Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M
The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.
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stimulating agents are considered. 15. Physicians should reduce the dose or extend the administration interval, depending on kidney function, when administering drugs that are renally excreted. 16. NSAIDs, contrast media and diuretics are high-grade risk factors for a decline (often permanent) in kidney function in patients.
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Full Text Available Lifetime childlessness is expected to increase in the future. Recent research suggests that also voluntary childlessness in increasing among young adults. As childbearing decisions are increasingly based on individual preferences and choices it is believed that also those who do not favor family life with children can now more freely express their preferences. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of voluntary childlessness among Finnish young adults and factors associated with it. Data come from Finnish Social Relationships and Well-being Survey, conducted in 2008 among 25-44-year-old childless or one-child men and women. This study focuses on childless respondents (N=1244. Two types of intentional childlessness are distinguished. Persons are classified as voluntarily childless if they do not intend to have children and prefer life without children. Those, who also have no intentions to have children, but whose personal ideal number of children is above zero are defined as persons who have relinquished parenthood intentions. Childhood characteristics are found to predict voluntary childlessness more, while socioeconomic circumstances and lack of a suitable partner explain relinquished parenthood intentions. Respondents personal accounts on the reasons behind their childbearing choices support the findings from multivariate analyses.
Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.
Strömberg, A; Broström, A; Dahlström, U; Fridlund, B
The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing compliance with prescribed treatment in patients with chronic heart failure. A qualitative design with a critical incident technique was used. Incidents were collected through interviews with 25 patients with heart failure strategically selected from a primary health care clinic, a medical ward, and a specialist clinic. Two hundred sixty critical incidents were identified in the interviews and 2 main areas emerged in the analysis: inward factors and outward factors. The inward factors described how compliance was influenced by the personality of the patient, the disease, and the treatment. The outward factors described how compliance was influenced by social activities, social relationships, and health care professionals. By identifying the inward and outward factors influencing patients with chronic heart failure, health care professionals can assess whether intervention is needed to increase compliance.
He, Jiang; Shlipak, Michael; Anderson, Amanda; Roy, Jason A; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna Reddy; Kanthety, Radhika; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Wolf, Myles; Zhang, Xiaoming; Raj, Dominic; Hamm, Lee
Heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. We studied risk factors for incident heart failure among 3557 participants in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both, and 24-hour urine albumin excretion. During an average of 6.3 years of follow-up, 452 participants developed incident heart failure. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and clinical site, hazard ratio (95% CI) for heart failure associated with 1 SD lower creatinine-based eGFR was 1.67 (1.49, 1.89), 1 SD lower cystatin C-based-eGFR was 2.43 (2.10, 2.80), and 1 SD higher log-albuminuria was 1.65 (1.53, 1.78), all P failure. After adjusting for eGFR, albuminuria, and other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, anemia (1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.72, P =0.006), insulin resistance (1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28, P =0.006), hemoglobin A1c (1.27, 95% CI 1.14, 1.41, P failure. Our study indicates that cystatin C-based eGFR and albuminuria are better predictors for risk of heart failure compared to creatinine-based eGFR. Furthermore, anemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, and poor glycemic control are independent risk factors for the development of heart failure among patients with chronic kidney disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient choice and access to health care is compromised by many barriers including travel distance. Individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV can seek free specialist care in Britain, without a referral, providing flexible access to care services. Willingness to travel beyond local services for preferred care has funding and service implications. Data from an enhanced HIV surveillance system were used to explore geodemographic and clinical factors associated with accessing treatment services. Methods We extracted data on the location, type and frequency of care services utilized by HIV positive persons (n = 3983 accessing treatment in north west England between January 1st 2005 and June 30th 2006. Individuals were allocated a deprivation score and grouped by urban/rural residence, and distance to care services was calculated. Analysis identified independent predictors of distance travelled (general linear modelling and, for those bypassing their nearest clinic, the probability of accessing a specialist service (logistic regression, SPSS ver 14. Inter-relationships between variables and distance travelled were visualised using detrended correspondence analysis (PC-ORD ver 4.1. Results HIV infected persons travelled an average of 4.8 km (95% confidence intervals (CI 4.6–4.9 per trip and had on average 6 visits (95% CI 5.9–6.2 annually for care. Longer trips were made by males (4.8 km vs 4.5 km, white people (6.2 km, the young (>15 years, 6.8 km and elderly (60+ years, 6.3 km, those on multiple therapy (5.3 km vs 4.0 km, and the more affluent living in rural areas (16.1 km, P Conclusion Distance travelled, and type of HIV services used, were associated with socioeconomic status, even after accounting for ethnicity, route of infection and age. Thus despite offering an 'equitable' service, travel costs may advantage those with higher income.
Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung
Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were
Marcus, Ulrich; Gassowski, Martyna; Kruspe, Martin; Drewes, Jochen
Testing for presence of HIV infection is a pre-requisite to qualify for antiretroviral treatment. A considerable proportion of German men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV have a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/μl at time of diagnosis and are thus defined as "late presenters". Late presentation increases the risk of adverse disease outcomes. In addition, knowledge and assessment of HIV status is often used for decisions about condom use and anal intercourse with steady and non-steady partners. Incorrect assumptions may result in high risk for HIV transmission. Between 11/2013 and 01/2014 MSM were recruited to an online survey predominantly by personalized invitation messages from MSM social networking and dating websites. Respondents were asked about demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, reasons for testing decisions, and sexual behaviours. We describe reasons for not testing and analyse factors associated with not or infrequent testing using univariable and multivariable multinomial regression. Questions on HIV testing history were answered by 15,297 respondents. An HIV test within the last 12 months was reported by 38%, a test more than 12 months ago by 27% and 35% had never been tested for HIV. Compared to recently tested, respondents who had never tested were more likely to be younger than 25 years (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 2.90, 95% CI 2.11-3.99), living in a settlement with less than 100,000 inhabitants (aRRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.83), being less open about their sexual orientation to their co-workers/classmates, and particularly to their primary care provider (aRRR 4.54, 95% CI 4.02-5.11). Untested and less frequently tested respondents reported less sex partners and a lower proportion reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a non-steady partner (24% compared to 38% among those recently tested). MSM who were younger, who did not live in large cities, and who were not out about their sexual orientation tested less