Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos
The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos
The study investigated if proximal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced in the last year) or distal contextual risk (number of adverse life events experienced before the last year) is a better predictor of adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior. It also tested for the specificity, accumulation and gradient of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior, and for the interaction between proximal and distal contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior. The sample was 199 11-18 year old children from a socio-economically disadvantaged area in North-East London. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which measures four difficulties (hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems) and prosocial behavior, was used. Confounders were age, gender, and maternal educational qualifications. To model the relationship between the five SDQ scales and contextual risk multivariate response regression models and multivariate response logistic regression models that allow the error terms of the scale specific models to be correlated were fitted. This study highlighted the importance of proximal contextual risk in predicting both broad and externalizing psychopathology, and the importance of considering risk accumulation rather than specificity in predicting psychopathology. By showing that the number of proximal adverse life events experienced had a steady, additive effect on broad and externalizing psychopathology, it also highlighted the need to protect adolescents experiencing current risk from further risk exposure. By showing that the number of distal adverse life events experienced did not affect the proximal risk's impact on either broad or externalizing psychopathology, it highlighted the need to protect all adolescents, irrespective of experience of early life adversities, from risk.
Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Tan, Jo-Pei; Griggs, Julia; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet
The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth.
Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…
Heap, Josephine; Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin
In this study, we aimed to identify which of certain demographic and socio-economic groups in the oldest part of the population that have an increased probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in different life domains - here termed coexisting disadvantages. To do so, we compared analyses of coexisting disadvantages, measured as two or more simultaneous disadvantages, with analyses of single disadvantages and specific combinations of disadvantages. Indicators of physical health p...
Heap, Josephine; Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin
In this study, we aimed to identify which of certain demographic and socio-economic groups in the oldest part of the population that have an increased probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in different life domains - here termed coexisting disadvantages. To do so, we compared analyses of coexisting disadvantages, measured as two or more simultaneous disadvantages, with analyses of single disadvantages and specific combinations of disadvantages. Indicators of physical health problems, ADL limitations, psychological health problems, limited financial resources, and limited social resources were included. We used nationally representative data from 2011 on people aged 76 and older in Sweden ( n = 765). Results showed that coexisting disadvantages were associated with specific demographic and socio-economic groups, particularly certain marital status groups. Moreover, the differences between the demographic and socio-economic groups were only found for those who reported coexisting disadvantages, and not for those who reported only one disadvantage, which suggests that demographic and social factors become more important as disadvantages compound. Further, we analysed pairwise combinations of disadvantages. We found that different combinations of disadvantages tended to be associated with different groups, information useful from a social planning perspective since different combinations of disadvantages may imply different needs for help and support.
David, Alex Hugh
Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…
Turrell, Gavin; Oldenburg, Brian F; Harris, Elizabeth; Jolley, Damien
To examine the association between socio-economic status (SES) and GP utilisation across Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that differed in their geographic remoteness, and to assess whether Indigenous status and GP availability modified the association. Retrospective analysis of Medicare data for all unreferred GP consultations (1996/97) for 952 SLAs comprising the six Australian States. Geographic remoteness was ascertained using the Area Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), and SES was measured by grouping SLAs into tertiles based on their Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage score. Age/sex standardised rates of GP utilisation for each SLA. In SLAs classified as 'highly accessible', rates of GP use were 10.8% higher (95% CI 5.7-16.0) in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile after adjustment for Indigenous status and GP availability. A very different pattern of GP utilsation was found in 'remote/very remote' SLAs. After adjustment, rates of GP use in the most socio-economically disadvantaged tertile were 25.3% lower (95% CI 5.9-40.7) than in the most advantaged tertile. People in socio-economically disadvantaged metropolitan SLAs have higher rates of GP utilisation, as would be expected due to their poorer health. This is not true for people living in disadvantaged remote/very remote SLAs: in these areas, those most in need of GP services are least likely to receive them. Australia may lay claim to having a primary health care system that provides universal coverage, but we are still some way from having a system that is economically and geographically accessible to all.
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa
Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.
Kolbe, J; Vamos, M; Fergusson, W
In asthma, socio-economic and health care factors may operate by a number of mechanisms to influence asthma morbidity and mortality. To determine the quality of medical care including the patient perception of the doctor-patient relationship, and the level of socio-economic disadvantage in patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (15-50 years) admitted to hospital (general ward or intensive care unit) with acute asthma were prospectively assessed using a number of previously validated instruments. The initial subjects had severe asthma on admission (pH = 7.3 +/- 0.2, PaCO2 = 7.1 +/- 5.0 kPa, n = 90) but short hospital stay (3.7 +/- 2.6 days). Although having high morbidity (40% had hospital admission in the last year and 60% had moderate/severe interference with sleep and/or ability to exercise), they had indicators of good ongoing medical care (96% had a regular GP, 80% were prescribed inhaled steroids, 84% had a peak flow meter, GP measured peak flow routinely in 80%, 52% had a written crisis plan and 44% had a supply of steroids at home). However, they were severely economically disadvantaged (53% had experienced financial difficulties in the last year, and for 35% of households the only income was a social security benefit). In the last year 39% had delayed or put off GP visit because of cost. Management of the index attack was compromised by concern about medical costs in 16% and time off work in 20%. Patients admitted to hospital with acute asthma have evidence of good quality on-going medical care, but are economically disadvantaged. If issues such as financial barriers to health care are not acknowledged and addressed, the health care services for asthmatics will not be effectively utilised and the current reductions in morbidity and mortality may not be maintained.
Full Text Available Background: Although exercise participation has numerous benefits among young adults, socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic minorities tend to be less active than their White counterparts of higher SES. Instead of relying on logical positivism in exercise promotion, a phronetic (humanistic approach may better assist with understanding exercise behavior. Objective: The study purpose was to examine the exercise behavior and qualitatively distinct exercise values (e.g., activity and inactivity reasons among socio-economically disadvantaged African American young adults. Method: This was a phronetic, qualitative study among 14 African American young adults (Mage = 32.97 years old ±14.13, who attended General Educational Development classes in an inner-city learning center. An in-depth and dialogical interview process was conducted regarding exercise behavior, positive and negative exercise experiences, reasons for exercise participation or not, exercise behavior of participants’ peers and significant others, and neighborhood safety. Results: Only three men met the minimum aerobic exercise recommendations and their main activity was basketball. Three individuals were somewhat active, while the rest of the participants were inactive. Based on the phronetic, thematic analysis, two themes emerged. Exercise facilitators included enjoyment (from skill and fitness development in a playful setting, health improvement, weight loss and toned physique, and utilitarian purpose (i.e., karate to work for campus security. Exercise barriers included time constraints and other priorities (school, work, caretaking, injuries, accessibility and cost issues, safety issues (unsafe neighborhoods, personality (lack of motivation and self-discipline, and undesirable results on appearance and performance. Conclusion: Exercise promoters should emphasize: a playful, culturally meaningful, and socially supported activities to increase fitness, skill development, and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In
Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom
Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…
Ranti Ristiani, Christina; Rokhmatuloh; Hernina, Revi
Flood is one of natural disasters that have often happened in East Jakarta. Flood can give several negative impacts and it can affect all aspects of society lives such as economics, political, cultural, socials and others. East Jakarta is an urban area which continuously grows and establishes to become a rapid area. It can be seen from the highest population density in East Jakarta (BPS, 2016) and categorized into a region prone to flooding based on data Prone Flood Map in 1996 and 2016. The higher population exists in East Jakarta, the bigger possibility of the negative effects of disaster it gets. The negative impacts of flood disaster can affect societies especially with socio-economic disadvantage. One of the index to measure socio-economic disadvantage is NSDI (Neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage index). However, to adjust indicators used in NSDI with Indonesia statistical data compatibility, it needs further assessment and evaluation. Therefore, this paper evaluates previous main indicators used in previous NSDI studies and improves with indicators which more suitable with statistical records in Indonesia. As a result, there will be improved 19 indicators to be used in NSDI, but the groups of indicators remain the same as previous namely; income, education, occupation, housing, and population.
Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit
This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…
Hanna E. Tervonen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public concerns are commonly expressed about widening health gaps. This cohort study examines variations and trends in cancer survival by socio-economic disadvantage, geographical remoteness and country of birth in an Australian population over a 30-year period. Methods Data for cases diagnosed in New South Wales (NSW in 1980–2008 (n = 651,245 were extracted from the population-based NSW Cancer Registry. Competing risk regression models, using the Fine & Gray method, were used for comparative analyses to estimate sub-hazard ratios (SHR with 95% confidence intervals (CI among people diagnosed with cancer. Results Increased risk of cancer death was associated with living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with the least disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.17, and in outer regional/remote areas compared with major cities (SHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.06. People born outside Australia had a similar or lower risk of cancer death than Australian-born (SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–1.01 and SHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90–0.92 for people born in other English and non-English speaking countries, respectively. An increasing comparative risk of cancer death was observed over time when comparing the most with the least socio-economically disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.10 for 1980–1989; SHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12–1.17 for 1990–1999; and SHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21–1.27 for 2000–2008; p < 0.001 for interaction between disadvantage quintile and year of diagnosis. Conclusions There is a widening gap in comparative risk of cancer death by level of socio-economic disadvantage that warrants a policy response and further examination of reasons behind these disparities.
Van Dyck, Delfien; Veitch, Jenny; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thornton, Lukar; Ball, Kylie
Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18-46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To
Perignon, Marlène; Dubois, Christophe; Gazan, Rozenn; Maillot, Matthieu; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole
Background: Food prices influence food choices. Purchasing foods with higher nutritional quality for their price may help improve the diet quality of socio-economically disadvantaged individuals. Objective: To describe the co-construction and evaluation of the 'Opticourses' prevention program promoting healthy eating among participants in deprived socio-economical situations by improving the nutritional quality of their household food purchases with no additional cost. Methods: Individuals we...
Cleland, Claire L; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Scott, David; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Prior, Lindsay; Cupples, Margaret E
There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such 'hard-to-reach' population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents' and community leaders' perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an 'exit strategy' were perceived as important factors
Full Text Available The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.
Ford, John A; Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick
We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Older people's experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract-an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals' described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service.
Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P.; Steel, Nick
Objective We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Methods Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Findings Older people’s experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract–an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals’ described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Conclusion Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service. PMID:29509811
Evans, Josie M M.; Ryde, Gemma.; Jepson, Ruth.; Gray, Cindy.; Shepherd, Ashley.; Mackison, Dionne.; Ireland, Aileen V.; McMurdo, Marion E T.; Williams, Brian.; Shepherd, A..; Jepson, R..; Gray, C..; Mackison, D..; Evans, J.M.M..; Ryde, G..
Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualit...
Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting.METHODS: Studies using different quantitative and q...
Huckle, Taisia; Romeo, Jose S; Wall, Martin; Callinan, Sarah; Holmes, John; Meier, Petra; Mackintosh, Anne-Maree; Piazza, Marina; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Cuong, Pham Viet; Casswell, Sally
To investigate if socio-economic disadvantage, at the individual- and country-level, is associated with heavier drinking in some middle- and high-income countries. Surveys of drinkers were undertaken in some high- and middle-income countries. Participating countries were Australia, England, New Zealand, Scotland (high-income) and Peru, Thailand and Vietnam (middle-income). Disadvantage at the country-level was defined as per World Bank (categorised as middle-or high-income); individual-level measures were (i) years of education and (ii) whether and individual was under or over the poverty line in each country. Measures of heavier drinking were (i) proportion of drinkers that consumed 8+ drinks and (ii) three drinking risk groups (lower, increasing and higher). Multi-level logistic regression models were used. Individual-level measures of disadvantage, lower education and living in poverty, were associated with heavier drinking, consuming 8+ drinks on a typical occasion or drinking at the higher risk level, when all countries were considered together. Drinkers in the middle-income countries had a higher probability of consuming 8+ drinks on a typical occasion relative to drinkers in the high-income countries. Interactions between country-level income and individual-level disadvantage were undertaken: disadvantaged drinkers in the middle-income countries were less likely to be heavier drinkers relative to those with less disadvantage in the high-income countries. Associations between socio-economic disadvantage and heavier drinking vary depending on country-level income. These findings highlight the value of exploring cross-country differences in heavier drinking and disadvantage and the importance of including country-level measurements to better elucidate relationships. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T
There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Halliday Henry L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11 who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11 who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2 who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact
Toumbourou, J W; Hemphill, S A; Tresidder, J; Humphreys, C; Edwards, J; Murray, D
Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse and child health problems. Interventions that address underlying determinants of low SES show strong efficacy in decreasing adolescent crime and violence and effectiveness in improving child health outcomes. Although there is limited efficacy evidence that substance abuse prevention can be effectively addressed by targeting low SES, programs designed to improve educational pathways show some efficacy in reducing aspects of adolescent substance use. Mental health promotion strategies can draw on the approaches outlined here that are associated with the prevention of child and adolescent problems within low SES communities. Alternatively, such interventions could be supported in mental health promotion policy as they may assist in preventing related problems that undermine mental health.
Kusuma, Yadlapalli S; Kumari, Rita; Kaushal, Sonia
To identify the determinants of adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilisation and institutional deliveries among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants living in Delhi, India. In a cross-sectional survey, 809 rural-urban migrant mothers with a child aged below 2 years were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Data on receiving antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, migration history and other social, demographic and income were collected. Recent migrants used the services significantly less than settled migrants. ANC was adequate only among 37% (35% of recent migrant women and 39% of settled migrants). Multinomial regression revealed that being a recent migrant, multiparous, illiterate and married to an unskilled worker were significant risk factors for receiving inadequate ANC. Around 53% of deliveries took place at home. ANC seeking has a strong influence on place of delivery: 70% of births to women who received inadequate ANC were at home. Women who are educated, had their first delivery after the age of 20 years and received adequate ANC were more likely to deliver their child in hospital. Post-natal care is grossly neglected among these groups. Migrant women, particularly recent migrants, are at the risk of not receiving adequate maternal healthcare. Because migration is a continuing phenomenon, measures to mitigate disadvantage due to migration need to be taken in the healthcare system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The distribution of children in different school-types and regions in Pakistan suggests that access and opportunities in education are not evenly accessible for many children. Segregation at school level is an important concern for equity and social justice because the adverse effects of segregation increase the pre-existing gap in opportunities…
Josie M. M. Evans
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Results Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 % aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits. There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players. Intervention design (form and content was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. Conclusions It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic
Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian
Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 %) aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits) and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits). There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players). Intervention design (form and content) was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage through a Bingo club setting. A physical activity
Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Francis, Damian K; Liberato, Selma; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Welch, Vivian; Batal, Malek; Greenhalgh, Trish; Rader, Tamara; Noonan, Eamonn; Shea, Beverley; Janzen, Laura; Wells, George A; Petticrew, Mark
Undernutrition contributes to five million deaths of children under five each year. Furthermore, throughout the life cycle, undernutrition contributes to increased risk of infection, poor cognitive functioning, chronic disease, and mortality. It is thus important for decision-makers to have evidence about the effectiveness of nutrition interventions for young children. Primary objective1. To assess the effectiveness of supplementary feeding interventions, alone or with co-intervention, for improving the physical and psychosocial health of disadvantaged children aged three months to five years.Secondary objectives1. To assess the potential of such programmes to reduce socio-economic inequalities in undernutrition.2. To evaluate implementation and to understand how this may impact on outcomes.3. To determine whether there are any adverse effects of supplementary feeding. We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and seven other databases for all available years up to January 2014. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and several sources of grey literature. In addition, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and asked experts in the area about ongoing and unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs), and interrupted time series (ITS) that provided supplementary food (with or without co-intervention) to children aged three months to five years, from all countries. Adjunctive treatments, such as nutrition education, were allowed. Controls had to be untreated. Two or more review authors independently reviewed searches, selected studies for inclusion or exclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We conducted meta-analyses for continuous data using the mean difference (MD) or the standardised mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI), correcting for clustering if necessary. We analysed studies from low- and middle
Mansfield Elizabeth D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1 to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2 to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59. Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.
Over the last 20 years, the use of administrative data has become central to understanding pupil attainment and school performance. Of most importance has been its use to robustly demonstrate the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on pupil attainment. Much of this analysis in England and Wales has relied on whether pupils are eligible for free…
not ideal, underscores the peculiarities of experience in a general hospital in a low socio-economic setting. In conclusion, hernia surgery in a general hospital setting can be safely performed with the judicious use of intravenous Kctamine in children and emergency adult surgery as long as awareness of its side-effects and.
Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.
Colman Peter G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD each local government area (LGA across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A, in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6 and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2. Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years. Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.
The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small
Full Text Available People in low socio-economic positions are over-represented in suicide statistics and are at heightened risk for non-fatal suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Few studies have tried to tease out the relationship between individual-level and area-level socio-economic position, however. We used data from Ten to Men (the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to investigate the relationship between individual-level and area-level socio-economic position and suicidal thinking in 12,090 men. We used a measure of unemployment/employment and occupational skill level as our individual-level indicator of socio-economic position. We used the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (a composite multidimensional construct created by the Australian Bureau of Statistics that combines information from a range of area-level variables, including the prevalence of unemployment and employment in low skilled occupations as our area-level indicator. We assessed suicidal thinking using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. We found that even after controlling for common predictors of suicidal thinking; low individual-level and area-level socio-economic position heightened risk. Individual-level socio-economic position appeared to exert the greater influence of the two; however. There is an onus on policy makers and planners from within and outside the mental health sector to take individual- and area-level socio-economic position into account when they are developing strategic initiatives.
Lowrie, Emma; Tyrrell-Smith, Rachel
This paper reports on the use of a Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach to develop a new research tool to involve members of the community in thinking about priorities for early child health and development in a deprived area of the UK. The CEnR approach involves researchers, professionals and members of the public working together during all stages of research and development.Researchers used a phased approach to the development of a Photo Grid tool including reviewing tools which could be used for community engagement, and testing the new tool based on feedback from workshops with local early years professionals and parents of young children.The Photo Grid tool is a flat square grid on which photo cards can be placed. Participants were asked to pace at the top of the grid the photos they considered most important for early child health and development, working down to the less important ones at the bottom. The findings showed that the resulting Photo Grid tool was a useful and successful method of engaging with the local community. The evidence for this is the high numbers of participants who completed a pilot study and who provided feedback on the method. By involving community members throughout the research process, it was possible to develop a method that would be acceptable to the local population, thus decreasing the likelihood of a lack of engagement. The success of the tool is therefore particularly encouraging as it engages "seldom heard voices," such as those with low literacy. The aim of this research was to consult with professionals and parents to develop a new research toolkit (Photo Grid), to understand community assets and priorities in relation to early child health and development in Blackpool, a socio-economic disadvantaged community. A Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) approach was used to consult with community members. This paper describes the process of using a CEnR approach in developing a Photo Grid toolkit. A phased CEnR approach
Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E
To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.
Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian
To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet
Hasan, Samiul; Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg
Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.
Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.
de Baca, Tomás Cabeza; Wahl, Richard A; Barnett, Melissa A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J
Epidemiologists and medical researchers often employ an allostatic load model that focuses on environmental and lifestyle factors, together with biological vulnerabilities, to explain the deterioration of human physiological systems and chronic degenerative disease. Although this perspective has informed medicine and public health, it is agnostic toward the functional significance of pathophysiology and health deterioration. Drawing on Life History (LH) theory, the current paper reviews the literature on disadvantaged families to serve as a conceptual model of stress-health relationships in which the allocation of reproductive effort is instantiated in the LH strategies of individuals and reflects the bioenergetic and material resource tradeoffs . We propose that researchers interested in health disparities reframe chronic degenerative diseases as outcomes resulting from strategic calibration of physiological systems to best adapt, survive, and reproduce in response to demands of specific developmental contexts. These effects of adversity on later-age degenerative disease are mediated, in part, by socioemotional and cognitive mechanisms expressed in different life history strategies.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the
de Baca, Tomás Cabeza; Wahl, Richard A.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.
Epidemiologists and medical researchers often employ an allostatic load model that focuses on environmental and lifestyle factors, together with biological vulnerabilities, to explain the deterioration of human physiological systems and chronic degenerative disease. Although this perspective has informed medicine and public health, it is agnostic toward the functional significance of pathophysiology and health deterioration. Drawing on Life History (LH) theory, the current paper reviews the literature on disadvantaged families to serve as a conceptual model of stress-health relationships in which the allocation of reproductive effort is instantiated in the LH strategies of individuals and reflects the bioenergetic and material resource tradeoffs. We propose that researchers interested in health disparities reframe chronic degenerative diseases as outcomes resulting from strategic calibration of physiological systems to best adapt, survive, and reproduce in response to demands of specific developmental contexts. These effects of adversity on later-age degenerative disease are mediated, in part, by socioemotional and cognitive mechanisms expressed in different life history strategies. PMID:27175327
Huisman, M; Mackenbach, J P
Attention is increasingly being paid to the role of cognitive ability to explain socio-economic inequalities in health. The universal socio-economic gradient in health, where each rung lower on the socio-economic ladder implies worse health, has still not been satisfactorily explained scientifically. Because cognitive ability is related to a multitude of social outcomes in a similarly graded manner, hypothesising that cognitive ability plays a major role in health inequalities by socio-economic status is appealing. Recent empirical studies have shown that at least part of socio-economic health inequalities can indeed be explained by differences in cognitive ability. However, this does not imply that we should be pessimistic about future attempts to break the chain that links socio-economic status and cognitive ability with health. During some life stages, environmental factors may be able to influence cognitive ability. Interventions may therefore be targeted in order to optimize these effects. In addition, there is evidence that cognitive ability is correlated with health-related behaviours such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and obesity. Therefore, another opportunity for reducing health inequalities related to cognitive ability and socio-economic status would be to develop tailored interventions to improve health-related behaviours in disadvantaged groups. However, the first priority is to further investigate the role of cognitive ability in health inequalities by examining various health outcomes, different age groups and variations across the life course.
Full Text Available Mobility is a major factor of economic growth and social development. The vehicle is the centrepiece of what mobility means and it is expected that, in future, the use of vehicle continues to grow, particularly in developing countries. This article wants to highlight the need to implement electric vehicles in contemporary society and, also, highlight some of the advantages and socio-economic benefits that such action entails. The aim of this paper is estimating the possible influence of such shift in different aspects of economics as a whole. The results underline the main advantages and disadvantages of adopting the electric vehicule.
Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.
Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their
Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang
these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices...... alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead...
Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: email@example.com [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their
Homer, Caroline Se; Leap, Nicky; Edwards, Nadine; Sandall, Jane
in 1997, The Albany Midwifery Practice was established within King's College Hospital NHS Trust in a South East London area of high social disadvantage. The Albany midwives provided continuity of care to around 216 women per year, including those with obstetric, medical or social risk factors. In 2009, the Albany Midwifery Practice was closed in response to concerns about safety, amidst much publicity and controversy. The aim of this evaluation was to examine trends and outcomes for all mothers and babies who received care from the practice from 1997-2009. a retrospective, descriptive analysis of data routinely collected over the 12.5 year period was undertaken including changes over time and outcomes by demographic features. all women booked with the Albany Midwifery Practice were included. of the 2568 women included over the 12.5 year period, more than half (57%) were from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) communities; one third were single and 11.4% reported being single and unsupported. Almost all women (95.5%) were cared for in labour by either their primary or secondary midwife. There were high rates of spontaneous onset of labour (80.5%), spontaneous vaginal birth (79.8%), homebirth (43.5%), initiation of breastfeeding (91.5%) and breastfeeding at 28 days (74.3% exclusively and 14.8% mixed feeding). Of the 79% of women who had a physiological third stage, 5.9% had a postpartum haemorrhage. The overall rate of caesarean section was 16%. The preterm birth rate was low (5%). Ninety-five per cent of babies had an Apgar score of 8 or greater at 5minutes and 6% were admitted to a neonatal unit for more than two days. There were 15 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate of 5.78 per 1000 births); two were associated with significant congenital abnormalities. There were no intrapartum intrauterine deaths. this analysis has shown that the Albany Midwifery Practice demonstrated positive outcomes for women and babies in socially disadvantaged and BAME groups
Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...
The theoretical basis for a socio-economic project evaluation can be doubtful and specific analyses can involve quite essential uncertainty. Among serious theoretical problems of the energy sector there should be named the price distortions, due to various taxes. The choice of the presumed calculation interest can be difficult, due to the extremely long-range energy-political planning. (EG) 10 refs
Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David
The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.
Wohlfarth, T.; Winkel, F. W.; Ybema, J. F.; van den Brink, W.
This study investigates the relationship of socio-economic inequality (SEI) with criminal victimisation. It is hypothesised that disadvantage in terms of SEI is associated with increased risk of being victimised and with increased distress following victimisation. Two concepts of SEI are applied:
Wohlfarth, T.D.; Winkel, F.W.
Background: This study investigates the relationship of socio-economic inequality (SEI) with criminal victimisation. It is hypothesised that disadvantage in terms of SEI is associated with increased risk of being victimised and with increased distress following victimisation. Two concepts of SEI are
Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod
The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…
Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C
In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations
Yogi Pasca Pratama
Full Text Available This study aims to examine breastfeeding behavior from a gender perspective and socio-economic dimension. The legal basis and internal and external factors of breastfeeding behavior are the main issues. Breastfeeding views are also studied in terms of working women, in response to the increasingly expensive economic needs of women to help the family economy by entering the labor market, while women also have an obligation to engage in breastfeeding activities. This study uses literature method, by collecting all the literature related to the breastfeeding process, the legal basis that supports, and the factors that can inhibit and the way to succeed exclusive breastfeeding issues. This study found the fact that there is a misconception of society about breastfeeding that the breastfeeding process is not optimal, the modernization also makes women who should breastfeed to make new choices instead of breastfeeding obligations for their children. Keywords: breastfeeding, gender, socio-economic JEL Classification: I15, Z10
Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt
increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...... birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period....
The focus of the presented diploma thesis is to evaluate the knowledge of seniors in the field of healthy nutrition. It is furthermore important to find out, whether the seniors have enough relevant information about rational nutrition and which sources they would like to use to gather information about healthy nutrition. Socio-economic aspects, which lead to senior nutrition, are also monitored. A quantitative research strategy and an in-depth interview were used to fulfil the aim of the the...
Marin, Giovanni, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Economics, Society, Politics, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , via Aurelio Saffi, 2, 61029 Urbino (Italy); IRCrES - CNR, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Corti 12, 20133 - Milano (Italy); SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy); Modica, Marco, E-mail: email@example.com [IRCrES - CNR, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Corti 12, 20133 - Milano (Italy); SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy)
Even though the correct assessment of risks is a key aspect of the risk management analysis, we argue that limited effort has been devoted in the assessment of comprehensive measures of economic exposure at very low scale. For this reason, we aim at providing a series of suitable methodologies to provide a complete and detailed list of the exposure of economic activities to natural disasters. We use Input-Output models to provide information about several socio-economic variables, such as population density, employment density, firms' turnover and capital stock, that can be seen as direct and indirect socio-economic exposure to natural disasters. We then provide an application to the Italian context. These measures can be easily incorporated into risk assessment models to provide a clear picture of the disaster risk for local areas. - Highlights: • Ex ante assessment of economic exposure to disasters at very low geographical scale • Assessment of the cost of natural disasters in ex-post perspective • IO model and spatial autocorrelation to get information on socio-economic variables • Indicators supporting risk assessment and risk management models.
Marin, Giovanni; Modica, Marco
Even though the correct assessment of risks is a key aspect of the risk management analysis, we argue that limited effort has been devoted in the assessment of comprehensive measures of economic exposure at very low scale. For this reason, we aim at providing a series of suitable methodologies to provide a complete and detailed list of the exposure of economic activities to natural disasters. We use Input-Output models to provide information about several socio-economic variables, such as population density, employment density, firms' turnover and capital stock, that can be seen as direct and indirect socio-economic exposure to natural disasters. We then provide an application to the Italian context. These measures can be easily incorporated into risk assessment models to provide a clear picture of the disaster risk for local areas. - Highlights: • Ex ante assessment of economic exposure to disasters at very low geographical scale • Assessment of the cost of natural disasters in ex-post perspective • IO model and spatial autocorrelation to get information on socio-economic variables • Indicators supporting risk assessment and risk management models
ABSTRACT: This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; ... Key words: socio-economics, characteristics, registered cocoa farmers. ... international exchange market in two world currencies ...
This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...
Lawlor, Debbie A; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey
at menopause attenuated markedly (between 12% and 70%) with adjustment for adult leg length. There was a cumulative effect of disadvantage across the life course demonstrated by a strong linear trend between a composite score of the 10 socio-economic indicators and young age at menopause. The age at onset of menopause for women who had 9 or 10 adverse socio-economic indicators was on average 1.70 years (95% CI 0.36, 3.0) younger than that of women with none or only one indicator. Adverse socio-economic circumstances in childhood, as well as in adulthood, are associated with an earlier age at menopause. The association between childhood deprivation and early menopause may at least in part be mediated via exposures, such as childhood diet, which affect both linear growth and age at menopause.
Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne
Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia Rashmi Singla, Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s...
The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs
Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo
Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.
Butterworth, Peter; Olesen, Sarah C; Leach, Liana S
It is well established that socio-economic position is associated with depression. The experience of financial hardship, having to go without the essentials of daily living due to limited financial resources, may explain the effect. However, there are few studies examining the link between financial hardship and diagnosable depression at a population level. The current paper addresses this gap and also evaluates the moderating effect of age. Data were from 8841 participants aged 16-85 years in Australia's 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Measures of socio-economic position included: financial hardship, education, labour-force status, occupational skill, household income, main source of income, and area-level disadvantage. Financial hardship was more strongly associated with depression than other socio-economic variables. Hardship was more strongly associated with current depression than with prior history of depression. The relative effect of hardship was strongest in late adulthood but the absolute effect of hardship was greatest in middle age. The results demonstrate the critical role of financial hardship in the association between socio-economic disadvantage and 12-month depressive episode, and suggest that social and economic policies that address inequalities in living standards may be an appropriate way to reduce the burden attributable to depression.
Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Sufficient dairy food consumption during adolescence is necessary for preventing disease. While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume few dairy foods, some eat quantities more in line with dietary recommendations despite socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic variations in factors supportive of adolescents' frequent dairy consumption remain unexplored. The present study aimed to identify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and adolescents' frequent dairy consumption at baseline and two years later across socio-economic strata, and to examine whether socio-economic position moderated observed effects. Online surveys completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007) included a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions based on social ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental dietary influences. Thirty-seven secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Australian adolescents (n 1201) aged 12-15 years, drawn from a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents (response rate=33%). While frequent breakfast consumption was cross-sectionally associated with frequent dairy consumption among all adolescents, additional associated factors differed by socio-economic position. Baseline dairy consumption longitudinally predicted consumption at follow-up. No further factors predicted frequent consumption among disadvantaged adolescents, while four additional factors were predictive among advantaged adolescents. Socio-economic position moderated two predictors; infrequently eating dinner alone and never purchasing from school vending machines predicted frequent consumption among advantaged adolescents. Nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving adolescents' dairy consumption should employ multifactorial approaches informed by social ecological models and address socio-economic differences in influences on eating behaviours; e.g., selected intrapersonal factors among all
Scheelhaase, Janina D.
The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui
Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348
Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard
Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.
Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed by subjective perception as against objective criteria: methodological considerations. The Mamprobi (Ghana) Cardiovascular Helath Programme 1975-1980.
Odozi, John C.
The aim of this article is to synthesize the various views of gender inequality and various indicators used to measure it. It argues that women lag behind men in most indicators of socio-economic development and they constitute the majority of the poor, the unemployed and the socially disadvantaged. Productive differences as espoused by the traditional neoclassical as well as the institutions and markets advancement are not sufficient to explain gender inequality. The political economy view o...
Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C
This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....
The socio-economic impact of onchocerciasis (river blindness) on humans is reviewed with special reference to females and children. The results of many studies reveal that onchocerciasis is usuallya serious threat to public health and an impediment to socio-economic development in areas wth high intensity and high ...
) socio-economic status are significantly stronger than the moderate (4.56) in deciding to purchase the HPV vaccination. Socio-economic factor has a slightly negative impact (B= -0.08), and attitude (0.68), subjective norms (0.16), and behavior ...
The Influence of Household Socio-Economic Characteristics and Awareness on Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Makueni County, Kenya. ... East African Medical Journal ... The results further showed significant associations of some socio-economic characteristics and awareness with aflatoxin contamination of maize.
Tools for the analyses were percentages and Chi-Square (χ2), used to test existence of relationships between level of participation and socio-economic characteristics of respondents, and correlation analysis, used to test cause-effect relationship between socio-economic variables and some indicators of cooperative ...
Chronic suppurative otitis media: Socio-economic implications in a tertiary hospital in Northern Nigeria. ... This paper highlights the socio-economic burden of chronic suppurative otitis media on a ... minimum wage for individuals in our environment where the cost of health care is the sole responsibility of the patient.
Maeenpaeae, I.; Maennistoe, J.
This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations
Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.
♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587
Singh, Abhishek; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Mishra, Udaya S.; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Johnson, Fiifi A.; Matthews, Zoe
Objectives First, our objective was to estimate socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care (PNC) compared with those in the use of care at birth and antenatal care. Second, we wanted to compare inequalities in the use of PNC between facility births and home births and to determine inequalities in the use of PNC among mothers with high-risk births. Methods and Findings Rich–poor ratios and concentration indices for maternity care were estimated using the third round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in India in 2007–08. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the socio-economic inequalities associated with use of PNC after adjusting for relevant socio-economic and demographic characteristics. PNC for both mothers and newborns was substantially lower than the care received during pregnancy and child birth. Only 44% of mothers in India at the time of survey received any care within 48 hours after birth. Likewise, only 45% of newborns received check-up within 24 hours of birth. Mothers who had home births were significantly less likely to have received PNC than those who had facility births, with significant differences across the socio-economic strata. Moreover, the rich-poor gap in PNC use was significantly wider for mothers with birth complications. Conclusions PNC use has been unacceptably low in India given the risks of mortality for mothers and babies shortly after birth. However, there is evidence to suggest that effective use of pregnancy and childbirth care in health facilities led to better PNC. There are also significant socio-economic inequalities in access to PNC even for those accessing facility-based care. The coverage of essential PNC is inadequate, especially for mothers from economically disadvantaged households. The findings suggest the need for strengthening PNC services to keep pace with advances in coverage for care at birth and prenatal services in India through targeted policy interventions. PMID
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: First, our objective was to estimate socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care (PNC compared with those in the use of care at birth and antenatal care. Second, we wanted to compare inequalities in the use of PNC between facility births and home births and to determine inequalities in the use of PNC among mothers with high-risk births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rich-poor ratios and concentration indices for maternity care were estimated using the third round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in India in 2007-08. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the socio-economic inequalities associated with use of PNC after adjusting for relevant socio-economic and demographic characteristics. PNC for both mothers and newborns was substantially lower than the care received during pregnancy and child birth. Only 44% of mothers in India at the time of survey received any care within 48 hours after birth. Likewise, only 45% of newborns received check-up within 24 hours of birth. Mothers who had home births were significantly less likely to have received PNC than those who had facility births, with significant differences across the socio-economic strata. Moreover, the rich-poor gap in PNC use was significantly wider for mothers with birth complications. CONCLUSIONS: PNC use has been unacceptably low in India given the risks of mortality for mothers and babies shortly after birth. However, there is evidence to suggest that effective use of pregnancy and childbirth care in health facilities led to better PNC. There are also significant socio-economic inequalities in access to PNC even for those accessing facility-based care. The coverage of essential PNC is inadequate, especially for mothers from economically disadvantaged households. The findings suggest the need for strengthening PNC services to keep pace with advances in coverage for care at birth and prenatal services in India through targeted policy
Kavanagh, Anne M; Krnjacki, Lauren; Beer, Andrew; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Bentley, Rebecca
The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time
Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno
Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Socio-economics and Alternative Livelihood Options of Fishers of Lake Victoria, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Most fishers were males aged 29-38yrs while women were involved in processing and marketing.
Engr E. Egbochukwu
The result revealed that university undergraduates socio-economic status significantly ..... had university education marry university graduates or those with more education than they have. ... Dissertation Abstract. International, 59(9-A0, 3526.
Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of Female ... of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. ... homes the opportunity to acquire basic primary education to university level.
Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.
Bashiru I.I. Saeed
Full Text Available A socio-economic inequality in the use of healthcare services in Ghana is investigated in this paper. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey (WHS, 2003. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. Using generalized logit model, the study found that health status is a very strong determinant of the type of healthcare services Ghanaians look for. In Ghana, there are still important socio-economic gradients in the use of some healthcare services. These differences may be due to socio-economic inequities but could also indicate that the existing health facilities are not always used in an optimal way. Patient factors may be more important than supply factors in explaining the differential use of health services.
Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.
Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences
Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto; Wolfram, Marie Therese
In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite
Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Status and Casual Blood Pressure in ... data suggest that essential or primary hypertension occurs in the young. ... METHODS: One thousand and eight adolescents attending two secondary ...
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.
2University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Lusaka. *Corresponding ... Key words: Stroke, household, socio-economic, impact,. Livingstone ..... breakdowns resulting in delinquency, reduced. 21 family ties ...
Bhakra Beas complex (comprising Bhakra Nangal Project and Beas Project Unit I and II) is one of the major multi-purpose Valley Projects of India. The socio economic and ecological impacts of the project are discussed. (author)
The study then suggested the introduction of standard yardstick policy, which could be used to measure socio-economic status of residents in relation to their health status determinants in this country. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp.
Key words: Improved maize production practices, adoption, socio-economic, ... The Federal Ministry of Science and Technology (2004) reported that Nigeria has a ... status, educational level and household size of the maize farmers were ...
Keywords: Democracy, Corruption, Governance, Socio-economic development .... given the fact that the excesses of political leaders through the institutions ..... and its style of governance in Nigeria, therefore, requires an examination.
Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...
The influence of socio-economic variables on adoption behaviour towards Tadco improved rice parboiling technique among rice parboilers in Kura processing Areas ... Age and educational level were found to be associated with non adoption ...
Crop farmers and pastoralists' socio-economic characteristics influencing ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... family size and farm size) influenced positively and significantly crop farmers and pastoralists land use conflict.
DEZÉCACHE CAMILLE; SALLES JEAN-MICHEL; VIEILLEDENT GHISLAIN; HÉRAULT BRUNO
While high resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially-explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account ...
Christiansen, Christian O.
The German historian Reinhart Koselleck was once described as a partisan for histories in the plural (as opposed to history in the singular). His point was that history has many different layers, logics, and temporalities and that the modernist idea of one, overarching history with one direction ......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....... (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables...
Lo, Alex Y; Liu, Shuwen
Many high-density cities struggle to find space for disposing municipal solid waste. Hong Kong is one of these cities, seeking to scale up waste recovery efforts as an alternative to disposal. However, territory-wide recovery initiatives do not account for socio-economic variations across place, leading to mixed outcomes among diverse communities. This study aims to investigate socio-economic effects on recycling behavior in a sample of subsidized rental housing estates. It constitutes an improvement from previous studies by using the entire estate as a unit of analysis and analyzing actual recycling outcomes, which have received limited attention from researchers. The analysis focused on the volume of recyclables collected from 158 public housing estates in Hong Kong, with an average population of 12,285. Results suggest that recycling outcomes vary with a limited set of socio-economic factors. Housing estates managed by a private property management company and populated by better off households collected more recyclables from their residents. Measures of absolute and relative recycling intensity achieved similar results. The findings will be useful for identifying residential communities requiring additional support for promoting waste separation and recycling. Differentiated policies for economically disadvantaged communities are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilman, S E; Kawachi, I; Fitzmaurice, G M; Buka, L
Childhood adversity significantly increases the risk of depression, but it is unclear whether this risk is most pronounced for depression occurring early in life. In the present study, we examine whether three aspects of childhood adversity--low socio-economic status (SES), family disruption, and residential instability--are related to increased risk of depression during specific stages of the life course. We also examine whether these aspects of childhood adversity are related to the severity of depression. A sample of 1089 of the 4140 births enrolled in the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project was interviewed between the ages of 18 and 39. Measures of parental SES, childhood family disruption and residential instability were obtained upon mother's enrolment and at age 7. Age at onset of major depressive episode, lifetime number of depressive episodes, and age at last episode were ascertained via structured diagnostic interviews. Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression onset and remission and Poisson regression was used to model the recurrence rate of depressive episodes. Low parental SES, family disruption and a high level of residential instability, defined as three or more family moves, were related to elevated lifetime risks of depression; the effects of family disruption and residential instability were most pronounced on depression onset by age 14. Childhood adversity was also related to increased risk of recurrence and reduced likelihood of remission. Childhood social disadvantage significantly influences risk of depression onset both in childhood and in adulthood. Early childhood adversity is also related to poor prognosis.
Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung
To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent's last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report 'very good' on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level.
Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices
Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.
Erol, A.; Koşkan, Ö.; Başaran, M. A.
While social scientists have long focused on socio-economic and demographic factors, physical modelers typically study soil loss using physical factors. In the current environment, it is becoming increasingly important to consider both approaches simultaneously for the conservation of soil and water, and the improvement of land use conditions. This study uses physical and socio-economic factors to find a coefficient that evaluates the combination of these factors. It aims to determine the effect of socio-economic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The methodology employed in this study specifies that soil loss can be calculated and predicted by comparing the degree of soil loss in watersheds, with and without human influence, given the same overall conditions. A coefficient for socio-economic factors, therefore, has been determined based on adjoining watersheds (WS I and II), employing simulation methods. Combinations of C and P factors were used in the USLE to find the impact of their contributions on soil loss. The results revealed that these combinations provided good estimation of soil loss amounts for the second watershed, i.e. WS II, from the adjoining watersheds studied in this work. This study shows that a coefficient of 0.008 modified the USLE to reflect the socio-economic factors as settlement influencing the amount of soil loss in the watersheds studied.
Full Text Available The authors carried out a correlation analysis of the socio-economic environment factors, which have a decisive influence on the territorial innovative development according to data for the year 2012. The paper discloses socio-economic determinants that provide to reinforce territory’s innovative development. These determinants are higher education development, improving of social and transport infrastructure, growth in small business and trade. The paper also carried out a dynamic analysis according to data for period of 2012 - 2014 in the group of regions (Russian Federation "Generators of Innovations" and disclosed the positive impact of selected key determinants on the regional innovative development. The results of this research may be used in the government practice of different territories (countries, regions for decision-making in the field of socio-economic development.
Grachev, V. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Myshlyaev, L. P.
The paper is devoted to the study of incentive schemes when developing socio-economic systems. The article analyzes the existing incentive schemes. It is established that the traditional incentive mechanisms do not fully take into account the specifics of the creation of each socio-economic system and, as a rule, are difficult to implement. The incentive schemes based on the full-scale simulation approach, which allow the most complete information from the existing projects of creation of socio-economic systems to be extracted, are proposed. The statement of the problem is given, the method and algorithm of the full-scale simulation study of the efficiency of incentive functions is developed. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that the use of quadratic and piecewise linear functions of incentive allows the time and costs for creating social and economic systems to be reduced by 10%-15%.
Bharati, S; Pal, M; Shome, S; Roy, P; Dhara, P; Bharati, P
Obesity is fast becoming an epidemic among the urban children and it has its adverse effect on the status of health even during adulthood. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the percentage of obesity among 6-10 year children and assess the effect of different socio-economic variables and TV watching on childhood obesity. We restricted our study to primary school-going children who attended classes I-IV. The sample consisted of 5216 children from 20 different Bengali medium and English medium schools in Kolkata. Categorical logistic regression of obesity on the socio-economic factors namely type of medium school, religion, parent's education, duration of television watching etc., has been carried out. The categorical logistic regression shows the significant effect of some of the socio-economic or demographic variables including the duration of television watching on obesity. We have seen a positive association between obesity and TV watching and also between obesity and consumption of fast food. This calls for making the parents aware and taking action as early as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Advanced connectivity offers rural communities prospects for socio-economic development. Despite Australia’s national broadband infrastructure plans, inferior availability and quality of rural Internet connections remain persistent issues. This article examines the impact of limited connectivity on rural socio-economic opportunities, drawing from the views of twelve citizens from the Boorowa local government area in New South Wales. The available fixed wireless and satellite connections in Boorowa are slow and unreliable, and remote regions in the municipality are still without any Internet access. Participants identified four key areas in their everyday lives that are impacted by insufficient connectivity: business development, education, emergency communication, and health. Rural citizens often already face challenges in these areas, and infrastructure advancements in urban spaces can exacerbate rural-urban disparities. Participants’ comments demonstrated apprehension that failure to improve connectivity would result in adverse long-term consequences for the municipality. This article suggests that current broadband policy frameworks require strategic adaptations to account for the socio-economic and geographic contexts of rural communities. In order to narrow Australia’s rural-urban digital divide, infrastructure developments should be prioritised in the most underserved regions.
Stoyanets Nataliia Valeriivna
Full Text Available In the article the content category “socio-economic system of the region” through coherent, equilibrated integrity objects of economic and social purposes in the territory, which includes including resource component and designed for the production of environmentally friendly products and services are provided. A typical signs of socio-economic potential of the region through the hierarchy, complexity, emergence, dynamism, commitment, synerhichnist, uniqueness and openness components. The economic potential of the region as the maximum capacity of the region to achieve its strategic goals through the use of existing resources, manufacturing, natural – resource, research, information and social sub region.
an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does......This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process...
Many inequities in the coverage of essential interventions in pregnancy, childbirth and newborn and child health, especially those that require contact with the health system, persist within countries. \\ud \\ud Although economic inequities may be the most visible and profound, there can be other sources of social disadvantage. \\ud \\ud Poverty and caste are important determinants of health, including maternal healthcare. \\ud \\ud IDEAS conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-economic and caste...
Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...
The objective of this study was therefore to use data reported by the United Nations to assess the relationships among national socio-economic statistics on education, economic performance, health care, nutrition, agriculture and demography, and infant and child mortality rates, from 129 countries. The methods used in the ...
Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women beneficiaries of UNICEF-assisted nutrition enhancement programme in Abia State, Nigeria. ... educated, and as a way of sustaining the women's nutritional status for reproduction and food security at the household level and development in its entirety at large.
The study observed the poor use of hybrid sorghum cultivars by subsistence farmers. The project sought to establish which, if any, socio-economic factors influence the adoption of hybrid sorghum cultivars by this sector of the farming community. The focus was on Makhuduthamaga Municipality in Sekhukhune District of ...
The socio-economic characteristic of snail farmers in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) was evaluated in two out of the four zones that were available. The two zones selected were Ibadan/Ibarapa and Oyo zones, to determine the factors related to snail production, consumption and marketing in the ...
Domac, J.; Richards, K.; Risovic, S.
Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, ?) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others
Seven hundred and eighty seven second to third trimester pregnant women were recruited at booking for antenatal care at two primary health care clinics. Prenatal structured interviews assessed socio-economic, quality of partner relationships and selected physical health measures. Depressive symptoms were measured ...
The socio-economic and political developments that affected economy of the country in general and its currency in particular, during the period under review included: attainment of independence on 1st October, 1960, attainment of republican status in 1963, the country's civil war (1967-1970), decimalization of currency in ...
Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of socio-economic research in the European Research Area, while putting focus on emerging trends in the field. In the meantime, the paper presents and analysis the projects that won the “Ideas” competition: ERC Advanced Inve
African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home ... To develop a management strategy for informal fishers, a necessary first step is information about the nature of these fishers, their numbers and their socio-economic status. ... Education levels were low, only ~33% of people >20 years old having completed primary school.
This paper investigated the influence of socio-economic factors on crop farmers production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. Purposive and stratefied random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River Project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured ...
The study examined socio economic factors influencing agricultural radio programme FILIN. MAINOMA in ... statistics such as, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) and Chi-Square analysis. (χ. 2). .... of fish farmers association while one third. (22.22%) ... problems of language barrier and 6.00% of the.
Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...
The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...
Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.
Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…
Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona
The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.…
In recent years the South African legislature has made a very bold attempt to improve the socio-economic conditions of citizens. Amongst others, the Social Assistance Act 59 of 1992 provides for monthly payments to citizens under certain prescribed conditions. In situations where other legislation does not provide a remedy ...
Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim
Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....
Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael
Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 157-169 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic conditions * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Socio-economic characteristics of small-holder farmers influencing their utilisation of microcredit in the central agricultural zone of Cross River state. ... The findings revealed that about thirty – four percent (33.6%) of the crop farmers fell between 41-50 years while about 51% of the livestock farmers fell between 31-40 years.
Data was collected using a semi-structured researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes were addressed using questions on balanced diet, healthy eating, healthy body weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and diabetes and hypertension causes. Socio-economic status was addressed by ...
The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...
groups. Given the high relevance of cooperatives as instruments of economic self reliance and empowerment, policy initiatives that would strengthen these groups are recommended.. Keywords: Economic rationality, Socio-economic differential, Group formation. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences Vol. 5 (1) 2007: pp.
why high socio-economic class women in the Cape Metropole decide ... as barriers to breast-feeding include a lack of knowledge and experience (38%) as well as a lack of facilities at public ... private practising paediatrician in Stellenbosch for face validity. .... While mothers (n = 39; 70.9%) indicated that the facilities at work.
The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...
7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ... 90% of domestic responsibilities and are national resource managers and environmental ..... Education exposes one to better ways of managing resources and doing ... human nutrition basics, as well as rules for healthy eating. ... Second Edition.
Burn is a global problem with a magnitude of chains of psychological effects on surviving victims and socio economic implications for the individual, the immediate family and the society at large. This paper seeks to highlight the major consequences of burn injuries in the Nigerian society. There is a growing evidence of ...
agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...
The thrust of this study is to examine the socio-economic background and prevalence of visual defects among students in public and private secondary schools in Calabar municipality in Cross River State. The main objective of the study is to screen for and present information on the prevalence of visual defects amongst the ...
This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ...
A socio-economic survey was conducted in some districts of the six cocoa growing regions of Ghana to provide information for adjustment of government's fertilizer use policy on cocoa farms. The study's objectives were to determine the proportion of farmers applying fertilizer to their farms, investigate the fertilizer application ...
This paper studies sustainable management of natural resources for socio economic development in Imo state. This it does with the aim to determine the extent to which the exploration and exploitation of natural resources has affected the ecological and environmental conditions of the area. The research also tends to ...
This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the accumulation of high body adiposity, which can have detrimental health effects and contribute to the development of numerous preventable non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors on the ...
Socio-Economic Perspectives of Male Sexual Challenges and Inter-Spousal Communication in a Mono-Cultural Setting. ... for all men who have sexual health challenges in order to stimulate mutual harmonious communication between husband and wife and enhance effective management of crisis at home fronts.
Hilhorst, Thea; Weijs, Bart; Haar, van der Gemma
An estimated 2 billion people live in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence. Extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in these areas, and governments and international agencies seek avenues to enable socio-economic recovery and to support people as they try to rebuild their
May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.
The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.
The results indicate a preponderance of gentrification, with attendant policy implications. The results also show that there is no significant difference in the degree of crowding among the different socio-economic classifications. This is inconsistent with the generally held understanding in urban housing studies that crowding ...
The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...
Full Text Available For a long period of time from 1991 to 2016, the socio-economic development of Ukrainian regions was characterized by enhanced differentiation and persistent inequality. Permanent preservation of the gap between the maximum and minimum values of indicators of socio-economic development of regions, in particular, the GRP per capita (8.8 times in 2014; disposable income of populace (10.3% in 2015; unemployment rate according to ILO methodology (in 2.8 times in January-September 2016, the volume of realized industrial products (38,9 times in January-September 2016 indicate the persistence of centre-periphery relations between regions in the economic space of the country. This situation reduces the overall efficiency of the economy, which is reflected by the decline of Ukraine’s position in the rankings of international organizations. According to the global competitiveness index in 2015, Ukraine has shifted from 76 to 79 place compared with 2014, according to the Index of Human Development, there was a slight increase from 83 to 81 place. To crown it all, taking into account the complexity of modern processes of Ukrainian regions’ socio-economic development, the total assessment of determination of Ukrainian regions’ levels of socio-economic development is required. The purpose of the article implies prompting the research results of determining the problem concerning the consolidated assessment of the socio-economic development of Ukrainian regions. Methodology. The article examines the processes of socio-economic development of Ukrainian regions and offers an analytical scheme of identification stage of problematic of the regions’ socioeconomic development. The article justifies a system of partial indicators and on its basis calculates the integral and generalizing indicators of economic and social development of Ukrainian regions. Analysis of recent researches and publications. Issues of spatial development of the country’s regions
Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian; Sellstrom, Eva; Petticrew, Mark
identified. These were studies of warmth improvements (n = 7) and rehousing (n = 5). Three qualitative studies were excluded from the synthesis due to lack of clarity of methods. Six of the included qualitative studies also reported quantitative data which was included in the review.Very little quantitative synthesis was possible as the data were not amenable to meta-analysis. This was largely due to extreme heterogeneity both methodologically as well as because of variations in the intervention, samples, context, and outcome; these variations remained even following grouping of interventions and outcomes. In addition, few studies reported data that were amenable to calculation of standardized effect sizes. The data were synthesised narratively.Data from studies of warmth and energy efficiency interventions suggested that improvements in general health, respiratory health, and mental health are possible. Studies which targeted those with inadequate warmth and existing chronic respiratory disease were most likely to report health improvement. Impacts following housing-led neighbourhood renewal were less clear; these interventions targeted areas rather than individual households in most need. Two poorer quality LMIC studies reported unclear or small health improvements. One better quality study of rehousing from slums (pre-1960) reported some improvement in mental health. There were few reports of adverse health impacts following housing improvement. A small number of studies gathered data on social and socio-economic impacts associated with housing improvement. Warmth improvements were associated with increased usable space, increased privacy, and improved social relationships; absences from work or school due to illness were also reduced.Very few studies reported differential impacts relevant to equity issues, and what data were reported were not amenable to synthesis. Housing investment which improves thermal comfort in the home can lead to health improvements, especially
Full Text Available The tendency towards socio-economic homogamy – partner similarity in terms of socio-economic status – is of great interest to social scientists, for two reasons. First, socio-economic homogamy is an indicator of social closure between status groups in a society. Second, given that homogamy leads to the accumulation of advantageous and disadvantageous socio-economic conditions within couples, it also intensifies social and economic inequalities between families. The objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge of socio-economic homogamy and its consequences for union stability in Finland. The first aim was to analyse the strength and patterns of socio-economic homogamy in partner choice. The second aim was to determine whether and, if so, how homogamy is associated with the likelihood of ending non-marital cohabitation – through separation on the one hand, or marriage on the other. In addition, two dimensions of socio-economic status, individual educational attainment and social class of the family of origin, were analysed to find out whether matching on individually achieved status or on the status of the parental family had a bigger effect on union dynamics. The analyses were based on sets of register data compiled at Statistics Finland. Log-linear models were applied to study homogamy tendencies and their changes in marriages and cohabitations of women born in 1957–1979 at the age of 30. The effects of homogamy and heterogamy on the likelihood of separation and marriage were analysed with Cox proportional hazards model in cohabitations formed in the period 1995–2002 by women born in 1960–1977. An elaborate approach was adopted: marriage and separation rates were examined in each possible combination of partner status. The results imply that people tend to choose partners who are similar to them in terms of educational attainment and class background. However, homogamy was stronger with regard to education than to social
Härkönen, Juho; Lindberg, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Scheinin, Noora M
To investigate socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class and current economic conditions. Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. South-western Finland. A total of 2667 pregnant women [70% of the original sample (n = 3808)] from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Education and occupational class were linked from population registers. Income support recipiency and subjective economic wellbeing were questionnaire-based measures of current economic conditions. These were adjusted for age, partnership status, residential area type, parental separation, parity, childhood socio-economic background, childhood adversities (the Trauma and Distressing Events During Childhood scale) and antenatal stress (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regressions and attributable fractions (AF) were estimated. Mother's education was the strongest socio-economic predictor of SIP. Compared with university education, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of SIP were: 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.9; P = 0.011] for tertiary vocational education, 4.4 (95% CI = 2.1-9.0; P < 0.001) for combined general and vocational secondary education, 2.9 (95% CI = 1.4-6.1; P = 0.006) for general secondary education, 9.5 (95% CI 5.0-18.2; P < 0.001) for vocational secondary education and 14.4 (95% CI = 6.3-33.0; P < 0.001) for compulsory schooling. The total AF of education was 0.5. Adjusted for the other variables, occupational class and subjective economic wellbeing did not predict SIP. Income support recipiency was associated positively with SIP (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1; P = 0.022). Antenatal stress predicted SIP (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.8; P < 0.001), but did not attenuate its socio-economic disparities. In Finland, socio-economic disparities in
Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie
To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.
Fahy, A.E; Stansfield, S.A; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; Van der Horst, Mariska; Vickerstaff, Sarah; Clark, C.
The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...
Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.
The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...
Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo
This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.
Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James
Background: Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. Aims: To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and…
Golden, J.; Watson, J.
A nuclear facility has both radiological and non-radiological effects on the environment. To minimize radiological effects, limits are set on releases of radioactive materials that will cause either direct or indirect exposure (such as the food chain). Exposure pathways for man and other organisms are described with comparisons of typical calculated doses and design objective doses. Non-radiological impacts of nuclear plants are classified as ecological-physical and socio/economic considerations, which include eighteen areas affected during each phase of the nuclear facility cycle. The ecological-physical environment is impacted in the areas of hydrology, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, and air and water quality. The socio-economic environment is impacted in areas of land use, tax base, employment, economic stimulus, relocation, lifestyle, demand for service, aesthetics, and power needs. Case studies of large construction projects are described in the appendix
Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R
Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.
Besides technical aspects and those of safety, it is the economic and social environment of a future underground geologic repository which plays a major role. Compared to other large scale technical plants, facilities for radioactive waste management must overcome incomparably greater obstacles. All the more care must be taken in clarifying the issues affecting the public and the economy in the region of a potential site. On behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (BFE), Ruetter + Partner conducted a basic study which, in a number of case studies, dealt with the socio-economic aspects of experiences with existing and planned facilities in Switzerland and abroad. The study focused on these main points, which are outlined briefly in the article: - Socio-economic issues in the site selection procedure. - Methodological approach. - Findings made in the case studies. - Factors influencing the acceptance of a repository. (orig.)
Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E
wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage......The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...
Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.
Zakaria, Syerrina; May, Chin Sin; Rahman, Nuzlinda Abdul
Deprivation index usually used in public health study. At the same time, deprivation index can also use to measure the level of deprivation in an area or a village. These indices are also referred as the index of inequalities or disadvantage. Even though, there are many indices that have been built before. But it is believed to be less appropriate to use the existing indices to be applied in other countries or areas which had different socio-economic conditions and different geographical characteristics. The objective of this study is to construct the index based on the socio-economic factors in Setiu Wetlands (Jajaran Merang, Jajaran Setiu and Jajaran Kuala Besut) in Terengganu Malaysia which is defined as weighted household-based socioeconomic deprivation index. This study has employed the variables based on income level, education level and employment rate obtained from questionnaire which are acquired from 64 villages included 1024 respondents. The factor analysis is used to extract the latent variables or observed variables into smaller amount of components or factors. By using factor analysis, one factor is extracted from 3 latent variables. This factor known as socioeconomic deprivation index. Based on the result, the areas with a lower index values until high index values were identified.
CARIM-East: Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe Version in other language: Migration Policy Centre CARIM-East Research Report 2013/11 The present work of research reveals that despite an economic revival, the labour market infrastructure in Georgia and the cost of labour force do not contribute to any reduction in labour emigration. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on the facilitation of return migration back to the homeland and the socio-economic efficiency of ...
Mobility is a major factor of economic growth and social development. The vehicle is the centrepiece of what mobility means and it is expected that, in future, the use of vehicle continues to grow, particularly in developing countries. This article wants to highlight the need to implement electric vehicles in contemporary society and, also, highlight some of the advantages and socio-economic benefits that such action entails. The aim of this paper is estimating the possible influe...
Concern for the morality of economic life is relatively recent and involves the need to implement ethical codes that prevent violation of rules of conduct. The Socio-economical sphere is marked by profound transformations that shape a particular kind of rationality. The ethical rules can also be found under this kind of rationality. Apparently these rules hinder the economical processes, but in reality respecting the economical rule, leads to the increase of trust between economical actors. H...
Van Ierland, E.C.; Klaassen, M.G.; Nierop, T.; Van der Wusten, H.
The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs
Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N
International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important
Thomas Gries; Margarete Redlin
Over the last twenty years piracy has become an increasing threat. Yet there are only very few econometric studies that examine under which conditions this phenomenon arises. As the number of maritime piracy and armed robbery incidents is characterized as count data and exhibits overdispersion, we apply random-effects negative binomial regressions for a panel dataset covering the period 1991-2010. Our results indicate that poor socio-economic, political, and institutional conditions in the ho...
Weisiger, M.L.; Pijawka, K.D.
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Cieśla, Justyna Maria; Kaczmarski, Maciej
The aim of the study was to find a correlation between the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and their accommodation and socio-economic conditions. The results of questionnaire studies were analyzed and levels of IgG specific antibodies against H. pylori were assessed in children randomly chosen in the north-east of Poland at the level of a district, county and province city. The incidence of H. pylori infection in the studied children was varied and depended on the living place. The highest percentage of the infected was revealed in a district (40.4%) and the lowest in a province city (19.0%). There was a correlation between H. pylori infection and socio-economic conditions. The highest percentage of the infected children (59.7%) was found in families whose income was within the first income tax group. The incidence of the infection was also determined by the type of a flat, the number of members in a family, water intake and personal hygiene. 1) the highest incidence of H. pylori infection in children was found in a county, the lowest in a province city. 2) environmental and socio-economic conditions influence the presence of H. pylori infection in children.
A. Khadar Nur Zafirah
Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.
N. V. Lyasnikov
Full Text Available The dynamic socio-economic development of Russia, the long-term competitiveness in the global economy involves the formation of a new socio-economic institute of management – an active subject of modern innovative economy.
Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M
Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.
Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.
Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888
Fahy, A E; Stansfeld, S A; Smuk, M; Lain, D; van der Horst, M; Vickerstaff, S; Clark, C
The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood. This study builds upon previous research by examining associations between childhood adversity and self-reported labour force participation among older adults (aged 55). Data was from the National Child Development Study - a prospective cohort of all English, Scottish, & Welsh births in one week in 1958. There was evidence for associations between childhood adversity and increased risk of permanent sickness at 55 years - which were largely sustained after adjustment for educational disengagement and adulthood factors (mental/physical health, qualifications, socioeconomic disadvantage). Specifically, children who were abused or neglected were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. In addition, among males, those in care, those experiencing illness in the home, and those experiencing two or more childhood adversities were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. Childhood factors were also associated with part-time employment and retirement at 55 years. Severe childhood adversities may represent important distal predictors of labour force exit at 55 years, particularly via permanent sickness. Notably, some adversities show associations among males only, which may inform interventions designed to extend working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bapat, Radhika; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
In this article physical activity, screen time, and academic work are studied as mediators between socio-economic status and sleep duration among school children in India. Participants were 268 school children aged 10?15 from Pune, India. They were sampled from private schools and impoverished public schools. We found that the highest socio-economic status children reported almost an hour and a half less sleep than their lowest socio-economic status counterparts. The lower socio-economic stat...
Van Drunen, M.; Berkhout, F.
It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key
Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Van den Heuvel, WJA; Post, D
Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio-economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The
Turrell, Gavin; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian; Gould, Trish; Roy, Marie-Andree
To undertake an assessment of survey participation and non-response error in a population-based study that examined the relationship between socio-economic position and food purchasing behaviour. The study was conducted in Brisbane City (Australia) in 2000. The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design. Respondents were recruited using a range of strategies that attempted to maximise the involvement of persons from disadvantaged backgrounds: respondents were contacted by personal visit and data were collected using home-based face-to-face interviews; multiple call-backs on different days and at different times were used; and a financial gratuity was provided. Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas that differed in their socio-economic characteristics. Rates of survey participation - measured by non-contacts, exclusions, dropped cases, response rates and completions - were similar across areas, suggesting that residents of socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged areas were equally likely to be recruited. Individual-level analysis, however, showed that respondents and non-respondents differed significantly in their sociodemographic and food purchasing characteristics: non-respondents were older, less educated and exhibited different purchasing behaviours. Misclassification bias probably accounted for the inconsistent pattern of association between the area- and individual-level results. Estimates of bias due to non-response indicated that although respondents and non-respondents were qualitatively different, the magnitude of error associated with this differential was minimal. Socio-economic position measured at the individual level is a strong and consistent predictor of survey non-participation. Future studies that set out to examine the relationship between socio-economic position and diet need to adopt sampling strategies and data collection methods that maximise the likelihood of recruiting
Abimbola M. Obimakinde
Full Text Available Background: Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. Aim and setting: The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. Results: The somatising patients were mostly females (70%, with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04 years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04. Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039. Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042 and more conflicts (p = 0.019 in their interpersonal relationship. Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients.
Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.
The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency's mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations
Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A
Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very
Ernest L. Mramba; Ismail J. Ismail
The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health in...
Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.
Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective.
Gomes, Diogo A.
In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments,which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems.
Gomes, Diogo; Velho, Roberto M; Wolfram, Marie-Therese
In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments, which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed
Guivarch, C.; Rozenberg, J.
The scientific community is developing a new generation of scenarios to inform the choices we have to make when it comes to responding to climate change. This new generation of scenarios integrates more fully the mechanisms that regulate climate and provides insights to spatial and temporal resolutions unexplored in previous exercises. In addition, it gives a framework for integrating explicit climate policies for mitigation and adaptation, which allows assessing the benefits and costs of climate policies in different socio-economic scenarios. Finally, it introduces a new way of working that strengthens the collaboration between different research communities on climate change. (authors)
Full Text Available This article examines the effect on the development of socio-economic regions in Poland of contemporary external determinants considered at the European and the world scale. It consists of two parts. The first gives a description of the main general processes that are external determinants of regional development today: modernisation changes, globalisation, metropolitanisation, and European integration. Part two is empirical in character and seeks to find regional manifestations and effects of those determinants in Poland, and to establish how they influence regional income and spatial differences in its value.
Stansfeld, Stephen A; Clark, Charlotte; Rodgers, Bryan; Caldwell, Tanya; Power, Chris
This paper investigates how childhood socio-economic position influences the risk for midlife depressive and anxiety disorders at 45 years of age, assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule in 9377 participants of the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Socio-economic position was measured by Registrar General Social Class in childhood and adulthood. The association of paternal manual socio-economic position with any diagnosis at 45 years of age was accounted for after adjustment for adult socio-economic position. Manual socio-economic position in women at 42 years of age was associated with midlife depressive disorder and any diagnosis; these associations were diminished by adjustment for childhood psychological disorders. Effects of childhood socio-economic position on adult depressive disorders may be mediated through adult socio-economic position.
Thornton, Lukar E; Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie
Foods prepared outside of the home have been linked to less-than-ideal nutrient profiles for health. We examine whether the locations where meals are prepared and consumed are associated with socio-economic predictors among women. A cross-sectional study using self-reported data. We examined multiple locations where meals are prepared and consumed: (i) at home; (ii) fast food eaten at home; (iii) fast food eaten at the restaurant; (iv) total fast food; (v) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at home; (vi) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at the restaurant; and (vii) all non-fast-food restaurant meals. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether frequent consumption of meals from these sources varied by level of education, occupation, household income and area-level disadvantage. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1328 women from forty-five neighbourhoods randomly sampled for the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women study. Those with higher educational qualifications or who were not in the workforce (compared with those in professional employment) were more likely to report frequent consumption of meals prepared and consumed at home. High individual- and area-level socio-economic characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of frequent consumption of fast food and a higher likelihood of frequent consumption of meals from non-fast-food sources. The strength and significance of relationships varied by place of consumption. The source of meal preparation and consumption varied by socio-economic predictors. This has implications for policy makers who need to continue to campaign to make healthy alternatives available in out-of-home food sources.
Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette
largely reflected substantial socio-demographic differences across Australian states and territories. Better performance by Australian candidates in the UMAT is linked to an increase in socio-economic advantage and reduced disadvantage.This observation provides a firm foundation for selection processes at medical schools in Australia that have incorporated affirmative action pathways to quarantine places for students from areas of socio-economic disadvantage.
Adedeji Olushola Afolabi
Full Text Available The female population represents one of the greatest untapped resources for economic growth and revitalization in most sectors. The purpose of the study was to examine the socio-economics of women’s inclusion in green construction. The study utilized the use of questionnaires which were distributed to female professionals in the Nigerian construction industry. A total of 120 female construction professionals were used for this study. The data gathered was analysed using SPSS v17.0 with tests such as Frequencies, Percentages, Mean Score, ANOVA, and Factor Analysis. The result revealed a low level of participation by women in green construction. Women in construction exhibited moderate participation in Solar panel manufacturing, installation, and maintenance and in the enforcement of environmentally friendly practices on-site. The study revealed that the stressful nature of works, low interest from women, low career growth/progression and low investments in green works are significant barriers affecting women’s inclusion in green construction. In conclusion, the study identified three (3 socio-economic benefits of women’s inclusion in green construction. These are family/women related benefits, environment related benefits, and green energy market related benefits. The study suggested measures to increase women’s participation in green construction.
Duer, Henrik; Christensen, Pernille Ovre
There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.
A social scientist's perspective is presented on the socio-economic impacts of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in Ontario. The main organization for delivering electricity in Ontario is Ontario Hydro. This utility has two WECS, an experimental 3.5 kW generator and a hybrid wind/diesel facility at a remote northern community. Ontario Hydro is reviewing its supply options and anticipates wind power would likely be used in niche applications involving off-grid hybrid systems where the cost of displaced generation is high. On-grid applications would likely be in the form of dispersed non-utility generation. The potential contribution of wind power to Ontario's electricity supply mix could be as little as 1 MW by the year 2000 or as high as 40 MW by the year 2014, depending on costs and technological developments. Socio-economic criteria used by the utility for assessing individual supply options include job creation, regional economic development, local community impacts, social acceptance, and distribution of risks and benefits. Initial observations of potential effects of WECS are discussed, including site selection, manufacturing, construction, and operation. Barriers to implementation of WECS in Ontario include the limited number of good wind sites, the intermittent nature of WECS power, and the currently uneconomic nature of WECS for bulk electricity systems. However, WECS have environmentally attractive features and are socially acceptable. 10 refs., 3 figs
Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings AF, the literature emphasizes the biophysical indicators, in detriment of the socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.
China has made great progress in the study of socio-economic water cycle. She has completed national water resources appraisement and medium to long-term water supply planning. She has been engaging in study on water-deficient regions in North China and Northwest China for about half a century. For solving water shortage problem in northern China, she has put forward the famous South-to-North Water Transferring Projects, which has been set as one of the four biggest national projects in the Tenth Five-Year-Plan period although there are still debates. For promoting water use efficiency, China has been reforming her water management system, including water right system and water price system. There has already been a case of water right purchase. China has also done a lot of research on the interaction between human activity, water and ecosystem. For meeting the need of sustainability and coordinating water resources development and environmental protection, the study of ecological water requirement became very hot in recent years. There are three focuses of socio-economic water cycle study now in China: water transfer projects from the south to the north, water resources management and ecological water requirement.
Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patientsâ€ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James
There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.
Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study
Elena Mikhailovna Avraamova
Full Text Available The socio-economic results of the reform in teachers’ salary, which had a positive impact on the quality of school education, are considered. However, the economic difficulties that our country encounters, may jeopardize the achieved results. The results of the monitoring study of the Center of the Economics of Lifelong Education of RANEPA «Efficiency of the school education» conducted in 2015 in the Sverdlovsk, Voronezh, Ivanovo regions serve as information base. 2800 school teachers, 2800 households having a school student at family, 200 directors of the educational organizations are interviewed according to the survey method. Surveys are conducted on the representative selection including both urban and rural population. It is shown that the average teacher’s salary has reached the level of the average salary in the region in the 2013/2014 that met the requirements of the May Presidential Decree. This ratio was retained next year, and the size of the teachers’ salaries fully reflected the differentiation of the socio-economic indicators of the development of the Russian regions under consideration. The main positive effects of teachers’ salaries raise are: the rejuvenation of the teaching staff, professional development of teachers, their entering the Russian middle class. The authors study the impact of negative phenomena in the economy on the prospects of reproduction of the achieved socio-economic results of teachers’ salaries raise. The reduction of pupils’ parents’ incomes that can lead to a decrease in a request for paid educational services, which is one of the sources of extra-budgetary funding of school education are considered as such effects. From this perspective, the projective educational strategy of the parents of school students is considered. The analysis of the economic activities of school organizations, on the one hand, and educational strategies for the parents of schoolchildren in the conditions of
Sung Wook Kim
Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a significant contributor to Malawi's burden of disease. Despite a number of studies describing socio-economic differences in HIV prevalence, there is a paucity of evidence on socio-economic inequity in HIV testing in Malawi. Objective: To assess horizontal inequity (HI in HIV testing in Malawi. Design: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs 2004 and 2010 in Malawi are used for the analysis. The sample size for DHS 2004 was 14,571 (women =11,362 and men=3,209, and for DHS 2010 it was 29,830 (women=22,716 and men=7,114. The concentration index is used to quantify the amount of socio-economic-related inequality in HIV testing. The inequality is a primary method in this study. Corrected need, a further adjustment of the standard decomposition index, was calculated. Standard HI was compared with corrected need-adjusted inequity. Variables used to measure health need include symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Non-need variables include wealth, education, literacy and marital status. Results: Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of the population ever tested for HIV increased from 15 to 75% among women and from 16 to 54% among men. The need for HIV testing among men was concentrated among the relatively wealthy in 2004, but the need was more equitably distributed in 2010. Standard HI was 0.152 in 2004 and 0.008 in 2010 among women, and 0.186 in 2004 and 0.04 in 2010 among men. Rural–urban inequity also fell in this period, but HIV testing remained pro-rich among rural men (HI 0.041. The main social contributors to inequity in HIV testing were wealth in 2004 and education in 2010. Conclusions: Inequity in HIV testing in Malawi decreased between 2004 and 2010. This may be due to the increased support to HIV testing by global donors over this period.
Kun, F.; Pal, K.F.
Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it
Millichamp, Anna; Gallegos, Danielle
To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.
Crampton, Alexandria; Hall, James
Uncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments. To contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. n = 3,172 British children aged 3-10 years and their families. A secondary analysis of the nationally representative UK EPPE database. Multilevel structural equation modelling calculated the direct, indirect, and total impacts of early socio-economic risks (0-3 years) and preschool home learning environments (3-5 years) upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years. Early socio-economic risk had different effects upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept. Early socio-economic risks affected children's reading at ages 7 and 10 both directly and indirectly via effects upon preschool home learning environments. By contrast, early socio-economic risks had only indirect effects upon children's academic self-concept via less stimulating home learning environments in the preschool period and by limiting reading abilities early on in primary school. Although the impacts of early socio-economic risks are larger and more easily observed upon reading than upon academic self-concept, they can impact both by making it less likely that children will experience enriching home learning environments during the preschool period. This has implications for social policymakers, early educators, and interventionists. Intervening early and improving preschool home learning environments can do more than raise children's reading abilities; secondary benefits may also be achievable upon children's self-concept. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study
Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth
The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this ......The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance...
Full Text Available Climate change, the effects of greenhouse effect and global warming, is out to alter the global map with its devouring prospects of sending a number of countries under the waves. Unfortunately yet unavoidably, Bangladesh stands at the forefront of climate forays. Its land, water and weather are being severely affected by undesirable climatic changes. Alarmingly, the dangers are to be intensified unless the trend is reversed. However, local initiative will hardly be enough to offset the grave concerns of unintended climatic changes in Bangladesh. The changes will also impact the socio-economic conditions of the country, putting the future of the nation on the line. Some ominous signs are already there for the concerned to respond with required amount of fervour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10439 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 113-132
Full Text Available This article analyzes the views of eminent analysts on the driving forces of and explanations for economic globalization today. It examines the main characteristics of this process, such as the growth of world trade, the increased mobility of financial capital, the growing role of transnational corporations and the development of network technologies and the internet. The author analyzes the positive impact of globalization on the development of productive forces and human development. Problems arising from the growing interdependence of a globalized world, such as environmental issues, security, increased worldwide disparity of socio-economic development of countries and regions, are also examined. In conclusion, the author voices the need for establishing a system of global management.
Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.
S. A. Kvitka
Full Text Available The article discusses the cyclical mechanisms of socio-economic development as one of kinds of natural cycles. The author notes that in all cases the basis of the self-oscillations are cyclical. And they are only possible with the constant influx of three resources - energy, matter and information. On this basis, it is noted that the self-organization of coherent structures, regardless of their Genesis, is due to intrinsically contradictory unity of two interacting types of resource flows - energy, matter and information – And-stream forming system, and the In-flow that will disrupt her. The cycle of development of systems consists of two components: one that describes the development of a system with positive saturation, according to a logistic law (A>B; and another describing the development of the system with negative saturation.
The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs
Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)
aislahi, Abdul Azim
The present paper introduces Shah Wali-Allah Dehlawi’s concept of the stages of socio-economic developments (al-irtifaqat). According to him, starting from simple primitive village life to an international community, the socio-economic development of human society can be divided into four stages. The first stage is dominated by simple economic struggle while the last stage is developed to maintain just political order on international level, to safeguard the socio-economic interests of differ...
Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran
People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee
Liliana Yetta Pandi
Currently nuclear reactors in Indonesia has been outstanding for more than 30 years, the possibility of nuclear reactors will be decommissioned. Closure of the operation or decommissioning of nuclear reactors will have socio-economic impacts. The socioeconomic impacts occur to workers, local communities and wider society. In this paper we report on socio-economic impacts of nuclear reactors decommissioning and lesson learned that can be drawn from the socio-economic impacts decommissioning Vandellos I nuclear power plant in Spain. Socio-economic impact due to decommissioning of nuclear reactor occurs at installation worker, local community and wider community. (author)
, these measures have not received support and a large number of enterprises artificially lower their profits. Also, the problem of effective reform of Indian social responsibility is the high level of corruption in the state, as well as the ineffectiveness of the current legislation. Taking into account all these disadvantages when developing its own policy of developing social and corporate responsibility of business, Ukraine is able to build a strong and effective mechanism of a socially responsible society. For the Ukrainian realities, the following areas are emphasized: the approval of the obligation of social reporting for large enterprises of all forms of ownership and state enterprises in general, the improvement of Ukrainian legislation in the field of social responsibility of business, the study of the possibility of introducing the obligation of charity for large enterprises from different sides (that is, how this will affect society, how it will affect the work of enterprises, how can it be regulated by law, what kind of reaction this will cause in society; conducting of informational and consulting measures by the Government of Ukraine for the dissemination of knowledge, skills, competences for the implementation and implementation of socio-economic responsibility at Ukrainian enterprises.
With our findings we can conclude that ASF is still an important transboundary animal disease (TAD) with enormous socio-economic impact that requires concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the enforcement of control and preventive measures. Key words: African swine fever, socio-economic impact, seroprevalence, Isoka ...
Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields
Tobi, H.; Meijer, W.M.; Tuinstra, J.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.
OBJECTIVE: To detect whether there were socio-economic differences in the overall use of prescription and OCT drugs among adolescents. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of questionnaire data collected to investigate socio-economic differences in health risk behaviour and decision-making.
Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP; Stewart, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D
Background: The influence of social support on health was explored among gender and socio-economic groups with the aim of contributing to the explanation of socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2616 Slovak adolescents (52.4% male, 47.6% female,
This study is on influence of socio-economic development of urban centers on intra-city trip generation in Ogun state, Nigeria. The proportion of the aggregate socio-economic variables in each city was used to rank the cities in hierarchical order of development while the average household trip per week was used to rank ...
Socio-Economic Factors Affecting the Marketing of Garri in Port Harcourt City of ... recommended ways of improving the marketing system of garri in the study area. ... socio economic characteristic of the traders, purchases and sales transaction, ... 78% had basic education which help them in keeping proper record and in ...
van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.
Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to
A universe of 106 socio-economic status indicators was collated. The t-test and point-biserial correlation were used in the item analysis of quantitatively measured and dichotomous items respectively. Forty items were found valid across all the ethnic groups in the state. The 40 items were standardized into a socio-economic ...
Transportation has a close relationship with socio-economic. This article selects the indicators which can measure the development of transportation and socio-economic, using the method of correlation analysis, regression analysis, intensity of transportation analysis and transport elastic analysis, to analyze the relationship between them quantitatively, so that it has the fact guiding sense in the national development planning for the future.
Full Text Available The article considers the interaction of corporate and socio-economic systems within the perimeter of the model. Characterized qualitatively and quantitatively the socio-economic system, are the subjects of corporate relations and conditions of their joint functioning, determined by the conditions of functioning of TNCs and their impact on the region-recipient.
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.
L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…
Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…
Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.
Seo, Won Hee; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Gunha; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Byung Min
Sufficient sleep is an important factor in physical and mental health. Sleep duration can be affected by socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and SES in Korean adolescents. This study was conducted with 1608 adolescents aged 12-18 years, based on data from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sleep duration was self-reported in hours and three SES indicators were used: household income, basic livelihood security programmes and type of health insurance. Confounding factors in this study were age, mental health and physical activity. Participants' average age was 15.6 ± 0.05 years and average sleep duration was 7.04 ± 0.05 h. There was a strong association between sleep duration and household income (P sleep duration was significantly associated with age, body mass index (P sleep and long sleep (>9 h/night). We found similar results in both genders, that is, that the highest income group had shorter sleep duration than the lowest income group. This study shows that the SES, particularly household income, is an important factor in short sleep duration in Korean adolescents. Our findings suggest that, in future investigations of the adolescent's sleep problem, attention should be paid to household income. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Ernest L. Mramba
Full Text Available The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health insurance were negatively related with blood donation at 1%, 5%, 10%, 1% level with p values of 0.000, 0.011, 0.070, 0.012, respectively, as per assumption. However, age, strong social network at community, employment status, and level of income were not significant determinants. Conclusively, blood donation was largely determined by sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and health insurance. To increase blood donation, females must be encouraged, emphasis on education, eradication of the myths and misconception about blood donation, partnerships between national blood transfusion and religious bodies, need for more community’s awareness about blood donation so as to alleviate unfounded fear (i.e. fear for HIV test results, need of improving health status of the people and donor recruitments programs strategies must be improved.
In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. The program is developed by independent experts making use of well established international methodologies. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrate that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. (author)
In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)
Klimanov V. V.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to definition of methods and techniques to identify priorities of socioeconomic development, applicable at the Federal level. The initial data for the study was strategic planning documents, as well as the decrees, resolutions and orders of the Executive authorities of the Russian Federation and of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, defining the strategic priorities of socio-economic development in the 20-year period. The article presents the defining the term ‘priorities of economic and development’ and the approaches to their formation, which are represented at Russia’s normative acts and other federal documents. The content analysis of priorities in the strategic planning documents has allowed drawing the typology of economic and social development priorities of the Russian Federation. The authors determined the mechanism of creating the priorities under the influence of main endogenous (foreign trade, foreign policy, macro, etc. and exogenous (the interests of business, communities, regional authorities factors which could be recommended for consideration at the strategy developing process at federal level.
Whereas the 4.2 billion inhabitants of third word countries are now struggling with a per capita income of roughly $1,030 and an energy consumption of about 0.48 tpe per year, the 1.27 billion people living in industrialized nations earn an average of $15,000 and consume 4.70 tpe of energy per person. The author investigates the underlying reasons for this disparity by making reference to numerous tabled statistical world production and energy supply and demand data, e.g., petroleum trade, production, consumption and price figures; per capita production expressed in dollars; distribution and duration of fossil fuel reserves; etc. Emphasis is placed on an examination of the role that will be played by fossil fuels in determining the future outcome for developed and developing countries in the coming century. Based on current trends, forecasts are prepared for energy consumption, resource depletion and pollution levels. Noting that the continued pursuit of current policies is leading towards disastrous word socio-economic imbalances, the author suggests international policies of rational energy use, reforestation on a global scale, and the increased use of coal with pollution abating gasification systems for greater energy price stability, and thus, political stability. He concurs with the United Nations recommendations for curbs on population dynamics and the opting for tenable growth strategies
Konishi, S.; Okano, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Nagumo, S.; Tokimatsu, K.; Tobita, K.
A fusion research project was evaluated from the aspects of socio-economics and its possible economic benefit. Research project itself has large economic impacts and it appears in a different way in different time. Four categories were identified as such mechanisms; direct economic effect by purchase and employment, the growth of local community and its economy, an improvement of technical capability of the industry stimulated by the development, and fusion energy supply under environmental constraints. Industrial effects were analysed from actual R and D program and found to yield considerable economic outcome, although contribution by the research itself is far smaller than that required for industry before actual commercial products can be produced. Economic value of fusion energy could be huge, but appears several decades future, and should be reduced by discount rate and success probability. Its value is more important as a part of environmental policy. Value of the fusion research at present age cannot be estimated as actual benefit, but as the effectiveness in the policy, or benefit for public that is now regarded as a kind of Externality
Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K; Biswas, S; Nayak, K; Chatterjee, M K; Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, S
Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.
Full Text Available Background: Mine closures generally reveal negligence on the part of mining houses, not only in terms of the environment, but also the surrounding mining communities. Aim: This article reflects on the findings of research into the socio-economic consequences of mine closure. The research specifically explored how mineworkers’ dependency on their employment at a mine affects their ability to sustain their livelihood. Setting: The research was conducted at the Orkney Mine and the Grootvlei Mine (Springs. Methods: The research was conducted within a naturalistic domain, guided by a relativist orientation, a constructivist ontology and an interpretivist epistemology. Data were collected by means of document analysis, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and unstructured observation. Results: From the research findings, it is evident that mine closures, in general, have a devastating effect on the surrounding mining communities as well as on the employees. Mine closures in the case studies gradually depleted the mining communities’ livelihood assets and resulted in the collapse of their coping strategies and livelihood outcomes. It generally affected the communities’ nutrition, health, education, food security, water, shelter, levels of community participation and personal safety. Conclusion: If not managed efficiently and effectively, mine closures may pose significant challenges to the mining industry, government, the environment, national and local economic prosperity and communities in the peripheral areas of mines. This truly amplifies that mine closure, whether temporary or permanent, is an issue that needs to be addressed with responsibility towards all stakeholders, including the mining community and the labour force.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.
Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.
Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although
Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.
Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.
Stranieri, Giuseppe; Carabetta, Carmelo
The socio-economic and cultural evolution in the last decades encouraged a significant process of transformation of the life conditions in advanced societies, particularly the average duration of the life of the elderly population, which since the second half of the past century has increased by about 60%, becoming from an average of fifty years to about eighty two for women and eighty for men. This phenomenon enables scholars and in particular demography scholars, to assume that in 2030 the number of elderly persons will reach about two billion worldwide. This development of an increasingly longer life expectancy, justifies the trust in the great progress that characterizes our society. The rapid growth of this segment of population, due to the improved living conditions and the related progress in science, technology and medicine, in addition to its positive aspects, also includes negative elements, which already affect the Welfare State and, more generally, the public administration that is called to fill the gaps that the transformation of the family and kinship networks have treated with indifference. The problems of the increasingly long-lived, is not freed from new elements of negativity related to the physical and mental decline that leads to the development of new diseases in addition to those already present, ans is increasingly motivated to seek the best remedies to shorten or eliminate the diseases of the elderly. In this context, Depression assumes a central dimension which will surely be a central concern for the economic, social and health impact and for the multitude of changes that put in crisis many of the traditional institutions. This work aims to analyze through a careful review of the scientific literature, the causes of the spread of this disease, the diagnostic difficulties and possible solutions for prevention and care.
Full Text Available Fertility divergence amid declining in use of modern contraception in many states of India needs urgent research and programmatic attention. Although utilization of antenatal, natal, and post-natal care has shown spectacular increase in post National Rural Health Mission (NRHM period, the contraceptive use had shown a declining trend. Using the calendar data from the National Family Health Survey–3, this article examines the reasons of contraceptive discontinuation among spacing method users by socio-economic groups in India. Bivariate and multivariate analyses and life table discontinuation rates are used in the analyses. Results suggest that about half of the pill users, two fifths of the condom users, one third of traditional method users, and one fifth of IUD users discontinue a method in first 12 months of use. However, the discontinuation of all three modern spacing methods declines in subsequent period (within 12-36 months. The probability of method failure was highest among traditional method users and higher among poor and less educated that may lead to unwanted/mistimed birth. Although discontinuation of condom declines with economic status, it does not show any large variation for pill users. The contraceptive discontinuation was significantly associated with duration of use, age, parity, contraceptive method, religion, and contraceptive intention. Based on these findings, it is suggested that follow-up services to modern spacing method users, increasing counseling for spacing method users, motivating the traditional method user to use modern spacing method, and improving the overall quality of family planning services can reduce the discontinuation of spacing method.
Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs
It was in 1975, only eight years ago, that a CT scanner was first introduced into Japan, which demonstrated enormous power in the early diagnosis of cephalic disease. Since then, CT has spread rapidly in spite of the initial high price of 200 million yen, and has attained 2,120 sets as of December, 1982. The rate of CT propagation in Japan is 18.5 sets per one million persons, or No. 1 in the world. However, its socio-economic investigation has only been done fragmentarily in Japan. In this report, the CT is investigated in three aspects of medical facilities, medical instrument manufacturers, and the medical fee of nation. In Japan, the CT installation has largely increased by 20 times in five years from 1977 to 1981, and has widely spread not only to medium to small scale hospitals but also to general clinics. In this report, the CT is investigated for the number in various facilities and prefectures, and the comparison of the state of use in USA and Japan. Since 1979, the products of domestic manufacturers were at advantage over foreign products in Japan, and Hitachi and Toshiba have been predominant among them. The fee for CT in Japan is only 1/5 as compared with that in the U.S. Setting extremely low fee like this may get into the danger to induce excessive inspection. The significant popularization of CT in Japan is much concerned with the features of Japanese medical care system as well as the medical technological characteristics of the CT. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
RĂDULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA
Full Text Available Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of supplying raw materials for both the population and for the manufacturing industry. It is aimed that the organization of the agricultural area to be made so that the lands that have agricultural destination to be used as rationally as possible. Also, it is important to introduce in the agricultural circuit all the unused lands. The fragmentation of the agricultural land is a disadvantage in the process of rational organization of agricultural area. Efficient use of land, as a requirement of the intensive and durable agriculture is a complex activity that involves conservation activities and soil improvement. Due to the role that they have, the approach of the aspects referring to the medium and big farms has to be different from the approaches referring to the small farms. If the farms from the first category take into account the agriculture as a business, the small farms are important for the rural area by oferring food and social security and means of traditional production that contributes to the environment conservation. Romania's economic recovery can be achieved based on the attention that has to be given to this field. Being an important factor of social stability and of the maintainance of the ecological balance, agriculture enjoys an increasing attention worldwide. The supply and the demand of food determines the use of agricultural resources. The article presents the current situation of agriculture, at national and regional levels. Through this analysis, we
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Full Text Available Socio-economic considerations are included in the regulatory frameworks on genetically modified organisms (GMOs of many countries. This is a reflection of an increasing interest in and recognition of the necessity to consider a broader range of issues when conducting a GMO risk assessment. At the same time, there are discussions about how socio-economic considerations can be identified and how their assessment can be carried out. To provide an understanding of the advances achieved so far, we describe the state of the art of existing biosafety institutional frameworks, legislation and policies with provisions on socio-economic considerations. We analyse the scope of the socio-economic considerations that have been included, the methodological options taken and the role of participatory processes and stakeholders involvement in the GMO-related decision-making. Since many of the countries that have legislation for assessing socio-economic considerations lack implementation experience, we provide an analysis of how implementation has evolved in Norway with the intention to illustrate that the inclusion of socio-economic considerations might be based on a learning process. Norway was the first country to include broader issues in its GMO assessment process, and is at present one of the countries with the most experience on implementation of these issues. Finally, we emphasise that there is a great need for training on how to perform assessments of socio-economic considerations, as well as reflection on possible ways for inclusion of participatory processes.
Sergey Viktorovich Zakharov
Full Text Available Logic of expectations about the effects and benefits of management of development of different forms of PPP with the levels of institutional management tools developed by the state is proved based on the analysis of the theory and practice of public-private partnerships (PPP. It is shown that the implementation of programs and projects the main effects should be expected at the microeconomic and project levels, i.e. where goods and services are produced and sold. However, budgetary and other savings for socio-economic development of regions and municipalities could be achieved at management levels. The prospects, contradictions and problems of development and efficiency of PPP with using of software and project management are analyzed and measures are outlined to accelerate overcoming the negative effects of the economic crisis. A multi-level classification of institutional means of regulating the functioning of the different forms of PPP in the Russian economy are proposed. Disadvantages of institutional regulation of PPP are identified. It proposed to make extensive use of the tools of development and improve the effectiveness of partnerships that are created on the technological basis of electronic and open government. Purpose: to develop and implement new institutional means of PPP regulation for accelerating socio-economic development of the territory. Methodology: methodology of institutional economics; classification, analysis of economic relations and contradictions in the development of different forms of PPP and synthesis of solutions methods; methods of software management; design and systemic, comprehensive approaches. Results: contradictions of PPP development, reducing the importance of partnerships in the Russian economy are identificated; criteria are proposed which allows to identify the facts and PPP projects from the totality of the analyzed material; enlarged model is constructed which allows logically to connect expectations
This study explores the relationship between parental SES, ethnicity, and college enrollment. Parental SES is found to translate into a significantly smaller advantage for Hispanics compared to Blacks and Whites. This statistical interaction suggests that high-SES Hispanics are at a unique disadvantage, most likely due to limited access to…
Robertson, Aileen; Sarki, Mahesh; Lobstein, Tim
-conceptual nutrition of parents-to-be will have follow-on benefits for the child, and for their children in turn. Such policies can help EU Member States to decrease the risk of childhood obesity, improve maternal health, and reduce health disparities in the most disadvantaged groups. This life-course approach...... in pregnancy and continuing after birth and those starting after birth but before age 2 years. The first review3 included: prevention of childhood overweight or obesity as an outcome, identifies gaps in current research, and discusses conceptual frameworks and opportunities for future interventions. The review...... that reducing maternal pre-conceptual overweight, gestational weight gain, and healthy infant weight gain by implementing nutrition recommendations shows promise for childhood obesity prevention. Policy interventions on marketing of breast-milk substitutes appear to influence socio-economic differences...
Adinma, J I B; Adinma, E D
The link between reproductive health, sexual and reproductive right, and development was highlighted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Egypt. Developmental disparities are related to socio-economic differences which have led to the identification of distinct socio-economic classifications of nations. Human development represents the socioeconomic standing of any nation, in addition to literacy status and life expectancy. Africa accounts for 25% of the world's landmass but remains the world's poorest continent. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has policies and programmes geared towards the improvement of its socio-economic standing and overal development, with little positive result. Reproductive health is a panacea towards reversing the stalled socio-economic growth of Nigeria as evident from the linkage between reproductive health and development, highlighted in Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, 5 and 6. Fast tracking Nigeria's development requires implementation of reproductive health policies and programmes targeted on women and children.
The impact of socio-economic factors on the performance of community ... the work ethic and the level of participation in rural development performance ... the factors responsible for the poor performance of community development projects.
Socio-economic factors influencing marketing of non-timber forest products in ... enhance skills for product transformation, build innovative storage facilities, and ... the process of domestication and integration in traditional land-use systems.
problems. The study aimed at assessing the socio- economic impact of stroke in households in Livingstone district. A total ... economic challenges after stroke with a few of them were ..... 20 Trainer T, The transition; Getting to a sustainable and.
... community well-being, fishing practices, job satisfaction, job opportunities, and attitudes toward fisheries... fishing industry. Under this survey, the SSB intends to collect socio-economic data from vessel owners...
Full Text Available The article defines the nature of socio-economic development processes monitoring in a region on the basis of systematization of scientific works on economics. The terms of monitoring introduction into the processes of socio-economic development of a region are defined. The difference between monitoring and standard statistic technology is explained. The fact that socio-economic processes monitoring is primarily directed at collection, examination and preparation of information for making and analyzing of economic decisions at different management levels is proved. The indicators by the direction “renewable energy and energy efficiency”, which are evaluated in the process of monitoring, are outlined. Major tasks of monitoring are defined and principles of its information basis forming are determined. Key words: decentralization, information basis, renewable energy, monitoring, region, development, socio-economic processes.
Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant ... Conclusion: The need for nutrition education, women empowerment, health support and ... in reducing prevalence of malnutrition among these vulnerable groups.
Full Text Available The traditional palm fruit processing method is basically manual, but is currently undergoing changes. This study identifies the stages that have been mechanised in traditional processing methods and the socio-economic implications of the technical change to assist decision-making on the superiority or otherwise of the mechanised (modern method over the traditional method used by processors in Osun State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected during the 2004 production season with the aid of a structured questionnaire on the production resources and outputs of the two methods. These were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, budgetary technique dominance and sensitivity analyses, and attitudinal measure. Results indicate that only two (pounding to form paste and cracking of the stages identified in the traditional method were mechanised in the modern method. This resulted in greater efficiency of palm oil extraction, higher labour productivity, more income to stakeholders, greater market orientation, increased volume of operation and unchanged product types and quality. Other consequences are the creation of one additional group of stakeholders (machine owners, dominance, resilience to adverse yield and machine charges by 27 per cent and 150 per cent, respectively; more favourable attitude, less drudgery and health hazards, less labour requirements (female and lower processing time in the modern method than the traditional method. This made the modern method a better choice, which could boost palm oil production at the aggregate level.
Srijana Pandey, PhD
Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.
Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker
The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two...... recommended by the Ministry of Transport. Differentiated in-vehicle values prove to generate an even higher increase in time benefits, but vary depending on the projects....
K.C., Shambhu; Gewali, Jhabindra
The first objective of this Thesis is to identify, select, and analyze the socio- economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. The second objective is to present the impacts in context of changing business environment. And the last objective is to develop strategies for economic progress in a society. In this research work previous reports, theses, literatures and reviews were studied to get an idea about the socio-economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. In addition,...
Daplyn, P.; Cropley, J.; Treagust, S.; Gordon, A.
Geographical information systems (GIS) have found wide and growing applications, as digital remote-sensing data and computer technology have become more sophisticated, more easily available and less expensive. NRI recently undertook preliminary research into potential socio-economic applications of GIS. The feasibility of utilizing spatial data, available in GIS, to model socio-economic relationships was examined. It included the following steps: (a) identification of hypothetical relationshi...
Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of a role of process of extraction and processing of the natural resources, mastered in territory of region on socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region. Features of dynamics of density of kinds of natural resources on indicators and spheres of influence are revealed. Also in this paper prospect of development and an opportunity of increase of a role of environmental management in socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region are considered.
Full Text Available The realization and enjoyment of socio-economic rights is crucial to overcoming the challenges of abject poverty. These rights offer those living in poverty access to the basic and essential things that are necessary to live a dignified life. However, it is generally agreed that the protection and enjoyment of socio-economic rights is accorded less importance amongst the comity of civilized nations. Majority of governments give priority to the protection of civil and political rights to the detriment of socio-economic rights. Despite the United Nations stance on the non-hierarchical structure within human rights classifications, there is general ambivalence towards the violation of socio-economic rights by those entrusted to protect them. Though many international and regional treaties protect socio-economic rights, which instruments have been domesticated by countries; the picture appears gloomy in terms of effective realisation and protection of socio-economic rights. Their enforcements still remain a challenge for this millennium. The impediments to the realization of these rights are the focus of this paper. Through a detailed analysis of international, regional and domestic legislative framework and jurisprudence, this study provides a systematic exposition of the obstacles that impact on the ability of states to fulfil their socio-economic rights obligations under the various and diverse instruments. The impediments that are discussed in this paper include: a proliferations of human rights; corruption and inept leadership in Africa; inadequate enforcement mechanism; poor and ineffective state reports; international sanctions; wars and conflicts; globalization; debt repayment by developing countries; difficulties of monitoring compliance by State Parties and conflict of laws. In conclusion, the paper proffers a panacea and alternative models for the realization and enjoyments of socio-economic rights.
van Eijk Jacques
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.
Ribeiro, Sónia Carvalho; Lovett, Andrew
The integration of socio-economic and environmental objectives is a major challenge in developing strategies for sustainable landscapes. We investigated associations between socio-economic variables, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition in the context of Portugal. The main goals of the study were to 1) investigate relationships between forest conditions and measures of socio-economic development at national and regional scales, 2) test the hypothesis that a systematic variation in forest landscape metrics occurs according to the stage of socio-economic development and, 3) assess the extent to which landscape metrics can inform strategies to enhance forest sustainability. A ranking approach and statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis were used to achieve these objectives. Relationships between socio-economic characteristics, landscape metrics and measures of forest condition were only significant in the regional analysis of municipalities in Northern Portugal. Landscape metrics for different tree species displayed significant variations across socio-economic groups of municipalities and these differences were consistent with changes in characteristics suggested by the forest transition model. The use of metrics also helped inform place-specific strategies to improve forest management, though it was also apparent that further work was required to better incorporate differences in forest functions into sustainability planning.
and number of doses of scheduled immunizations received by 207 socially disadvantaged ... poor socio-economic status, poor housing, one parent ... percent of the total children surveyed. ... female ratio of 1.421. ... This information was not available in respect of 30 fathers and 1 1 mothers. ... S percent) out of 228 fathers of.
Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.
Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media
Edenhofer, O.; Pichs-Madruga, R.; Sokona, Y. (and others)
The goal of the IPCC Workshop on Socio-Economic Scenarios (WoSES) was to facilitate the development of socioeconomic narratives and pathways by the integrated assessment modelling, impacts, and adaptation communities. Describing these pathways and narratives is a core step to analyzing the interdependent issues of adaptation and mitigation in an integrated manner. The Workshop participants agreed that structured and consistent assessments of possible future impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation would benefit from using shared qualitative narrative and quantitative descriptions of potential socioeconomic and ecosystem reference conditions that underlie challenges to mitigation and adaptation. These descriptions should be flexible enough to provide a framework for comparison within which regional or local studies of adaptation and vulnerability could build their own narratives. The defining socioeconomic conditions of these scenarios are designated Shared Socioeconomic reference Pathways (SSPs). The SSPs define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale and have two elements: a narrative storyline and a set of quantified measures that define the high-level state of society as it evolves over the 21st century under the assumption of no significant climate change. This assumption defines the SSPs as a baseline independent of climate change projections. The set of SSPs was chosen to characterize the range of uncertainty in mitigation efforts required to achieve particular radiative forcing pathways, in adaptation efforts that could be undertaken to prepare for and respond to the climate change associated with those pathways, and in residual impacts. This will allow assessment of scenarios along two axes: socioeconomic challenges to mitigation, and socioeconomic challenges to adaptation. This conceptualization of SSPs allows them to be combined with different degrees of anthropogenic interference with the climate system (measured in terms of
Sep 1, 2000 ... malnutrition has other adverse consequences which include severity of illness ... those with cancer or any physical or mental condition predisposing them to ..... both groups. In a similar study in Nairobi, Kenya, Waihenya.
Hussein M. A. Ageely
The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals.
Krajnc, N.; Domac, J.
Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO 2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6–59 months. Methods: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. Conclusion: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos determinantes de anemia em crianças indianas com idade de 6 a 59 meses. Métodos: A análise estatística foi realizada na amostra transversal ponderada de 40885 crianças da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde da Família de 2005–2006, Governo da Índia, utilizando a técnica de
Adams, Jean; Ganiti, Ellie; White, Martin
To explore differences in the prevalence of outdoor food advertising, and the type and nutritional content of advertised foods, according to an area-based marker of socio-economic position (SEP) in a city in Northern England. All outdoor advertisements in the city were identified during October-December 2009, their size (in m2) estimated and their location determined using a global positioning system device. Advertisements were classified as food or non-food. Food advertisements were classified into one of six food categories. Information on the nutritional content of advertised foods was obtained from packaging and manufacturer's websites. An area-based marker of SEP was assigned using the location of each advertisement, grouped into three affluence tertiles for analysis. A city in Northern England. None. In all, 1371 advertisements were identified; 211 (15 %) of these were for food. The advertisements covered 6765 m2, of which 1326 m2 (20 %) was for food. Total advertising and food advertising space was largest in the least affluent tertile. There was little evidence of socio-economic trends in the type or nutritional content of advertised foods. Despite an absence of socio-economic differences in the type and nutritional content of advertised foods, there were socio-economic differences in food advertising space. There may also be socio-economic differences in exposure to outdoor food advertising.
Liberona, Yessica; Castillo, Oscar; Engler, Valerie; Villarroel, Luis; Rozowski, Jaime
To assess the nutritional status, food intake and physical activity patterns in schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade in basic schools from different socio-economic levels in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Cross-sectional study in children 5th and 6th grade of eighteen basic schools in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years from basic schools were evaluated in terms of physical capacity. An anthropometric evaluation was also performed which included weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Food intake was evaluated by a 24 h recall, socio-economic level by the ESOMAR method and physical activity by a questionnaire. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years (n 1732). The average prevalence of overweight and obesity was 40 %, with the highest prevalence in males and those from lower socio-economic level. A majority (64 %) of the children had a low level of physical activity. A higher intake of fat and protein and a higher intake of carbohydrate were found in the higher and lower socio-economic levels, respectively. Both males and females showed adequacy greater than 75 % in macronutrient intake except for fibre, with both groups showing a deficit in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and milk products according to Chilean recommendations. A high prevalence of malnutrition by excess was observed in both sexes and a better eating and physical activity pattern was seen in children from higher socio-economic level.
Kimijiama, S; Nagai, M
In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregiver's treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to Demographic and Health Survey data conducted in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The unit of analysis were the 12,988 caregivers of children who were reported to have had diarrhoea two weeks prior to the survey period. Results There were variability in selecting treatment options based on several socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel-multinomial regression analysis indicated that higher level of education of both the caregiver and that of the partner, as well as caregivers occupation were associated with selection of medical centre, pharmacies and home care as compared to no treatment. In contrast, caregiver's partners' occupation was negatively associated with selection medical centre and home care for managing diarrhoea. In addition, a low-level of neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage was significantly associated with selection of both medical centre and pharmacy stores and medicine vendors. Conclusion In the light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving on care seeking for managing diarrhoea episode and other childhood infectious disease should jointly consider the influence of both individual SEP and the level of economic development of the communities in which caregivers of these children resides.
Devine, J. Michael
Large social and economic impacts are caused by new nuclear construction and eventual shutdown of operations and decommissioning. When new construction begins, the impact on the local area is enormous. The influx of construction workers and businesses to provide services and goods usually overwhelms the area which previously may have had a minimal amount of infrastructure and little population. Also, given that many of the current nuclear facilities worldwide are located in somewhat remote regions, they have become the primary source of jobs for those regions. When these facilities shut down and go into decommissioning, there can be several adverse effects upon the region or area. This paper will address some of the primary socio-economic influences of both new nuclear construction and subsequent decommissioning. (author)
Full Text Available The issue of multidimensional changes taking place in rural areas has become a subject of interest to both sociologists, gerontoeducators, economists and management experts. The detailed analysis of rural areas under conditions of ambiguity and clear differences in their characteristic features (depopulation, suburbanization enables taking into consideration not only trends of alterations, but also their causes, consequences and corrective measures in the development strategy. In this context, the analysis of the changes that have occurred in rural areas in the Opole voivodeship in 2000-2010 in the perspective of 2035 seems to be especially interesting. The main aim of the article is to draw attention to the impact of socio-economic conditioning (demography, migration, economic and professional activity on contemporary and authentic view of the fine, but clearly aging country in the Opole voivodeship, burdened with adverse population growth and high net migration rate.
Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.
Laporte Ronald E
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%, oral tobacco(13.5%, hukka (12% and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%. Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01 and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001. Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.
Alam, Ali Yawar; Iqbal, Azhar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Laporte, Ronald E; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Nishtar, Sania
Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%), oral tobacco(13.5%), hukka (12%) and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%). Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed. PMID:18254981
Understanding human-wildlife conflict is an important first step in the conservation of highly endangered species that can have adverse effects on human communities, such as elephants. To gain insights into variables that shape attitudes toward elephant conservation in Asia, we surveyed 410 households and 46 plantation owners in seven villages around the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand, an area of high human-elephant conflict. We sought to evaluate how past experiences with elephants (positive or negative), as well as socio-economic variables (age, income level, gender, and employment type) affect attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence in this area. In addition, we quantified deterrence methods currently used and identify potential mitigation strategies supported by community members. In general, less supportive attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence were held by individuals older than 35 years of age, those who had previously had experienced negative interactions with elephants, those with lower incomes, and those working in the agricultural sector. Conversely, those who had received benefits from living near elephants (e.g., supplemental income or feelings of pride from hosting volunteers or participating in conservation work) had more supportive views of elephant coexistence. Plantation owners reported using a variety of deterrence methods with varying success, with firecrackers being the most commonly utilized method. Community members identified several potentially beneficial mitigation strategies including forest restorations and patrol teams, adding water sources to wild elephant habitat, and education of local school and community groups. Overall, our results highlight the value of community members receiving benefits from living near elephants and suggest that special incentives may be needed for demographic groups disproportionately affected by elephants (e.g. those at lower income levels, those working in
Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas
the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry and 228,500 control subjects matched by age and gender. Demographic and socio-economic data were retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Differences between cases and controls were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: On 1 January 2012, 2285 patients......PURPOSE: To examine socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study with analysis of socio-economic characteristics including income, education, employment status and civil status in 2285 patients from...... with a Danish civil registration number were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy. At the age of 40 years, less patients than controls had a high education (odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI95), 0.41-0.62), a high income (OR, 0.21; CI95, 0.17-0.26) and were married (OR, 0.39; CI...
Young, Katherine R.; Levine, Aaron
The Geothermal Resource Portfolio Optimization and Reporting Tool (GeoRePORT, http://en.openei.org/wiki/GeoRePORT) was developed for reporting resource grades and project readiness levels, providing the U.S. Department of Energy a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating projects. The tool helps funding organizations (1) quantitatively identify barriers, (2) develop measureable goals, (3) objectively evaluate proposals, including contribution to goals, (4) monitor progress, and (5) report portfolio performance. GeoRePORT assesses three categories: geological, technical, and socio-economic. Here, we describe GeoRePORT, then focus on the socio-economic assessment and its applications for assessing deployment potential in the U.S. Socio-economic attributes include land access, permitting, transmission, and market.
Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.
Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams
Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency.
Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will
OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...... Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries...
Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva
This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years...... before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong...... statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war...
Rocha, C; Montoya, R; Zevallos, K; Curatola, A; Ynga, W; Franco, J; Fernandez, F; Becerra, N; Sabaduche, M; Tovar, M A; Ramos, E; Tapley, A; Allen, N R; Onifade, D A; Acosta, C D; Maritz, M; Concha, D F; Schumacher, S G; Evans, C A
Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. Poverty (46% earned microcredit; poverty;social determinants.
O. A. Kalchenko
Full Text Available According to the new "National security strategy of the Russian Federation, sustainable socio-economic development is the basis of national economic security. UN conceptual model of sustainable development is considered. The “Club of Rome” founder’s Aurelio Peccei point of view that world could be presented by interrelated but sufficiently stable elements: Nature, Man, Society, science-based Technique is mentioned (early 1980s. Today, sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is determined by: Nature, Man, Society, Technology, Economy and Infrastructure. To support this opinion, statements of leading scientists, politicians, business representatives are given: A. Aganbegian, M. Friedman, V. Sidorov, V. Inozemtsev, G. Gref. The author's model of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is presented. The position of Russia according to the “2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast”, compiled by well-known scientific periodical “R&DMagazine” is presented. Classification of indicators groups, taken from the Russian and foreign statistical data books (Russian Statistical Yearbook, IRI, R&D Magazine, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, CIA Factbook, OECD, according to the elements of an integrated system of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy is given. Implementation aggregating partial indices into an integrated index for each group and their population as a whole is proposed. For each private indicator is proposed to develop three levels of threshold values (acceptable, marginal and critical for sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy and security. Since innovation is a key mechanism for the concept of sustainable socio-economic development of the national economy in a new tenor of technology, the need for innovative development of all elements of the proposed integrated system is required.
Full Text Available -1 Habitat International Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 238-245 A review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements B.W. Wekesaa, b, , , G.S. Steyna, 1, , F.A.O. (Fred) Otienoc, 2, , a... a literature survey, this paper reviews physical and socio-economic characteristics and the factors attributed to proliferation of the informal settlements and intervention approaches. The main objective was to establish how such settlements could...
Odhiambo, George O.
The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.
O. A. Romanova
Full Text Available In this article author marks out the life phases of socio-economic systems from the point of view of theirs stability / instability, determines the correlation between life phase and receptivity degree of system to changes. They offer the order parameters of socio-economic system and assessment methods through which instability is conveyed. The suggested methods have been used for solving the problem of assessing the degree of receptivity of the regional economic systems to the currents global crisis and the following modernization process.
Olesya Ihorivna Datsko
Full Text Available It is argued, that the culture of social- economic security has impact on the socio-economic development of state. It is formed at several levels of human interaction: with oneself, other people, work, environment, community groups, state, world, God. It is proved that low level of culture of socio-economic security of Ukraine's population, especially state leaders has a destructive effect on the economic development, labour potential, and increasing level of corruption. The necessity to develop a culture of social- economic security in the state economic policy is proved.
Mahara, Gehendra; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sipeng; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts. Global Moran's I analysis was adopted to detect the spatial dependency followed by spatial regression models (spatial lag model, and spatial error model) along with the ordinary least square model were applied to examine the correlation between TB incidence and predictors. A high incidence of TB was seen in densely populated districts in Beijing, e.g., Haidian, Mentougou, and Xicheng. After comparing the R², log-likelihood, and Akaike information criterion (AIC) values among three models, the spatial error model (R² = 0.413; Log Likelihood = -591; AIC = 1199.76) identified the best model fit for the spatial regression model. The study showed that the number of beds in health institutes ( p < 0.001) and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) ( p = 0.025) had a positive effect on TB incidence, whereas population density ( p < 0.001) and migrated population ( p < 0.001) had an adverse impact on TB incidence in the study settings. High TB incidence districts were detected in urban and densely populated districts in Beijing. Our findings suggested that socio-economic predictors influence TB incidence. These findings may help to guide TB control programs and promote targeted intervention.
consternation and vulnerability. Propitious and admissible approaches can ensure eco-balance and sustainable socio-economic development in a vulnerable country like Bangladesh with a proper accentuation on education in emergency. This paper will be highly helpful for policy makers both in private and public sectors to ensure sound education opportunity in the highly disaster prone i.e., coastal areas. However, this piece of effort might also cut attention of the human rights workers.
Full Text Available Working conditions of agricultural workers, like industrial, are one of the burning issues in a developing region. It is related to agricultural activities of the workers and their socio-economic status. Working conditions may be both favourable and unfavourable. Those working conditions which are unfavourable to health may be considered as occupational hazards or as a part of occupational environment. It is generally observed that a large section of the agricultural workers remains engaged in agricultural practices at the time of hunger, thirst, pregnancy (women and even despite their unpleasant state of health, both mental and physical. They also continue to work for more than the prescribed standard hours and also having half-fed. These are not positive or favourable working conditions to their health as they normally cause general weakness, fatigue, stomach disorder, dizziness, headache, loss of energy and some other similar physical, mental and psychological problems. The major driving forces behind as such adverse working conditions and its consequences are the pressure of work, pressure of land owners and of timely completion of works, shortage of manpower, psychological attitude, ignorance, weather constraints, poverty, illiteracy, lack of work related health awareness, lower social and economic status, etc. Such forces compel the workers to be engaged in their agricultural practices under the above circumstance. Adverse working conditions of agricultural workers vary widely with reference to space, time, activities, demographics, society, economy and consequently affect both the mental and physical, social and psychological conditions of the agricultural workers. Persons in varying number in the age groups from 15-34 and 35-49 to 60 & + year were reported working under different types of undesirable working conditions. The people from the S.C. and S.T. categories are the major sufferers as most of them continue their work during
Rousham, E K
To investigate gender inequalities in child growth and nutritional status in relation to socio-economic status in Bangladesh. A 16-month longitudinal study of child growth measuring anthropometric and socio-economic status. A rural area of Jamalpur district, northern Bangladesh. 1366 children from 2 to 6 years of age. Child height and weight were measured monthly. Morbidity, food intake and health-seeking behaviours were assessed fortnightly. Multivariable analyses were performed on the growth and nutritional status of male and female children in relation to socio-economic factors including father's occupation, parental education, birth order and family size. There was no evidence of gender bias in farming and trading/employee households but landless female children had significantly poorer height-for-age (P Bangladesh varied significantly according to occupational status, such that the effect of sex was dependent upon occupation. These effects were statistically significant during the period of natural disaster but became insignificant as local conditions improved. This demonstrates both temporal and socio-economic variation in gender inequalities in health.
Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D
Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out
Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.
Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly
Harmáčková, Veronika Zuzana; Brožková, H.; Krsová, M.; Cepáková, Š.; Dvorščík, P.; Křenová, Zdeňka; Braniš, M.
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2016), s. 111-124 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : socio-economic indicators * welfare * well-being * quality of life Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.npsumava.cz/gallery/34/10341-sg_22_harmackovaetal.pdf
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
Edgerton, Jason D.; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W.
This study reassessed the extent to which socio-economic background, gender, and region endure as sources of educational inequality in Canada. The analysis utilized the 28,000 student Canadian sample from the data set of the OECD's 2003 "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)". Results, consistent with previous findings,…
A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso subregion of Uganda. Data were collected by using a questionnaire administered to 114 purposively selected goat owners in five districts. Majority (87%) of de fecto household heads were male. About 41.2% of the farmers were ...
Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George
Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…
Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first generation) and were processed using latent…
The relationship among some socio-economic factors (gender, age and monthly allowance) and use of ICTs by 1,702 undergraduates in seven Nigerian universities was examined. The descriptive survey research was adopted for the study and the population was made up of undergraduates from seven universities in ...
Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P
OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...... Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP...
van Eijck, Janske; Faaij, André
Socio-economic indicators are not fully developed and operational while this is an important aspect of sustainability. Seven case studies were analyzed within the Global-Bio-Pact project covering seven countries and five feedstock types. The 100 indicators that are identified are analyzed and
Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.
In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an
While some countries like South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe have constitutionally guaranteed socio-economic rights, in some other jurisdictions like India and Nigeria, they are termed fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy as opposed to justiciable rights. However, the Indian Supreme Court has ...
Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar
Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…
The study is an analysis of the socio-economic factors associated with gum arabic collectors in Northern Guinea Savanna Zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 100 respondents obtained through a multi stage sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive ...
Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li
With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.
Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Kunst, Anton
Objective: Patterns of socio-economic inequalities in obesity and overweight have not been documented for Turkey. The present study aimed to describe educational and wealth-related inequalities for overweight in Turkey, taking a regional perspective. Design: Cross-sectional self-reported data of the
Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E.
The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of
This paper examines the socio-economic activities of man along the coastal wetlands of Lagos State with a view of assessing the resultant effect on the Biodiversity of the area. For the benefit of this study, the area was divided into three zones. The procedures adopted were preliminary interview, market survey and structural ...
Fishermen have distinctive social and economic features which affect their fishing operations. The study was therefore designed to identify the socio-economic characteristics of fisher-folks living in lagoon and coastal communities and assesses the fishing activities. Frequency distribution, percentages, chi-square and ...
This study examined the socio-economic activities and potentials of rural fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria. One thousand and two hundred (1,200) structured questionnaires were administered to fisher folks in one hundred (100) fishing communities, and only one thousand (1000) were retrieved. The questionnaires dealt ...
Full Text Available The contribution of mining activities to social infrastructure and human development is a complex socio-economic development issue in South Africa. Complexity theory has introduced a new approach to solving problems in social systems, recognising them as complex systems. The socio-economic development system in South Africa falls into this category of complex systems. Analysing such a system requires that a number of feedback loops and details about the issues be analysed simultaneously. This level of complexity is above a human’s ability to comprehend without the aid of tools such as systems thinking and system dynamics. The causality between investment in infrastructure capacity and socio-economic development is dynamic. The relationship is influenced by exogenous feedback that, if not managed, is likely to reverse itself. This paper presents the results of a system dynamics modelling of the relationship, based on the principle of relative attractiveness developed in previous system dynamics research. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the system to changes in feedback. The paper concludes that the limits to growth in a socio-economic environment are determined by more factors than the availability of capital, and also include land capacity constraints and skills shortage.
Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen
It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.
Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported malaria in Accra, Ghana: Evidence from facility data and a community survey. ... Conclusions: Understanding these seasonal and geographic patterns have implications for both prevention and treatment of malaria-like morbidity in both children and adults ...
Survey of socio-economic status of fish farmers in Phalga Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the trend, structures, operations, management of fish farms and the level of acceptability of new technologies. The Local Government Area was divided into eight zones, and each zone was ...
Probst, Charlotte; Parry, Charles D H; Rehm, Jürgen
To quantify socio-economic differences in the risk of HIV/AIDS mortality in South Africa for different measures of socio-economic status. Systematic literature search in Web of Knowledge and PubMed. Measures of relative risk (RR) were pooled separately for education, income, assets score and employment status as measures of socio-economic status, using inverse-variance weighted DerSimonian-Laird random effects meta-analyses. Ten studies were eligible for inclusion comprising over 175 000 participants and 6700 deaths. For income (RR 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.09), assets score (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12-2.36) and employment status (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.21-1.92), persons of low socio-economic status had an over 50% higher risk of dying from HIV/AIDS. The RR of 1.10 for education was not significant (95% CI 0.74-1.65). Future research should identify effective strategies to reduce HIV/AIDS mortality and alleviate the consequences of HIV/AIDS deaths, particularly for poorer households. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article investigates the survival strategies of the urban poor in Lagos metropolis. The study considers the socio-economic characteristics as well as the livelihood patterns and strategies employed in the absence of formal social security systems. The research adopts a purposive sampling of 396 household heads in 31 ...
The appraisal of profitability of catfish production in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria was carried out by identifying socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers, cost and returns of catfish farming and the basic problems hindering effective catfish production. Thirty catfish farmers were randomly selected; administered a ...
Socio-economic impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... Literature on the impacts of mega events on tourism is available but limited in number in terms of the impacts of mega events on local residents. This study analyses the post ... Keywords: Mega events, economic impacts, social impacts, World Cup, local community.
The prevalence of (pre)hypertension and its relationship with added-on salt and socio-economic status (SES) is under-reported in sub-Saharan Africa, and thus was studied in 315 adolescents (57.8% girls) living in Umuahia, Nigeria. Standard procedures were used for all measurements. (Pre)hypertension were defined ...
Background: Socioeconomic factors are known to affect health quality, disease occurrence as well as health-seeking behaviors in several ways. Objectives: To determine the influence of socio-economic factors on awareness of cancer, healthseeking behaviors among parents of children with cancer in a developing country ...
Baubinas, R.; Burneika, D.; Daugirdas, V.
The article is devoted to the argumentation of the main principles of socio-economic monitoring of the Ignalina NPP region. The programme and the territorial levels of the monitoring as well as the main results of the trial of the programme are presented. (author)
Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.
Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic
Kamusheva, Maria; Dimitrova, Maria; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Mitov, Konstantin; Doneva, Miglena; Petrova, Daniela; Georgiev, Ognyan; Petkova, Valentina; Petrova, Guenka
Background: While the impact of COPD in Western-Europe is known, data from Eastern-Europe is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and the socio-economic burden of COPD in Eastern-Europe, taking Bulgaria as a reference case. Methods: A representative
Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first
Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, Maximilian
We show how concentrations of water solutes in the Vltava River (Czech Republic) and their riverine outputs from the catchment were modified by socio-economic changes, land use, and hydrology between 1960 and 2015. In the early 1960s, HCO3 and Ca were the dominant ions. During 1960-1989 (a period of
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...
Peyre, M.; Chevalier, V.; Abdo-Salem, S.; Velthuis, A.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Thiry, E.; Roger, F.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to
Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Brukiene, Vilma
To explore disparities in needs for dental treatment which arise from individual and area-based socio-economic determinants. A cross-sectional study conducted in 22 randomly selected Lithuanian areas. In each of the pre-selected areas, one secondary school was randomly chosen. A total of 885 15-16-year-olds participated. Outcome measures. Dental treatment need was evaluated following the WHO guidelines and aQuantitative Summative Dental Treatment Needs Index (QSDTNI) was used to calculate the total burden of needs. The information about socio-economical determinants was obtained from a structured questionnaire and national statistics database. Individual socio-economic status (SES) measures were: parents' occupation, family structure, family income and affordability to have holiday used as a proxy measure for income. The area-based SES estimates were: unemployment, average household income, educational attainment, natural increase/decrease of population in an area and net migration rate. Data was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. None of significant bivariate associations between individual socio-economic variables and the QSDTNI were detected. Among area-based variables natural increase/decrease of population in an area and net migration rate were significantly related to the QSDTNI. Two individual and two area-based factors were extracted and introduced into Linear Multiple Regression Analysis (LMR). The LMR model was significant, but only one factor, i.e. area demographics, significantly contributed to this model. There are no clear social disparities in dental treatment needs in Lithuanian adolescents.
Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael
Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005
Hendrickson, P.L.; King, J.C.; O'Connell, M.S.
Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques
... strengthen and improve fishery management decision-making, satisfy legal mandates under Executive Order 12866... statutes. II. Method of Collection The socio-economic information sought will be collected via in- person... Hours: 1,200. Estimated Total Annual Cost to Public: $0. IV. Request for Comments Comments are invited...
Understanding socio-economic aspects of the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier diving industry, including information on participant expectations, experiences and expenditure, is necessary for the effective management of the Aliwal Shoal Marine Protected Area on the east coast of South Africa. Between January and ...
Scriven, Jolene Davidson
The results of this study point to a need for business teachers to find ways of discussing political and socio-economic issues in their classrooms and that business teacher education institutions should be certain that graduates are prepared to include these issues in the courses they teach. (Author)
Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines stroke as 'the neurological deficit of cerebral vascular cause that persists beyond twenty four hours or is interrupted by death within 24 hours'. In Livingstone, Zambia, more than 30% of stroke victims indicate socio-economic problems. The study aimed at assessing the ...
Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo
Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…
Ritter, Zachary S.
International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…
Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.
Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the
On the basis of the findings, it is recommended that there should be an independent medical health team to carry out health impact research, comprehensive socio-economic and environmental impact assessment of the mine, to initiate regular community and institutional consultations and set up an independent air quality ...
Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.
Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of
Yanagisawa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Narita, O.; Yonezawa, M.
Because the taxpayers funded basic scientific researches in JAERI, a feedback of the results to the public is strongly requested by the Japanese government. By using the concept of socio-economic effect, that is, the stimulation and promotion of social interrelations through a formation of networking in basic research, the authors tried to show a kind of feedback. For this purpose, JAERI developed computer code SOCIOECO combined with INIS was used as a main tool and database. The case study was addressed to the Material Science (MS) field in JAERI. It is revealed from the study that a significant formation and development of socio-economic networking is occurring at the emphasized basic research fields (EBRF) of ion irradiation and actinides having a strong relation to nuclear. For actinides a total of 7,237 papers were written in basic research fields, where the share of JAERI over 25 years was 25%, while 52% by public sectors (PS, namely university (U) and governmental sectors (GS)) and 17% by private organizations (PO). Numbers of co-written papers defined as an index of socio-economic networking were increased with time. The growth rate, for example, between JAERI and PS was of order of 3-4% per 25 years, while 8% per recent 5 years. The socio-economic networking described here seems to be useful for showing the feedback occurring from basic research to the public. (author)
This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Full Text Available the population of many such countries consists of children and young persons. Improving mobility and access to socio-economic opportunities for this group is crucial if the Millennium Development Goals of Universal Primary Education, Promotion of Gender Equity...
Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie
Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…
This study investigated the impact of socio-economic status of parents and family location on truant behaviour of secondary school students in the North-West Senatorial District of Benue State. The survey design was used to carry out the study using a sample of 400 respondents selected from different schools within the ...
economic status (SES) and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated for the study. Two research instruments, the “Socio-Economic Status of Parents” and the “Reentry into ...
The study investigated farmers' socio-economic factor affecting pearl millet production in randomly selected villages in Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State. A total of 80 farmers were selected through stratified random sampling and were administered with questionnaires. The results revealed that educational ...
Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B
study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor...
Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of basic types and factors of identification as a result of socialization and social relations. Identified criteria and specific identification of consumer behavior as regulator of material well-being and socio-economic development of the region.
Otero, Manuel Souto
The article focuses on the financial issues and family background of Erasmus students. It examines the costs of Erasmus study periods in the academic year 2004/05 and the socio-economic background of Erasmus students that year, based on over 15000 survey responses. Results are compared with those of a similar survey undertaken in 1998 to track…
Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.
Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by
Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin
To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.
Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.
Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study
Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret
! is chapter evaluates the possibility for projecting socio-economic and cultural impacts on Greenland’s society caused directly or indirectly by changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet. ! ere are, as yet, no well-documented direct causative links between the conditions for a society dictated by nature...
Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has
Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon systems in Ogun waterside Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...
Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F
To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.
Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke
Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast
Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.
Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast
Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.
Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study
Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; de la Fuente, Luis; Santos, Juana M; Astasio, Paloma; Ortega, Paloma
This study evaluates the extent to which domestic workload explains socio-economic differences in poor self-reported health in women and men. In total, 6284 men and women who were employed and living with a partner were selected from the 2003 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The indicators of family demands investigated were person responsible for housework, number of persons in the household and the presence of at least one child under 15 years of age in the household. The measures of socio-economic position were educational level and household income, and the measures of health status were poor perceived health and limitation of activity due to disease. Household size and presence of a child under 15 in the home were not related with the measures of health status. The indicator about the person who does the housework was related with poor perceived health and with activity limitation. Specifically, the worst health status was seen in respondents who lived in homes where the partner or other family members did the housework. In general, the relation between indicators of socio-economic position and measures of health status was not modified after taking into account the person who does the housework. Among working people with a partner, persons who work and do their own housework do not have poorer perceived health than those living in homes where other people do the housework. This indicator of family demands does not explain the socio-economic differences in self-reported health.
The findings showed that instability in socio-economic and political aspects in these nations was responsible for creating a suitable environment for the spread of HIV/AIDS infection. This paper concludes by using the theories of collective action/responsibility and social cohesion to hypothesise that the breakdown of social ...
Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region,. Uganda ... 41.2% of the farmers were aged 51 years and more. The average number of .... Business (retail shopping). 24. 0. Regular .... able 5. Sales of goats by district in 12 months preceding the study. District ..... more efficient management practices that.
Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat
Losses of life and property due to natural hazards have intensified in the past decade, motivating an alteration of disaster management away from simple post event resettlement and rehabilitation. The degree of exposure to hazard for a homogeneous population is not entirely reliant upon nearness to the source of hazard event. Socio-economic factors and infrastructural capability play an important role in determining the vulnerability of a place. This study investigates the vulnerability of eastern coastal states of India from tropical cyclones. The record of past hundred years shows that the physical vulnerability of eastern coastal states is four times as compared to the western coastal states in terms of frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Nevertheless, these physical factors played an imperative role in determining the vulnerability of eastern coast. However, the socio-economic and infrastructural factors influence the risk of exposure exponentially. Inclusion of these indicators would provide better insight regarding the preparedness and resilience of settlements to hazard events. In this regard, the present study is an effort to develop an Integrated Vulnerability Model (IVM) based on socio-economic and infrastructural factors for the districts of eastern coastal states of India. A method is proposed for quantifying the socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability to tropical cyclone in these districts. The variables included in the study are extracted from Census of India, 2011 at district level administrative unit. In the analysis, a large number of variables are reduced to a smaller number of factors by using principal component analysis that represents the socio-economic and infrastructure vulnerability to tropical cyclone. Subsequently, the factor scores in socio-economic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) and Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (InVI) are standardized from 0 to 1, indicating the range from low to high vulnerability. The factor
Susan P. Phillips
Full Text Available Background: Individual and area socio-economic status (SES are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective: Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design: Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH were reflectively analyzed. Results: The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions: Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and
Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier
Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3-37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9-34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0-34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2-35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02-1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92-2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26-1.86]). These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP. In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50 who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing.
The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to
Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.
The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main
Mackenbach, J. P.; van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.
In this paper, the objectives, design, data-collection procedures and enrollment rates of the Longitudinal Study on Socio-Economic Health Differences (LS-SEHD) are described. This study started in 1991, and is the first large-scale longitudinal study of the explanation of socio-economic inequalities
Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…
This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…
van Vuuren, D.P.; Carter, T.R.
A suggestion for mapping the SRES illustrative scenarios onto the new scenarios framework of representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) is presented. The mapping first compares storylines describing future socio-economic developments for SRES and SSPs.
Gecková, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.; Post, D.
Objectives: Socio-economic differences in the frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, physical exercise, and attitudes toward smoking were explored in a sample of Slovak adolescents (1370 boys, 1246 girls, mean age 15 years). Methods: Identification of socio-economic status was based on
Mol, G.D.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Hoogen, J.M.M.; Bor, J.H.J.; Westert, G.P.
BACKGROUND: During the past two decades, socio-economic inequalities in health have been a major research theme in Western Europe. Research has shown that there are persistent differences in health between people with a high socio-economic status (SES) compared with people with a low SES. There are
Pidkhomnyi Oleg M.
Full Text Available The socio-economic development of country and its individual territories depends on the efficiency of both accumulation and allocation of financial resources, which is determined by the effectiveness of budget process. Therefore the purpose of the article is theoretical and practical substantiation of prospects for modernization of the mechanism for budgetary regulation of the socio-economic development on the example of Lviv. Features and the main instruments of budgetary regulation of the socio-economic development of the city were researched. The efficiency of allocation and accumulation of budgetary funds, including through tax policy and the inter-budget transfers, was analyzed. Tendencies of changes of indicators of the socio-economic condition of Lviv and influence on them of three main elements of the budget regulation mechanism have been determined. Shortcomings of the existing mechanism for budgetary regulation of socio-economic development of the city have been defined, prospective directions of its modernization have been suggested.
Katia Jakovljevic Pudla Wagner
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the association between socio-economic life course and body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and general and abdominal obesity in adults. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1,222 adults (aged 22–63 from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The socio-economic life course was analysed using the educational level of participants and their parents. Height, weight and WC were measured by specially trained staff. Linear and logistic regressions were used with adjustment for confounding factors, and data were stratified according to sex. Results: Mean BMI and WC were about 2 kg/m2 (95% CI: −3.3 to −0.7 and 6 cm (95% CI: −9.7 to −2.9 lower in women with a high socio-economic position, while the association was reversed in men with a high socio-economic position, with WC being about 4 cm higher (95% CI: 0.1 to 7.5. In addition, women who had always been in a high socio-economic position were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.76 while no such association was found in men. Conclusion: Socio-economic life course influences BMI, WC and obesity, with differences between males and females, thereby indicating that public policies that contemplate a socio-economic life course approach can be effective for controlling obesity. Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre trayectoria socioeconómica e índice de masa corporal (IMC, circunferencia de la cintura (CC y obesidad general y abdominal en adultos. Métodos: Análisis transversal de un estudio de cohortes de base poblacional en 1222 adultos (22-63 años de edad en Florianópolis, sur de Brasil. La trayectoria socioeconómica fue analizada mediante el nivel educativo de los padres y los propios participantes. La medición de altura, peso y CC fue realizada por personal especialmente entrenado. Se usaron modelos de regresión lineal y logística ajustando factores confusores y estratificando por
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were
Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural), parity, maternal education and age. Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9%) had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25-34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39]) more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65]) more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98]) more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87]) less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be
Mostafa, Kamal S M
Malnutrition among under-five children is a chronic problem in developing countries. This study explores the socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh. The study used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Cross-sectional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the socio-demographic variables on moderate and severe stunting over normal among the children. Findings revealed that over two-fifths of the children were stunted, of which 26.3% were moderately stunted and 15.1% were severely stunted. The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis yielded significantly increased risk of severe stunting (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.34-4.79) and moderate stunting (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.47-3.83) over normal among children with a thinner mother. Region, father's education, toilet facilities, child's age, birth order of children and wealth index were also important determinants of children's nutritional status. Development and poverty alleviation programmes should focus on the disadvantaged rural segments of people to improve their nutritional status.
Aleksey Yuryevich Shevyakov
Full Text Available The problems of inequality and poverty in the population dynamics are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of poverty indicators used in the statistics of the Russian Federation - in comparison with those in the statistics of the Soviet Union and the EU - are analyzed. A curve of income distribution in Russia in comparison with European standards is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of formation and redistribution of income from which only the rich layers of the population are currently benefiting. For the dynamics of income of the poorest layers of the population, a tendency to reduce is characteristic. To change the situation, institutional reforms in the sphere of distribution relations are required, as some groups have institutional advantages in comparison with others. I.e. it is necessary to change the view of backward and forward linkages of social inequality and socio-economic growth. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of the functional boundaries of income for different kinds of economic, social and demographic behavior of the population. Accordingly, the inequality should be divided into normal and excessive, in terms of the feasibility of human capabilities. Excessive inequality, in turn, can be surmounted by the introduction of progressive taxation.
Full Text Available This paper explores one aspect of early literacy development in a low socio-economic context in South Africa. Assessments conducted with a sample of children from two disadvantaged communities in Cape Town indicated that in this context, almost half of the learners entering Grade One were unable to recognise any letters. A Grade R intervention conducted by volunteers showed that children from this context were able to learn letter-sounds in Grade R through a programme that focused on teaching letter-sounds in the context of building language skills, emergent writing and concepts about print. In order to strengthen the effectiveness of the intervention, the volunteer programme was supplemented by support for the Grade R teacher and teaching assistant. Follow-up assessments of one of the intervention groups at the end of Grade One revealed significant correlations between early Grade One letter knowledge and end of Grade One word reading and spelling skills. The findings of this exploratory study are in line with research that shows the importance of letter-sound knowledge in the earliest stages of learning to read. This raises concerns about the historical lack of emphasis in the Grade R curriculum on this aspect of early literacy development. Although the study has a narrow focus and conclusions cannot be drawn about other aspects of early literacy learning in this context, the results suggest an urgent need for quality Grade R teacher training programmes with a specific focus on emergent literacy.
Prevalence and socio-economic distribution of eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among South Australian children in urban and rural communities: baseline findings from the OPAL evaluation.
Bell, L; Ullah, S; Olds, T; Magarey, A; Leslie, E; Jones, M; Miller, M; Cobiac, L
To identify current prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of adherence to national diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among Australian primary school children. Cross-sectional survey of children (n = 4637, 9-11 years) participating at baseline in the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) programme evaluation. Self-reported diet, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) behaviours were assessed via questionnaire. Children were classified as meeting or not meeting each guideline (two or more serves of fruit, five or more serves of vegetables, two or less serves of discretionary food, ≥60 min of PA, and ≤2 h of ST per day). Although 65% of children met fruit recommendations, only 22% met vegetable recommendations (17% consumed no vegetables). Approximately one-quarter (28%) of children met discretionary food recommendations. Only 17% of children met the ST recommendations and 33% met PA recommendations. Less than 1% of children met all five recommendations. Rural children were more likely to meet both PA (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.74, P < 0.001) and ST (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14-1.66, P < 0.01) recommendations than urban counterparts. Children at least socio-economic disadvantage performed better than those at greatest disadvantage for most behaviours. Improvement in Australian children's diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours, particularly urban children and those at greatest socio-economic disadvantage, is urgently warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI in an Asian population.Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004-2011 in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30, low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00, and blindness (logMAR≥1.00. Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI, created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models.The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%. Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of any VI was 2.11(1.88-2.37 for low-SES and 1.07(1.02-1.13 per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40-65 years and male.In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both
Suslov D. V.
Full Text Available A brief overview is given of papers by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAS on long-term socio-economic forecasting of global development. The forecasting methodology is shown, its capabilities and limitations, as well as the structure, main results and characteristics of the forecasts made by IMEMO RAS since early 2000s. The «Strategic Global Outlook for 2030» has acquired features of an interdisciplinary research, and has been developed based on a system analysis of objective socio-economic indicators, long-term global and regional socio-demographic trends, and expert assessment of the future dynamics of the political situation in individual countries and in intergovernmental relations. This methodology allowed the focus to be placed primarily on the stable trends of development in the world economy and the system of international relations, their actors, structures and institutions
Dilham, Ami; Putra, M. Umar Maya
This study aimed to analyze the socio economic community mapping around Dumai Timur Sub District with a case study: Tanjung Palas Village. The problem in this research is to analyze community needs and potential contained there. The data used are primary data that have been obtained to do data entry based on the guidance from the actors concerned, there is a transfer in the form of qualitative data into quantitative measurement techniques reference instrument of socio economic mapping activities. From the results of this study indicate that the necessary empowerment of social management in which short-term policy for the addition of water discharge, training on the concept of raising entrepreneurial innovation. For the long term necessary to make a business innovation and sustainability development pattern with operational assistance in the form of seeds, the manufacture of cages and chicken feed.
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante; Sundby, Annette
OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of dental caries in children and adolescents and to relate these findings to the subject's socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 12 706 children aged 5, 7, 12 and 15 years was conducted...... in 2006. Data on children's caries experience were collected from public oral health registers and pooled with socio-cultural and socio-economic data obtained from official statistics. The study population represented 76% of all registered inhabitants. RESULTS: Among 5- and 7-year-old children with non...... preventive strategy is proposed to meet the needs of children in risk of caries, and appropriate oral health-promotion programmes should be organized in collaboration with leaders from different ethnic minorities....
Tamm, J.; Wlodarczyk, T.
The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level
Full Text Available The India's ambitious Rs 9,393 crore Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will impact very significantly on Socio-economic life of two million people of Bundelkhand region, India. Water is an important input for survival and sustenance of life. The demand of this natural gift has been increasing exponentially. This ambitious project will help us in irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity as well as a source of livelihood for our ever increasing population. In Bundelkhand region, there is a severe problem of lack of irrigation in one region and water logging in others. Damage to crops due to drought and pitiable drainage facility could be managed. The objectives of the paper are to study socio-economical issues and environmental challenges in Ken-Betwa River link in India and to study environmental impact of this Project.
Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De
Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.
Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L
Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.
Utomo, N. F.; Wonggo, D.
This study is aimed to reveal the interest of the students of junior high schools in Sangihe Islands, Indonesia, to go to vocational high schools and the affecting factors. This study used the quantitative method with the ex-post facto approach. The population consisted of 332 students, and the sample of 178 students was established using the proportional random sampling technique applying Isaac table’s 5% error standard. The results show that family’s socio-economic condition positively contributes 26% to interest to go to vocational high schools thus proving that family’s socio-economic condition is influential and contribute to junior high school students’ interest to go to vocational high schools.
Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick
The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker
-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio...... of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand...
John R. Barner
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.
Full Text Available The high and increasing incidence of divorce, with the various consequences for adults and children, has aroused interest among social scientists in understanding the contributory factors. Prominent economic and psychosocial theories suggest that the husband’s social and economic resources tend to stabilize a marriage, whereas the wife’s economic success tends to destabilize it (the gendered hypothesis. Register-based follow-up data from Statistics Finland on first marriages in Finland that were intact at the end of 1990 and divorces in 199193 (n=21,309, and Poisson regression were used to analyze the impact of the socio-economic positions of the spouses on the risk of divorce. This thesis consists of three articles published in international refereed journals, and a summary article. The aim of sub-study I was to disentangle the influences of various aspects of the spouses’ socio-economic positions on divorce risk and to reveal the causal pathways through which each socio-economic factor was related to it. Sub-study II investigated the joint effects of both spouses’ socio-economic positions. Finally, sub-study III explored the possibility that the effect of spouses’ socio-economic positions on divorce risk might vary according to the duration of the marriage. When examined individually, divorce risk was inversely associated with socio-economic status for all its various indicators (i.e. each spouse’s education, occupational class, economic activity, and income, as well as housing tenure and housing density except the wife’s income. All of these factors had an independent effect. The independent effect was weak for both spouses’ occupational rankings and housing density, however, and it was positive for the wife’s income. The divorce risk for couples with both partners at the lowest educational level was lower than expected on the basis of its overall inverse association with each spouse’s education. Employed and
Z. T. Imrani
Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine the socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan taking into account economic, environmental, social and environmental opportunities of the country; to find the rationale for the concept of sustainable development to eliminate major differences specific to regional economic development, management of economic and social development of the regions.Methods. Historical and comparative analysis, system approach, analysis of statistical and mathematical materials.Findings. We identified the advantages of the concept of sustainable development; cunducted the analysis of the dynamics of development of the leading industries in the region; studied the most promising sectors of the regions from the economic and geographic point of view.Conclusion. We identified socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
This research aims at creating a detailed account on the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic context, taking Pakistan as a case study. The core research question of this thesis is to investigate why the successful experience of the rapid and an effective diffusion...... of mobile communications services in case of Pakistan couldn’t be replicated in the cases of fixed telephony and internet services. The book investigates those major attributes which play a significant role in the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic and political context...... of telecom services within a complex unit of adoption. The empirical part of the research includes a significantly high number of interviews that were conducted from the key players of the local telecom market, and they essentially represented all the five major domains i.e. the supplier, policy, regulatory...
Yasin, G.; Aslam, M.; Naz, S.; Parvez, I.
The socio-economic factors affecting adoption of pesticides on citrus trees in Sargodha Division, Pakistan was studied. Six villages were selected (three from each subdivision) for data collection. Overall 150 orchard owners (25 from each sample village) were interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme. Gamma test and chi-square were used to check the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Among the sample, 48% respondents were spray users. The socio-economic factors that influenced farmer's receptivity to citrus spray were age (negatively correlated), education (positively correlated), social status (positively correlated), farm size (negatively correlated) and farming experience (negatively correlated). By incurring Rs. 3,600.00 per ha on spray farmers received Rs. 19,000.00 as an incremental benefit. Marginal rate of return indicated that by spending Re. 1.00 on spray farmers would get an increase of Rs. 5.27 in their income. (author)
Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens
This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...... incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional...... trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated...
Valeriy Aleksandrovich Chereshnev
Full Text Available Thesubject of theinvestigation issocial and economic aspects of thethreat of HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation.Theinvestigation was aimed at improving socio-economic monitoring of the HIV / AIDS threat. The methodology of systemic analysis and statistical methods were used. Three main sections of socio-economic monitoring of HIV / AIDS were defined with their problems, challenges and areas for improvement. Results of the study are applicable in justifying and shaping public policy to counter the threat of HIV / AIDS. Planned costs of measures to counter thethreat of HIV / AIDS must be based on requirements, allocation and results achieved. Systemic approach to planning requires an analysis of interrelation between costs, requirements and results. The absence of a systemic approach to coordination of costs and requirements leads to inefficient use of resources
Leung, C C; Yew, W W; Tam, C M; Chan, C K; Chang, K C; Law, W S; Wong, M Y; Au, K F
Relatively little is known about the impact of socio-economic factors on tuberculosis in a metropolitan city with high disease incidence. District-specific tuberculosis notification rates for 1995--1997 and 2000--2002 were indirectly sex- and age-adjusted and compared with the socio-economic characteristics in the 1996 by-census and 2001 census. The differences between the 18 districts persisted after 3-year averaging and indirect standardisation. Only the percentage of population born locally, the percentage of the population widowed or divorced and the percentage of households residing in rooms or bedsits were consistently associated with the standardised notification ratios (SNR) for both periods, the first being negatively so (all P birth in China, residence birth, being married, and residing in rooms or bedsits were independent predictors of SNR (all P poverty are affecting the district-specific tuberculosis rates in Hong Kong.
Full Text Available The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed. Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed.
Krawiec Alexandra E.
Full Text Available The perception of women’s statutory place within organizations has been influenced by gender bias, which has led to discrimination. Lowering barriers related to gender inequality and introducing constructive changes takes a surprisingly long time. This procrastination can, to some extent, be attributed to the fear of potential economic costs, which is a misconception. A deeper understanding of the interplay between socio-economic factors and gender inequality within organizations can result in designing better, less biased, more merit-based structures and provide women with better career opportunities. Countries and organizations promoting gender equality practices prove that women’s inclusion in the labor market can be ‘cost-effective’ and beneficial in socio-economic terms.
Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin
in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer......AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... incidence rates. Percent change in the average rate from the pre- to the post-crossing period. RESULTS: In the pre-crossing period, Norwegian male managers/administrators had the highest colon cancer incidence, but the largest increase in incidence from the pre-to the post-crossing period was seen...
Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing
Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros
Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. - Highlights: • Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections. • Low education level and poor living conditions are strong modifiers of this relationship. • In Cordoba city higher risk for respiratory infections were observed during summertime. - Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections, particularly for populations with low educational level or poor living conditions.
Casanova, Ludovic; Ringa, Virginie; Bloy, Géraldine; Falcoff, Hector; Rigal, Laurent
To determine appropriate management for individual patients, GPs are supposed to use their knowledge of the patient's socio-economic circumstances. To analyse factors associated with GPs' knowledge of these circumstances. Observational survey of GPs who were internship supervisors in the Paris metropolitan area. Each of 52 volunteer GPs completed a self-administered questionnaire about their own characteristics and randomly selected 70 patients from their patient list. Their knowledge was analysed as the agreement between the patients' and GPs' responses to questions about the patients' socio-economic characteristics in questionnaires completed by both groups. The association between agreement and the GPs' characteristics was analysed with a multilevel model adjusted for age, sex and the duration of the GP-patient relationship. Agreement varied according to the socio-economic characteristics considered (from 51% to 90%) and between GPs. Globally, the GPs overestimated their patients' socio-economic level. GP characteristics associated with better agreement were sex (female), long consultations, the use of paper records or an automatic reminder system and participation in continuing medical education and in meetings to discuss difficult cases. Knowledge of some patient characteristics, such as their complementary health insurance coverage or perceived financial situation, should be improved because their overestimation may lead to care that is too expensive and thus result in the patients' abandonment of the treatment. Besides determining ways to help GPs to organize their work more effectively, it is important to study methods to help doctors identify their patients' social-economic circumstances more accurately in daily practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Salmela, Joel; Rahman, Mohammad Mohibur
Tourism is not always about business. It can also affect the society in various other ways. There are socio-economic impacts of tourism for both host community and travelers’ community. These impacts can be positive as well as negative. By upholding tourism, a certain area can become financially solvent and the host community can endorse a better lifestyle. The aim of this research was to examine the tourism situation and future prospects of the chosen touristic destinations in forms of s...
It exists so many studies and research on networks, especially on business networks, but still there is a little research which explores the factors that influence a manager's’ willingness to participate in business networks. Some of the socio-economic factors that moderate this participation are explored through this paper and the focus is based on offline face-to-face networking activities between companies, especially in an Albanian context. The research findings shows how the ...
Jane Jemeli Rutto
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r. infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. RESULTS: Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7% applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a
Elder, Todd E.; Goddeeris, John H.; Haider, Steven J.
We assess the extent to which differences in socio-economic status are associated with racial and ethnic gaps in a fundamental measure of population health: the rate at which infants die. Using micro-level Vital Statistics data from 2000 to 2004, we examine mortality gaps of infants born to white, black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Asian, and Native American mothers. We find that between-group mortality gaps are strongly and consistently (except for Mexican infants) associated with maternal marita...
Gadah El dam, Nagwa A.
A comprehensive cost analysis of wind pumping system both imported and locally made versus diesel pumping systems was made.Result of the practical experience made by Energy Research Institute during the last several years and some private efforts are used in this evaluation. Economic evaluation was emphasized on the socio - economic aspects. Many problems of assumptions and adjustments of factors were also discussed and assessed. ( Author )
Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, A; Khan, M Zaved Kaiser; Renzaho, Andre M N
Arsenic contamination of drinking water, which can occur naturally or because of human activities such as mining, is the single most important public health issue in Bangladesh. Fifty out of the 64 districts in the country have arsenic concentration of groundwater exceeding 50µgL -1 , the Bangladeshi threshold, affecting 35-77 million people or 21-48% of the total population. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and other dietary sources is an important public health issue worldwide affecting hundreds of millions of people. Consequently, arsenic poisoning has attracted the attention of researchers and has been profiled extensively in the literature. Most of the literature has focused on characterising arsenic poisoning and factors associated with it. However, studies examining the socio-economic aspects of chronic exposure of arsenic through either drinking water or foods remain underexplored. The objectives of this paper are (i) to review arsenic exposure pathways to humans; (ii) to summarise public health impacts of chronic arsenic exposure; and (iii) to examine socio-economic implications and consequences of arsenicosis with a focus on Bangladesh. This scoping review evaluates the contributions of different exposure pathways by analysing arsenic concentrations in dietary and non-dietary sources. The socio-economic consequences of arsenicosis disease in Bangladesh are discussed in this review by considering food habits, nutritional status, socio-economic conditions, and socio-cultural behaviours of the people of the country. The pathways of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh include drinking water, various plant foods and non-dietary sources such as soil. Arsenic affected people are often abandoned by the society, lose their jobs and get divorced and are forced to live a sub-standard life. The fragile public health system in Bangladesh has been burdened by the management of thousands of arsenicosis victims in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc
Affret, Aurélie; Severi, Gianluca; Dow, Courtney; Rey, Grégoire; Delpierre, Cyrille; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy
To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet. Dietary data from a large cohort study were used to derive two mutually exclusive dietary patterns through a latent class analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-economic factors were studied with logistic regression. E3N, a French prospective cohort study composed of women recruited from a national health insurance plan covering people working in the national education system. E3N participants (n 73 031) with dietary and socio-economic data available. The 'Healthy' pattern was characterized by a large consumption of fruits and vegetables and the 'Less Healthy' pattern by a large consumption of pizza and processed meat. When all socio-economic factors were analysed together, all of the individual factors considered were associated with a healthy diet (e.g. women with three or more children were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. women with no children, OR (95 % CI): 0·70 (0·66, 0·75)) while the contextual factors associated with a healthy diet included the size of the agglomeration of residence and the area of birth and residence (e.g. women living in the West of France were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. those living in the South of France: 0·78 (0·72, 0·83)). We demonstrated that individual and contextual factors are both associated with diet. Rather than focusing only on individual factors, we recommend future studies or public health and nutritional strategies on diet to consider both types of factors.
Uguru, Nkoli P.; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.; Uguru, Chibuzo C.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna
The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated
Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.
The India's ambitious Rs 9,393 crore Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will impact very significantly on Socio-economic life of two million people of Bundelkhand region, India. Water is an important input for survival and sustenance of life. The demand of this natural gift has been increasing exponentially. This ambitious project will help us in irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity as well as a source of livelihood for our ever increasing population. In Bundelkhand ...
Efendic, Velid; Karamustafic, Eldina
This paper aims to explore the role of Islamic microfinance in the socio-economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Due to the significant growth of the microfinance sector in the last 20 years and its impact on the country’s postwar reconstruction and development, B&H serves as a good case for this present research. The study relies on primary data collected from clients of Islamic and conventional microfinance institutions (MFI). Accordingly, the comparison betwee...
Ellencweig, A Y; Slater, P E
Hospitalization rates in Israel for five common enteric communicable diseases were computed according to age, sex, religion, origin and place of residence. Higher rates were found for non-Jews of both sexes and males of all origins. Higher rates were also found for settlements inhabited by new immigrants of low socio-economic classes. These findings suggest that more emphasis should be placed upon sanitary improvements and education for better health, rather than on merely improving the health delivery system.
Doocy, Shannon; Burnham, Gilbert
Measures of socio-economic status (SES) were compared with a measure of physical well-being, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), in the food insecure regions of Ethiopia. Income, housing conditions and education had the greatest correlation to MUAC, and significant differences in these measures were observed between malnourished and adequately nourished individuals. Findings indicate that in rural Ethiopia, income, education and housing quality may be better indicators of SES than wealth and measures encompassing home and landownership.
Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark
Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced...... their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted....
Ekaterina C. Chimitdorzhieva
Full Text Available The problems of spatial socio-economic development of the region are considered in this article. Special attention is given to transport infrastructure. The authors propose methodical instruments for evaluating the influence of transport infrastructure on spatial development of region based on research of theoretic-methodical aspects of economic growth theory, location of economic activity and development concepts of infrastructural provision.
De Agostini, Paola
This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...
Maria Rita Testa
Full Text Available Background: Unlike actual fertility, fertility intentions are often found to be positively correlated with education. The literature explaining this paradox is scarce. Objective: We aim to fill the gap in the existing scientific literature by searching for the main factors that influence highly educated women to plan a larger family size. Methods: Using the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for four countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, and Norway, we analyse the relationship between mother's socio-economic status and daughter's fertility intentions, controlling for daughter's socio-economic status and sibship size. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models are employed to estimate the predictors of women's additionally intended number of children. Results: We find that the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through sibship size among childless daughters: Daughters with more siblings intend to have more children. After the transition to parenthood, the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through the mother's level of education: Daughters with highly educated mothers intend to have more children. Conclusions: The empirical results suggest that the positive link between births intentions and level of education might not merely be an artefact generated by the design of cross-sectional surveys but the outcome of a better socio-economic status that allows forming positive reproductive plans. Contribution: The positive role of mother's socio-economic status on daughter's fertility decision-making offers a valuable interpretation of the positive link between education and fertility intentions which goes beyond the alternative explanations referring to self-selection, partner effect, or time squeeze, and needs to be confirmed by further research.
Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung
This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...
Gbiri, Caleb A; Badru, Fatai A; Ladapo, Harry T O; Gbiri, Adefolakemi A
Relapse in psychiatric disorders is highly distressing, costly and engenders burn-out syndrome among mental-health workers. To study the socio-economic factors associated with relapse in individual admitted with psychiatric disorders and the pattern of socio-economic impact of relapse in those groups. A cross-sectional survey of all relapsed patients without cognitive deficit admitted into the federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria between June and October 2007 was conducted using a self-validated Structured Interview Schedule (Relapse Socio-economic Impact Interview Schedule) and Key Informant Interview Guide. Secondary data were elicited from the patient folders, case notes, ward admission registers and nominal rolls. Data were summarised using mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentiles. Pearson's moment correlation coefficient was used to test the association among variables. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the pre-morbid and the post-morbid states. This study involved 102 respondents. Their mean age was 36.5 ± 9.8 years, mainly of male gender (72.5%) suffering from schizophrenic disorder (37.8%). Relapse and re-admission ranged between 2 and 12. Unemployment rate, marital separation and divorce increased more than 5-fold from pre-morbid to morbid states. Few (4.9%) could still settle their hospital/drug bills on their own, while most (95.1%) depended on family, philanthropist and government/waivers to pay for their bills. Their social relationships were negatively influenced with most of them expressing social isolation and low quality of life. There were significant relationships (Peconomic status, employment status and marital status of the respondents between the pre-morbid and post-morbid periods. The illness significantly affected the emotional status of the participants. Relapse and readmission in psychiatric patients have a negative impact on socio-economic well-being of patients, family and the society. Efforts should
RADULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA; ANGHELUTA PETRICA SORIN; IOAN ILDIKO
Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of suppl...
The primary objective of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park. Secondly, to determine the relationship between the community's level of interest in the Tsitsikamma National Park (TNP) and their perceptions concerning the environmental, economic and social impacts of the TNP. By conducting a literature study, the first objective was achieved. The following tourism impacts were identified: environmental, economic and social. These...
Shouls, S; Whitehead, M; Burström, B
This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private...... households. The main measures are self perceived general health, limiting long-standing illness, poverty and working status....
Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov
Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the
In this article considered the necessity of the organization and development of diversified farming enterprises, their role and importance in the practical solution of socio-economic problems of rural areas. The issues of the development of farms are important in increasing the employment and income of the rural population, as well as in addressing the social problems associated with them. For the period 2013-2016. 352,015 new jobs were created. Today one of the most effective factors...
Adamenko Iryna P.
The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financ...
Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar
Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cu...... minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increased market accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty....
Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi
Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.
V. Chandrashekhar Murthy
Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 215-218
This paper reflects the results of a study, the main objective of which was to investigate the practical treatment of unaccompanied minor refugees in Ghana and South Africa, and to explore whether such treatment is in accordance with existing international norms and standards for the protection of refugee children. The study focused on the realisation of children's socio-economic rights in order to measure treatment. The paper seeks to address the obstacles which prevent the proper treatment ...
Santy Paulla Dewi
Full Text Available Jakarta has a rapid development which attracts newcomers to come and live in. Hereinafter, the newcomers look for the house which in accordance to their income and preferences. They chose inner city kampong for residing and their existence displacing the Betawi people as the local community. The newcomers presence led displacement and transformed the neighbourhood. Likewise, they had also influenced in the socio-economic transformation related with education, women worker, community relationship, and lifestyle.
Pugacheva, Anna S.; Filippova, Viktoriya P.; Kon, Andrei Y.; Dorzhieva, Lyudmila B.; Silchenok, Igor S.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.; Lunev, Alexander N.; Mustafina, Alfiya A.
The relevance of the study is conditioned by the innovative development of service spheres as the reduction of territorial social and economic differentiation to the level, due to objective differences of the regions and to balance of their revenue base and expenditure commitments. The service sector is one of the most dynamic and growing segments of regional markets and one of the characteristics of effective socio-economic policy in the region. Innovative development of service spheres as a...
Govindasamy, Ramu; Italia, John
Only 22 percent of surveyed consumers reported making frequent use of food advertisements when purchasing food products. However, certain demographic segments appear to place a greater emphasis on food advertisements than others. This study empirically evaluates which socio-economic characteristics encourage consumers to be more likely to take food advertisements into account when purchasing grocery products. The results indicate that those with lower annual incomes, those with lower levels o...
van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M
Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.
Rajshree D. Katke; Mohit R. Saraogi
Background: Exclusive breast-feeding has irrefutably been established as the best form of nourishment for neonatal and early infantile age groups. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the socio-economic factors in a developing country like India, which influence maternal motivation and willingness to donate breast milk and to make policy changes to promote the same. Methods: Ours is a retrospective study carried out over a period of 1 year in Cama and Albless hospital in Mu...
Larisa B. Kalmykova
Full Text Available An approach to assessment of a stability of socio-economic development of the region with use of elasticity coefficients is given in the article. On the basis of correlation and regression analysis the author constructs the dependence equations between the indicators of the region’s development and environment’s conditions. That makes it possible to evaluate the influence of social and economic processes on the ecosystem of the region.
Mohammad, Hossain; Tisdell, Clement A.
Catalogues the demographic changes in Bangladesh during the period 1975-2000 and examines how they relate to key socio-economic attributes. Trends are examined in population growth, growth of the working age population, women’s workforce participation, age-dependency ratio, female-male ratio, longevity, fertility, mortality and mean age at first marriage. Bangladesh has made significant breakthroughs in all these areas, a feat not matched by most other South Asian countries, but comparable wi...
Möllers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan
Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and ...
The subject of the study is the social sector of the economy; entrepreneurship and investment activity; real sector of the economy; foreign economic activity and financial resources of Kyiv region. The purpose of this paper is to study theoretical foundations and to conduct an analysis of socio-economic development of Kyiv region. Research methods. The author applies the methods of abstraction, analysis and synthesis, systematization and generalization to clarify the conceptual appara...
Heather Antecol; Deborah A. Cobb-Clark
This paper contributes to the emerging literature on racial and ethnic tension by analyzing the relationship between local socio-economic conditions and the propensity for outsiders to have threatening racial encounters with insiders. We use unique data for a sample of active-duty Army personnel that allow us to first, link personnel to the local communities in which they are located and second, to avoid any selectivity bias associated with endogenous community selection. We find at best mixe...
Li, Sen; Juhász-Horváth, Linda; Pintér, László; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Harrison, Paula A
Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices. The model was used to project future patterns of arable land use under four localised, stakeholder-driven scenarios of plausible future socio-economic and climate change. The results show strong differences in farmers' behaviour and current agricultural land use patterns between the two regions, highlighting the need to implement focused policy at the regional level. For instance, policy that encourages local food security may need to support improvements in the capacity of farmers to adapt to physical constraints in Veszprém and farmer access to social capital and environmental awareness in Tolna. It is further suggested that the two regions will experience different challenges to adaptation under possible future conditions (up to 2100). For example, Veszprém was projected to have increased fallow land under a scenario with high inequality, ineffective institutions and higher-end climate change, implying risks of land abandonment. By contrast, Tolna was projected to have a considerable decline in major cereals under a scenario assuming a de-globalising future with moderate climate change, inferring challenges to local food self-sufficiency. The study provides insight into how socio-economic and physical factors influence the selection of crop rotation plans by farmers in western Hungary and how farmer behaviour may affect future risks to agricultural
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socio-economic factors and psycho-physical well-being on the popularity of sauna usage among male university students. The research was conducted in 2012 on 550 first-year male university students aged 19 to 20 years (20.23±0.83yrs). The participants were asked to ...
In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…
Driessen, G.; Merry, M.S.
The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils
Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.
The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…
BM Shahriar Abdullah-Bin-Farid
Full Text Available This study was conducted on the management of the Baluhar Baor and fishermen’s socio-economic conditions of the Baor in Jhenaidah district, Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviews, FGDs and CIs with key informants. This Baor was managed under Oxbow Lake Project-1 of Department of Fisheries of Bangladesh government. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhina cirrhosus, Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idella were commonly stocked at the composition of 34%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 15% and 14%, respectively. Kochal, Komor and Chack fishing were used for harvesting and yearly production was 750 kg/ha. While studying the socio-economics, 58% fishermen were lived in joint families. 78% fishermen used Kancha sanitary latrine which reflects their poor hygienic condition but they used tubewell for drinking water. 58% fishermen were with 0.045 hectare lands and 74% lived in Kancha house. The annual income varied from BDT 15,000 to 60,000. Education level was found very low and only 18% completed their primary education. Majority fishermen (82% visited village doctor for health services due to low income and lack of knowledge. All fishermen were fully dependent on Baor fishery for their livelihood. It is possible to uplift their socio-economic by managing the Baor with improved technology.
Boydell, T.; Brar, C.; Dodd, M.; Kwong, N.; Seeley
Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs
Branch, K.; Cochran, R.; Meale, R.
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
Pearce Mark S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status is known to influence health throughout life. In childhood, studies have shown increased injury rates in more deprived settings. Socio-economic status may therefore be related to rates of certain medical procedures, such as computed tomography (CT scans. This study aimed to assess socio-economic variation among young people having CT scans in Northern England between 1990 and 2002 inclusive. Methods Electronic data were obtained from Radiology Information Systems of all nine National Health Service hospital Trusts in the region. CT scan data, including sex, date of scan, age at scan, number and type of scans were assessed in relation to quintiles of Townsend deprivation scores, obtained from linkage of postcodes with census data, using χ2 tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results During the study period, 39,676 scans were recorded on 21,089 patients, with 38,007 scans and 19,485 patients (11344 male and 8132 female linkable to Townsend scores. The overall distributions of both scans and patients by quintile of Townsend deprivation scores were significantly different to the distributions of Townsend scores from the census wards included in the study (p Conclusions Social inequalities exist in the numbers of young people undergoing CT scans with those from deprived areas more likely to do so. This may reflect the rates of injuries in these individuals and implies that certain groups within the population may receive higher radiation doses than others due to medical procedures.
Contreras, Carmen C; Millones, Ana K; Santa Cruz, Janeth; Aguilar, Margot; Clendenes, Martin; Toranzo, Miguel; Llaro, Karim; Lecca, Leonid; Becerra, Mercedes C; Yuen, Courtney M
For a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Carabayllo, Peru, we describe the prevalence of medical comorbidities and socio-economic needs, the efforts required by a comprehensive support programme ('TB Cero') to address them and the success of this programme in linking patients to care. Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Carabayllo underwent evaluations for HIV, diabetes, mental health and unmet basic needs. For patients initiating treatment during 14 September, 2015-15 May, 2016, we abstracted data from evaluation forms and a support request system. We calculated the prevalence of medical comorbidities and the need for socio-economic support at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis, as well as the proportion of patients successfully linked to care or support. Of 192 patients, 83 (43%) had at least one medical comorbidity other than tuberculosis. These included eight (4%) patients with HIV, 12 (6%) with diabetes and 62 (32%) deemed at risk for a mental health condition. Of patients who required follow-up for a comorbidity, 100% initiated antiretroviral therapy, 71% attended endocrinology consultations and 66% attended psychology consultations. Of 126 (65%) patients who completed the socio-economic evaluation, 58 (46%) reported already receiving food baskets from the municipality, and 79 (63%) were given additional support, most commonly food vouchers and assistance in accessing health care. Carabayllo tuberculosis patients face many challenges in addition to tuberculosis. A collaborative, comprehensive treatment support programme can achieve high rates of linkage to care for these needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rao, K.R.; Yerpude, R.R.
Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined
This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined