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Sample records for society coema china optics

  1. HIV, sex work, and civil society in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Harm reduction programs for sex workers have been hampered by the prioritization of law enforcement over AIDS prevention. For example, the April 2010 "strike-hard" campaign against prostitution in Beijing, during which bars, nightclubs, saunas, and karaoke bars were raided, created an atmosphere that critically impeded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outreach activities for sex workers. In China, criminalization has limited the growth of a coherent and cohesive set of nongovernmental organization (NGO) actors working with sex workers to prevent HIV infection. Compared with other risk groups for HIV sexual transmission, such as men who have sex with men, the NGO community for sex workers is fragmented and poorly coordinated with government efforts, and basic rights for sex workers are often violated. This article examines civil society groups working on AIDS prevention and care for female sex workers in China and reviews constraints to their operations. China's HIV prevention programs for sex workers are compared with sex worker HIV prevention in other Asian states where more well-developed NGOs exist and criminalization has been better balanced with harm reduction approaches, and recommendations are offered on improving China's policies and programs.

  2. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics.

  3. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J.

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics

  4. Sexual revolution in China: implications for Chinese women and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick

    2011-06-01

    China is undergoing rapid changes in sexual mores due to several reasons such as decreasing control of the state over private lives of individuals, globalization of its economy, and some policies initiated by the state. There is increased acceptance of premarital sex and extramarital sex in China, especially among youth. In historically conservative China, influenced by Confucian ideals of patriarchal dominance for centuries, the sexual freedom currently enjoyed by many is unprecedented. This has impacted women's status and sexual lives in several positive ways such as increasing freedom of sexual expression, control over their bodies, sexual choices, and increasing equality with men in all spheres of life. However several negative consequences such as a rise in STD/HIV prevalence, commercial sex, and divorce rates have also been attributed to the ongoing sexual revolution in China. Recommendations combating these and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.

  5. Seasonal variations in aerosol optical properties over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuesi Wang; Jinyuan Xin; Zhanqing Li; Shigong Wang; Pucai Wang; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Hongbin Chen; Lili Wang; Yang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal variations in background aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type are investigated over various ecosystems in China based upon three years' worth of meteorological data and data collected by the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network. In most parts of China, AODs are at a maximum in spring or summer and at a minimum in autumn or winter. Minimum values (0.10~0....

  6. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  7. Proceedings of 26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society--modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society was held in Tianjing, 13-16 July, 2008. This proceedings is about modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, the contents include: new elements and new nuclides; advanced nuclear chemistry; radiochemistry and national security; new radiopharmaceutical chemistry; modern radiological analytical chemistry and large scientific facilities; radiological environmental chemistry and nuclear radioactive waste; actinide chemistry and transactinide chemistry; radiochemistry and cross discipline, etc.

  8. 77 FR 27079 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China and Taiwan of certain... Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... that imports of certain stilbenic optical brightening agents from China and Taiwan were being sold at...

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.7--nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear electronics, nuclear detecting technology, pulse power technology, nuclear fusion and plasma

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.7--pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear electronics, nuclear detecting technology, pulse power technology, nuclear fusion and plasma

  11. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fifth one, the content is about radiation protection and nuclear chemical industry.

  12. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.4--nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally.This is the fourth one, the content is about nuclear materials, isotope separation, nuclear chemistry and radiological chemistry.

  13. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.6--nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the sixth one, the content is about nuclear physics, computational physics and particle accelerator

  14. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  15. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--nuclear agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  16. The Optical Society's 2016 topical meeting on optical interference coatings: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristau, Detlev; Li, Li; Sargent, Robert; Sytchkova, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics is dedicated to the 13th Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, which was held June 19-24, 2016, in Tucson, Arizona, USA. The conference, taking place every three years, is a focal point for global technical interchange in the field of optical interference coatings and provides premier opportunities for people working in the field to present their new advances in research and development. Papers presented at the meeting covered a broad range of topics, including fundamental research on coating design theory, new materials, and deposition and characterization technologies, as well as the vast and growing number of applications in electronic displays, communication, optical instruments, high power and ultra-fast lasers, solar cells, space missions, gravitational wave detection, and many others.

  17. 76 FR 30967 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China and Taiwan of certain stilbenic optical brightening agents, provided for in subheadings...

  18. The development of ecological environment in China based on the system dynamics method from the society, economy and environment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Yang; Ge, Song; Han, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The harmonious development in society, economy and environment are crucial to regional sustained boom. However, the society, economy and environment are not respectively independent, but both mutually promotes one which, or restrict mutually complex to have the long-enduring overall process. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship and interaction of society, economy and environment in China based on the data from 2004 to 2013. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was employed to identify the main factors effecting the society, economy and environment subsystems, and SD (system dynamics) method used to carry out dynamic assessment for future state of sustainability from society, economy and environment perspective with future indicator values. Sustainable development in China was divided in the study into three phase from 2004 to 2013 based competitive values of these three subsystems. According to the results of PCA model, China is in third phase, and the economy growth is faster than the environment development, while the social development still maintained a steady and rapid growth, implying that the next step for sustainable development in China should focus on society development, especially the environment development.

  19. Korea-China optical technology research centre project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, J M; Rhee, Y J. and others

    2001-09-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the internatinal collaboration basis of optical technolgies between Korean and China through the combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korea industrialization and commercialization infrastructures, by ways of exchanging scientist and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to that of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both of the countries, technical support for the investment on the optical industries in the two countries and establishment of foundation for the venture capitals are also the purpose of this project. Because the state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defense technology, applications to medical treatments, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and upto one of the most advanced in the world, it is necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, resulting in the enhancement of the levels of domestic technologies in these fields, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued.

  20. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields

  1. Korea-China optical technology research centre project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, J. M.; Rhee, Y. J. and others

    2001-09-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the internatinal collaboration basis of optical technolgies between Korean and China through the combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korea industrialization and commercialization infrastructures, by ways of exchanging scientist and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to that of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both of the countries, technical support for the investment on the optical industries in the two countries and establishment of foundation for the venture capitals are also the purpose of this project. Because the state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defense technology, applications to medical treatments, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and upto one of the most advanced in the world, it is necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, resulting in the enhancement of the levels of domestic technologies in these fields, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued

  2. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields.

  3. Review Essay: Knowing Society, Cultivating Citizens, and Making the State in Post-Imperial China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Culp

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tong Lam. A Passion for Facts: Social Surveys and the Construction of the Chinese Nation-State, 1900–1949. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 280 pp. $60 (cloth.Janet Y. Chen. Guilty of Indigence: The Urban Poor in China, 1900–1953. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012. 320 pp. $45 (cloth/eBook.Understanding society and building the national community were, in many ways, paired common goals for China’s intellectuals and political leaders during the first half of the twentieth century. Complementary new books by Tong Lam and Janet Chen illuminate key dynamics of those processes. Lam’s A Passion for Facts: Social Surveys and the Construction of the Chinese Nation-State, 1900–1949 tracks the development of the social survey movement (shehui diaocha yundong during the first half of the twentieth century. Chen’s Guilty of Indigence: The Urban Poor in China, 1900–1953 analyzes efforts to explain poverty, categorize the poor, and extend to the needy “active relief,” which was meant to transform them from “parasites” into productive citizens. Together the books demonstrate how new systems of knowledge served to map the social field and how institutions of governance defined and reshaped social groups for the project of national mobilization, with Lam concentrating more on the development of modern technologies of knowledge and Chen focusing more on the development of governmental institutions and the imposition of social discipline. Through their analyses these books help to explain the process whereby abstract academic fields and research methodologies, along with theories and techniques of social governance, had material effects that transformed millions of people’s daily lives. They provide, in other words, striking examples of what Wen-hsin Yeh, Eddy U, and I have elsewhere characterized as “organized knowledge in action” (Culp, U, and Yeh n.d....

  4. 76 FR 49443 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan: Postponement of Preliminary... 5; Maisha Cryor at (202) 482-5831 or Shaun Higgins at (202) 482-0679 (People's Republic of China.... Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  5. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  6. Proceedings of 2nd Korea-China Congress of Nuclear Medicine and the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Spring Meeting 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 2nd Korea-China Congress of Nuclear Medicine and 2000 spring meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on May 17-19, 2000 in Seoul, Korean. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: general nuclear medicine, neurology, oncology, radiopharmacy and biology, nuclear cardiology, nuclear cardiology: physics and instrumentation and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  7. Aerosol optical properties at SORPES in Nanjing, east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yicheng; Virkkula, Aki; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Jiaping; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Huang, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zheng; Petäjä, Tuukka; Aalto, Pasi P.; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) and supporting parameters - particle number size distributions, PM2.5 mass concentrations, and the concentrations of trace gases (NOx and NOy) - were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering: the average scattering coefficient was σsp = 403 ± 314 Mm-1, the absorption coefficient σap = 26 ± 19 Mm-1, and the single-scattering albedo SSA = 0.93 ± 0.03 for green light. The SSA in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than published values from several other sites in China and elsewhere. The average Ångström exponent of absorption (AAE) for the wavelength range 370-950 nm was 1.04 and the AAE range was 0.7-1.4. These AAE values can be explained with different amounts of non-absorbing coating on pure black carbon (BC) cores and different core sizes rather than contribution by brown carbon. The AOPs had typical seasonal cycles with high σsp and σap in winter and low ones in summer: the averages were σsp = 544 ± 422 and σap = 36 ± 24 Mm-1 in winter and σsp = 342 ± 281 and σap = 20 ± 13 Mm-1 in summer. The intensive AOPs had no clear seasonal cycles, the variations in them were rather related to the evolution of pollution episodes. The diurnal cycles of the intensive AOPs were clear and in agreement with the cycle of the particle number size distribution. The diurnal cycle of SSA was similar to that of the air photochemical age, suggesting that the darkest aerosol originated from fresh traffic emissions. A Lagrangian retroplume analysis showed that the potential source areas of high σsp and σap are mainly in eastern China. Synoptic weather phenomena dominated the cycle of AOPs on a temporal scale of 3-7 days. During pollution episodes, modeled boundary layer height decreased, whereas PM2.5 concentrations and σsp and σap typically increased gradually and remained high during several days but decreased faster, sometimes by even more

  8. Alcohol Use and Policy Responses in Modern China: New Developments in a Changing Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Wei-Mien Christine

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a worldwide social problem that has greatly contributed to the global burden of disease, disability and death. Overall volume of alcohol consumption and prevalence of alcohol-related problems in China have remained relatively low in comparison to many western countries until recent years. Since the liberal economic reforms of the early 1980s, China has witnessed an alarmingly increasing rate of alcohol consumption, and as a result, increasing incidence of al...

  9. Proceedings of the IEEE laser and electro-optics society annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.B.; Raney, H.; Raney, D.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered under the following headings: Electro-optic systems; Emerging laser technology; Optical sensors and measurements; Optoelectronics; Semiconductor diode lasers; Solid state lasers; UV and short wavelength; Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium and optical sensors and measurements; and Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium

  10. Analysis of Genetic Mutations in a Cohort of Hereditary Optic Neuropathy in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Dekang; Li, Mengwei; Wu, Jihong; Sun, Xinghuai; Tian, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical classification and characteristics of hereditary optic neuropathy patients in a single center in China. Retrospective case study. Patients diagnosed with hereditary optic neuropathy between January 2014 and December 2015 in the neuro-ophthalmology division in Shanghai Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were recruited. Clinical features as well as visual field, brain/orbital MRI, and spectrum domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. Eighty-two patients diagnosed by gene test were evaluated, including 66 males and 16 females. The mean age of the patients was 19.4 years (range, 5-46 years). A total of 158 eyes were analyzed, including 6 unilateral, 61 bilateral, and 15 sequential. The median duration of the disease was 0.5 year (range, 0.1-20 years). Genetic test identified 68 patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, 9 with dominant optic neuropathy, and 2 with a Wolfram gene mutation. There was also one case of hereditary spastic paraplegia, spinocerebellar ataxia, and polymicrogyria with optic nerve atrophy, respectively. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common detected type of hereditary optic neuropathy in Shanghai, China. The detection of other autosomal mutations in hereditary optic neuropathy is limited by the currently available technique.

  11. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.10--nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

  12. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.6--computational physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 13 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the sixth one, the content is about computational physics sub-volume

  13. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

  14. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 57 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

  15. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 22 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

  16. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.10--nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear technology economy and management modernization

  17. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.10--Nuclear Information sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 28 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about Nuclear Information sub-volume

  18. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.9--nuclear technology applied in industry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 35 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the ninth one, the content is about nuclear technology applied in industry sub-volume

  19. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology

  20. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.2--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about nuclear power (Pt.1)

  1. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--nuclear agriculture sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 10 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about nuclear agriculture sub-volume

  2. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.2--uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 48 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

  3. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.3--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 86 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the third one, the content is about nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.2)

  4. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--isotope separation sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 37 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about isotope separation sub-volume

  5. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume

  6. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.2--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining, uranium metallurgy and nuclear power.

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.10--nuclear Information sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear Information and computer applications

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and pulse power technology and its application

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--radiation research and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.2--uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining, uranium metallurgy and nuclear power.

  11. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 24 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

  12. 76 FR 19383 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of...

  13. CONFERENCE NOTE: European Optical Society, Topical Meeting Optical Metrology and Nanotechnology, Engelberg, Switzerland, 27 30 March 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This meeting, organized by the Paul Scherrer Institute's Department of Applied Solid State Physics, will be held from 27 30 March 1994 at the Hotel Regina-Titlis, Engelberg, Switzerland. The aim is to bring together scientists from two important fields of current research and increasing industrial relevance. Optical metrology is a traditional discipline of applied optics which reached the nanometre scale a long time ago. Nanotechnology is setting new limits and represents a major challenge to metrology, as well as offering new opportunities to optics. The meeting is intended to help define a common future for optical metrology and nanotechnology. Topics to be covered include: nanometre position control and measuring techniques ultrahigh precision interferometry scanning probe microscopy (AFM, SNOM, etc.) surface modification by scanning probe methods precision surface fabrication and characterization nanolithography micro-optics, diffractive optics components, including systems and applications subwavelength optical structures synthetic optical materials structures and technologies for X-ray optics. For further information please contact: Jens Gobrecht (Secretary), Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.Tel. (41)56992529; Fax (41) 5698 2635.

  14. The female dragons awake: women, sport and society in the early years of the new China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J

    2001-01-01

    This article, based on archival records, published documents, interviews with elite sportswomen and three regional case studies, deals with the radical social, economic, cultural and political changes in the early years of the Communist China, the consequent changes in women's lives and the eventual extraordinary impact on elite women's sport. It analyses the complicated relations between the communist system, gender ideology, sports policy, international politics and elite women's sport. With the establishment of a variety of sports institutions, systems and structures women in increasing numbers took part in competitive sport and produced even increasingly remarkable achievements.

  15. Optical Storage In China: A Study in Strategic Industrial Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Linden

    2003-01-01

    China’s industrial policy for high-technology industries combines key features of the policies adopted elsewhere in East Asia: judicious opening to foreign investors and support for local firms. However, unlike the developing economies of East Asia, China is a transition economy that already had a relatively well-developed, if somewhat dated, technology base of its own before its opening to outside investors at the end of the 1970s. Although the initial technology level of indiv...

  16. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  17. Mistrust of physicians in China: society, institution, and interaction as root causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Based on two years' ethnographic research on doctor-patient relations in urban China, this paper examines the causes of patients' mistrust of physicians. I identify the major factors at the societal, institutional, and interpersonal levels that lead to patients' mistrust of physicians. First, I set the context by describing the extent of mistrust at the societal level. Then, I investigate the institutional sources of mistrust. I argue that the financing mechanism of public hospitals and physicians' income structures are the most crucial factors in inducing patients' mistrust. Hospitals' heavy reliance on self-finance has basically caused public hospitals to run like private hospitals, resulting in blatant conflicts of interest between hospitals and patients. Related to this is physicians' reliance on bonuses and commissions as part of their regular incomes, which has inevitably resulted in overtreatment and, hence, mistrust from the patients. At the interpersonal level, I describe how individual physicians' attitudes toward and interaction with patients may also affect patients' sense of trust or mistrust in physicians. In conclusion, I discuss the ethical implications of the mistrust problem, and suggest changes at the institutional and interpersonal levels to mitigate the problem. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Digital Holography and 3D Imaging: introduction to the joint feature issue in Applied Optics and Journal of the Optical Society of America A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hoonjong; Lee, Byoungho; Kozacki, Tomasz; Picart, Pascal; Situ, Guohai

    2018-01-01

    The OSA Topical Meeting on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH) was held 29 May to 1 June 2017 in Jeju Island, South Korea. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO) since 2007. This year, AO and the Journal of the Optical Society of America A (JOSA A) jointly decided to have one such feature issue in each journal. This feature issue includes 33 papers in AO and 9 in JOSA A and covers a large range of topics, reflecting the rapidly expanding techniques and applications of digital holography and 3D imaging. The upcoming DH meeting (DH 2018) will be held 25-28 June 2018 in Orlando, Florida, USA, as part of the OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress.

  19. Aerosol Optical Depth investigated with satellite remote sensing observations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Die, Hu; Lei, Zhang; Hongbin, Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 550nm from the MODIS sensor on board the Terra/Aqua satellites were compared with sun photometer (CE-318) measurements from 11 AERONET stations in China. The average correlation coefficient (R) value from the AOD product, using the Aqua-MODIS Deep Blue algorithm, in the Hexi Corridor was 0.67. The MODIS Dark Target algorithm AOD product is superior to Deep Blue algorithm AOD products in SACOL of the Semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. These two kinds of algorithm are not applicable to sites in Lanzhou city. The average R value of Dark Target algorithm AOD MODIS products is 0.91 for Terra and 0.88 for Aqua in the eastern part of China. According to the analysis of spatial and temporal characteristics of the two MODIS AOD products in China, high value areas are mainly distributed in the southern part of Xinjiang (0.5∼0.8), Sichuan Basin (0.8∼0.9), North China (0.6∼0.8) and the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River (0.8∼1.0). The Deep Blue algorithm for Aqua-MODIS is a good supplement for the retrieval of AOD above bright surfaces of deserts in Northwest China

  20. U.S.-China Relations: The China Council of the Asia Society. A Medial Source Guide, Issues for the '80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on International and Public Affairs, New York, NY.

    Concise, authoritative background information on U.S.-China relations is provided for journalists in this guide, one of a series dealing with topics of interest to the U.S. media. The guide begins with a chronology of U.S.-China relations from 1979 to 1982. The texts of documents on U.S.-China relations are then presented. These include the…

  1. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  2. Science and Society: The Case of Acceptance of Newtonian Optics in the Eighteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Moura, Breno Arsioli

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a historical study on the acceptance of Newton's corpuscular theory of light in the early eighteenth century. Isaac Newton first published his famous book "Opticks" in 1704. After its publication, it became quite popular and was an almost mandatory presence in cultural life of Enlightenment societies. However, Newton's…

  3. Digital Holography and 3D Imaging: introduction to the joint feature issue in Applied Optics and Journal of the Optical Society of America B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha P; Osten, Wolfgang; Picart, Pascal; Cao, Liangcai; Nehmetallah, George

    2017-05-01

    The OSA Topical Meeting on Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH) was held 25-28 July 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany, as part of the Imaging Congress. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO) since 2007. This year, AO and the Journal of the Optical Society of America B (JOSA B) jointly decided to have one such feature issue in each journal. This feature issue includes 31 papers in AO and 11 in JOSA B, and covers a large range of topics, reflecting the rapidly expanding techniques and applications of digital holography and 3D imaging. The upcoming DH meeting (DH 2017) will be held from 29 May to 1 June in Jeju Island, South Korea.

  4. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  5. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui

    2016-01-01

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  6. Comparison and enlightenment of optical higher education between America and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Xi Cheng; Si, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, from the perspective of a teacher and a student, the differences on the educational implementation process, education effect, educational philosophy and thinking mode between America and China are studied, based on personal experience, visiting communication and research thinking etc.. The reasons for these differences are analyzed. The factors which influence a country's higher education, the core training contents and how to more effectively cultivate the talents of optics and photonics are also put forward. We hope this will help improve higher education.

  7. The Migration, Mental Stress, and Tobacco use of Internal Migrants in China: The Moderating Effect of the Social Context of the Host Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shenghua

    2017-11-10

    Previous studies on the relationship between mental stress and the tobacco use of internal migrants have not fully considered the social context of the host society. This study aims to examine how mental stress influences cigarette smoking in internal migrants in China by considering the social context of the host society. We used the RUMiC data that were collected in 15 cities distributed throughout 9 provinces of China. A total of 8,446 and 5,426 migrant workers were interviewed in 2008 and 2009, respectively. We selected individuals based on the criteria of age, salary, and hukou status. A total of 8,880 observations are valid for this study. This research used the logistic regression method to test the association between mental stress and the tobacco use of internal migrants. The results show that mental stress is not necessarily associated with the tobacco use of internal migrants. However, the effects of mental stress on tobacco use are moderated by the social context of the host society. This article calls for more attention to be paid to the moderate effect of social context in the host society on the association between mental stress and cigarette smoking of internal migrants. Moreover, this article underscores the importance of factors related to local societies in making and enacting tobacco control policies for migrants in developing countries.

  8. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire adapted for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients in China: reliability and validity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Xiaotang; Du, Qing; Shang, Lei

    2007-12-01

    Outcome investigation to verify the internal consistency, reproducibility and validity of the adapted Chinese version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with idiopathic scoliosis. To develop this questionnaire for the outcome measurement in treating Chinese adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and evaluate its metric qualities. The SRS-22 questionnaire has proven to be a valid instrument for clinical assessment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis and has been successfully translated into Spanish and Turkish. In most developing countries, however, quality of life and psychological health have been poorly described when treating children with idiopathic scoliosis. Trans-cultural adaptation of the SRS-22 questionnaire was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Assessment Project guidelines. The final version was approved by a committee of experts. The questionnaire was completed by 86 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who had been treated with a brace; this included 11 males and 75 females, aged from 10 to 18 years (mean 13.9 years). Curve magnitude ranged from 25 degrees to 45 degrees (mean 35.6 degrees ). A subgroup of 30 patients completed the questionnaire again in 3 or 4 weeks. Five common factors were acquired from factorial analysis, and the cumulative contribution ratio was 67.66%. The overall alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.88. Coefficients for individual domains were as follows: function/activity, 0.70; pain, 0.80; self-image, 0.80; mental health, 0.88; and satisfaction, 0.81. The questionnaire as a whole had a test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.97. Test-retest correlation coefficients for individual domains were as follows: function, 0.85; pain, 0.96; self-image, 0.96; mental health, 0.95; and satisfaction, 0.91. The Chinese version of the SRS-22 questionnaire is eligible in terms of reliability and validity, and can be

  9. Optical properties and source analysis of aerosols over a desert area in Dunhuang, Northwest china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjing; Xin, Jinyuan; Ma, Yining; Kong, Lingbin; Zhang, Kequan; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Xiuqin; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol observational data for 2012 obtained from Dunhuang Station of CARE-China (Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research Network of China) were analyzed to achieve in-depth knowledge of aerosol optical properties over Dunhuang region. The results showed that the annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.32±0.06, and the Ångström exponent ( α) was 0.73 ± 0.27. Aerosol optical properties revealed significant seasonal characteristics. Frequent sandstorms in MAM (March-April-May) resulted in the seasonal maximum AOD, 0.41 ± 0.04, and a relatively smaller α value, 0.44±0.04. The tourism seasons, JJA (June-July-August) and SON (September-October-November) coincide with serious emissions of small anthropogenic aerosols. While in DJF (December-January-February), the composition of the atmosphere was a mixture of dust particles and polluted aerosols released by domestic heating; the average AOD and α were 0.29 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.17, respectively. Different air masses exhibited different degrees of influence on the aerosol concentration over Dunhuang in different seasons. During MAM, ranges of AOD (0.11-1.18) and α (0.06-0.82) were the largest under the dust influence of northwest-short-distance air mass in the four trajectories. Urban aerosols transported by northwest-short-distance air mass accounted for a very large proportion in JJA and the mixed aerosols observed in SON were mainly conveyed by air masses from the west. In DJF, the similar ranges of AOD and α under the three air mass demonstrated the analogous diffusion effects on regional pollutants over Dunhuang.

  10. The Selection and Protection of Optical Astronomical Observing Sites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjing, Jin; Bai, Jinming; Yao, Yongqiang

    2015-03-01

    Before 1950 there are two observatories, Shanghai and Purple Mountain Astronomical Observatories (SHAO and PMO), and two observing stations, Qingdao and Kunming stations in China. With the requirements of astronomical research, two observatories, Beijing and Shaanxi Astronomical Observatories (BAO and SXAO) and two artificial satellite stations, Urumqi and Changchun, were established about 1960. Based on the current management, now there are 4 observatories, SHAO, PMO, NAOC(National Astronomical Observatories), which was grouped from BAO, YNAO and 2 others, as well as XAO (Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory). The optical 1-2 m class telescopes are being operated at former four observatories. SXAO is changed as National Time Service Center. Because of city expansion as well as the traveling and economic developments, these observatories are suffered severe light pollution. For example, Zo Ce is located at the suburb of Shanghai city. A 40 cm double astrograph was installed in 1900 and a 1.56 m optical reflector have been operated since November 1987. In 1994 the seeing is better than 1 and the night sky brightness in V is about 19 mag/arcsec 2, stars fainter than 20 mag with CCD are visibles. In 2007 a large playground was built in Zô Cè area. The light pollution is severe gradually. The night sky brightness has been increased to 15.8 mag/arcsec 2. The other observatories have similar situation. New site surveys and found new stations to solve the problem. Except the solar and radio stations of each Astronomical Observatory, now there are 3 optical observing sites at PMO (Hong-He, Xu-Yi and Yaoan), 2 at SHAO (Zô Cè and Tian Huang Ping) and 2 at YNAO (Kunming and Gao-Mei-Gu) as well as 1 optical observing site at BAO (Xing-Long). The best observing site is Gao-Mei-Gu, which is selected as the optical observing site of YNAO and where atmospheric turbulence distribution is 0.11 near ground with heights from 6.5m to 2.7m during night. Sky brightness in B and V band

  11. Intercomparison between aerosol optical properties by a PREDE skyradiometer and CIMEL sunphotometer over Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Che

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the aerosol optical and physical properties simultaneously measured by a SKYNET PREDE skyradiometer and AERONET/PHOTONS CIMEL sunphotometer at a location in Beijing, China. Aerosol optical properties (AOP including the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Angstrom exponent (α, volume size distribution, single scattering albedo (ω and the complex refractive index were compared. The difference between the two types of instruments was less than 1.3% for the AOD and less than 4% for the single scattering albedo below the wavelength of 670 nm. There is a difference between the volume size distribution patterns derived from two instruments, which is probably due to difference of measurement protocols and inversion algorithms for the respective instruments.

    AOP under three distinct weather conditions (background, haze, and dust days over Beijing were compared by using the retrieved skyradiometer and sunphotometer data combined with MODIS satellite results, pyranometer measurements, PM10 measurements, and backtrajectory analysis. The results show that the significant difference of AOP under background, haze, and dust days over Beijing is probably due to different aerosol components under distinct weather conditions.

  12. 76 FR 72719 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan; Scheduling of the Final Phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping... whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value...

  13. Remote sensing reflectance simulation of coastal optical complex water in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuo; Lou, Xiulin; Zhang, Huaguo; Zheng, Gang

    2018-02-01

    In this work, remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra of the Zhejiang coastal water in the East China Sea (ECS) were simulated by using the Hydrolight software with field data as input parameters. The seawater along the Zhejiang coast is typical Case II water with complex optical properties. A field observation was conducted in the Zhejiang coastal region in late May of 2016, and the concentration of ocean color constituents (pigment, SPM and CDOM), IOPs (absorption and backscattering coefficients) and Rrs were measured at 24 stations of 3 sections covering the turbid to clear inshore coastal waters. Referring to these ocean color field data, an ocean color model suitable for the Zhejiang coastal water was setup and applied in the Hydrolight. A set of 11 remote sensing reflectance spectra above water surface were modeled and calculated. Then, the simulated spectra were compared with the filed measurements. Finally, the spectral shape and characteristics of the remote sensing reflectance spectra were analyzed and discussed.

  14. Recent progress in distributed optical fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gong, Huaping; Yu, Xiangdong; Liu, Honglin; Jin, Yongxing; Kang, Juan; Li, Chenxia; Zhang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenping; Niu, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhongzhou; Zhao, Chunliu; Dong, Xinyong; Jin, Shangzhong

    2012-06-01

    A brief review of recent progress in researches, productions and applications of full distributed fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University (CJLU) is presented. In order to improve the measurement distance, the accuracy, the space resolution, the ability of multi-parameter measurements, and the intelligence of full distributed fiber sensor systems, a new generation fiber sensor technology based on the optical fiber nonlinear scattering fusion principle is proposed. A series of new generation full distributed fiber sensors are investigated and designed, which consist of new generation ultra-long distance full distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh scattering photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, auto-correction full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on Raman correlation dual sources, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on a pulse coding source, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors using a fiber Raman wavelength shifter, a new type of Brillouin optical time domain analyzers (BOTDAs) integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier for replacing a fiber Brillouin amplifier, full distributed fiber Raman and Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, and full distributed fiber Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Brillouin frequency shifter. The Internet of things is believed as one of candidates of the next technological revolution, which has driven hundreds of millions of class markets. Sensor networks are important components of the Internet of things. The full distributed optical fiber sensor network (Rayleigh, Raman, and Brillouin scattering) is a 3S (smart materials, smart structure, and smart skill) system, which is easy to construct smart fiber sensor networks. The distributed optical fiber sensor can be embedded in the power grids, railways, bridges, tunnels, roads, constructions, water supply systems, dams, oil and gas pipelines and other

  15. IPR Strategy, from Contest to Chess Game Interview with Ma Xiushan, Deputy Secretary General, China Intellectual Property Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's Intellectual Property Rights(IPR) system was established in 1985. In its 21 years of existence, it has undergone unusual changes.IPR, as a new idea to be considered in constructing socialist market economy, helps promote internationalization and implement the strategy of "walking out", is so important that the Central Government has paid special attention to it.

  16. Walkaway-VSP survey using distributed optical fiber in China oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Yu, Gang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yanpeng; Cai, Zhidong; Chen, Yuanzhong; Liu, Congwei; Zhao, Haiying; Li, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a new type of replacement technology for geophysical geophone. DAS system is similar to high-density surface seismic geophone array. In the stage of acquisition, DAS can obtain the full well data with one shot. And it can provide enhanced vertical seismic profile (VSP) imaging and monitor fluids and pressures changes in the hydrocarbon production reservoir. Walkaway VSP data acquired over a former producing well in north eastern China provided a rich set of very high quality data. A standard VSP data pre-processing workflow was applied, followed by pre-stack Kirchhoff time migration. In the DAS pre-processing step we were faced with additional and special challenges: strong coherent noise due to cable slapping and ringing along the borehole casing. The single well DAS Walkaway VSP images provide a good result with higher vertical and lateral resolution than the surface seismic in the objective area. This paper reports on lessons learned in the handling of the wireline cable and subsequent special DAS data processing steps developed to remediate some of the practical wireline deployment issues. Optical wireline cable as a conveyance of fiber optic cables for VSP in vertical wells will open the use of the DAS system to much wider applications.

  17. A campaign for investigating aerosol optical properties during winter hazes over Shijiazhuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wang, Luyao; Wu, Lixin; Xu, Jian; Rao, Lanlan; Letu, Husi; Shi, Tiewei; Wang, Runfeng

    2017-12-01

    As the capital of the most air-polluted Hebei province in China, Shijiazhuang has been suffering serious haze pollutions especially during wintertime. An integrated campaign for investigating aerosol optical properties under haze conditions over Shijiazhuang were carried out using a sunphotometer, an aethalometer and a lidar in the winter from late 2013 to early 2014. The results indicated that the haze episodes during the measurement period were severer and more frequent over Shijiazhuang than Beijing. Under heavy pollution conditions (PM2.5 > 150 μg/m3) over Shijiazhuang, fine-mode fractions of AOD500nm were larger than 0.80 with more dispersive angstrom exponent due to hygroscopic growth. The mean values of SSA over Shijiazhuang were smaller than those over Beijing both in this study and the severe haze episodes in January 2013, suggesting that there were more fine-mode absorbing particles over Shijiazhuang. More significant spectrally-dependence of imaginary part of refractive index over Shijiazhuang implies larger relative magnitude of brown carbon (BrC) as compared to Beijing. The black carbon (BC) measurement displayed extremely high records with a larger ratio of BC to PM2.5 (12.11% in average) comparing with other cities in China. The high carbonaceous aerosols (BC and BrC) should be attributed to large amounts of coal consumption. During the hazes with high BC concentrations, the daily maximal planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights were consistently lower than 500 m, implying the impacts of BC aerosols on the PBL development and hence enhance the surface haze pollution.

  18. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  19. Evaluation of the MODIS C6 Aerosol Optical Depth Products over Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 6 (C6 aerosol optical depth (AOD products from the 10/3 km Dark Target (DT and Deep Blue (DB algorithms are firstly evaluated using ground observed AODs by the sun photometer in Chongqing, a mountainous mega-city in southwest China. The validation results show that MODIS AODs from 10/3 km DT algorithm are comparable with those of the sun photometer, although there are slight overestimations. However, the DB algorithm substantially underestimates MODIS AODs when comparing with those of the sun photometer. Error analyses imply that the bias of surface reflectance estimation is the main error source for both algorithms. The cloud screening scheme of the DT algorithm is more effective than the DB algorithm. The cloud vicinity effect should be considered in the quality control processes for both of the algorithms. A sensitivity test suggests that in complex terrain area, like Chongqing, the collocation method in the validation of satellite products should be carefully selected according to local circumstances. When comparing the monthly mean AODs of MODIS products with sun photometer observations, it shows that the Terra MODIS AOD products are valid to represent the mean statuses in summer and autumn, but the monthly mean of Aqua MODIS AODs are limited in Chongqing.

  20. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  1. 77 FR 17436 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value...'') published its preliminary determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping... People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement...

  2. Sol-Gel Optics: Proceedings SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering Held in San Diego, California on 11-13 July 1990. Volume 1328

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    important for optical devises used in such environment as nuclear power stations and space stations. Fig. 9 shows the y-ray dose dependence of the coupling...Bi 2 0 3 and TiO2-CeO 2 Compositions. Michel A. Aegerter, Eliane R. La Serra University of Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos

  3. Spatial Factor Analysis for Aerosol Optical Depth in Metropolises in China with Regard to Spatial Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have analyzed how driving factors impact aerosols, but they have been little concerned with the spatial heterogeneity of aerosols and the factors that impact aerosols. The spatial distributions of the aerosol optical depth (AOD retrieved by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS data at 550-nm and 3-km resolution for three highly developed metropolises, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, and the Pearl River Delta (PRD, in China during 2015 were analyzed. Different degrees of spatial heterogeneity of the AOD were found, which were indexed by Moran’s I index giving values of 0.940, 0.715, and 0.680 in BTH, YRD, and PRD, respectively. For the spatial heterogeneity, geographically weighted regression (GWR was employed to carry out a spatial factor analysis, where terrain, climate condition, urban development, and vegetation coverage were taken as the potential driving factors. The results of the GWR imply varying relationships between the AOD and the factors. The results were generally consistent with existing studies, but the results suggest the following: (1 Elevation increase would more likely lead to a strong negative impact on aerosols (with most of the coefficients ranging from −1.5~0 in the BTH, −1.5~0 in the YRD, and −1~0 in the PRD in the places with greater elevations where the R-squared values are always larger than 0.5. However, the variation of elevations cannot explain the variation of aerosols in the places with relatively low elevations (with R-squared values approximately 0.1, ranging from 0 to 0.3, and approximately 0.1 in the BTH, YRD, and PRD, such as urban areas in the BTH and YRD. (2 The density of the built-up areas made a strong and positive impact on aerosols in the urban areas of the BTH (R-squared larger than 0.5, while the R-squared dropped to 0.1 in the places far away from the urban areas. (3 The vegetation coverage led to a stronger

  4. Three-Dimensional Physical and Optical Characteristics of Aerosols over Central China from Long-Term CALIPSO and HYSPLIT Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols greatly influence global and regional atmospheric systems, and human life. However, a comprehensive understanding of the source regions and three-dimensional (3D characteristics of aerosol transport over central China is yet to be achieved. Thus, we investigate the 3D macroscopic, optical, physical, and transport properties of the aerosols over central China based on the March 2007 to February 2016 data obtained from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO mission and the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT model. Our results showed that approximately 60% of the aerosols distributed over central China originated from local areas, whereas non-locally produced aerosols constituted approximately 40%. Anthropogenic aerosols constituted the majority of the aerosol pollutants (69% that mainly distributed less than 2.0 km above mean sea level. Natural aerosols, which are mainly composed of dust, accounted for 31% of the total aerosols, and usually existed at an altitude higher than that of anthropogenic aerosols. Aerosol particles distributed in the near surface were smaller and more spherical than those distributed above 2.0 km. Aerosol optical depth (AOD and the particulate depolarization ratio displayed decreasing trends, with a total decrease of 0.11 and 0.016 from March 2007 to February 2016, respectively. These phenomena indicate that during the study period, the extinction properties of aerosols decreased, and the degree of sphericity in aerosol particles increased. Moreover, the annual anthropogenic and natural AOD demonstrated decreasing trends, with a total decrease of 0.07 and 0.04, respectively. This study may benefit the evaluation of the effects of the 3D properties of aerosols on regional climates.

  5. Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities and aerosol optical properties form MAXDOAS measurements in Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Van. Roozendael, Michel; Ding, Aijun; Zhou, Bin; Hendrick, François; Shen, Yicheng; Wang, Tin; Valks, Pieter

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. Due to huge consumption of fossil fuels and rapid increase of traffic emissions in the past decades, many regions in China have been experiencing heavy air pollution. The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region includes the mega-city Shanghai and the well-industrialized and urbanized areas of Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province, with over ten large cities, such as Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing. Covering only 2% land area, this region produces over 20% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which makes it the most densely populated region and one of the most polluted regions in China. For instance, there more than 60% of a year was haze days with poor visibility in Shanghai over the last few years. In the YRD region, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the source and transport of air pollutants because only few measurement studies have been conducted. MAX-DOAS measurements were performed in Shanghai city center and Wujiang (border of Shanghai and Jiangsu Province) from 2010 to 2012 and in Nanjing (capital of Jiangsu Province) from April 2013. A retrieval algorithm, based on an on-line implementation of the radiative transfer code LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, has been used to provide information on aerosol extinction vertical profiles. The total aerosol optical depths (AODs) calculated from the retrieved profiles were compared to MODIS, AERONET and local PM measurements. The aerosol information was input to LIDORT to calculate NO2 air mass factors. The retrieved tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) were compared to in-situ and satellite NO2 measurements.

  6. Chemical, optical and radiative characteristics of aerosols during haze episodes of winter in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Zhang, Yufen; Han, Suqin; Xiao, Zhimei; Wang, Jiao; Feng, Yinchang

    2018-05-01

    Aerosol and water vapor radiative forcings, shortwave atmospheric heating rates and longwave atmospheric cooling rates were determined based on in situ physical and chemical measurements of aerosol, associated with the Mie theory and a radiative transfer model, LOWTRAN7, during the two haze episodes in the winter of 2013 in Tianjin, China. The aerosol types considered in LOWTRAN7 included rural, urban, marine, desert and custom aerosols. The default ratio of the absorption coefficient to the extinction coefficient for urban aerosol in LOWTRAN7 was approximately double of those found in this work, implying the weaker absorption ability of aerosols in the North China Plain (NCP). Moreover, the aerosol is assumed to be evenly distributed below 1 km of planetary boundary layer (PBL) on hazy days in LOWTRAN7. If the default urban aerosol optical properties and extinction profile in LOWTRAN7 is employed directly, a larger energy imbalance between the atmosphere and surface is generated and the warming effect of the aerosol is magnified. Hence, modified urban aerosol optical properties were established to replace the corresponding parameters' database in LOWTRAN7. The aerosol extinction profiles were obtained based on a 255-m meteorological tower and observed results from the studies about Tianjin. In the NCP, the aerosol had little impact on atmospheric counter radiation. The water vapor is the crucial factor that affects atmospheric counter radiation. Both modified high shortwave heating rates and longwave cooling rates occur near the surface due to the abundance of aerosol and water vapor. The modified net atmospheric heating rate near the surface is 1.2 K d-1 on hazy days and 0.3 K d-1 on non-hazy days. Compared with the default urban aerosol optical properties and its vertical distribution in LOWTRAN7, the feedback effect of the modified urban aerosol on the boundary layer may not necessarily result in a stable lower atmosphere, but depends on the aerosol light

  7. Optical and radiative properties of aerosols during a severe haze episode over the North China Plain in December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Che, Huizheng; Yang, Leiku; Chen, Jing; Wang, Yaqiang; Xia, Xiangao; Zhao, Hujia; Wang, Hong; Wang, Deying; Gui, Ke; An, Linchang; Sun, Tianze; Yu, Jie; Kuang, Xiang; Li, Xin; Sun, Enwei; Zhao, Dapeng; Yang, Dongsen; Guo, Zengyuan; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-12-01

    The optical and radiative properties of aerosols during a severe haze episode from 15 to 22 December 2016 over Beijing, Shijiazhuang, and Jiaozuo in the North China Plain were analyzed based on the ground-based and satellite data, meteorological observations, and atmospheric environmental monitoring data. The aerosol optical depth at 500 nm was 1.4 as the haze pollution developed. The Ångström exponent was > 0.80 for most of the study period. The daily single-scattering albedo was > 0.85 over all of the North China Plain on the most polluted days and was > 0.97 on some particular days. The volumes of fine and coarse mode particles during the haze event were approximately 0.05-0.21 and 0.01-0.43 μm3, respectively—that is, larger than those in the time without haze. The daily absorption aerosol optical depth was about 0.01-0.11 in Beijing, 0.01-0.13 in Shijiazhuang, and 0.01-0.04 in Jiaozuo, and the average absorption Ångström exponent varied between 0.6 and 2.0. The aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom of the atmosphere varied from -23 to -227,-34 to -199, and -29 to -191 W m-2 for the whole haze period, while the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere varied from -4 to -98, -10 to -51, and -21 to -143 W m-2 in Beijing, Shijiazhuang, and Jiaozuo, respectively. Satellite observations showed that smoke, polluted dust, and polluted continental components of aerosols may aggravate air pollution during haze episodes. The analysis of the potential source contribution function and concentration-weighted trajectory showed that the contribution from local emissions and pollutants transport from upstream areas were 190-450 and 100-410 μg m-3, respectively.

  8. Projects for the implementation of science technology society approach in basic concept of natural science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, E.

    2018-03-01

    Preservice teachers in primary education should be well equipped to meet the challenges of teaching primary science effectively in 21century. The purpose of this research was to describe the projects for the implementation of Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in Basic Concept of Natural Science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material by the preservice teachers in Elementary Schools Teacher Education Program. One of the reasons is the lack of preservice teachers’ ability in making projects for application of STS approach and optical and electrical instruments’ material in Basic Concept of Natural Science course. This research applied descriptive method. The instrument of the research was the researcher himself. The data were gathered through observation and documentation. Based on the results of the research, it was figured out that preservice teachers, in groups, were creatively and successful to make the projects of optical and electrical instruments assigned such as projector and doorbell. It was suggested that the construction of the instruments should be better (fixed and strong structure) and more attractive for both instruments, and used strong light source, high quality images, and it could use speaker box for projector, power battery, and heat sink for electrical instruments.

  9. Scaling-based forest structural change detection using an inverted geometric-optical model in the Three Gorges region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Y.; Schaepman, M.E.; Wu, B.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bregt, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    We use the Li-Strahler geometric-optical model combined with a scaling-based approach to detect forest structural changes in the Three Gorges region of China. The physical-based Li-Strahler model can be inverted to retrieve forest structural properties. One of the main input variables for the

  10. A case study of the highly time-resolved evolution of aerosol chemical and optical properties in urban Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the chemical and optical properties of aerosols in urban Shanghai and their relationship were studied over a three-day period in October 2011. A suite of real-time instruments, including an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA, a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS, a nephelometer and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, was employed to follow the quick changes of the aerosol properties within the 72 h sampling period. The origin of the air mass arriving in Shanghai during this period shifted from the East China Sea to the northwest area of China, offering a unique opportunity to observe the evolution of aerosols influenced by regional transport from the most polluted areas in China. According to the meteorological conditions and temporal characterizations of the chemical and optical properties, the sampling period was divided into three periods. During Period 1 (00:00–23:00 LT, 13 October, the aerosols in urban Shanghai were mainly fresh and the single scattering albedo varied negatively with the emission of elemental carbon, indicating that local sources dominated. Period 2 (23:00 LT on 13 October to 10:00 LT on 15 October was impacted by regionally transported pollutants and had the highest particulate matter (PM mass loading and the lowest particle acidity, characterized by large fractions of aged particles and high secondary ion (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium mass concentrations. Comparison between ATOFMS particle acidity and quantitative particle acidity by MARGA indicated the significance of semi-quantitative calculation in ATOFMS. Two sub-periods were identified in Period 2 based on the scattering efficiency of PM1 mass. Period 3 (from 10:00 LT on 15 October to 00:00 LT on 16 October had a low PM1/PM10 ratio and a new particle formation event. The comparison of these sub-periods highlights the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol optical properties

  11. 77 FR 27423 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Department published the final determination of sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty... Brightening Agents from the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 76 FR 68148 (November 3...

  12. Aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing based on measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Huizheng; Qi, Bing; Zhao, Hujia; Xia, Xiangao; Eck, Thomas F.; Goloub, Philippe; Dubovik, Oleg; Estelles, Victor; Cuevas-Agulló, Emilio; Blarel, Luc; Wu, Yunfei; Zhu, Jun; Du, Rongguang; Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Hong; Gui, Ke; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Yu; Sun, Tianze; Chen, Quanliang; Shi, Guangyu; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    Aerosol pollution in eastern China is an unfortunate consequence of the region's rapid economic and industrial growth. Here, sun photometer measurements from seven sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2011 to 2015 were used to characterize the climatology of aerosol microphysical and optical properties, calculate direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) and classify the aerosols based on size and absorption. Bimodal size distributions were found throughout the year, but larger volumes and effective radii of fine-mode particles occurred in June and September due to hygroscopic growth and/or cloud processing. Increases in the fine-mode particles in June and September caused AOD440 nm > 1.00 at most sites, and annual mean AOD440 nm values of 0.71-0.76 were found at the urban sites and 0.68 at the rural site. Unlike northern China, the AOD440 nm was lower in July and August (˜ 0.40-0.60) than in January and February (0.71-0.89) due to particle dispersion associated with subtropical anticyclones in summer. Low volumes and large bandwidths of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosol size distributions occurred in July and August because of biomass burning. Single-scattering albedos at 440 nm (SSA440 nm) from 0.91 to 0.94 indicated particles with relatively strong to moderate absorption. Strongly absorbing particles from biomass burning with a significant SSA wavelength dependence were found in July and August at most sites, while coarse particles in March to May were mineral dust. Absorbing aerosols were distributed more or less homogeneously throughout the region with absorption aerosol optical depths at 440 nm ˜ 0.04-0.06, but inter-site differences in the absorption Angström exponent indicate a degree of spatial heterogeneity in particle composition. The annual mean DARF was -93 ± 44 to -79 ± 39 W m-2 at the Earth's surface and ˜ -40 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere (for the solar zenith angle range of 50 to 80°) under cloud-free conditions. The fine mode

  13. Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects: Assessment of urban aerosols in central China using 10-year observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Liu, Boming; Shi, Yifan; Chen, ZhongYong

    2018-06-01

    Poor air quality episodes are common in central China. Here, based on 10 years of ground-based sun-photometric observations, aerosol optical and radiative forcing characteristics were analyzed in Wuhan, the biggest metropolis in central China. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the last decade declined significantly, while the Ångström exponent (AE) showed slight growth. Single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm reached the lowest value (0.87) in winter and highest value (0.93) in summer. Aerosol parameters derived from sun-photometric observations were used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) on the surface in ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave (SW) spectra. ARFSW sustained decreases (the absolute values) over the last 10 years. In terms of seasonal variability, due to the increases in multiple scattering effects and attenuation of the transmitted radiation as AOD increased, ARF in summer displayed the largest value (-73.94 W/m2). After eliminating the influence of aerosol loading, the maximum aerosol radiative forcing efficiency in SW range (ARFESW) achieved a value of -64.5 W/m2/AOD in April. The ARFE change in each sub-interval spectrum was related to the change in SSA and effective radius of fine mode particles (Refff), that is, ARFE increased with the decreases in SSA and Refff. The smallest contribution of ARFENIR to ARFESW was 34.11% under strong absorbing and fine particle conditions, and opposite results were found for the VIS range, whose values were always over 51.82%. Finally, due to the serious air pollution and frequency of haze day, aerosol characteristics in haze and clear days were analyzed. The percentage of ARFENIR increased from 35.71% on clear-air days to 37.63% during haze periods, while both the percentage of ARFEUV and ARFENIR in ARFESW kept decreasing. The results of this paper should help us to better understand the effect of aerosols on solar spectral radiation

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  15. The aerosol optical properties and PM2.5 components over the world's largest industrial zone in Tangshan, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kequan; Ma, Yongjing; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Zirui; Ma, Yining; Gao, Dongdong; Wu, Junsong; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi; Shen, Pengke

    2018-03-01

    To achieve an in-depth understanding of the aerosol optical properties in the highly-industrial region of Tangshan, we provided systematic aerosol optical properties analysis in this largest industrial zone for the first time. The aerosol optical datasets (2013.05-2015.04) and chemical component data of PM2.5 (2014-2015) obtained from the Tangshan site of the campaign on atmospheric aerosol research (CARE-China) network were analyzed. The results showed that the Tangshan region was seriously affected by fine-mode industrial aerosols all year, which would promote the accumulation of pollutants and influence the atmospheric circulation through changing the vertical temperature gradient. The annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångstrӧm exponent (α) were 0.80 ± 0.26 and 1.05 ± 0.10, respectively. The aerosol optical properties revealed significant seasonal characteristics. The maximum seasonal average AOD (1.03 ± 0.62) and α (1.12 ± 0.19) accompanied the highest seasonal secondary inorganic aerosol concentrations (SIA: SO42 -, NO3-, NH4+), 53.33 μg/m3, occurred in summer, and this phenomenon was attributed to the photochemical reactions favored by the high temperature and humidity. During the spring, frequent dust events led to the maximum Ca2 + concentration of 6.57 μg/m3 and the lowest seasonal α of 0.98 ± 0.31. Coal was used for generating heat in winter, resulting in the highest levels of pollutant emissions (Cl-, Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)). The aerosol type classifications showed that the industrial aerosols were the main controls in the summer and fall, representing 56%-58% of the total aerosols. While for spring and winter, mixed aerosols represented 53%-54% of the total aerosols. Hygroscopic growth effect of aerosols existed all year, which could enhance the negative radiative forcing and eventually cool the earth-atmosphere system. The classification Wing for Tangshan data showed high AOD values (> 0.70) were mainly

  16. Classifying Aerosols Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Their Optical and Microphysical Properties Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of Beijing aerosol is carried out based on clustering optical properties obtained from three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites. The fuzzy c-mean (FCM clustering algorithm is used to classify fourteen-year (2001–2014 observations, totally of 6,732 records, into six aerosol types. They are identified as fine particle nonabsorbing, two kinds of fine particle moderately absorbing (fine-MA1 and fine-MA2, fine particle highly absorbing, polluted dust, and desert dust aerosol. These aerosol types exhibit obvious optical characteristics difference. While five of them show similarities with aerosol types identified elsewhere, the polluted dust aerosol has no comparable prototype. Then the membership degree, a significant parameter provided by fuzzy clustering, is used to analyze internal variation of optical properties of each aerosol type. Finally, temporal variations of aerosol types are investigated. The dominant aerosol types are polluted dust and desert dust in spring, fine particle nonabsorbing aerosol in summer, and fine particle highly absorbing aerosol in winter. The fine particle moderately absorbing aerosol occurs during the whole year. Optical properties of the six types can also be used for radiative forcing estimation and satellite aerosol retrieval. Additionally, methodology of this study can be applied to identify aerosol types on a global scale.

  17. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  18. Aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing based on measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Che

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol pollution in eastern China is an unfortunate consequence of the region's rapid economic and industrial growth. Here, sun photometer measurements from seven sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD from 2011 to 2015 were used to characterize the climatology of aerosol microphysical and optical properties, calculate direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF and classify the aerosols based on size and absorption. Bimodal size distributions were found throughout the year, but larger volumes and effective radii of fine-mode particles occurred in June and September due to hygroscopic growth and/or cloud processing. Increases in the fine-mode particles in June and September caused AOD440 nm  >  1.00 at most sites, and annual mean AOD440 nm values of 0.71–0.76 were found at the urban sites and 0.68 at the rural site. Unlike northern China, the AOD440 nm was lower in July and August (∼ 0.40–0.60 than in January and February (0.71–0.89 due to particle dispersion associated with subtropical anticyclones in summer. Low volumes and large bandwidths of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosol size distributions occurred in July and August because of biomass burning. Single-scattering albedos at 440 nm (SSA440 nm from 0.91 to 0.94 indicated particles with relatively strong to moderate absorption. Strongly absorbing particles from biomass burning with a significant SSA wavelength dependence were found in July and August at most sites, while coarse particles in March to May were mineral dust. Absorbing aerosols were distributed more or less homogeneously throughout the region with absorption aerosol optical depths at 440 nm  ∼  0.04–0.06, but inter-site differences in the absorption Angström exponent indicate a degree of spatial heterogeneity in particle composition. The annual mean DARF was −93 ± 44 to −79 ± 39 W m−2 at the Earth's surface and ∼ −40 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere (for

  19. A review of current knowledge concerning PM2. 5 chemical composition, aerosol optical properties and their relationships across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian

    2017-08-01

    To obtain a thorough knowledge of PM2. 5 chemical composition and its impact on aerosol optical properties across China, existing field studies conducted after the year 2000 are reviewed and summarized in terms of geographical, interannual and seasonal distributions. Annual PM2. 5 was up to 6 times the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in some megacities in northern China. Annual PM2. 5 was higher in northern than southern cities, and higher in inland than coastal cities. In a few cities with data longer than a decade, PM2. 5 showed a slight decrease only in the second half of the past decade, while carbonaceous aerosols decreased, sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) remained at high levels, and nitrate (NO3-) increased. The highest seasonal averages of PM2. 5 and its major chemical components were typically observed in the cold seasons. Annual average contributions of secondary inorganic aerosols to PM2. 5 ranged from 25 to 48 %, and those of carbonaceous aerosols ranged from 23 to 47 %, both with higher contributions in southern regions due to the frequent dust events in northern China. Source apportionment analysis identified secondary inorganic aerosols, coal combustion and traffic emission as the top three source factors contributing to PM2. 5 mass in most Chinese cities, and the sum of these three source factors explained 44 to 82 % of PM2. 5 mass on annual average across China. Biomass emission in most cities, industrial emission in industrial cities, dust emission in northern cities and ship emission in coastal cities are other major source factors, each of which contributed 7-27 % to PM2. 5 mass in applicable cities. The geographical pattern of scattering coefficient (bsp) was similar to that of PM2. 5, and that of aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) was determined by elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration and its coating. bsp in ambient condition of relative humidity (RH) = 80 % can be amplified by about 1.8 times that under dry conditions

  20. Evolution of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology competition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Zheng, XiaoDong; Lin, YuanFang; Wang, Kaiwei

    2017-08-01

    The goal of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition (NUSOSTC) is to provide a nation-wide platform for students from the colleges and universities, which have majors in the field of optics and photonics, to communicate and learning each other. Meanwhile, it works on pushing forward the popularity of optoelectronic knowledge, cultivating the students' teamwork and innovation ability, promoting higher education personnel training mode and practice teaching reform, and then improving the quality of talent training. The founding, organizational structure development and overall organizational arrangements of NUSOSTC were introduced in this paper. Besides, the competition logo, theme, title, final date, numbers of participating universities, undertaking universities and cities of the five NUSOSTCs held during 2008 to 2016 and the progress had been made were given in detail.

  1. Colloquium on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics of the French Physics Society. Days of Molecular Spectroscopy, Lille, 7-10 July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcou, Philippe; Aspect, Alain; Merkt, Frederic; Haroche, Serge; Hendecourt, Louis d'; Dereux, Alain; Bloch, Daniel; Courty, Jean-Michel; Demaison, Jean; Hynes, James T.; Lievin, Jacky; Billy, J.; Josse, V.; Zuo, Z.; Bernard, A.; Hambrecht, B.; Lugan, P.; Clement, D.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.; Garreau, Jean-Claude; Chabe, Julien; Szriftgiser, Pascal; Lemarie, Gabriel; Gremaud, Benoit; Delande, Dominique; Simoni, Andrea; Browaeys, Antoine; Kasparian, Jerome; Boutou, Veronique; Guyon, Laurent; Courvoisier, Francois; Roth, Matthias; Roslund, Jon; Rabitz, Herschel; Bonacina, Luigi; Rondi, Ariana; Extermann, Jerome; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Maitre, Philippe; Zehnacker, Anne; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Sidis, Victor; Aguillon, Francois; Sizun, Muriel; Rougeau, Nathalie; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Bachellerie, Damien; Jeloaica, Leonard; Morisset, Sabine; Picaud, Sylvain; Cacciani, Patrice; Grosliere, Marie-Christine; Joly, Gilles; Joly, Nicolas; Kudlinsky, Alexandre; Martinelli, Gilbert; Buchard, Virginie; Tudorie, Marcela; Khelkhal, Mohamed; Cosleou, Jean; Hennequin, Daniel; Beaugeois, Maxime; Lebrun, Nathalie; Droz, Daniel; El Aydam, Mohamed; Gama, Marie-Jose; Ferri, Sandrine; Schyns, Bernadette; Courty, Jean Michel

    2008-07-01

    This colloquium of the French Physics Society on atomic, molecular and optical physics (and more particularly on molecular spectroscopy) comprised several mini-colloquia: methane and its applications in planetology, moving mirrors and Casimir, atoms and molecules in interaction with surfaces, electronic properties of small molecules, molecular spectroscopy for atmospheric applications, quantum memories in atomic sets, methods and applications of reaction dynamics, dynamics of super-excited molecular statuses, mass spectrometry, quantum spectroscopy and chemistry, spectroscopy and reactivity of of confined molecules, electronic and molecular dynamics, dipolar quantum gases. It also comprised plenary sessions: atto-second optics, the atomic Hanbury-Brown-Twiss effect with fermions and bosons, atom and molecule slowing down by Zeeman effect and by Stark effect on Rydberg levels, non destructive counting of photons trapped in a cavity, interstellar chemistry, atom-surface van der Waals interaction noticed in the exotic regime of short distances, communication, vulgarisation and education (the multiple lives of a scientific result), the actual precision of molecular parameters, towards the formation of an amine acid precursor in the interstellar medium via proton transfer, prediction of the ionized and excited molecular electronic structure by Quantum Chemistry (from bi-atomic to bio-molecules), direct observation of Anderson location of matter waves in a controlled disordered potential, experimental observation of the Anderson transition of cold atoms, ultra-cold collisions as a key towards the quantum world, Quantum physics with a single atom, Teramobile or plasma filaments to study the atmosphere, optimal control or how to discriminate two almost identical bio-molecules, infrared spectroscopy as a new dimension for mass spectrometry, chiral recognition in gaseous phase, interactions and reactions between H atoms and graphite surfaces, modelling of gas

  2. Classification of Several Optically Complex Waters in China Using in Situ Remote Sensing Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the dominant optically active substances in water bodies via classification can improve the accuracy of bio-optical and water quality parameters estimated by remote sensing. This study provides four robust centroid sets from in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs (λ data presenting typical optical types obtained by plugging different similarity measures into fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering. Four typical types of waters were studied: (1 highly mixed eutrophic waters, with the proportion of absorption of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, phytoplankton, and non-living particulate matter at approximately 20%, 20%, and 60% respectively; (2 CDOM-dominated relatively clear waters, with approximately 45% by proportion of CDOM absorption; (3 nonliving solids-dominated waters, with approximately 88% by proportion of absorption of nonliving particulate matter; and (4 cyanobacteria-composed scum. We also simulated spectra from seven ocean color satellite sensors to assess their classification ability. POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER, Sentinel-2A, and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS were found to perform better than the rest. Further, a classification tree for MERIS, in which the characteristics of Rrs (709/Rrs (681, Rrs (560/Rrs (709, Rrs (560/Rrs (620, and Rrs (709/Rrs (761 are integrated, is also proposed in this paper. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the proposed classification tree are 76.2% and 0.632, respectively.

  3. Haze Optical Properties from Long-Term Ground-Based Remote Sensing over Beijing and Xuzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol haze pollution has had a significant impact on both global climate and the regional air quality of Eastern China, which has a high proportion of high level pollution days. Statistical analyses of aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing at two AERONET sites (Beijing and Xuzhou were conducted from 2013 to 2016. Results indicate: (1 Haze pollution days accounted for 26% and 20% of days from 2013 to 2016 in Beijing and Xuzhou, respectively, with the highest proportions in winter; (2 The averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm on haze days were about 3.7 and 1.6 times greater than those on clean days in Beijing and Xuzhou, respectively. At both sites, the maximum AOD occurred in summer; (3 Hazes were dominated by fine particles at both sites. However, as compared to Xuzhou, Beijing had larger coarse mode AOD and higher percentage of small α. This data, together with an analysis of size distribution, suggests that the hazes in Beijing were more susceptible to coarse dust particles than Xuzhou; (4 During hazes in Beijing, the single scattering albedo (SSA is significantly higher when compared to clean conditions (0.874 vs. 0.843 in SSA440 nm, an increase much less evident in Xuzhou. The most noticeable differences in both SSA and the imaginary part of the complex refractive index between Beijing and Xuzhou were found in winter; (5 In Beijing, the haze radiative forcing produced an averaged cooling effect of −113.6 ± 63.7 W/m2 at the surface, whereas the averaged heating effect of 77.5 ± 49.7 W/m2 within the atmosphere was at least twice as strong as clean days. In Xuzhou, such a radiative forcing effect appeared to be much smaller and the difference between haze and clean days was insignificant. Derived from long-term observation, these findings are more significant for the improvement of our understanding of haze formation in China and the assessment of its impacts on radiative forcing of climate change than previous

  4. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  5. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  6. Comparative Time Series Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth over Sites in United States and China Using ARIMA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term spatiotemporal analysis and modeling of aerosol optical depth (AOD) distribution is of paramount importance to study radiative forcing, climate change, and human health. This study is focused on the trends and variations of AOD over six stations located in United States and China during 2003 to 2015, using satellite-retrieved Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 retrievals and ground measurements derived from Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is applied to simulate and predict AOD values. The R2, adjusted R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used as indices to select the best fitted model. Results show that there is a persistent decreasing trend in AOD for both MODIS data and AERONET data over three stations. Monthly and seasonal AOD variations reveal consistent aerosol patterns over stations along mid-latitudes. Regional differences impacted by climatology and land cover types are observed for the selected stations. Statistical validation of time series models indicates that the non-seasonal ARIMA model performs better for AERONET AOD data than for MODIS AOD data over most stations, suggesting the method works better for data with higher quality. By contrast, the seasonal ARIMA model reproduces the seasonal variations of MODIS AOD data much more precisely. Overall, the reasonably predicted results indicate the applicability and feasibility of the stochastic ARIMA modeling technique to forecast future and missing AOD values.

  7. Trend analysis of the aerosol optical depth from fusion of MISR and MODIS retrievals over China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jing; Gu, Xingfa; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Tianhai; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in the climate change though direct and indirect processes. In order to evaluate the effects of aerosols on climate, it is necessary to have a research on their spatial and temporal distributions. Satellite aerosol remote sensing is a developing technology that may provide good temporal sampling and superior spatial coverage to study aerosols. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) have provided aerosol observations since 2000, with large coverage and high accuracy. However, due to the complex surface, cloud contamination, and aerosol models used in the retrieving process, the uncertainties still exist in current satellite aerosol products. There are several observed differences in comparing the MISR and MODIS AOD data with the AERONET AOD. Combing multiple sensors could reduce uncertainties and improve observational accuracy. The validation results reveal that a better agreement between fusion AOD and AERONET AOD. The results confirm that the fusion AOD values are more accurate than single sensor. We have researched the trend analysis of the aerosol properties over China based on nine-year (2002-2010) fusion data. Compared with trend analysis in Jingjintang and Yangtze River Delta, the accuracy has increased by 5% and 3%, respectively. It is obvious that the increasing trend of the AOD occurred in Yangtze River Delta, where human activities may be the main source of the increasing AOD

  8. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result

  9. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  10. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  11. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in the Arid or Semiarid Region of Northern Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing has been widely used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD, which is an indicator of air quality as well as radiative forcing. The dark target (DT algorithm is applied to low reflectance areas, such as dense vegetation, and the deep blue (DB algorithm is adopted for bright-reflecting regions. However, both DT and DB algorithms ignore the effect of surface bidirectional reflectance. This paper provides a method for AOD retrieval in arid or semiarid areas, in which the key points are the accurate estimation of surface reflectance and reasonable assumptions of the aerosol model. To reduce the uncertainty in surface reflectance, a minimum land surface reflectance database at the spatial resolution of 500 m for each month was constructed based on the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance product. Furthermore, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF correction model was adopted to compensate for the effect of surface reflectance anisotropy. The aerosol parameters, including AOD, single scattering albedo, asymmetric factor, Ångström exponent and complex refractive index, are determined based on the observation of two sunphotometers installed in northern Xinjiang from July to August 2014. The AOD retrieved from the MODIS images was validated with ground-based measurements and the Terra-MODIS aerosol product (MOD04. The 500 m AOD retrieved from the MODIS showed high consistency with ground-based AOD measurements, with an average correlation coefficient of ~0.928, root mean square error (RMSE of ~0.042, mean absolute error (MAE of ~0.032, and the percentage falling within the expected error (EE of the collocations is higher than that for the MOD04 DB product. The results demonstrate that the new AOD algorithm is more suitable to represent aerosol conditions over Xinjiang than the DB standard product.

  12. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  13. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  14. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  15. Applications of Nano-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changhe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Sheng, Yunlong

    2011-11-01

    As nanoscale fabrication techniques advance, nano-optics continues to offer enabling solutions to numerous practical applications for information optics. This Applied Optics feature issue focuses on the Application of Nano-optics. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. 6th conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 6th Conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics (AOM 2017) Nanjing, China April 23 - 26, 2017 Conference Co-Chairs: Yiping Cui - Southeast University, China Xiaocong Yuan - Shenzhen University, China Shining Zhu - Nanjing University, China WELCOME Journal of physics: Conference Series is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 6 th Conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics (AOM 2017), which is an OSA topical meeting that started in 2009. AOM 2017, organized by The Optical Society of America, Southeast University, and Jiangsu Optical Society, was successfully held at Nanjing, China from April 23 th -26 th , 2017. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of optoelectronics and micro/nano-optics, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Located in Yangtze River Delta area and the center of east China, Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu province and the second largest city in the east China region, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this international conference. The conference program included plenary talks, invited talks, oral and poster contributions. From numerous submissions, 64 of the most promising and IOP-relevant contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 300 qualified and high-level researchers and experts, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we

  17. Optical and microphysical properties of natural mineral dust and anthropogenic soil dust near dust source regions over northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wen, Hui; Shi, Jinsen; Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Beidou; Zhou, Tian; Fu, Kaiqi; Chen, Quanliang; Xin, Jinyuan

    2018-02-01

    Mineral dust aerosols (MDs) not only influence the climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation but also modify cloud properties and change the ecosystem. From 3 April to 16 May 2014, a ground-based mobile laboratory was deployed to measure the optical and microphysical properties of MDs near dust source regions in Wuwei, Zhangye, and Dunhuang (in chronological order) along the Hexi Corridor over northwestern China. Throughout this dust campaign, the hourly averaged (±standard deviation) aerosol scattering coefficients (σsp, 550 nm) of the particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) at these three sites were sequentially 101.5 ± 36.8, 182.2 ± 433.1, and 54.0 ± 32.0 Mm-1. Correspondingly, the absorption coefficients (σap, 637 nm) were 9.7 ± 6.1, 6.0 ± 4.6, and 2.3 ± 0.9 Mm-1; single-scattering albedos (ω, 637 nm) were 0.902 ± 0.025, 0.931 ± 0.037, and 0.949 ± 0.020; and scattering Ångström exponents (Åsp, 450-700 nm) of PM2.5 were 1.28 ± 0.27, 0.77 ± 0.51, and 0.52 ± 0.31. During a severe dust storm in Zhangye (i.e., from 23 to 25 April), the highest values of σsp2.5 ( ˜ 5074 Mm-1), backscattering coefficient (σbsp2.5, ˜ 522 Mm-1), and ω637 ( ˜ 0.993) and the lowest values of backscattering fraction (b2.5, ˜ 0.101) at 550 nm and Åsp2.5 ( ˜ -0.046) at 450-700 nm, with peak values of aerosol number size distribution (appearing at the particle diameter range of 1-3 µm), exhibited that the atmospheric aerosols were dominated by coarse-mode dust aerosols. It is hypothesized that the relatively higher values of mass scattering efficiency during floating dust episodes in Wuwei and Zhangye are attributed to the anthropogenic soil dust produced by agricultural cultivations.

  18. Monitoring of "all-weather" evapotranspiration using optical and passive microwave remote sensing imagery over the River Source Region in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Liu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of surface evapotranspiration (ET) with high quality is one of the biggest obstacles for routine applications of remote sensing in eco-hydrological studies and water resource management at basin scale. However, many aspects urgently need to deeply research, such as the applicability of the ET models, the parameterization schemes optimization at the regional scale, the temporal upscaling, the selecting and developing of the spatiotemporal data fusion method and ground-based validation over heterogeneous land surfaces. This project is based on the theoretically robust surface energy balance system (SEBS) model, which the model mechanism need further investigation, including the applicability and the influencing factors, such as local environment, and heterogeneity of the landscape, for improving estimation accuracy. Due to technical and budget limitations, so far, optical remote sensing data is missing due to frequent cloud contamination and other poor atmospheric conditions in Southwest China. Here, a multi-source remote sensing data fusion method (ESTARFM: Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model) method will be proposed through blending multi-source remote sensing data acquired by optical, and passive microwave remote sensors on board polar satellite platforms. The accurate "all-weather" ET estimation will be carried out for daily ET of the River Source Region in Southwest China, and then the remotely sensed ET results are overlapped with the footprint-weighted images of EC (eddy correlation) for ground-based validation.

  19. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  20. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Rural-Urban Differences in Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditures in a Low-Income Society of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Wang

    Full Text Available The paper examines whether out-of-pocket health care expenditure also has regional discrepancies, comparing to the equity between urban and rural areas, and across households.Sampled data were derived from Urban Household Survey and Rural Household Survey data for 2011/2012 for Anhui Province, and 11049 households were included in this study. The study compared differences in out-of-pocket expenditure on health care between regions (urban vs. rural areas and years (2011 vs. 2012 using two-sample t-test, and also investigated the degree of inequality using Lorenz and concentration curves.Approximately 5% and 8% of total household consumption expenditure was spent on health care for urban and rural populations, respectively. In 2012, the wealthiest 20% of urban and rural population contributed 49.7% and 55.8% of urban and rural total health expenditure respectively, while the poorest 20% took only 4.7% and 4.4%. The concentration curve for out-of-pocket expenditure in 2012 fell below the corresponding concentration curve for 2011 for both urban and rural areas, and the difference between curves for rural areas was greater than that for urban areas.A substantial and increasing gap in health care expenditures existed between urban and rural areas in Anhui. The health care financing inequality merits ample attention, with need for policymaking to focus on improving the accessibility to essential health care services, particularly for rural and poor residents. This study may provide useful information on low income areas of China.

  2. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 in eastern China using aerosol optical depth determined from the GOCI satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.-W.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Z.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Che, H.; Lin, P.; Lin, N.

    2015-11-01

    We determine and interpret fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in eastern China for January to December 2013 at a horizontal resolution of 6 km from aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from the Korean geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) satellite instrument. We implement a set of filters to minimize cloud contamination in GOCI AOD. Evaluation of filtered GOCI AOD with AOD from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates significant agreement with mean fractional bias (MFB) in Beijing of 6.7 % and northern Taiwan of -1.2 %. We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to relate the total column AOD to the near-surface PM2.5. The simulated PM2.5 / AOD ratio exhibits high consistency with ground-based measurements in Taiwan (MFB = -0.52 %) and Beijing (MFB = -8.0 %). We evaluate the satellite-derived PM2.5 versus the ground-level PM2.5 in 2013 measured by the China Environmental Monitoring Center. Significant agreement is found between GOCI-derived PM2.5 and in situ observations in both annual averages (r2 = 0.66, N = 494) and monthly averages (relative RMSE = 18.3 %), indicating GOCI provides valuable data for air quality studies in Northeast Asia. The GEOS-Chem simulated chemical composition of GOCI-derived PM2.5 reveals that secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) and organic matter are the most significant components. Biofuel emissions in northern China for heating increase the concentration of organic matter in winter. The population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg m-3, with 400 million residents in regions that exceed the Interim Target-1 of the World Health Organization.

  3. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  4. Optical and microphysical properties of natural mineral dust and anthropogenic soil dust near dust source regions over northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust aerosols (MDs not only influence the climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation but also modify cloud properties and change the ecosystem. From 3 April to 16 May 2014, a ground-based mobile laboratory was deployed to measure the optical and microphysical properties of MDs near dust source regions in Wuwei, Zhangye, and Dunhuang (in chronological order along the Hexi Corridor over northwestern China. Throughout this dust campaign, the hourly averaged (±standard deviation aerosol scattering coefficients (σsp, 550 nm of the particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 at these three sites were sequentially 101.5 ± 36.8, 182.2 ± 433.1, and 54.0 ± 32.0 Mm−1. Correspondingly, the absorption coefficients (σap, 637 nm were 9.7 ± 6.1, 6.0 ± 4.6, and 2.3 ± 0.9 Mm−1; single-scattering albedos (ω, 637 nm were 0.902 ± 0.025, 0.931 ± 0.037, and 0.949 ± 0.020; and scattering Ångström exponents (Åsp, 450–700 nm of PM2.5 were 1.28 ± 0.27, 0.77 ± 0.51, and 0.52 ± 0.31. During a severe dust storm in Zhangye (i.e., from 23 to 25 April, the highest values of σsp2.5 ( ∼  5074 Mm−1, backscattering coefficient (σbsp2.5,  ∼  522 Mm−1, and ω637 ( ∼  0.993 and the lowest values of backscattering fraction (b2.5,  ∼  0.101 at 550 nm and Åsp2.5 ( ∼  −0.046 at 450–700 nm, with peak values of aerosol number size distribution (appearing at the particle diameter range of 1–3 µm, exhibited that the atmospheric aerosols were dominated by coarse-mode dust aerosols. It is hypothesized that the relatively higher values of mass scattering efficiency during floating dust episodes in Wuwei and Zhangye are attributed to the anthropogenic soil dust produced by agricultural cultivations.

  5. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  6. FUSION OF OPTICAL DATA AND SAR DATA FOR THE ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATION IN PEARL RIVER ESTUARY HONG KONG SEAS, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of nitrogen concentration in the ocean is fundamental for the study of oceanic biogeochemical processes. The objective of this research is to estimate total inorganic nitrogen (TIN by integrating optical parameters from HJ-1 CCD image and polarization parameters from RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization image. The situ data and HJ-1 CCD, RADARSAT-2 image were acquired from Pearl River Estuary Hong Kong Seas, China in August, 2010. The four sensitive parameters, reflectance of Band 4, NDSI (Normalized Difference Spectral Index, the backscattering coefficient of HV and VH were derived as input variables to assess the TIN. A multiple regression model was established between four input variables and TIN. The result showed that the fusion of optical data and SAR data was proved to be successful in estimating TIN in sea surface, with the correlation coefficient (R2 between measured TIN and predicated TIN of 0.774, and the root mean square error (RMSE of 0.063. The optical data in combination with SAR data is promising for detecting biochemical component in sea surface.

  7. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  8. Score distribution of the scoliosis research society health-related quality of life in different subgroups of adolescent subjects unaffected by scoliosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifei; Du, Yuanli; Liang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire performance in normal adolescents without scoliosis to establish a normative baseline useful for evaluating the discriminate validity of the SRS-22 in primary adolescent scoliosis; and (2) investigate impact of age and sex on SRS-22 in an adolescent population unaffected by scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire is widely used to measure health-related quality of life of patients with spinal disease including scoliosis and lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, normal data, which are very important, when comparing patients and nonpatients, are few, little, and there are few studies about factors that may affect SRS questionnaire performance. The adolescent population was from 14 schools located in 7 provinces. A total of 2008 adolescents (961 females, 1026 males, 21 unknown; mean age, 14.3 yr; range, 11-20) completed the simplified Chinese version of SRS-22 questionnaire and demographic questions. Surveys were stratified into 8 age-sex groups for analysis: male/female; 12 to 13.4, 13.5 to 14.9, 15 to 15.9, and more than 16 years of age. Post hoc testing and the Tukey least significant difference were used to compare differences between any 2 of the 4 age groups. Self-image scores in males were higher than those in females (P < 0.01). Pain domain scores were significantly higher in males than those in females in the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old subgroup, whereas other subgroups showed no obvious differences. The function domain scores in males who were aged 15 to 15.9 years and those older than 16 years were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mental health domain scores among age-sex subgroups, with the exception of the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old group. This is the first study to characterize the sex and age influence on the SRS-22 scores in normal population. Age and sex have an important

  9. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Scientists and Totalitarian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-04-01

    In order to call for support for his policy in China from the scientific community outside of China, Li Peng, China's premier today and at the time of Tiananmen massacre in 1989, published an editorial of ``Science" magazine (July 5, 1996) titled ``Why China needs science ... and partners." This editorial brought a serious problem, which is originally faced by scientists in a totalitarian society, upon the scientific community in free societies outside. It is well known that the current attitude of the Chinese government toward science is what it was during the years of Mao and the Soviet Union: science is limited to provide instruments useful to the rulers, but any degree of freedom, such as to challenge ideas, required by science to change the totalitarian regime itself, is suppressed. Thus, the problem facing us is: how to help your colleagues and promote science in a totalitarian society, without becoming a partner of the injustices of that regime.

  10. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Education Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China. *Corresponding ... Before the computation, all the inputs are prepared in the polarization state. The key .... The all-optical computing system described.

  11. Assessment of Aerosol Optical Property and Radiative Effect for the Layer Decoupling Cases over the Northern South China Sea During the 7-SEAS Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantau Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (omega) approx. = 0.92 at 440nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the omega (approx. = 0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6W/sq m2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  12. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  13. 2018 consensus of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology and the Diabetes Association of Republic of China (Taiwan on the pharmacological management of patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chern-En Chiang

    2018-03-01

    The Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC and the Diabetes Association of Republic of China (DAROC, aiming to formulate a treatment consensus in type 2 diabetic patients with CVD, have appointed a jointed consensus group for the 2018 Consensus of TSOC/DAROC (Taiwan on the Pharmacological Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and CV Diseases. The consensus is comprised of 5 major parts: 1 Treatment of diabetes in patients with hypertension, 2 Treatment of diabetes in patients with CHD, 3 Treatment of diabetes in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease, 4 Treatment of diabetes in patients with a history of stroke, and 5 Treatment of diabetes in patients with HF. The members of the consensus group comprehensively reviewed all the evidence, mainly RCTs, and also included meta-analyses, cohort studies, and studies using claim data. The treatment targets of HbA1c were provided. The anti-diabetic agents were ranked according to their clinical evidence. The consensus is not mandatory. The final decision may need to be individualized and based on clinicians' discretion.

  14. Optical instrumentation engineering in science, technology and society; Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Technical Meeting, San Mateo, Calif., October 16-18, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Y. H.

    1973-01-01

    Visual tracking performance in instrumentation is discussed together with photographic pyrometry in an aeroballistic range, optical characteristics of spherical vapor bubbles in liquids, and the automatic detection and control of surface roughness by coherent diffraction patterns. Other subjects explored are related to instruments, sensors, systems, holography, and pattern recognition. Questions of data handling are also investigated, taking into account minicomputer image storage for holographic interferometry analysis, the design of a video amplifier for a 90 MHz bandwidth, and autostereoscopic screens. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  15. Rebellion and Rule under Consular Optics: Changing Ways of Seeing the China-Vietnam Borderlands, 1874–1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Camp Davis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the continuing discussion concerning the changing relationships between China and its neighbors in the nineteenth century. Focusing on Vietnam, a country within the metaphorical framework of the “tribute system,” it analyzes the complex range of relationships in the borderlands during the 1870s. Following the establishment of French consular offices in northern Vietnam, rebellions, counterinsurgency, communities, and commerce in the borderlands fell under a new kind of official gaze, one that ultimately provided self-serving justification to advocates of French imperialism in Southeast Asia. As emblems of foreign influence, French consulates soon became elements in factional struggles that unfolded within the Vietnamese bureaucracy over the role of China in Vietnam, the employment of surrendered bandits as officials, and borderlands administration.

  16. Relationship Between Sea Surface Salinity from L-Band Radiometer and Optical Features in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    bounded on the east by Japan and on the west by mainland China from which it receives the huge outflow from the Changjiang River (CR). Because of its large...particles (a^, i.e. detritus) have similar spectral curves *, under highly turbid conditions detritus can significantly affect, or even dominate the...biased in this region due to persistent low levels of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from the coastal areas (e.g. North Atlantic and Asia-Pacific

  17. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites

  18. Interannual variation in the fine-mode MODIS aerosol optical depth and its relationship to the changes in sulfur dioxide emissions in China between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Itahashi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic SO2 emissions increased alongside economic development in China at a rate of 12.7% yr−1 from 2000 to 2005. However, under new Chinese government policy, SO2 emissions declined by 3.9% yr−1 between 2005 and 2009. Between 2000 and 2010, we found that the variability in the fine-mode (submicron aerosol optical depth (AOD over the oceans adjacent to East Asia increased by 3–8% yr−1 to a peak around 2005–2006 and subsequently decreased by 2–7% yr−1, based on observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board NASA's Terra satellite and simulations by a chemical transport model. This trend is consistent with ground-based observations of aerosol particles at a mountainous background observation site in central Japan. These fluctuations in SO2 emission intensity and fine-mode AOD are thought to reflect the widespread installation of fuel-gas desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in China, because aerosol sulfate is a major determinant of the fine-mode AOD in East Asia. Using a chemical transport model, we confirmed that the contribution of particulate sulfate to the fine-mode AOD is more than 70% of the annual mean and that the abovementioned fluctuation in fine-mode AOD is caused mainly by changes in SO2 emission rather than by other factors such as varying meteorological conditions in East Asia. A strong correlation was also found between satellite-retrieved SO2 vertical column density and bottom-up SO2 emissions, both of which were also consistent with observed fine-mode AOD trends. We propose a simplified approach for evaluating changes in SO2 emissions in China, combining the use of modeled sensitivity coefficients that describe the variation of fine-mode AOD with changes in SO2 emissions and satellite retrieval. Satellite measurements of fine-mode AOD

  19. Discord or Harmonious Society: China in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Revolution meant to crush completely the ideology of imperialism and bourgeoisie . Materially, it targeted temples, works of art, and other cultural...Plan,” Space News, 12 June 2006, 1. 104. Richard J. Adams and Martin E. France , “The Chinese Threat to US Space Superiority,” High Frontiers 1, no. 3

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Corneal Power Measurement and Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Following Laser Vision Correction (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Tang, Maolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xinbo; Armour, Rebecca L.; Gattey, Devin M.; Lombardi, Lorinna H.; Koch, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure corneal power and improve the selection of intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract surgeries after laser vision correction. Methods: Patients with previous myopic laser vision corrections were enrolled in this prospective study from two eye centers. Corneal thickness and power were measured by Fourier-domain OCT. Axial length, anterior chamber depth, and automated keratometry were measured by a partial coherence interferometer. An OCT-based IOL formula was developed. The mean absolute error of the OCT-based formula in predicting postoperative refraction was compared to two regression-based IOL formulae for eyes with previous laser vision correction. Results: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients all had uncomplicated cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation. The mean arithmetic prediction error of postoperative refraction was 0.05 ± 0.65 diopter (D) for the OCT formula, 0.14 ± 0.83 D for the Haigis-L formula, and 0.24 ± 0.82 D for the no-history Shammas-PL formula. The mean absolute error was 0.50 D for OCT compared to a mean absolute error of 0.67 D for Haigis-L and 0.67 D for Shammas-PL. The adjusted mean absolute error (average prediction error removed) was 0.49 D for OCT, 0.65 D for Haigis-L (P=.031), and 0.62 D for Shammas-PL (P=.044). For OCT, 61% of the eyes were within 0.5 D of prediction error, whereas 46% were within 0.5 D for both Haigis-L and Shammas-PL (P=.034). Conclusions: The predictive accuracy of OCT-based IOL power calculation was better than Haigis-L and Shammas-PL formulas in eyes after laser vision correction. PMID:24167323

  1. Mapping rice extent map with crop intensity in south China through integration of optical and microwave images based on google earth engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Rice is one of the main staple foods in East Asia and Southeast Asia, which has occupied more than half of the world's population with 11% of cultivated land. Study on rice can provide direct or indirect information on food security and water source management. Remote sensing has proven to be the most effective method to monitoring the cropland in large scale by using temporary and spectral information. There are two main kinds of satellite have been used to mapping rice including microwave and optical. Rice, as the main crop of paddy fields, the main feature different from other crops is flooding phenomenon at planning stage (Figure 1). Microwave satellites can penetrate through clouds and efficiency on monitoring flooding phenomenon. Meanwhile, the vegetation index based on optical satellite can well distinguish rice from other vegetation. Google Earth Engine is a cloud-based platform that makes it easy to access high-performance computing resources for processing very large geospatial datasets. Google has collected large number of remote sensing satellite data around the world, which providing researchers with the possibility of doing application by using multi-source remote sensing data in a large area. In this work, we map rice planting area in south China through integration of Landsat-8 OLI, Sentienl-2, and Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The flowchart is shown in figure 2. First, a threshold method the VH polarized backscatter from SAR sensor and vegetation index including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from optical sensor were used the classify the rice extent map. The forest and water surface extent map provided by earth engine were used to mask forest and water. To overcome the problem of the "salt and pepper effect" by Pixel-based classification when the spatial resolution increased, we segment the optical image and use the pixel- based classification results to merge the object

  2. New insights of asteroid 4179 Toutatis using China Chang'e-2 close flyby optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Yanlong; Tang, Geshi; Cao, Jianfeng; Hu, Songjie; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Chuankai; Di, KaiChang; Xu, Bin; Liu, Bin; Fa, Wenzhe; Hu, Tianjiang; Ding, Chibiao

    2015-01-01

    The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang'e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accurate models of imaging and optical measurements are developed to study Toutatis's dimensions and rotational state at the time of imaging. As the illumination study shows, the shadowed region perpendicular to the long axis accounts for 27.78% of the Toutatis images, while the long axis of the body is fully captured. With a compensation on the shadow effect, the optical measurements reveal that Toutatis's long axis is 4354 ± 56 m, the maximum length is 4391 ± 56 m, and the spatial orientation described with the angles of direction cosine during the flyby is (126.°13 ± 0.°29, 122.°98 ± 0.°21, 126.°63 ± 0.°46). Furthermore, a new triaxial ellipsoid of 4354 × 1835 × 2216 m and a volume of 7.5158 km 3 are proposed based on the previous Toutatis shape model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated, since typical features such as the neck and endpoints agree well with the results simultaneously observed by the ground radar. Moreover, it also potentially provides a feasible approach to precisely calculate the spin period of Toutatis.

  3. A case study of highly time-resolved evolution of aerosol chemical composition and optical properties during severe haze pollution in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Cheng, Z.; Lou, S.

    2017-12-01

    Despite of extensive efforts into characterization of the sources in severe haze pollution periods in the megacity of Shanghai, the study of aerosol composition, mass-size distribution and optical properties to PM1 in the pollution periods remain poorly understood. Here we conducted a 47days real-time measurement of submicron aerosol (PM1) composition and size distribution by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS), particle light scattering by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift ALBedo monitor (CAPS-ALB) and Photoacoustic Extinctionmeter (PAX) in Shanghai, China, from November 28, 2016 to January 12, 2017. The average PM1 concentration was 85.9(±14.7) μg/m3 during the pollution period, which was nearly 4 times higher than that of clean period. Increased scattering coefficient during EP was associated with higher secondary inorganic aerosols and organics. We also observed organics mass size distribution for different pollution extents showing different distribution characteristics. There were no obvious differences for ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate among the pollution periods, which represented single peak distributions, and peaks ranged at 650-700nm and 700nm, respectively. A strong relationship can be expected between PM1 compounds mass concentration size distribution and scattering coefficient, suggesting that chemical composition, size distribution of the particles and their variations could also contribute to the extinction coefficients. Organics and secondary inorganic species to particle light scattering were quantified. The results showed that organics and ammonium nitrate were the largest contribution to scattering coefficients of PM1. The contribution of (NH4)2SO4 to the light scattering exceeded that of NH4NO3 during clean period due to the enhanced sulfate concentrations. Our results elucidate substantial changes of aerosol composition, formation mechanisms, size distribution and optical properties due to local

  4. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing over the urban-industrial megacity Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Na; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Yu, Xingna; Yin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured and analyzed through the ground-based remote sensing Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) over an urban-industrial site, Nanjing (32.21° N, 118.72° E, and 62 m above sea level), in the Yangtze River Delta, China, during September 2007-August 2008. The annual averaged values of aerosol optical depth (AOD500) and the Ångström exponent (AE440-870) were measured to be 0.94 ± 0.52 and 1.10 ± 0.21, respectively. The seasonal averaged values of AOD500 (AE440-870) were noticed to be high in summer (autumn) and low in autumn (spring). The characterization of aerosol types showed the dominance of mixed type followed by the biomass burning and urban-industrial type of aerosol at Nanjing. Subsequently, the curvature (a 2) obtained from the second-order polynomial fit and the second derivative of AE (α') were also analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type. The single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA440) varied from 0.88 to 0.93 with relatively lower (higher) values during the summer (spring), suggesting an increase in black carbon and mineral dust (desert dust) aerosols of absorbing (scattering) nature. The averaged monthly and seasonal evolutions of shortwave (0.3-4.0 μm) direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) values were computed from the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model both at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and bottom of atmosphere (SUR) during the study period. Further, the aerosol forcing efficiency (AFE) and the corresponding atmospheric heating rates (AHR) were also estimated from the forcing within the atmosphere (ATM). The derived DARF values, therefore, produced a warming effect within the atmosphere due to strong absorption of solar radiation.

  5. New insights of asteroid 4179 Toutatis using China Chang'e-2 close flyby optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yanlong; Tang, Geshi; Cao, Jianfeng; Hu, Songjie; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Chuankai [Aerospace Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Beijing Aerospace Control Center, PO Box 5130, Beijing 100094 (China); Di, KaiChang; Xu, Bin; Liu, Bin [Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Fa, Wenzhe [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Peking 100871 (China); Hu, Tianjiang [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 (China); Ding, Chibiao, E-mail: buyanlong@yahoo.com, E-mail: tanggeshi@bacc.org.cn [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang'e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accurate models of imaging and optical measurements are developed to study Toutatis's dimensions and rotational state at the time of imaging. As the illumination study shows, the shadowed region perpendicular to the long axis accounts for 27.78% of the Toutatis images, while the long axis of the body is fully captured. With a compensation on the shadow effect, the optical measurements reveal that Toutatis's long axis is 4354 ± 56 m, the maximum length is 4391 ± 56 m, and the spatial orientation described with the angles of direction cosine during the flyby is (126.°13 ± 0.°29, 122.°98 ± 0.°21, 126.°63 ± 0.°46). Furthermore, a new triaxial ellipsoid of 4354 × 1835 × 2216 m and a volume of 7.5158 km{sup 3} are proposed based on the previous Toutatis shape model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated, since typical features such as the neck and endpoints agree well with the results simultaneously observed by the ground radar. Moreover, it also potentially provides a feasible approach to precisely calculate the spin period of Toutatis.

  6. [Seasonal changes of optical absorption properties of river and lake in East Liaohe River basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan Yan; Su, Dong Hui; Shao, Tian Tian

    2017-06-18

    The absorption characteristics of optically active constituents (OACs) in water column are important optical properties and basic parameters of establishing the inverse analysis model. Comparative analyses about seasonal variability of the optical absorption characteristics (phytoplankton, non-algal particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics) and water quality status of East Liaohe River basin were conducted based on the water samples in Erlong-hu Reservoir collected in June, September and October of 2011 and samples in East Liaohe River in October of 2012. The results demonstrated that the eutrophication status of Erlonghu Reservoir was lower in June, eutrophic in September and moderately eutrophic in October. Some of the sampling points of the East Liaohe River belonged to the middle trophic level and the other part belonged to the eutrophic level. The absorption coefficient of each component of water increased with increasing nutrient level. Besides, the absorption spectra of total suspended particulate of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and October were similar to that of non-algal particles, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed most to the total absorption of water. The absorption spectra of total suspended particulate matter in September were similar to that of phytoplankton and phytoplankton was the dominant contributor to the total absorption. For samples of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and September, a ph (440) and total phosphorus (TP) were correlated closely with each other. Significant correlation between a ph (440) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of Erlonghu Reservoir in June was observed, while a d (440) was only correlated with Chla. There were positive correlations between a ph (675) and Chla, Carlson index (TLI) in Erlonghu Reservoir (September) and East Liaohe River. Obvious differences of water optical properties were found between river and lake located in the East Liaohe River basin as

  7. Vertical distribution of optical and microphysical properties of smog aerosols measured by multi-wavelength polarization lidar in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Huige; Hua, Hangbo; Cui, Yan; Hua, Dengxin; He, Tingyao; Wang, Yufeng; Yan, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-wavelength polarization lidar was developed at the Lidar Center for Atmosphere Remote Sensing, in Xi'an, China to study the vertical distribution of the optical and microphysical properties of smog aerosols. To better understand smog, two events with different haze conditions observed in January 2015 were analyzed in detail. Using these data, we performed a vertical characterization of smog evolution using the lidar range-squared-corrected signal and the aerosol depolarization ratio. Using inversion with regularization, we retrieved the vertical distribution of aerosol microphysical properties, including volume size distribution, volume concentration, number concentration and effective radius. We also used the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to analyze aerosol sources during the two episodes. Our results show that the most polluted area in the lower troposphere during smog episodes is located below a height of 1 km above the ground level; under more severe smog conditions, it can be below 0.5 km. In the case of severe smog, we found a large number of spherical and fine particles concentrated in the very low troposphere, even below 0.5 km. Surprisingly, a dust layer with a slight depolarization ratio was observed above the smog layer.

  8. Retrieval of High-Resolution Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Pearl River Delta Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing offers an effective approach to estimate indicators of air quality on a large scale. It is critically significant for air quality monitoring in areas experiencing rapid urbanization and consequently severe air pollution, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China. This paper starts with examining ground observations of particulate matter (PM and the relationship between PM10 (particles smaller than 10 μm and aerosol optical thickness (AOT by analyzing observations on the sampling sites in the PRD. A linear regression (R2 = 0.51 is carried out using MODIS-derived 500 m-resolution AOT and PM10 concentration from monitoring stations. Data of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height and relative humidity are used to make vertical and humidity corrections on AOT. Results after correction show higher correlations (R2 = 0.55 between extinction coefficient and PM10. However, coarse spatial resolution of meteorological data affects the smoothness of retrieved maps, which suggests high-resolution and accurate meteorological data are critical to increase retrieval accuracy of PM. Finally, the model provides the spatial distribution maps of instantaneous and yearly average PM10 over the PRD. It is proved that observed PM10 is more relevant to yearly mean AOT than instantaneous values.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  10. Sixty years of the Chinese physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Linzhao; Wu Ziqin; Li Shounan.

    1993-01-01

    In commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Physical Society (CPS) established in 1932, an overview is presented of the activities in the former fifty years. The main achievements of physics research in China, the progress in research and development in various branches of physics and the activities of the CPS over the last ten years are then reviewed

  11. Aerosol optical properties measurements by a CAPS single scattering albedo monitor: Comparisons between summer and winter in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Li, Jie; Freedman, Andrew; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing; Liu, Xingang; Sun, Yele

    2017-02-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured in Beijing in summer and winter using a state-of-the-art cavity attenuated phase shift single scattering albedo monitor (CAPS PMssa) along with aerosol composition measurements by aerosol mass spectrometers and aethalometers. The SSA directly measured by the CAPS PMssa showed overall agreements with those derived from colocated measurements. However, substantial differences were observed during periods with low SSA values in both summer and winter, suggesting that interpretation of low SSA values needs to be cautious. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 336 (±343) Mm-1 and 44 (±41) Mm-1, respectively, during wintertime, which were approximately twice those observed in summer, while the average SSA was relatively similar, 0.86 (±0.06) and 0.85 (±0.04) in summer and winter, respectively. Further analysis showed that the variations in SSA can be approximately parameterized as a function of mass fraction of secondary particulate matter (fSPM), which is SSA = 0.74 + 0.19 × fSPM (fSPM > 0.3, r2 = 0.85). The contributions of aerosol species to extinction coefficients during the two seasons were also estimated. Our results showed that the light extinction was dominantly contributed by ammonium sulfate (30%) and secondary organic aerosol (22%) in summer, while organic aerosol was the largest contributor (51%) in winter. Consistently, SPM played the major role in visibility degradation in both seasons by contributing 70% of the total extinction.

  12. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  13. Quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department

    1999-07-01

    Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.

  14. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is

  15. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Verification, improvement and application of aerosol optical depths in China Part 1: Inter-comparison of NPP-VIIRS and Aqua-MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Sun, Lin; Huang, Bo; Bilal, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Lunche

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate typical aerosol optical depth (AOD) products in China, which experienced seriously increasing atmospheric particulate pollution. For this, the Aqua-MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD products (MYD04) at 10 km spatial resolution and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Environmental Data Record (EDR) AOD product at 6 km resolution for different Quality Flags (QF) are obtained for validation against AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) AOD measurements during 2013-2016. Results show that VIIRS EDR similarly Dark Target (DT) and MODIS DT algorithms perform worse with only 45.36% and 45.59% of the retrievals (QF = 3) falling within the Expected Error (EE, ±(0.05 + 15%)) compared to the Deep Blue (DB) algorithm (69.25%, QF ≥ 2). The DT retrievals perform poorly over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze-River-Delta (YRD) regions, which significantly overestimate the AOD observations, but the performance is better over the Pearl-River-Delta (PRD) region than DB retrievals, which seriously under-estimate the AOD loadings. It is not surprising that the DT algorithm performs better over vegetated areas, while the DB algorithm performs better over bright areas mainly depends on the accuracy of surface reflectance estimation over different land use types. In general, the sensitivity of aerosol to apparent reflectance reduces by about 34% with an increasing surface reflectance by 0.01. Moreover, VIIRS EDR and MODIS DT algorithms perform overall better in the winter as 64.53% and 72.22% of the retrievals are within the EE but with less retrievals. However, the DB algorithm performs worst (57.17%) in summer mainly affected by the vegetation growth but there are overall high accuracies with more than 62% of the collections falling within the EE in other three seasons. Results suggest that the quality assurance process can help improve the overall data quality for MYD04 DB retrievals, but it is

  17. China's Vocational Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Owen B.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes his observations on Chinese society and education during his 1978 visit with the official delegation of United States educators. He notes what Americans would consider primitive facilities and programs, the tremendous problems of China's size and population, and the overriding influence of political concerns on education. (MF)

  18. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  19. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  20. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  1. The Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Nath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.

  2. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  3. All projects related to China | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, China, India, Philippines, Viet ... GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender ... Topic: International cooperation, INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS, Civil society, ...

  4. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  5. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  6. Religious Experience and Lay Society in T’ang China: A Reading of Tai Fu’s Kuang-i chi, by Glen Dudbridge. Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. ix+256 pp. Maps. ISBN: 0521482232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ying Qin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon his knowledge and understanding of literature, book culture, and vernacular culture of pre-modern China, Glen Dudbridge offers, in his unique reading of Kuang-i chi 廣異記 (The great book of marvels, insights into the religious experiences of lay society individuals of eighth century China. However, an inquisitive reader must ask the following questions: Can Kuang-i chi, a medieval collection of tales of encounters with the other world by the minor T’ang Dynasty official Tai Fu 戴孚 (fl. 760-780, chin-shih 757, be used for the purpose of the study of religious culture? How? and to what extent? What approaches would be effective in inquiring such a text and what kinds of conclusions can be drawn? Though not explicitly setting forth these questions, Dudbridge’s work serves as answers to them through explicitly defining the nature of Kuang-i chi to his study, discarding conventional categories and establishing new ones in his analysis, and associating Kuang-i chi to the “vernacular,” instead of official, or “centralized,” religious culture (p.63-4. Using a sharp historical focus on the collection, Dudbridge concentrates on the dynamics of change in religious practices of T’ang Dynasty that is rooted and reflected in such a vernacular religious culture....

  7. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  8. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  9. Society-ethics-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruh, H.; Seiler, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the workshops which was reported in this volume, was the interpretation and evaluation of catastrophic risks for society in an interdisciplinary dialogue between representation of society, ethics, as well as natural science and technology. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  10. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  11. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  12. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  13. Transformation of Neolithic Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    and prepared the way for the appearance of Bronze Age societies. The great era of megalithic architecture came to an end as the production and exchange of gold, copper and bronze objects became the driving force in the development of Copper and Bronze Age societies. This development also had a great influence...

  14. Optical high-performance computing: introduction to the JOSA A and Applied Optics feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H John; Dolev, Shlomi; Green, William M J

    2009-08-01

    The feature issues in both Applied Optics and the Journal of the Optical Society of America A focus on topics of immediate relevance to the community working in the area of optical high-performance computing.

  15. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  16. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  17. Hainan - State, Society, and Business in a Chinese Province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    This book examines the complex relationship between the state, society and business in China, focusing on the experience of the island province of Hainan. This island, for many years a provincial backwater, was given provincial rank in 1988 and became the testing ground for experiments of an econ......This book examines the complex relationship between the state, society and business in China, focusing on the experience of the island province of Hainan. This island, for many years a provincial backwater, was given provincial rank in 1988 and became the testing ground for experiments...... of an economic, political, and social nature that have received great attention from Beijing, in particular the "small government, big society" project. This book provides a full account of this transition, showing how Hainan casts important light on a number of highly topical issues in contemporary China...... studies: central-local relations, institutional reform, state-society relations, and economic development strategies. It provides detailed evidence of how relations between party cadres, state bureaucrats, businesses, foreign investors and civil society play out in practice in China today. It argues...

  18. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAMBA Link Digital Newsletter Educational Bibliography Research IARS/Anesthesia & Analgesia SCOR About SCOR Sponsor SAMBA Meetings Affinity Sponsor Program We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, ...

  19. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  20. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  1. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Now International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development ... nurses in the art and science of pediatric endocrinology nursing. Learn More Text1 2018 PENS Call for ...

  2. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  3. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Picture yourself in L.A. Register now SIR Essentials Purchase/register Search SIR's entire catalog for educational ... Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  4. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apply for Membership Membership Directory Pay Your Dues Industry Mailing List License & eBlast Communications Programs Advertise on ... Hotel Discount Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ...

  5. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  6. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  7. The Society for Scandinavian Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...

  8. Nuclear technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Tanaka, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Oyama, Kosuke

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)

  9. The Middle Class in China and the West under Society-building Perspective%社会建设视野下的城市中产阶层1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞廉

    2014-01-01

    本文从社会建设的视角出发,对中国和西方国家城市中产阶层的起源和形成进行了梳理和考察。笔者的主要观点是:在西方国家工业革命早期,竞争伦理、谋利动机、经商欲望和新教信仰造就了一个以商人、工场主和专业人士(主要包括医生、律师和神职人员)为主体的中产群体。他们所享有的共同的经济和社会经历,促进了西方中产阶级的阶级意识和身份认同的形成。这种阶级意识和身份认同成为推动西方各国资产阶级民主革命以及之后的多次社会建设和改良运动的重要经济与思想力量。在中国改革开放的三十年的时间里,也产生了一个商人、民营企业主、专业人士以及职业经理人为主体的中产群体。其中的部分有识之士也已成为转型中国社会建设重要的支持者和领导者。然而在城乡二元体制格局和贫富差距不断扩大的背景下,较小的规模,较高的异质性,以及价值理念上的分歧,阻碍了中国中产阶层阶级身份认同的形成。%From the society-building perspective, this article explores the origin and formation of Chinese and Western middle class. In the early period of industrial revolution, competing ethics, profit motives, business desire and the Protestant ethics created businessman, factory owners and professionals(like doctors, lawyers and clergy) formed the main body of middling-groups. They enjoyed the common economic and social experience, which promoted the Western bourgeois class consciousness and identity formation. During three decades of China’s reform and opening, there is also a middle groups including businessman, private business owners, professionals and managers. Some of them have become the main supporters and leaders of China’s society-building. However, in the context of urban-rural dual structure pattern and the widening gap between the rich and the poor, a smaller scale

  10. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  11. Society and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    in Europe. Elaborating on the Castoriadian ontology, the book delves into the magma of social imaginary significations that characterise and associate pivotal epochs of the continent’s history, Classical Greece and Modernity, and exemplifies their incarnation in educational systems and in the formation...... countries. Nevertheless, as Moutsios suggests, the European tradition, notwithstanding its ideological usage by much of social sciences, contains an indissoluble critical and self-reflective dimension, which needs to be sustained and advanced in education and its cross-cultural comparison, perhaps, more......'Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison' explores the relation of society to education in Europe, as well as its comparative perspective towards overseas societies and their institutions. It is an enquiry into the social-historical institution of education and cross-cultural studies...

  12. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  13. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  14. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  15. Advanced information society(7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  16. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  17. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  18. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the exclusive property of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society which in its sole discretion may use this material as it sees fit. I agree to the terms of the Standard Photography Release.* Submit * This field is required * Please fix the validation error messages in the Form Your story was ...

  19. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  20. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  1. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  2. The Duplex Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1984-01-01

    The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)

  3. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  4. Radiation protection and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the

  5. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  6. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Nuclear technique application in agriculture based on the development of related science and technology is of a high technical area, and also a meaningful aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique. Nuclear Agricultural Sciences is an important component of agricultural science and technology, and has been made a lot of significant achievements, which has made remarkable contribution to the development in economy, society and ecology of China. This article reviews the achievements and present situation of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China briefly. For promoting its development, the author strongly suggests that Chinese government bodies should put more attention to the study on the application of nuclear technique in agriculture to make further more contributions to Chinese society and agriculture. (authors)

  7. China's population planning after Tiananmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y

    1990-09-01

    The author reports on the meeting of the China Demographic Society in Beijing in January 1990. The one-child policy is reviewed, and political changes that have taken place since the events in Tiananmen Square and their effect on the family planning policy are discussed.

  8. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  9. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  10. Society and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social

  11. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  12. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  13. Man in Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单祝堂

    1994-01-01

    Men usually want to have their own way.They want to thinkand act as they like.No one,however,can have his own way all thetime.A man cannot live in society without considering the interestsof others as well as his own interests.’Society’ means a groupof people with the same laws and the same way of life.People in

  14. The new totalitarian society

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout hi...

  15. Creativity In Conscience Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. Rosca; Dumitru Todoroi

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, and for Society in general. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence Creativity should be devel...

  16. Radiation Sensitivity of Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uray, I.; Hille, R.; Rohloff, F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigating the mean dose values as well as dose distributions of the inhabitants in a large number of settlements maybe set down, that the generally calculated mean exposure is a good measure to estimate the collective dose for a settlement or for a large region. Its uncertainty is however too high, and the dose distribution is very broad (250-300%) to estimate the external exposure of any single person. However, models may take into account more details of influencing factors. First of all the surveying of the local contamination density distribution could be more detailed and more accurate. Measure and distribution of the internal exposure (is not the subject of the present work, but it is similarly problematic. In this situation it is very difficult to search the dose-effect relationships exactly, and is also difficult to satisfy the people that their fears are unjustified. Society pays the costs of the nuclear industry and of the possible consequences as well. But society can neither control the nuclear industry nor the possible consequences at all. Both science and single people are waiting for more and detailed information. If we can not decrease the r adiation sensitivity of societies , then the consequences of Chernobyl will be growing unnecessarily, and it can strongly retard the justified development of the nuclear industry as well. (author)

  17. The new totalitarian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.

  18. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  19. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  20. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  1. Risk and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Vrousos, C.; Pages, J.P.; Carde, C.

    1999-01-01

    This book brings together the communications presented at the colloquium 'risk and society' held in Paris (France) on November 1998. During this colloquium, the various aspects of risk and of its management were discussed by medical specialists, historians, industrialists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, politicians and administration representatives. The first theme concerns the controversies generated by the development of some activities (genetics, bio-technologies, nuclear and radiations use). The second theme concerns the management of risks and the way to conciliate the point of view of authorities and citizens (confidence of the public with respect to experts, scientists, industrialists, government and administrative representatives, role played by the media). The debates that took place during the colloquium have shown that the public opinion concerning the nuclear activities or the new technologies greatly depends on the ideological attitudes and on the public's likes and dislikes with respect to some categories of actors (distrust with respect to public decisions, fears with respect to changes and future, nostalgia of the past). The following aspects are reviewed: Notions of risk and hazard (risk and health, risk in today's society, medicine and society, the point of view of the industrialists and of the scientific and technical specialists); from the psychological aspects of the risk to its social aspects (survey of the risk assessment battlefield, social attenuation and amplification of risk, the feeling of risks in Europe, insecurity and delinquency, controversies around radioactivity and health); the negotiation and communication about risks (risk and public health, negotiation around risks, risks and information dissemination about the public debate, communication and crisis, evolution of risk communication, comparison between American and European approaches, the Seveso directive); the public debate and the evolution of risks management (the

  2. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  3. The post Chernobyl society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenofontov, Ion.

    2011-01-01

    The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

  4. Advanced information society (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  5. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating......, for driving innovation or for disseminating results to the scientific community and beyond. And, as a look at the CRIS2010 conference program will tell, there are many more, often little known purposes for which CRIS are used. These applications stimulate with their demands the progress in designing, building...

  6. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...

  7. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  8. Ground-based measurement of column-averaged mixing ratios of methane and carbon dioxide in the Sichuan Basin of China by a desktop optical spectrum analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Chun; Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Ono, Akiko; Hayashida, Sachiko; Imasu, Ryoichi; Lei, Li-Ping; Murata, Isao; Kuroki, Takahiro; Ohashi, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric greenhouse gases, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), contributes to the understanding of global warming and climate change. A portable ground-based instrument consisting of a commercially available desktop optical spectrum analyzer and a small sun tracker has been applied to measure the column densities of atmospheric CH4 and CO2 at Yanting observation station in a mountainous paddy field of the Sichuan Basin from September to November 2013. The column-averaged dry-air molar mixing ratios, XCH4/XCO2, are compared with those retrieved by satellite observations in the Sichuan Basin and by ground-based network observations in the same latitude zone as the Yanting observation station.

  9. The role of NGO in nuclear public communication and the practices of the Chinese Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L., E-mail: shenlx@cnnc.com.cn [Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' Public acceptance is becoming an outstanding issue in China's nuclear power development. All the related stakeholders have been working hard to improve their work on public communication. This paper started with a general view of the nuclear power in China and then presented the situation on nuclear public acceptance, the related laws and regulations in China. After that, the paper discussed the four advantages of NGOs such as nuclear societies in this course. The paper presented more on the practices of Chinese Nuclear Society in public communication and nuclear science popularization.It is concluded with some suggestions for public communication. (author)

  10. The role of NGO in nuclear public communication and the practices of the Chinese Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' Public acceptance is becoming an outstanding issue in China's nuclear power development. All the related stakeholders have been working hard to improve their work on public communication. This paper started with a general view of the nuclear power in China and then presented the situation on nuclear public acceptance, the related laws and regulations in China. After that, the paper discussed the four advantages of NGOs such as nuclear societies in this course. The paper presented more on the practices of Chinese Nuclear Society in public communication and nuclear science popularization.It is concluded with some suggestions for public communication. (author)

  11. Nuclear power and modern society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treatise consisting of the following sections: Development of modern society (Origin of modern society; Industrial society; The year 1968; Post-industrial society; Worldwide civic society); Historic breaks in the development of the stationary power sector (Stationary thermal power; Historic breaks in the development of nuclear power); Czech nuclear power engineering in the globalization era (Major causes of success of Czech nuclear power engineering; Future of Czech nuclear power engineering). (P.A.)

  12. American Nuclear Society exchanges of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Temple, O.J.

    2000-01-01

    Many are familiar with the technical journals and other publications that American Nuclear Society (ANS) members receive. However, there is a whole series of documents that is helpful to any nuclear society group for a modest fee or no fee. The author is referring to documents such as the ANS Bylaws and Rules, which have been made available to almost every existing nuclear society in the world. He remembers working with groups from Russia, Europe, China, Japan, Brazil, France, Germany, and others when they sought the experience of ANS in establishing a society. Financial planning guides are available for meetings, international conferences, technical expositions, and teacher workshops. Periodically, the ANS publishes position papers on the uses and handling of fuel materials and other publications helpful to public relations and teacher training courses. A few have had distributions in the hundreds of thousands, and one went as high as 750,000. Some of these have been translated in part into Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Japanese. Nuclear Standards are developed by a series of ANS committees consisting of about 1000 experts--the largest technical operation of ANS. Buyers guides and directories are very helpful in promoting the commerce in the nuclear industry. The Utility Directory covers utilities all over the globe. Radwaste Solutions, the new name for the former Radwaste Magazine, covers the efforts made by all sectors--private, government, and utility--to deal with radioactive waste. In the author's opinion, the one area in which all societies are weak is in interfacing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Since his retirement 9 yr ago, he has become much more aware of the IAEA as a news and technical information source. The ANS is trying to be more aware of what the IAEA is doing for everyone

  13. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  14. Nanotechnology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public

  15. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  16. Optical Coherence Tomographic and Visual Results at Six Months after Transitioning to Aflibercept for Patients on Prior Ranibizumab or Bevacizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Clement K.; Jain, Atul; Sadda, Srinivas; Varshney, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study optical coherence tomographic (OCT) results and vision at 6 months after transition (post-Tx) from intravitreal bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab to aflibercept for treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The null hypothesis was the lack of improvements in OCT metrics and vision outcome in study eyes at 6 months after transitioning from bevacizumab or ranibizumab to aflibercept. Methods: This retrospective study assessed 6 monthly OCT (Cirrus) data after transitioning to aflibercept for eyes on prior Legacy-ranibizumab, Legacy-bevacizumab, or mixed treatment for nAMD. Outcome measures were subretinal fluid (SRF), cystoid macular edema (CME), pigment epithelial detachment (PED) heights and volumes, central 1- and 3-mm subfield, Macular Volume, and best spectacle and pinhole visual acuity (VA). A single masked investigator performed all OCT measurements. Results: One hundred eighty-nine eyes in 172 patients in Legacy-bevacizumab (95 eyes), Legacy-ranibizumab (84 eyes), or Mixed Group(10 eyes) were switched to aflibercept and followed for 6 months. Significant post-Tx reductions were noted in SRF/CME heights and volumes (all P<.001). Similar findings were noted for PED heights (122.8 μm vs 79.4 μm) and PED volumes (all P<.001). Post-Tx VA was better (20/43 vs 20/51, P<.001). There were no differences between Legacy-bevacizumab and Legacy-ranibizumab groups in OCT and VA changes. Post-Tx VA, SRF/CME, and PED heights and volumes were improved for Nonresponders (suboptimal response to bevacizumab/ranibizumab) (P=.001 to <.001), but not Responders (good responses to same). The only adverse event was a retinal pigment epithelial tear in one eye. Conclusions: Significant improvements in vision and OCT metrics developed in Nonresponders but not in Responders. Post-Tx VA and OCT measures were similar for eyes on prior bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Post-Tx adverse events were uncommon. PMID:25646034

  17. Libraries in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura Henriette Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  18. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  19. Making Sense for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Grus, M. M.; Nouwens, J. C. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated country. Cities in the metropolitan area (Randstad) will be growing at a fast pace in the coming decades1. Cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam are being overrun by tourists. Climate change effects are noticed in cities (heavy rains for instance). Call for circular economy rises. Traffic increases. People are more self-reliant. Public space is shared by many functions. These challenges call for smart answers, more specific and directly than ever before. Sensor data is a cornerstone of these answers. In this paper we'll discuss the approaches of Dutch initiatives using sensor data as the new language to live a happy life in our cities. Those initiatives have been bundled in a knowledge platform called "Making sense for society" 1 https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/37/pbl-cbs-prognose-groei-steden-zet-door (in dutch)

  20. Nuclear Research and Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised.

  1. Nuclear Research and Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, SCK-CEN took the initiative to include social sciences and humanities into its research programme. Within this context, four projects were defined, respectively on sustainability and nuclear development; transgenerational ethics related to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; legal aspects and liability; emergency communication and risk perception. Two reflection groups were established, on expert culture and ethical choices respectively, in order to deepen insight while creating exchange of disciplinary approaches of the committed SCK-CEN researchers and social scientists. Within the context of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, collaborations with various universities were initiated, teams consisting of young doctorate and post-doctorate researchers and university promotors with experience in interaction processes of technology with society were established and steering committees with actors and external experts were set up for each project. The objectives and main achievements in the four projects are summarised

  2. Food, energy and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimental, D; Pimental, M

    1979-01-01

    Twelve chapters are presented in this book - the first four of which concern hunter-gatherer society, the development of agricultural systems, and an introduction to the relative energy costs of manpower, animal power and machines in food production. The main section of the book (Chapters 6-9) documents the energy use in the production of livestock, grain and legumes, fruit, vegetable and forage, and fish. Comparisons of energy inputs and outputs are made for different crops and for countries at different levels of development. The final section of the book covers food processing, packaging and transport costs. The message of the book is that a switch from the high overall protein and high animal protein diet in the industrialized countries is overdue. Such a move, the author maintains, will reduce the total fossil fuel requirements for food production and enable more people to be adequately fed. The author also recommends extensive use of bicycles for transportation.

  3. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  4. Expectations from Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have

  5. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  6. Resources available in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A decontamination operation will only be successful if cost-efficient methods are used. The cost-effectiveness depends, among many other factors, including the qualifications and training of the personnel and the capability of the equipment. The personnel must be able to handle the equipment in a professional way and should also know how to protect themselves. To fulfil these requirements they need courses in radiation protection. The equipment must be suitable for the selected countermeasure. Societies planning and preparedness for reclamation should meet realistic demands for early actions and outline a cost-effective strategy that implies reasonable use of personnel and equipment resources. Planning for early cleanup actions is different from that of long term planning with respect to the available time and quantity and quality of available information on which to base decisions. Available resources vary, of course, between the Nordic countries, but in all countries there are organisations with both knowledgeable staff and suitable equipment accessible for decontamination operations. (EG)

  7. Ethic, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel Maya, Augusto

    2000-01-01

    This article is a reproduction of parts the fourth chapter of the book the return of Icaro, Death and life of the philosophy; the Universidad Autonoma de Occidente will publish that. The book intends to debate the crossroad in which any environmental interpretation is finned: penned between the reductionism of natural sciences and the philosophical sobrenaturalism of the social science. Between some natural sciences that don't understand the man and some social sciences that don't recognize the bonds with the nature if this approach is applied to the study of society or of culture, it would be necessary to understand it as the result of a evolutionary process, but also at the same time as a rupture with the previous evolutionary forms. The culture is not in the genes, but it has relationships with nature, the social sciences have not wanted to accept this fact. It has ethical and political consequences. As well as there is no ecosystem ethics, all human ethics should be aware of its relationships with the environment. Maybe this proposal will bring a new vision of what is freedom

  8. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  9. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  10. Nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shihchen; Liu, Xiujie

    1986-01-01

    Since China first applied isotopes to medical research in 1956, over 800 hospitals and research institutions with 4000 staff have taken up nuclear technology. So far, over 120 important biologically active materials have been measured by radioimmunoassay in China, and 44 types of RIA kit have been supplied commercially. More than 50,000 cases of hyperthyroidism have been treated satisfactorily with 131 I. Radionuclide imaging of practically all organs and systems of the human body has been performed, and adrenal imaging and nuclear cardiology have become routine clinical practice in several large hospitals. The thyroid iodine uptake test, renogram tracing and cardiac function studies with a cardiac probe are also commonly used in most Chinese hospitals. The active principles of more than 60 medicinal herbs have been labelled with isotopes in order to study the drug metabolism and mechanism of action. Through the use of labelled neurotransmitters or deoxyglucose, RIA, radioreceptor assay and autoradiography, Chinese researchers have made remarkable achievements in the study of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia. In 1980 the Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded, and since 1981 the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine has been published. Although nuclear medicine in China has already made some progress, when compared with advanced countries, much progress is still to be made. It is hoped that international scientific exchange will be strengthened in the future. (author)

  11. Aerosol optical characteristics and their vertical distributions under enhanced haze pollution events: effect of the regional transport of different aerosol types over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianze; Che, Huizheng; Qi, Bing; Wang, Yaqiang; Dong, Yunsheng; Xia, Xiangao; Wang, Hong; Gui, Ke; Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Hujia; Ma, Qianli; Du, Rongguang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-03-01

    The climatological variation of aerosol properties and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during 2013-2015 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region were investigated by employing ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and CE-318 sun-photometer observations. Combining Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite products, enhanced haze pollution events affected by different types of aerosol over the YRD region were analyzed through vertical structures, spatial distributions, backward trajectories, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model. The results show that aerosols in the YRD are dominated by fine-mode particles, except in March. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) in June and September is higher due to high single scattering albedo (SSA) from hygroscopic growth, but it is lower in July and August due to wet deposition from precipitation. The PBL height (PBLH) is greater (means ranging from 1.23 to 1.84 km) and more variable in the warmer months of March to August, due to the stronger diurnal cycle and exchange of heat. Northern fine-mode pollutants are brought to the YRD at a height of 1.5 km. The SSA increases, blocking the radiation to the surface, and cooling the surface, thereby weakening turbulence, lowering the PBL, and in turn accelerating the accumulation of pollutants, creating a feedback to the cooling effect. Originated from the deserts in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, long-range transported dust masses are seen at heights of about 2 km over the YRD region with an SSA440 nm below 0.84, which heat air and raise the PBL, accelerating the diffusion of dust particles. Regional transport from biomass-burning spots to the south of the YRD region bring mixed aerosol particles at a height below 1.5 km, resulting in an SSA440 nm below 0.89. During the winter, the accumulation of the local emission layer is facilitated by stable weather conditions

  12. Aerosol optical characteristics and their vertical distributions under enhanced haze pollution events: effect of the regional transport of different aerosol types over eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological variation of aerosol properties and the planetary boundary layer (PBL during 2013–2015 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region were investigated by employing ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL and CE-318 sun-photometer observations. Combining Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO satellite products, enhanced haze pollution events affected by different types of aerosol over the YRD region were analyzed through vertical structures, spatial distributions, backward trajectories, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF model. The results show that aerosols in the YRD are dominated by fine-mode particles, except in March. The aerosol optical depth (AOD in June and September is higher due to high single scattering albedo (SSA from hygroscopic growth, but it is lower in July and August due to wet deposition from precipitation. The PBL height (PBLH is greater (means ranging from 1.23 to 1.84 km and more variable in the warmer months of March to August, due to the stronger diurnal cycle and exchange of heat. Northern fine-mode pollutants are brought to the YRD at a height of 1.5 km. The SSA increases, blocking the radiation to the surface, and cooling the surface, thereby weakening turbulence, lowering the PBL, and in turn accelerating the accumulation of pollutants, creating a feedback to the cooling effect. Originated from the deserts in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, long-range transported dust masses are seen at heights of about 2 km over the YRD region with an SSA440 nm below 0.84, which heat air and raise the PBL, accelerating the diffusion of dust particles. Regional transport from biomass-burning spots to the south of the YRD region bring mixed aerosol particles at a height below 1.5 km, resulting in an SSA440 nm below 0.89. During the winter, the accumulation of the local emission layer is facilitated by

  13. Optical computing: introduction by the feature editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Tanida, J; Tooley, F; Wagner, K

    1996-03-10

    This feature issue of Applied Optics: Information Processing contains 19 papers on Optical Computing. Many of these papers are expanded versions of presentations given at the Optical Society of America's Sixth Topical Meeting on Optical Computing held in Salt Lake City, Utah, in March 1995. This introduction provides a brief historical account of the series of optical computing meetings and a brief review of the papers contained in this special issue.

  14. New generation of optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  15. Knowledge society training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ionescu, Tudor Basarab; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, Cristian; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to present the results of the Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a knowledge society training system, in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning software platform and several CBT objects/courses have been implemented. The conceived solution is called CBTCenter which is a complete E-Learning and CBT system, offering a variety of teaching and learning tools and services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quizzes, grades, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBTCenter is Labour safety - code name BB-001. The implementation of the CBT technology at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which take part in the educational process; the classroom space problem has been considerably reduced; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problems will decrease with the conversion of more and more conventional courses and materials into CBT objects/courses. (authors)

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-23

    Petrochemical Corp. Completes First Integrated Network [JISUANJI SHIJIE, 18 Sep 91] ............ 27 Shanghai To Build FTTH CATV Network [Xiao Qiang; JISUANJI...long-wave fiber optic communi- cations. Shanghai To Build FTTH CATV Network 92P60054D Beijing JISUANJI SHIJIE [CHINA First 60-km Unrepeatered Bundle...technology is now moving into Cable Operational"] the home ( FTTH , or fiber-to-the-home), with the upcoming construction in the Shanghai area’s Jiading [Summary

  17. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  18. Paperless or vanishing society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner Luke, Joy

    2002-06-01

    In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as

  19. The Great Firewall of China: A Critical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiting, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Censorship has a great impact on society as we enter the cyber environment. The Chinese "Great Firewall", as it is commonly called, brings great attention to China as they enter into the global economy...

  20. Another China – other inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequality is not simply the unfair treatment of men and women. It is a complex issue tied to a whole range of disparities in society at large, argues Professor Min Dongchao, who has just been awarded a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship and will be a guest professor at the Nordic...... Institute of Asian Studies for the next few years. Her object of study is the travels of gender theory between the Nordic countries and China....

  1. China Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  2. The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, oral English teaching and learning has been the top in English teaching and learning in china. This paper reports a survey conducted at North China Electric Power University on the barriers for learners of oral English learning in China. Questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed…

  3. Integrating and Prioritizing Environmental Risks in China's Risk Management Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhong, L.

    2010-01-01

    Human society faces a growing number of risks, including both natural disasters and risks that stem from human behavior. This is particularly true in China, which is experiencing rapid social, economic and political transitions. Since the 1970s, China's modernization process has been accompanied by

  4. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  5. Formation of a collaborative society

    OpenAIRE

    Buřita, Ladislav; Ondryhal, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    The MilUNI knowledge portal, based on the knowledge base developed in ATOM software has been created at the authors' workplace with the aim to form a collaborative society of military universities. The analysis of the collaborative society concept is presented. The description of the MilUNI project is included. Some areas for university cooperation are proposed, as well as the measures facilitating the formation and development of the collaborative society.

  6. Science communication at scientific societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, Jeanne

    2017-10-01

    Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. China's revival

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  8. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  9. 47. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains lectures (short communications) of the 47. symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Vienna (Austria) in 1997. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  10. 45. Annual Convention of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains lectures of the 45 th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held in Leoben, Austria in 1995. The following topics are included: Atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  11. 50. Annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippitsch, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The conference held from 25. - 29. 9. 2000 at the University of Graz was elaborated by the Austrian society of physics in the fields of solid state physics, polymers physics, quantum electronics, electrodynamics, optics, nuclear and particle physics, atomic, molecules and plasma physics, acoustics, physics - industry - energy and physics teaching. (botek)

  12. 49. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatt, R.; Maerk, T.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and poster sessions of the 49th symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which has been held at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) in 1999. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  13. Israel Physical Society 44. annual meeting. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1998 Annual Conference of the Israel Physical Society, various chapters were treated in parallel sessions: Physics teaching, Condensed matter, Lasers and Quantum Optics, Atomic and Nuclear physics, Particles and Fields, Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics, Physics in industry, Plasma physics and computational physics

  14. 48. annual symposium of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netzer, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains short communications of lectures and posters of the 48 th Symposium of the Austrian Physical Society which had been held at the University of Graz (Austria) in 1998. The following topics are included: atomic physics, molecular physics, plasma physics, solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, polymer physics, biophysics, environmental physics, quantum electronics and quantum optics. (Suda)

  15. The Israel Physical Society 1997 Annual Meeting. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The book of program and abstracts of the 43rd meeting of the Israel physical society presents abstracts of presentations in various field of physics. Follow is the list of these fields. Astrophysics, condensed matter, laser and quantum optics, nuclear physics, particle and fields, physics in biology, physics in industry, plasma and space physics, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics

  16. Israel Physical Society 44. annual meeting. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-08

    During the 1998 Annual Conference of the Israel Physical Society, various chapters were treated in parallel sessions: Physics teaching, Condensed matter, Lasers and Quantum Optics, Atomic and Nuclear physics, Particles and Fields, Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics, Physics in industry, Plasma physics and computational physics.

  17. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  18. Digital Denmark: From Information Society to Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten

    2000-01-01

    for a welfare society. However, globalisation and the spreading use of new information and communication technologies and services challenge this position. This article examines Denmark's performance in implementing its IS 2000 plans, the background to the Digital Denmark report, and its implications......The Danish Government recently issued a new policy report, Digital Denmark, on the "conversion to a network society", as a successor to its Information Society 2000 report (1994). This is part of a new round of information society policy vision statements that are, or will be forthcoming from...... national governments everywhere. Denmark provides an interesting case study because it ranks high in the benchmark indicators of information network society developments. This position has been obtained largely by public sector initiatives and without erosion of the highly reputed Scandinavian model...

  19. Public Libraries in postindustrial societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The article’s focus is on how public libraries are affected by structural changes in the wake of the transition to the knowledge society. Their attempts to match the knowledge society are illustrated by processes of sensemaking and sensegiving made in public libraries in Canada, the UK and Denmark....

  20. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  1. Education for a Learning Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempero, Howard E., Ed.

    The essays contained in this booklet are 1) "Education for a 'Learning Society': The Challenge" by Ernest Bayles in which he calls for focus on learning to live, developing skills of reflection and judgment applicable to vital issues, and reflective teaching; 2) "Teacher Education in a Learning Society" in which David Turney demands teacher…

  2. Education in the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Luciana Porumbeanu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the fundamental role which education has in the information society. The continuous evolution of information and communication technologies requires that all citizens have the necessary skills have to use these technologies and to access information for efficient individual functioning in the information society. In this context, the information literacy programmes have a growing importance.

  3. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  4. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  5. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  6. Nursing in a postemotional society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    Globalization is often seen as the final stage in the transition towards a market economy. It is argued that a side-effect of globalization is cultural homogeneity and loss of life world, or 'McDonaldization'. McDonaldization represents the rationalization of society in the quest for extreme efficiency. More recently, Mestrović has argued that the rationalization of emotions has also occurred and that Western societies are entering a postemotional phase. In postemotional societies there has been a separation of emotion from action. The result is synthetic, manufactured emotions manipulated and standardized for mass consumption. In this paper I explore what it means to nurse in a 'postemotional society' and what impact this dulling of the emotions has had on a profession that locates 'care' as its central defining concept. My aim is to generate critical discussion of the shape and direction of contemporary society and the role of nursing within it.

  7. Privacy and the Connected Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    The Vision of the 5G enabled connected society is highly based on the evolution and implementation of Internet of Things. This involves, amongst others, a significant raise in devices, sensors and communication in pervasive interconnections as well as cooperation amongst devices and entities across...... the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  8. What is the Knowledge Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.

  9. 80th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Bolt, Daniel; Wang, Wen-Chung; Douglas, Jeffrey; Wiberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation modeling, factor analysis, causal modeling, mediation, missing data methods, and longitudinal data analysis. These methods will appeal, in particular, to researchers in the social sciences. The 80th annual meeting took place in Beijing, China, between the 12th and 16th of July, 2014. Previous volumes to showcase work from the Psychometric Society’s Meeting are New Developments in Quantitative Psychology: Presentations from the 77th Annual Psychometric Society Meeting (Springer, 2013), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 78th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society (Springer, 2015), and Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Wisconsin, USA, 2014 (Springer, 2015).

  10. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  11. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  12. Optical actuation of micromechanical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic momentum is a fundamental physical concept that has been demonstrated experimentally and incorporated theoretically in various areas of physics. In spite of the weak character of the electromagnetic momentum transfer process, the combination of latter-day, high-energy laser light sources and microminiature mechanical elements suggested the possibility of optical excitation of these structures. One outcome of the present theoretical analysis is the prediction of an optopiezic effect wherein electromagnetic momentum causes a mechanical stress on a dielectric layer. If this is a valid prediction, such an optically induced, expansional pressure effect could be utilized as an extensional optical-to-mechanical transduction means. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  13. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  14. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  15. Science in Society in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....

  16. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MACRA Resource Portal The Heart Failure Society of America, Inc. (HFSA) represents the first organized effort by heart failure experts from the Americas to provide a forum for all those interested ...

  17. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  18. AHP 28: Review: China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades.1 Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that China seeks to address them, are now widely recognized as having major impacts on the entire planet. Chinese demand has become a major factor in the pricing of the world's natural resources, while pollution from Chinese sources, particularly emissions of CO2 and other climate changing gasses, are having global consequences.

  19. Risk society and amoral morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Radica M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is the world of change. Modernity changed all aspects of life in width and depth. The changes are so fast and so many people have impression that they are trapped in a multitude of events that they cannot understand nor control. Instead of society as a system, we are talking about society as a network of different relationships of individuals and social groups. Instead of a harmonious society as a space in which the man resides, developing their potential and needs, we are talking about society as a threatening force that destroys everything in its way as 'Moloch' (Giddens, the 'risk society' (Beck in which the doctrine produced in equal measure the conditions for prosperity, but also the risks and destruction; the simulation of society (Baudrillard which glorifies lies and deceit. Instead of society as a community, we are talking about the disappearance of society (Popper. Can we, therefore, rationally understand and express the world, the world of modernity; this world of profound change resembles the maze in which we are lost and wandering without meaning? Starting with Ulrich Beck and his theory of the risk society, the author points out that the way in which the western civilization started, which is imposed as a mandatory form for the rest of the world, leads to amoral morality. The ideology of progress, which is irrational and without a clear vision and clearly defined values, pushes us into an uncertain future of numerous risks and ever growing individualism. Thus we come to the conviction that without common values, collective values, we are lost in this world of risk. Solidarity and trust are the key values for the stable community, but they are non-existent in the risk society dominated by individualism. In the period of uncertainty in the risk society, only religion provides a healthy basis for communal living. Therefore, the way out of the crisis is not in politics, which is placed at the service of the economy, but

  20. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-12-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  3. Optical Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Damien; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical computing architectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical computing, as well as some of the computational efficiencies of optical devices. We go on to discuss optical computing from the point of view of computational complexity theory, with the aim of putting some old, and some very recent, re...

  4. Babinet-Inverted Optical Nanoantenna Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yin-Xing; Wang, Lu-Lu; Yu, Li

    2018-01-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2016YFA0301300, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11374041, 11574035 and 11404030, and the State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications.

  5. [History of World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Cai; Deng, Liang-Yue; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    The history of the World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies (WFAS) was reviewed through summarizing the background and process of the establishment of WFAS. The establishment background was explained in different aspects, named the recovery of acupuncture-Moxibustion in the world, the successive setup of world acupuncture-Moxibustion organizations, the divergences of International Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, striding forward of China reform and opening policy as well as the attention of the World Health Organization (WHO), etc. The establishment of WFAS was introduced on the proposal from eight countries, the important time of the development of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 1984, divergences and consensus as well as the final phase. The official establishment of WFAS represents the global benefits of acupuncture-Moxibustion colleagues. It is the international organization of acupuncture and moxibustion, contributing to the promotion of acupuncture and moxibustion in the world.

  6. Thin film technologies for optoelectronic components in fiber optic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinati, Agostino

    1998-02-01

    'The Asian Routes Towards the Global Information Society' and 'Towards a Strategic Planning for the Global Information Society' will be the forum themes of 'Asia Telecom 97' and 'Telecom Interactice 97' events respectively, to be held by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in order to further telecommunication development around the world. International telecommunications network affects our life by keeping us in touch, bringing us world news and underpinning the global economy. Global tele-economy, global information infrastructure, global information society terms are more and more used to indicate the evolution towards an information- driven world where the access to information, communication and technologies is essential to the economic and social development in every country. Telecommunication industry can strongly contribute to this evolution together with broadcasting and computer industry, and fiber optic communications are expected to continue to grow up and share a relevant part of the total telecom market. In 1995 telecom market shown a 3.8 percent worldwide investment growth reaching a 545 billion value. According to 'Kessler Marketing Intelligence (KMI) Corp.' analysis of fiberoptics and multimedia market the amount of cabled fiber installed in U.S. will be around 11 million fiber-km in 1997 and 15 million fiber-km are predicted in the year 2000. Between 1995 and 1998 the undersea industry is estimated to deal with 13.9 billion as additional undersea cable systems investment in the global telecom network. In China beside satellite telecom stations and digital microwave systems 22 fiber optic backbones have been realized and another 23 systems are expected to be built in the Ninth Five-Year National Plan (1996 to approximately 2000) with a total length of nearly 30,000 sheat-km. The study, Fiber and Fiberoptic Cable Markets in China, recently released by KMI Corp. shows that fiber optic cable installation by MPT and other network operators

  7. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  8. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The meeting was organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society ((ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) participated additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcomed for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. This meeting was hosted by CERN, Genève. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in molecular spintronics, biophotonic micro manipulation of cells, gravitational waves, spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms, reflective optical systems for astronomical applications, trapped-ion interfaces for quantum networks and quantum photonics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: Applied Physics and Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics; Biophysics, Medical Physics and Soft Matter; Condensed Matter Physics; Correlated-Electron Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides; Earth, Atmosphere and Environmental Physics; Emergent phenomena in novel low-dimensional materials; History of Physics; Magnetism and Spintronics at the Nanoscale; Nuclear, Particle- and Astrophysics; Physics in Startups; Scientific Opportunities with SwissFEL; Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films; Theoretical Physics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  9. History of Neurology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinde

    2000-01-01

    @@In 1921, the first independent department of neurology was established in Beijing. Before 1949, all over China only 12 professional doctors lectured neurology in medical colleges. Only 30 medically trained personnel were engaged in the neurological departments. The neurological departments contained roughly 200 beds. The thesis on stroke was written by Zhang Shanlei and published in 1922. Author discussed the cerebral stroke on basis of Chinese traditional medicine and European medicine. The first Textbook of Neurology in China was written by Professor Cheng Yu-lin and was published in 1939. In 1952, the Chinese Society of Neurology and Psychiatry of Chinese Medical Association was established. In 1955, the first issue of the Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry was published.

  10. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  11. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  12. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  13. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  14. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  15. Powering China: reforming the power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yi Chong

    2002-06-01

    This, the first text to study the Chinese electric power industry in great detail, examines the ownership and the restructuring of the industry. The reform of the electric power industry is also seen as part of the wider economic development that has been taking place in China, thus providing fresh perspectives on the changes taking place in both the economy and society more generally. Presenting a wealth of extensive research on the subject, the book elucidates the power struggle between political and bureaucratic elite and explains the sensitive and volatile relationship between the central and provincial government against an increasingly complex global background. (Author)

  16. People's Republic of China's Contemporary Migration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bofulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades of significant political, economic and social transformations in the People’s Republic of China have had a profound impact on the Chinese society. The article addresses selected topics of Chinese migration that give a more nuanced understanding of migration processes and their contextualization within the contemporary Chinese society: the internal migration, emigration from China and international immigration to China. Migration from rural area towards urban eastern coast is one of the largest spatial movements in the human history, as well as a key component of the economic rise and subsequent social change. Emigration from China has, despite its relatively small volume, profoundly transformed local places of origin, a process that is not independent from the current international geopolitical situation. Immigration of international migrants to China is a relatively new phenomenon that puts the country on the map of migration destination countries for the first time in sixty years. The author concludes that the prevalent research perspectives on Chinese migration offer only a limited insight and suggests some possible alternative ways of analyzing this phenomenon.

  17. Information Era. Conscience Society. Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru TODOROI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ttendees will learn about the research and development which will be effected by scientists in the branch of Conscience Society creation in next decades of XXI century. Conscience is usually seen as linked to a morality inherent in all humans, to a beneficent universe and/or to divinity. It is increasingly conceived of as applying to the world as a whole and as a main feature of conscience society. It has motivated its numerous models, characteristics and functions of Conscience for creation the societal intelligent adaptable information systems in Conscience Society. The moral life is a vital part for the world to maintain a Conscience (civilized Society, so always keep in mind to: accept differences in others; respond promptly to others; leave some "free" time; care about others as if they were you; treat everyone similarly; never engage in violent acts; have an inner sense of thankfulness; have a sense of commitment. Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, for Society in general, and for Conscience Society in special. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence’ Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence’ Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence’ Creativity should be developed and they could be enhanced over the level of Natural Intelligence. The basic idea for present communication represent the research results communicated at the last two annual AESM conferences [1] [2].

  18. Proceedings of the thirty fifth international conference on contemporary trends in optics and optoelectronics: conference digest - extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Optics and optoelectronics are indispensable in all spheres of human activity, ranging from day to day needs to advanced scientific and technological pursuits and their applications for the benefit of the society. This conference covers the following topics: adaptive optics, biomedical optics and imaging, classical and quantum optics, fibre optics, optics for space applications, optical metrology and NDT, optical information processing, optical and optoelectronic materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  20. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  1. The Chinese Family in Transition: Implications for Education and Society in Modern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas C.

    This paper investigates the challenges facing the modern Chinese family in Taiwan. An understanding of how culture and family life interact in other cultures may be useful in helping to understand such interactions in one's own society. Confucianism and family stability have been two enduring features of the protracted civilizations of China. In…

  2. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  3. Introduction to "Bordering China: Modernity and Sustainability"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of Cross-Currents grew out of a Berkeley workshop with the same title. They may not have much in common in terms of genre, discipline, project, or objective. Yet they share an attention to the material aspects of China, both in “China proper” and in the Chinese borderlands, including issues of resources, environment, and ecology in studies of history, politics, society, and economy. The papers, in short, seek to invest a certain agency in environmental factors. They also seek to demonstrate the reward of such an approach. . . .

  4. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  5. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  6. Credentialism in Our Ignorant Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Michael

    All societies have procedures for selecting who will occupy important positions. The use of credentials characterizes our system of social selection, and our worship of them has created the following problems: an artificial demand for education, artificial restraints to learning, the overlooking of obsolescence, generational inversion (wherein the…

  7. Science in the Information Society

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    CERN will host the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference on Monday and Tuesday, focusing on how science-driven information and communication technologies can help close the digital divide. There will be an army of bodyguards at CERN at the beginning of December. CERN will not only host the official visits, but also around 500 scientists, politicians, and members of civil society who will descend on the Main Auditorium for the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) conference on 8-9 December. The RSIS conference hosted by CERN is a high-profile event focusing on how to make information technologies work for the greatest human benefit - a marked change from keeping a relatively low profile so far, making its discoveries available to all with little input in how they are applied. The RSIS, held 8-9 December at CERN, will be a Summit Event of the World Summit on the Information Society taking place at Palexpo on 9-13 December. RSIS participants will apply a scientific point of...

  8. Architecture in the network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Under the theme Architecture in the Network Society, participants were invited to focus on the dialog and sharing of knowledge between architects and other disciplines and to reflect on, and propose, new methods in the design process, to enhance and improve the impact of information technology...

  9. Adult Learning, Economy and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2010-01-01

    The article relates the different types of adult education, continuing education and training to an overall societal context of socio-economic modernization by focussing on the multiple functions of adult learning. Each of well known empirical categories is seen in its historical relation to mode...... embracing form which set a new framework for human participation in the new global society....

  10. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  11. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  12. Marketing and Society. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

  13. Sexism in modern American society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the authors of the article consider that modern life is still full of various stereotypes. One of the most controversial questions in this article is the issue of discrimination against women in contemporary American society, and it is hard to believe, because this country claims to be a main guarantor of the human rights and freedoms.

  14. Proceedings of the 11th China symposium on computer application in modern science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 11th China symposium on computer application in modern science and technology were held by China Electronics Society and Nuclear Electronics and Nuclear Detecting Technology branch Society of China Nuclear Society on september, 8th-12th, 2003 in Changdao of Shandong province 77 articles is collected in the proceedings. The contents included calculation and calculation method, software system and software application, data acquisition and control system, database, and management information system, general system, network application and grid calculation and its application system and so on

  15. OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 20 16), paper JT3A .41. V. Katkovnik, "Sparse phase retrieval from noisy data: variational formulation and...A. Wojdyla, G. Gunjala, J. Dong, M. Benk, A. Neureuther, K. Goldberg , and L. Waller, "Off-axis Aberration Estimation in an EUV Microscope Using...2016, (Optical Society of America, 20 16), paper JT3A.41. V. Katkovnik, "Sparse phase retrieval from noisy data: variational formulation and algorithms

  16. Development process of subjects society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.

  17. The China Dream and the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAM A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked "The China Dream" as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China's future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of 20 prominent "China dreamers" in terms of debates over the proper relationship between (1) politics and economics,(2) equality and hierarchy,(3) civilization and civility,and (4) nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary (i)deals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  18. Fluidic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  19. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  20. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  1. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  2. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  3. Roadmap on optical security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  4. INFORMATION SOCIETY EVOLUTION AND EFFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution and effects of the information society can be exemplified via many threads, both in hard and soft science, according to ones’ discipline and field. In this contribution, the speaker’s three decades of applied research acts as a vehicle to demonstrate development and impact via...... commercial product, national and international projects, and industry startups (including impactful third party research investigations) form the basis for discussion. Beyond this, a wider more generic perspective reflects on product adoption that illustrate todays’ contemporary e-society tendencies where...... recent influx and uptake of consumer-targeted artificial reality products point to society’s desire for alternative sensory experiences. Posited is how aligned with this desire there is a need for new ethical considerations in research as was found in the speaker’s research at the end of the 20th century...

  5. Leadership in an Egalitarian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393

  6. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  7. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  8. School in the knowledge society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

      Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet the chal......  Implementation of ICT in Danish and Nordic schools gradually moves from an industrial towards an emerging knowledge society school paradigm. Simultaneously it, digital literacy and the school's physical and social organization are constantly negotiated. In schools that proactively meet...... the challenges new designs for teaching and learning emerge while teacher-student relations transform and the children and young people's competencies are resources in the processes of learning. The chapter present research based on the proactive schools and exemplifies possible outlines of the school...

  9. Data science and digital society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cathy Yi-Hsuan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Data Science looks at raw numbers and informational objects created by different disciplines. The Digital Society creates information and numbers from many scientific disciplines. The amassment of data though makes is hard to find structures and requires a skill full analysis of this massive raw material. The thoughts presented here on DS2 - Data Science & Digital Society analyze these challenges and offers ways to handle the questions arising in this evolving context. We propose three levels of analysis and lay out how one can react to the challenges that come about. Concrete examples concern Credit default swaps, Dynamic Topic modeling, Crypto currencies and above all the quantitative analysis of real data in a DS2 context.

  10. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  11. Art education, Creativity and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Title: Art education, Creativity and Society Author: Michal Filip Department: Department of Art Education Supervisor: doc. PaedDr. Pavel Šamšula, CSc. Abstract: The dissertation addresses the issue of creativity in art education. The theoretical part of the work first explains the general foundation of the social context, which plays a key role in education focused on the development of creativity. The author outlines the historical roots of the relationship between art education and creativi...

  12. Collections XVII (The Malone Society)

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Siobhan; Giddens, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Collections XVII is the latest volume in the Malone Society's pioneering series of editions of miscellaneous documents relating to English theatre and drama before 1642. It is likely to be of special interest not only to early theatre historians but to those working on Tudor and Stuart court and civic culture, manuscript writing, household drama and early modern women's writing, as it publishes new material in each of these fields. The book includes items such as Revels Office accounts, a pla...

  13. Nordic society for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Damkjaer, A.

    1999-11-01

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

  14. Architecture for the silvering society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E; Rönn, Magnus

    Abstract In the context of the universal ageing process that is currently taking place in western society, the organization of architecture competitions that deals with space for dependent ageing comes of relevance. Based on the welfare regime theory, it could be argued that this type of architec......Abstract In the context of the universal ageing process that is currently taking place in western society, the organization of architecture competitions that deals with space for dependent ageing comes of relevance. Based on the welfare regime theory, it could be argued that this type...... by the Swedish Institute of Assistive Technology (SIAT), which administered the governmental allocation of 50 million SEK. The research material was accumulated by use of internet searches, interviews and questionnaires. The analysis applied pattern seeking and involved close reading, document analysis...... on ageing, eldercare and space. Consequently, architecture competitions that focus on the emerging ageing society could be seen as a restrained type of space for architects to digress. National welfare goals and existing means to achieve these goals act as inhibitors for an innovative spatial preparation...

  15. Inter-Society Research Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mamoru; Higuchi, Masahisa.

    1996-01-01

    World-wide tendencies and circumstances for nuclear power cannot be said to be moving full of sail with a favorable wind, due to nuclear power plant accidents and comparatively little economical benefit. The present Nuclear Power Plant situation is that some personnel understand a need for the development from the viewpoint of efficient energy usage in the world and environmental problems like global warming. At the same time others oppose future nuclear development from the viewpoint of safety problems and economic cost. These issues may end nuclear development worldwide. Nuclear development must be considered from an international viewpoint and other various aspects. Therefore, all countries concerned should cooperative in the adjustment of research carried out by each country. Nuclear power's future must be efficient in the utilization of limited resources (money, manpower and facilities). It is concluded that the ISRC should only discuss technical matters on nuclear engineering, independent from political influence. Societies agreeing to this idea, provide the ISRC with money and/or manpower and/or facilities. The ISRC will consist of a research program committee and research task forces. Members of the Research Program Committee are the chairmen of the research task forces who are also society representatives. The Committee will discuss research programs and resources. The research task forces will consist of one society representative chairman and specialists on the program

  16. The genus Retiboletus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Liang, Zhi-Qun; Wu, Gang; Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Zhu L; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Retiboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions and sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (tef1a). Six lineages are recovered among the collections studied. Five of these are documented and presented in the present paper, including three new species and two new combinations. The remaining species is not described due to the paucity of material. The specimens from China identified as "R. ornatipes" or "R. retipes" are in fact R. sinensis or R. kauffmanii, those labeled "R. griseus" are either R. fuscus or R. pseudogriseus A key to all known taxa of the genus is provided. Phylogenetic relationships of taxa within Retiboletus are partially resolved. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that allied species of Retiboletus between eastern Asia and North/Central America are common but there are no Retiboletus species common to both continents. Species of Retiboletus in Japan and southern China are conspecific or closely related. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  17. International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

  18. International co-operation through scientific and technical nuclear societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1983-01-01

    As an international organization the American Nuclear Society (ANS) has played an active role in international co-operation of nuclear technology exchange since its establishment in 1954. The ANS has a membership of over 13,000 individuals, of whom approximately 1200 live overseas in forty countries. To carry out the goals of the Society, local sections have been established. Currently the ANS maintains 48 local sections in the United States of America and 8 overseas local sections in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. The ANS also has formal agreements for co-operation with The Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN), the Israel Nuclear Society (INS), and the Chinese Nuclear Society (CNS). In 1977 the Japan Atomic Energy Society (JAES), the European Nuclear Society (ENS), and the ANS co-operation in sponsoring the First International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology (ICONTT I) in Tehran, Iran. In 1982, the Second International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology (ICONTT II), Buenos Aires, Argentina, was sponsored through the co-operation of the AATN, the ENS and the ANS. The ANS and its overseas sections sponsor the Pacific Basin Conference approximately every three years to discuss nuclear matters of concern to the countries around the Pacific Ocean. In 1981 the ANS held a Nuclear Technology Exhibit in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. In addition to meetings, the ANS is extensively involved in the co-operative exchange of applied nuclear research information through its publications. Nuclear Technology, a technical journal, is published monthly under joint ownership of the ENS and the ANS. The ANS has been a leader in voluntary standards development since 1958. In its dedication to the co-operation of international nuclear technology the ANS maintains a comprehensive international exchange of nuclear standards

  19. Aircraft Position Measurement Using Laser Beacon Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217Comparison of Solar Concentrators .’ Solar Energy, Vol. 10, p. 93, 1976. 7. Winston , R., ’Light Collection Within the Framework of Goemetrical Optics ...8217 J. Optical Society of Am., Vol. 60, p. 245, 1970. 8. Welford, W. T., tics of Nonimaging Concentrators . New York, Academic Press, T978. 9. Bracewell...helicopter pilot and the flight engineer on board the YO-3A. This thesis will concentrate on the development of the laser beacon, the detector optics

  20. CHINA’S ROLE AND STATUS IN INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY: SHOULD ITS RISE BE PERCEIVED AS A ‘THREAT’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Patricia Sterling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China has been making strides in numerous areas the entire world is still trying to grapple with and determine in what way China’s economic growth, active engagement and participation in the world system will affect nation states. Without a doubt, this has added increasing pressure and brought complications for China in continuously explaining its economic growth to a number of actors who perceive its growth and active participation in international society as a “threat”. In effect, China is still yet to define completely its new role in international society even today, and is still using its foreign policy principles and approaches in its participatory role in international society. Moreover, despite honoring its commitments to international society, it still plays a comparatively lesser role in the shaping and making of rules and regulations. Thus, rather than developing and creating new comprehensive policies geared towards shaping and making new rules and regulations to guide its action and roles in international society given that numerous changes have occurred in the world, such as more and more civil conflicts, humanitarian crisis and rogue leaders on the rise today, etc.; China needs to make changes to ensure that not only its voice is heard, but its rules and regulations are up-to-date, works and applicable along with its spoken voice. Based on these assumptions and debates, it is therefore reasonable to make an attempt to determine China’s role and status in its involvement in international society and its rise to become a global power, given its participation in international society which plays a significant part in the way the world perceives China’s rise. On this basis, the article intends to attempt to unravel China’s role and status in international society, the limitations and challenges China faces and the perception of its threat in becoming a “rising” global power.

  1. The exploration and practice of integrated innovation teaching mode in the Applied Optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhao, Huifu; Fu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the Ministry of Education of China attaches great importance to the reform of higher education quality. As an important link in the reform of higher education, curriculum development is bound to promote the development of "quality-centered connotative education". Zhejiang University, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Southern Airlines University and other colleges and universities carried out a full range of close cooperation, proposed integrated innovation teaching mode of the course based on network technology. Based on this model, the course of "Applied Optics" has been practiced for two years. The results show that the integrated innovation teaching mode can fully realize the integration amplification effect among multiple colleges and universities and the depth sharing all types of resources. Based on the principle of co-building and sharing, mutual help, comprehensively improve the teaching quality of domestic related courses and promote the comprehensive development of the curriculum to meet the needs of learning society.

  2. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  3. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  4. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  5. 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains selected and expanded contributions presented at the 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications in Beijing, China June 28 – 29, 2016. This conference series is organised by the Sino-Holland Space Optical Instruments Laboratory, a cooperation platform between China and the Netherlands. The symposium focused on key technological problems of optical instruments and their applications in a space context. It covered the latest developments, experiments and results regarding theory, instrumentation and applications in space optics. The book is split across five topical sections. The first section covers space optical remote sensing system design, the second advanced optical system design, the third remote sensor calibration and measurement. Remote sensing data processing and information extraction is then presented, followed by a final section on remote sensing data applications. .

  6. Images and society (or Images, Society and its Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Soto Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Common sense, the thinking of the people par excellence, asserts that: a picture is worth a thousand words. This is a big mistake. The images are not carriers of meanings. The images always go through three basic processes are: production, circulation and reception. These processes are always determined in the time and social space. They are always the result of multiple relationships (social, ideological, political, moral, religious, etc., established with them. Always there are so many elements beyond the image, which determines its meaning. The meaning of an image always depends on the relationships established with it in a historical time and space, socially and culturally determined. The images are never alone. To decrypt their meanings, you must first know the symbolic life of the societies in which they appear. Images do not have a single meaning because it depends on the historical and cultural geography which presents. The images always have a close relationship with the society they were born. The Muhammad cartoons not offend everyone equally.

  7. Information exchange of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan with nuclear societies worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao; Tomita, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) exchanges information with nuclear societies worldwide by intersocietal communication through international councils of nuclear societies and through bilateral agreements between foreign societies and by such media as international meetings, publications, and Internet applications

  8. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  9. Material civilization: things and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  10. Human, nature, society: synergetic dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. А. Вахнин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the major directions of development in the system ‘human – society – nature’ and their philosophical and scientific contemplation. The fundamental achievements of the society and responsibility of the mankind for its progressive development have been analyzed. The distinctive features of changes in human interactions with nature in the era of globalization and intensive progress in science and technology are presented. It is reported that numerous studies of human intervention in the biosphere processes prove that it can become the most profound anomaly in the development of not only the biosphere but of the entire Earth system, i.e. become a cause of such conditions on the Earth that would be alien to the general biological process in its ontological sense.  The consequence of this is a dissonance in the rate of social evolution (social form of matter and nature evolution (all pre-social forms of matter, which is translated into the disturbed ‘functional optimum’ of intensive development of the ‘human-society-nature’ system, a threat of environmental crisis and disturbances in the very biological nature  of a human. It is asserted that synergetics today still remains appealing due to a need to find adequate answers to global civilization challenges in the world living through a crisis. According to estimations, human synergetic activities come to the fore in the 21st century, it is especially true for small and large self-organizing groups, which shall not only live in harmony with the nature, but also successfully manage all different-level subsystems. It is shown that synergetics is a new dialogue between human and nature, a new synthesis of the human knowl- edge and wisdom. This is a new approach to gaining insight into the evolution crises, instability and chaos, to mastering complicated systems in the state of volatility.

  11. The outlook of innovative optical-electronic technologies implementation in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilina, Elena V.; Ryabichenko, Roman B.

    2005-06-01

    Information and telecommunication technologies (ITT) are already tool economic development of society and their role will grow. The first task is providing of information security of ITT that is necessary for it distribution in "information" society. The state policy of the leading world countries (USA, France, Japan, Great Britain and China) is focused on investment huge funds in innovative technologies development. Within the next 4-6 years the main fiber-optic transfer lines will have data transfer speed 40 Gbit/s, number of packed channels 60-200 that will provide effective data transfer speed 2,4-8 Tbit/s. Photonic-crystalline fibers will be promising base of new generation fiber-optic transfer lines. The market of information imaging devices and digital photo cameras will be grown in 3-5 times. Powerful lasers based on CO2 and Nd:YAG will be actively used in transport machinery construction when producing aluminum constructions of light rolling-stock. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) will be base for energy saving and safety light sources used for vehicles and indoor lighting. For example, in the USA cost reducing for lighting will be 200 billion dollars. Implementation analysis of optic electronic photonic technologies (OPT) in ground and aerospace systems shows that they provide significant increasing of traffic safety, crew and passengers comfort with help of smart vehicles construction and non-contact dynamic monitoring both transport facilities (for example, wheel flanges) and condition of rail track (road surface), equipping vehicles with night vision equipment. Scientific-technical programs of JSC "RZD" propose application of OPT in new generation systems: axle-box units for coaches and freight cars monitoring when they are moved, track condition analysis, mechanical stress and permanent way irregularity detection, monitoring geometric parameters of aerial contact wire, car truck, rail and wheel pair roll surface, light signals automatic detection from

  12. Optical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  13. Modern industrial society and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Chang Sun; Kim, Tae Yu; Moon, Sang Heup; Lee, Hwa Yeong; Han, Min Gu; Hyeon, Byeong Gu

    1992-03-01

    This book starts with introduction and covers modern society and energy, economy and energy, energy system(nonrecurring energy-coal, oil, natural gas, atomic energy and renewable energy), and future energy. It explains in detail essence of energy, energy trend of the world and Korea, definition of resources, energy policy, characteristics of coal, combustion of coal, refinement of oil, oil products, development of atomic energy, necessity and problem of atomic energy, solar energy, sunlight generation system, fuel cell system, and fusion reactor development.

  14. Security and the networked society

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book examines technological and social events during 2011 and 2012, a period that saw the rise of the hacktivist, the move to mobile platforms, and the ubiquity of social networks. It covers key technological issues such as hacking, cyber-crime, cyber-security and cyber-warfare, the internet, smart phones, electronic security, and information privacy. This book traces the rise into prominence of these issues while also exploring the resulting cultural reaction. The authors' analysis forms the basis of a discussion on future technological directions and their potential impact on society. T

  15. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  16. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  17. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re...

  18. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  19. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society together with the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society and the Swiss Physical Society was organized together with both national societies of Astronomy and Astrophysics (SSAA and ÖGAA) at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle, atomic and molecular physics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear, particle- and astro particle physics; physics teachers; acoustics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; medical, bio and environmental physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; careers in physics. There were special sessions on thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. In addition to the regular program, an Energy Day (Energietag) with several parallel sessions on recent topics of energy generation, -transport and -storage was jointly organized by the Energy and Industry Subdivisions of the Austrian Physical Society and by the Johannes Kepler Universität Linz. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  1. Searching for Women in Korean Scientific Societies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    III. Female Participation in S&E Societies. 16. ▫ the Committee for Women in KOFST (the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies) in 2012. Size of Responding Societies. ▫. Monitored gender ratio of committee members of its member societies in. Science and engineering. 52. 60. 80. 100. 120. Total Number.

  2. Participation of women in neurochemistry societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Marjorie B

    2002-11-01

    Women have made important scientific contributions to the field of neurochemistry, and they have also been leaders in neurochemical societies throughout the world. Here I discuss women's involvement and leadership in six neurochemistry societies: American Society for Neurochemistry, Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, International Society for Neurochemistry, European Society for Neurochemistry, Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry. The number of women who have been active in these societies and the level of their activity vary considerably. Neurochemical societies in the Western hemisphere, i.e., the American and the Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, have much greater numbers of women who have held office, been on council, or engaged in other leadership activities than in the rest of the world. The limited participation of women in the Japanese Neurochemistry Society relates to Japanese cultural views and was not unexpected. However, the relatively few women leaders in the International Society for Neurochemistry was a surprise. The European Society had a somewhat better record of female participation than did the International Society. The reasons for these differences are partly cultural, but factors related to when each society was formed, how it is organized, and how elections are structured undoubtedly play a role. Further analysis of these observations would be of interest from a sociological and a women's studies point of view.

  3. Rising Dragon: Deterring China in 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    method of choosing its leaders provides a continuity of core ideological beliefs that is helpful in determining what China’s leaders value. This...model to evaluate predictions about what China would look like in the military, political, economic sectors in 2030. 17    Confucianism, Taoism ...ritual, and social hierarchy [are the] means to maintain order in Chinese society.”30 Taoism , an alternative yet complimentary school of thought

  4. Consumption and corpulence in China: A consumer segmentation study based on the food perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Dagevos, H.; He, Y.; Lans, van der I.A.; Zhai, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines two of today¿s most salient phenomena in contemporary China: the remarkable rise of China as a consumer society and the related mounting overweight epidemic, which now includes about 200 million overweight people. Relatively little is understood about the many factors which

  5. "As Far as the Government Is a Good Government, It Is Democratic": Citizenship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiudi

    2015-01-01

    The concept of citizenship is mainly viewed as a Western construct. This article argues an understanding of citizenship education in China not only simply as a grounding in schooling and procedural knowledge of systems of Chinese government but, more broadly, whether in schools or society, whether in China or overseas, that develops dispositions,…

  6. Relationships among healthy lifestyle beliefs and body mass index in urban China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; He, Y.; Zhang, X.Y.; Lans, van der I.A.; Zhai, F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption is a major driving force in China's economy. The consumer society is particularly emerging in the more urbanized and affluent regions in China. Given the rise of consumerism on the one hand, and the rise of overweight and obesity on the other, this study explored whether the

  7. China: Past and Present. A Supplemental Activity Unit on Chinese Culture for Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Lynn

    Designed as a supplement to the classroom text, this unit contains 14 lessons on Chinese culture and society. Students are encouraged to compare the cultures of traditional and modern China as well as those of China and the United States. Materials are divided into two sections. The first section contains lesson outlines, including teaching plans,…

  8. Programmable optical waveform reshaping on a picosecond timescale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manurkar, Paritosh; Jain, Nitin; Kumar Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the temporal reshaping of optical waveforms in the telecom wavelength band using the principle of quantum frequency conversion. The reshaped optical pulses do not undergo any wavelength translation. The interaction takes place in a nonlinear chi((2)) waveguide using ...... for quantum communications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  9. Nuclear Research and Society: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the last decades, the ever growing use of technology in our society has brought along the need to reflect on the related impact on the ecosystem and on society as such. There is growing evidence that the complexity of issues of risk governance and ethics coming with applications of nuclear technology, fossil fuels, human cloning and genetically modified crops cannot be tackled by pure rational technological and economical reasoning alone. In order to provide an answer to the concerns of civil society, this complexity needs a transdisciplinary approach, taking into account social and ethical aspects. Starting from the insight that a full understanding of the benefits and risks of applications of radioactivity and nuclear technology requires also an understanding of the context of application and a sense for the social and ethical aspects of the situation, SCK-CEN started in 1999 with its PISA research programme (Programme of Integration of Social Aspects into nuclear research). The aim of the research was (and still is) to give the nuclear researchers more insight into the complex social and ethical aspects of nuclear applications and to shed at the same time new lights on how to organise in a more effective way the dialogue and interaction with civil society. Originally, the programme was set up along thematic research tracks, involving nuclear scientists, engineers, philosophers and social scientists, and focussing on specific projects carried out by way of PhD- or post-doc research in cooperation with universities. The research tracks focussed on themes such as Sustainability and nuclear development, Transgenerational ethics of radioactive waste management, Legal aspects and liability, Risk governance and Expert culture. In addition to this thematic research, PISA organised reflection groups in interaction with universities, authorities and private actors. These interdisciplinary discussion sessions aimed to exchange knowledge and views on typical

  10. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  11. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  12. Poliomyelitis eradication in China: 1953-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liang, Xiao-Feng; Luo, Hui-Ming; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    Poliomyelitis has historically been endemic in China and has been considered an important cause of disability and death. We reviewed strategies and measures of poliomyelitis control and eradication from 1953 to 2012. Data from notifiable disease and routine immunization reporting systems and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance were analyzed. About 20 000 poliomyelitis cases were reported annually in the prevaccine era. During 1965-1977, live, attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) was administered to children through annual mass campaigns in the winter, and the number of poliomyelitis cases started to decline. A cold chain system was established during 1982, and OPV coverage increased during the early stage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization, from 1978 to 1988. Between 1989 and 1999, routine immunization was strengthened, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted, and the AFP surveillance system was established. China reported a last indigenous poliomyelitis case in 1994 and was certified as free of polio in 2000. To maintain its polio-free status, China kept >90% coverage of 3 doses of OPV, conducted SIAs in high-risk areas, and maintained high-quality of AFP surveillance. China succeeded in stopping the outbreak in Xinjiang in 2011. China's polio-free status was achieved and maintained through strengthening routine immunization and implementing SIAs and AFP surveillance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The China Dream and the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAM; A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked"The China Dream"as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China’s future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of20 prominent"China dreamers"in terms of debates over the proper relationship between(1)politics and economics,(2)equality and hierarchy,(3)civilization and civility,and(4)nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary ideals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  14. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other advantages of optics include low manufacturing costs, immunity to ... It is now possible to control atoms by trapping single photons in small, .... cement, and optical spectrum analyzers. ... risk of noise is further reduced, as light is immune to electro- ..... mode of operation including management of large multimedia.

  15. Features and Mechanisms for Ensuring Social and Political Stability in Contemporary Chinese Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Алексеевич Сущенко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features and mechanisms of ensuring and maintaining social and political stability in China. Analyzes the scientific theoretical foundation in the study of this phenomenon, developed by Russian and Chinese scientists. Political stability in contemporary China is understood as a precondition for effective social and economic development. The paper studied the treatment of leadership in China from different generations to tools approval of social and political stability as a way of implementing the modernization program of the political course. It has been found that maintaining the political stability of the society in modern China made possible by the harmonization of public relations, flexible national policy, economic growth, trends in socio-economic development and the use of ideological tools. The author studied the basic mechanisms of the stability of the political system of China at the present stage. It is concluded that a stable political development in contemporary China strengthens the regime and the preservation of the monopoly of the CCP to political power.

  16. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, D F

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Optics gives a comprehensive coverage of developments in quantum optics over the past years. In the early chapters the formalism of quantum optics is elucidated and the main techniques are introduced. These are applied in the later chapters to problems such as squeezed states of light, resonance fluorescence, laser theory, quantum theory of four-wave mixing, quantum non-demolition measurements, Bell's inequalities, and atom optics. Experimental results are used to illustrate the theory throughout. This yields the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of experiment and theory in quantum optics in any textbook. More than 40 exercises helps readers test their understanding and provide practice in quantitative problem solving.

  17. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  18. Student chapters: effective dissemination networks for informal optics and photonics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dirk; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Van Overmeire, Sara

    2009-06-01

    Professional societies sponsor student chapters in order to foster scholarship and training in photonics at the college and graduate level, but they are also an excellent resource for disseminating photonics knowledge to pre-college students and teachers. Starting in 2006, we tracked the involvement of SPIE student chapter volunteers in informal pre-college education settings. Chapter students reached 2800, 4900 and 11800 pre-college students respectively from 2006-2008 with some form of informal instruction in optics and photonics. As a case study, the EduKit, a self-contained instruction module featuring refractive and diffractive micro-optics developed by the European Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics (NEMO), was disseminated through student chapters in Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States. We tracked the movement of this material through the network, up to the student-teacher feedback stage. The student chapter network provided rapid dissemination of the material, translation of the material into the local language, and leveraged existing chapter contacts in schools to provide an audience. We describe the student chapter network and its impact on the development of the EduKit teaching module.

  19. Nanotechnology and the Nanodermatology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Adnan; Friedman, Adam

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing discipline with enormous promise for consumers and patients. Currently, it is entering an inflection point in its growth phase--both in the number and diversity of products developed or soon to be available for society and medicine. It is no surprise that a vast number of patents have been issued for nanotechnology in the cosmetics arena as a means of enhancing topical delivery of a broad range of over-the-counter products. In fact, the skin is the first point of contact for a whole host of nanomaterials, ranging from topical preparations, articles of clothing and household products, to sporting goods and industrial manufactured goods. Very little is known about the safety aspects of the nano-engineered materials that are being released in the environment, as well as those in consumer and healthcare products.

  20. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  1. Fluidity in the networked society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2011-01-01

    In the globalized economies e-permeation has become a basic condition in our everyday lives. ICT can no longer be understood solely as artefacts and tools and computer-related literacy are no longer restricted to the ability to operate digital tools for specific purposes. The network society......, and therefore also eLearning are characterized by fluidity and the key competence for social actors in this ever changing e-permeated environment is the ability to cope with change - or Castells’ conceptualisation self-programming. Castells’ theory has influenced international definitions of future key...... competencies. Both lifelong learning and digital literacy understood as "bildung" have emerged as central for the definitions of and standards for future key competencies. However, definitions and standards only tell us about the desired destination and outcome of digital competence building. They tell us...

  2. The sustainability of our society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.

    1997-01-01

    German society is in a crisis characterized by five criteria: the German unification process, globalization, social achievements, a crisis of meaning and of leadership. Five problems must be solved if the crisis is to be overcome: A new attitude to work and to technology must be found. After reunification, there is need for thorough renewal. The democratic system must give answers to the essential questions of social life and life in a community. A new leading elite with imagination, initiative, and responsibility for the 21st century must be found. What is needed, in a way, is the ethical equivalent of war and defeat. The present crisis should be the cause, and the reason, for seizing and opportunity it includes. (orig.) [de

  3. Development Strategy for Slovak society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikula, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this book authors analyse the present state of economy as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will mainly address energy security, diversification of energy sources, renewable energy sources and energy savings. The strategic goal is to transform energy into a form that will ensure long competition-capable and reliable supply of all forms of energy, taking into account sustainable development, security of supply and technical security. The strategy of energy security of Slovakia in 2030 is to achieve a competitive energy industry, ensuring safe, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices with regard to consumer protection, environmental protection, sustainable development, security of supply and technical security.

  4. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...... altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...... to reinvent class analysis. The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu in many ways introduces an appropriate paradigm, and the paper therefore critically discusses Bourdieu's concept of class. Since the "Bourdieuan" class concept is primarily epistemological, i.e. a research strategy more than a theory, empirical...

  5. Technic, environmental and risk society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, Luis Jair

    2009-01-01

    Throughout modernity, man goes from feeling subjugated by nature to feeling its master. For this, it relies on rationalism, which is inherent to the development of modern science and technique as the most prominent expression of progress. And furthermore, along with this feature of modern man, appears the individual who claims for individual freedom and launches competition with other individuals. The Nation State was configured within the social background of this age as were, together with it, political economy and private property which shaped Capitalism, whose main goal is individual accumulation. This new form of social order favored the growth of the population from 500 million inhabitants in 1500 to 6 billion in 2000 industrial development which implies a growing demand of mainly fossil fuels, an intensive trade that stimulates commercial interchange between different regions, and, as a consequence, long distance transport which also requires high energy consumption. Industry and trade generate modern cities with all their intrinsic demands: an intensive exploitation of natural resources which led to an overload of natural cycles and to a huge overload of drains for the disposal of solid, liquid and gas waste. This caused an alarming ecological deterioration which led to a civilization crisis configured within the so called risk society. This overwhelming deterioration demands a redefinition of the analytical approach of science in order to embrace a systemic view which will center on the complexity of nature as a way to compensate the spoiled operational balance of biosphere, and of the relation society/nature. It is also necessary to join the damaged communities together with the groups of technicians in the construction of the most feasible solutions in what has been called post normal technique.

  6. Marx, Production, Society and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lull, Vicente

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.

    La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.

  7. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Wei, Li-Juan; Liu, Jun-Tian; Li, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qing-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented.

  8. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  9. American Vacuum Society: A multidisciplinary organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This presentation is based upon that which was to be given by the Society President at the 25th National Symposium of the American Vacuum Society, 29 November 1978, in San Francisco, California. The talk to the Society by its President was an innovation of the 1979 Program Committee. The intention is that such a presentation be given each year at the awards acceptance plenary session along with those of the Welch and, when appropriate, Gaede--Langmuir awards. To be discussed are the recent highlights of Society activity, the direction the Society is taking, and an example of the multidisciplinary activities of Society members

  10. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert J; Lin, Lawrence H

    1971-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  12. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  13. Enhancing Optical Communications with Brand New Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morioka, Toshio; Awaji, Yoshinari; Ryf, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have often been considered to offer effectively infinite capacity to support the rapid traffic growth essential to our information society. However, as demand has grown and technology has developed, we have begun to realize that there is a fundamental limit to fiber capacity of ~ 100...... Tb/s per fiber for systems based on conventional single-core single-mode optical fiber as the transmission medium. This limit arises from the interplay of a number of factors including the Shannon limit, optical fiber nonlinearities, the fiber fuse effect, as well as optical amplifier bandwidth...... new fibers for space-division multiplexing and mode-division multiplexing....

  14. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  15. Training system of knowledge society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, M.; Ionescu, T.B.; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, C.; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper aims at presenting the results of Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a training system of knowledge society in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning platform and several CBT objects/courses were worked out. The conceived E-Learning solution is called CBT Center and it is a complete system offering a variety of teaching and learning services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quiz, marks, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBT Center is the 'Thermodynamics'. CBT technology implementation at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which are part of the educational process; there is no space problem any more; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problem will decrease, while more and more disciplines will be transformed as CBT objects. (authors)

  16. Gender, aging, health and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, H L

    2001-10-01

    There are more women than men at any elderly age group. Depression and osteoporosis are the commonest problems in elderly subjects. Some problems specific to males are hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction and enlargement of prostrate and to females are post-menopausal disturbances, urinary incontinence and breast and lung cancer. However, problems of special concern in both male and female elderly are malnutrition, falls and cognitive dysfunction. Men and women in general suffer from the same sorts of health problems but the frequency of these problems as well as the speed of the onset of death distinguishes them. Infact cultural and social forces act to separate the sexes in their personal health ethos and their sick propensity. The impact of old age on women is different from that of men because of differences in their status and role in society. This is specially so because proportion of widows in 60+ age group is considerably higher than that of widowers. Sexuality is often overlooked as a health status particularly in elderly women. Clinicians should recognise the importance of sexual functions to the overall health of older persons particularly women. Religious participation and involvement are associated with positive mental and physical health. Family life is the key to the health of elders specially older men. Lack of social support increases the risk of mortality and supportive relationships are associated with lower illness rates, faster recovery rates and higher levels of health care behavior.

  17. Sociodemographic aspect of society evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Viktorovna Nifanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors have classified theories of human aging, having emphasized the theory of «cellular death» on the basis of generalization of an extensive theoretical and empirical material of domestic and foreign researchers. The main theories of specific duration of human life, the biological and social and economic criteria and health factors of causes of death and longevity are briefly presented. The achievements of the genetics of a human body aging are discussed. In the article, the author stopped on a problem of the human genofond stability and obvious delay of its biological evolution in the historical development. Despite a deep socialization of humanity, people remains in captivity of biological life, obey all the laws of the biological organization including those that keep it and provide it to following generations. The biological factors influencing reproduction of the population, unlike social factors, are more stable in time. Various socioeconomic and physiographic conditions interacted for a long time with biological factors, determine a certain life expectancy. In the modern conditions for forward development of society, the special value gets a question of the human potential realization — gold fund of of manufacture, science, culture. With a «century of biology» which starts with the development of molecular biology, genetics, biological cybernetics, the science has new opportunities for effective adaptation of human to new conditions

  18. Building a low carbon society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graca Carvalho, Maria da; Bonifacio, Matteo; Dechamps, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the strategy of the European Union in the field of energy and climate change. At the heart of the package are three commitments to be met by 2020: to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20%, to ensure that 20% of final energy consumption is met with renewable sources, and to raise energy efficiency by 20%. This strategy is based on the scientific consensus drawn by the International Panel for Climate Change, and implements the EU political strategy to limit the anthropogenic temperature rise to no more than 2 o C. A Directive for the geological storage of CO 2 is another integral part of the package. This should enable the development and subsequent deployment of zero emission power plants. From a research and technology perspective, the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) lists several energy technologies which will be required to reconcile economic growth and a vision of a decarbonised society. The EU climate and energy package and the SET-Plan are part of the solution both to the climate crisis and to the current economic and financial crisis. They represent a green 'new deal' which will enhance the competitiveness of EU industry in an increasingly carbon-constrained world.

  19. European Planning for an Information Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Falch, Morten

    1996-01-01

    Article analysing the different programmes and plans for the development of information societies in Europe.......Article analysing the different programmes and plans for the development of information societies in Europe....

  20. impact of cooperative societies in national development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    affected all the facets and segments of the. Nigerian society and .... They take decisions and make policies ... purchase, supply, marketing and hulling of such goods and ..... formation and promotion of cooperative societies. It undertook to ...

  1. CERN to host conference on information society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN will host a conference on the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) in December. This conference will focus on ensuring that the information society benefits people to the greatest extent possible, especially in developing regions.

  2. High energy physics in our society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozon, M.

    1984-09-01

    General survey of interactions between elementary particle physics and our society. The problem is studied for different aspects of our society: men and education, economics, technics, politics, international affairs, honours, myths.. [fr

  3. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    ..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...

  4. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  5. Adolf Friedrich Fercher: a pioneer of biomedical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2017-11-01

    Adolf Friedrich Fercher, an outstanding pioneer of biomedical optics, passed away earlier this year. He was a brilliant and visionary researcher who pioneered various fields of biomedical optics, such as laser speckle flowgraphy, tissue interferometry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of OCT, this paper reviews and commemorates Fercher's pioneering work. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Contextualizing Female Infanticide: Ming China in Early Modern European Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Sachdev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of the early modern European response to China was an emphasis on the fabulous wealth and social organization of Chinese society. Despite their knowledge of the wide-scale abandonment and killing of newborns within the society, and despite the categorization of infanticide as a great moral sin by the early Christian church, the European travelers to China commented on infanticide dispassionately, without any moral revulsion, and continued to project an image of China as a virtual utopia for its residents. One reason for the detached descriptions of abandonment of children and infanticide in China might be the fact that conditions with regard to children in Europe were no superior to those in China and were probably far worse; the vast numbers of abandoned and dead children in Europe blunted the edge of criticism with regard to Chinese customs. Another might be that infanticide was practiced within Europe contemporaneously, even though the killing of newborn children there was practiced much more surreptitiously, and public opinion had firmed up connections among single women, illegitimacy, concealment, and murder. However, the dire social circumstances within their own countries had not prevented the Europeans from soundly criticizing and morally reproving cannibalism or infanticide in other cultures. In order to understand their acceptance of this “sinful” practice in China, we must look elsewhere.

  7. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  8. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  9. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  10. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  11. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  12. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  13. Nationalistic Education in a Global Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The appropriateness of nationalistic education in the modern global society is questioned since nation-states may be superceded by supra-national or global structures. Schools provide a place for society to prepare younger generations to cherish and protect the interests of that society. Human history reflects this trend as it moves from parental…

  14. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  15. Features of social modernization of Kazakhstan society

    OpenAIRE

    Southbaeva S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of social modernization of the Kazakhstan society is carried out. The article provides information on sociological analysis, analysis of normative legal acts aimed at improving the social modernization of Kazakhstan society. The level of legal culture and spiritual and moral values of the Kazakh society are singled out. Further development prospects for improving social modernization are given.

  16. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  17. Feature Issue Introduction: Bio-Optics in Clinical Applications, Nanotechnology, and Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrom, Robert J.; Almutairi, Adah; Hillman, Elizabeth M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Bio-Optics in Clinical Applications, Nanotechnology, and Drug Discovery,” which combines three technical areas from the 2010 Optical Society of America (OSA), Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) Topical Meeting held on 11–14 April in Miami, FL and includes contributions from conference attendees.

  18. South China Sea Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  19. China's renewables law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  20. Nuclear Parity with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  1. Society Catalog Information - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00963-001 Description of data contents Information of the academic societies in Jap...tion URL Website URL for the society Name Society name Abbreviation Abbreviation for the societ...y name Class Classification for the society Membership fee Membership fee Academy remarks Acad...me for the academic journal published by the society Academic journal: Language of text Language of text for

  2. Globalization, Values Education, and School Music Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Ho, Wai-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines music education's legitimation of values as a means of preparing students for entry into the new "knowledge society" of the People's Republic of China in a global age. It explores the ways in which values education relates to the teaching of both musical and non-musical meanings in the dual context of nationalism and…

  3. Trajectories for greening in china : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P

    This edited volume argues that China's development poses the greatest ever environmental challenge for the modern world in terms of speed, size and scarcity. The volume is organized around the greening of the Chinese state and society: can the inclusion of sustainable development principles into

  4. New organic materials for optics: optical storage and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, F.

    1996-01-01

    New organic materials have received considerable attention recently, due to their easy preparation and different variety. The most application fields in optics are optical storage and nonlinear optics. In optical storage the organic dyes have been used for example, in record able and erasable compact disks (CD-R, CD-E) nonlinear optical effects, such as nonlinear optical absorption, second and third order optical absorption, second and third order optical nonlinearities, can be applied for making optical limiters, optical modulators, as well as laser second and third harmonic generations. Due to high value of optical absorption and optical nonlinearity organic materials are always used as thin films in optical integration. In this paper the new experimental results have been presented, and future development has been also discussed. (author)

  5. Should Latin America Fear China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  6. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...

  7. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  8. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  9. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  10. [Study on discourse right construction of China's medical aid to Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ying, Zhou; Yao, Deng; Kun, Yang

    2016-11-24

    To analyze the discourse right construction of China's medical aid to Africa, so as to provide evidences for improving the effect and sustainable development of China's medical aid to Africa. The documents of the discourse right that China constructed in the medical aid to Africa were selected at different periods as discourse samples. The achievement and deficiency were analyzed from four aspects, namely confident, charismatic, influential, and dominant. China's medical team made much in the discourse right construction in their aid to Africa, but some China's medical team members were still too cautious and too low-key. China's medical team gained the trust of the people of Africa, but the language communication difficulties still hampered in China's medical aid to Africa. Chinese medical team were widely praised by the African society, but in the west, some African media, even China's media still neglected to report China's doctors. China's international discourse right were greatly improved, but western countries still dominated the public opinion. China should refer to the actual situation of medical aid to Africa to strengthen the construction of discourse right.

  11. Religious Renaissance in China Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Madsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.

  12. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiqun; Sun Chengye

    2004-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  13. Focus on the Development of Natural Gas Hydrate in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrate, also known as combustible ice, and mainly composed of methane, is identified as a potential clean energy for the 21st century. Due to its large reserves, gas hydrate can ease problems caused by energy resource shortage and has gained attention around the world. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and development of gas hydrate as well as discussing its status and future development trend in China and abroad. We then analyze its opportunities and challenges in China from four aspects, resource, technology, economy and policy, with five forces model and Politics Economics Society Technology method. The results show China has abundance gas hydrate resource; however, backward technologies and inadequate investment have seriously hindered the future development of gas hydrate; thus, China should establish relevant cooperation framework and intuitional arrangement to attract more investment as well as breaking through technical difficulties to commercialization gas hydrate as soon as possible.

  14. China building energy consumption: Situation, challenges and corresponding measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the biggest parts of total national energy consumption (TNEC), building energy consumption (BEC) catches public eyes and has been regarded as a crucial problem of the current society. For the past 20 years, BEC in china has been increasing at a high speed. To curb the rapid growing of BEC, china has enforced and implemented a series of policies. These include enforcing BEC constraints on new building projects, promoting more environment friendly building designs, establishing a more sophisticated legislation for building energy conservation, and increasing the total budget in the area of BEC control. This article analyzed china BEC situation and the challenges. As the main point, the measures required by China government to improve building energy efficiency were introduced as well.

  15. Nationalistic vs. Global Education: An Examination of National Bias in the Schools and Its Implications For a Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack L.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the history of nationalistic education, describes examples of it in Poland, Germany, France, Germany, Russia, and China, and examines selected requirements related to it in the United States. Several approaches for making nationalist education more relevant to a global society are presented. (Author/RM)

  16. Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Developing Creativity Education in Four Asian Chinese Societies: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Lau, Sing

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to compare and contrast educational policies on creativity education in four Asian Chinese societies, namely mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. It establishes five criteria on creativity education policy, including policies regarding legislation on creativity education, definitions of creativity, standard…

  17. Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

  18. Loess deposits since early Pleistocene in northeast China and implications for desert evolution in east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Zhang, Xujiao; Tian, Mingzhong; Liu, Ru; He, Zexin; Qi, Lin; Qiao, Yansong

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits and deserts are regarded as coupled geological systems and loess deposits on the periphery of deserts can often be used to reconstruct desert evolution. Previous studies of desert evolution in Asia are mainly concentrated in northwest China and the China Loess Plateau, and little is known about long-term desert evolution in east China. In this study, we selected the Sishijiazi loess section in the Chifeng area in northeast China to study the long-term evolution of the desert in east China. A high-resolution magnetostratigraphy combined with optically stimulated luminescence dating indicated that the age of the section base is approximately 1.02 Ma. The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary is at the depth of 39.8 m in loess unit L8, and the upper boundary of the Jaramillo Subchron is at the depth of 60.8 m in paleosol S10. The results of grain-size analysis indicate a coarsening grain-size trend in the past 1.0 Ma. In addition, based on grain-size variations, the desert evolution in east China since ∼1.0 Ma can be divided into three stages: stability from 1.0 to 0.8 Ma, desert recession from 0.8 to 0.5 Ma, and gradual expansion since 0.5 Ma. Our results further indicate that the evolution of desert in east China was mainly controlled by changes in global ice volume, and that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have had an additional effect.

  19. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.

    2013-01-01

    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  20. Education in an Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  1. Ten-year publication trends in dermatology in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Mauro, Jacqueline A; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    China has been experiencing huge changes in all aspects, including dermatologic research, since its reform in 1978. However, it is not known how the economic and intellectual development has influenced the publication trends in the field of dermatology, which could mirror the scientific development in other medical disciplines. In the present study, we analyzed publication trends from dermatology departments in mainland China from 2002 to 2011. All publication data were obtained from www.pubmed.com. Only papers published from dermatology departments in mainland China were used for analysis. The number of publications increased 10-fold over this 10-year period. A total of 1231 articles were published in English in 251 journals between 2002 and 2011. A total of 129 journals published only one paper from dermatology departments in mainland China. Over 60% of articles were original research, and 21.7% were case reports. Among these 251 journals, foremost was the Journal of Clinical Experimental Dermatology, which published 5.9% of all papers from mainland China; 2.7% of papers were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The number of publications positively correlated with the changes in gross domestic product per capita during the study period. These results suggest that the number of publications in the dermatology field has increased markedly in mainland China over the last 10 years. This dramatic increase in publications could be attributed, at least partially, to the significant improvement in economic conditions in mainland China. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Structures and Logic of EP Implementation and Administration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Grunow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes empirical observations gathered during a research project on the implementation of environmental protection (EP policies in China. The project focused on local EP in both urban and rural areas. Policy field analysis was used as a conceptual framework for structuring the observations. The paper develops in three main steps discussing the following topics: 1 Collective problems within the policy field of EP show that EP issues in general are unlike those of other policy fields. Official EP policies in China today resemble those of other countries – but they are separating issues and responsibilities, making local implementation very demanding. 2 China lags behind in its willingness and ability to implement these policies – leading to implementation gaps. To explore the causes and consequences, specific sites in China are described in an extended look at local implementation structures. It was found that although policies in China are basically the same everywhere, the structures for implementing them and the quality of their implementation vary widely with regard to resources, organization, coordination, staff qualifications, personnel placement, and other aspects. 3 Not all of the challenges hampering local implementation of environmental policies were China-specific; however, some of those which are can be described as the macro-context: an ineffective rule of law, insufficient involvement of civil society, and complicated macro-structures of public administration prevent a generally high level of successful EP implementation in China.

  3. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Han Lee; Mack Shelley; Ching-Ti Liu; Yen-Chang Chang

    2018-01-01

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Surve...

  4. Statistical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J. W.

    This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

  5. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  6. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  7. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  8. NASA Technologies that Benefit Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Applications developed on Earth of technology needed for space flight have produced thousands of spinoffs that contribute to improving national security, the economy, productivity and lifestyle. Over the course of it s history, NASA has nurtured partnerships with the private sector to facilitate the transfer of NASA-developed technology. For every dollar spent on research and development in the space program, it receives back $7 back in the form of corporate and personal income taxes from increased jobs and economic growth. A new technology, known as Liquid-metal alloy, is the result of a project funded by NASA s Jet Propulsion Lab. The unique technology is a blend of titanium, zirconium, nickel, copper and beryllium that achieves a strength greater than titanium. NASA plans to use this metal in the construction of a drill that will help for the search of water beneath the surface of Mars. Many other applications include opportunities in aerospace, defense, military, automotive, medical instrumentation and sporting goods.Developed in the 1980 s, the original Sun Tigers Inc sunlight-filtering lens has withstood the test of time. This technology was first reported in 1987 by NASA s JPL. Two scientists from JPL were later tasked with studying the harmful effects of radiation produced during laser and welding work. They came up with a transparent welding curtain that absorbs, filters and scatters light to maximize protection of human eyes. The two scientists then began doing business as Eagle Eye Optics. Each pair of sunglasses comes complete with ultraviolet protection, dual layer scratch resistant coating, polarized filters for maximum protection against glare and high visual clarity. Sufficient evidence shows that damage to the eye, especially to the retina, starts much earlier than most people realize. Sun filtering sunglasses are important. Winglets seen at the tips of airplane wings are among aviations most visible fuel-saving, performance enhancing technology

  9. Society response to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, N. C.

    2007-01-01

    Energy demand in the world is growing increasingly, among other factors due to economic development. Every way of producing electricity has got their own drawbacks and has implicit environmental impact. Among all the energy sources, nuclear energy is the most polemic because of the way it is presented by the mass media. This aspect provokes controversy to occidental societies which reject this kind of energy with arguments normally based on a wrong and insufficient knowledge of the matter. The antinuclear discourse, promoted late in the seventies, has gone deeply into the collective social unconscious and has undermined public acceptance of nuclear energy due to the fact, deeply exploited by antinuclear groups, of linking nuclear energy with the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In this sense, it is important to mention that in Japan there was a profound resentment and opposition to nuclear energy, because the memory of the nuclear bombings was permanently alive. However when the Japanese government told its people that this energy was necessary to boost their industrial development, Japanese citizens in an unprecedented attitude of patriotism overcame their most antagonist feelings, in order to contribute to the industrial development of their country. The result was that most of them voted in favour. Presently Japan gets 30% of its energy by means of 56 nuclear power plants and 1 more is under construction. Antinuclear groups took as their best emblem the accident of Chernobyl to justify their opposition to the nuclear power plants. The manipulation of this accident has been one of the most shameful in the nuclear history. It is widely known among the experts that the reactor used in Chernobyl was a type of military plutonium converter with a positive temperature reactivity coefficient, which made very dangerous its functioning. Any nuclear regulatory commission in democratic and responsible countries would have never authorized the use of this reactor

  10. The proceedings of China-Japan workshop on nuclear waste management and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    China-Japan workshop on Nuclear Waste Management and Reprocessing held by sponsors, Nuclear Chemical Engineering Association, Chinese nuclear Society and Division of nuclear Fuel Cycle and Environment, Atomic Energy Society of Japan and by co-sponsor, Nuclear and Radiochemistry Association, Chinese Nuclear Society, on April 5-7, 2000, in Beijing, China. The proceedings is published. It collected 34 articles. The contents include nuclear fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste processing and radioactive waste disposal, partitioning and transmutation, radionuclide migration, sorption and diffusion and actinide chemistry

  11. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  12. Optical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukaroff, I.; Fishman, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflecting optical dosimeter is a thin block of optical material having an input light pipe at one corner and an output light pipe at another corner, arranged so that the light path includes several reflections off the edges of the block to thereby greatly extend its length. In a preferred embodiment, one corner of the block is formed at an angle so that after the light is reflected several times between two opposite edges, it is then reflected several more times between the other two edges

  13. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  14. Quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flytzanis, C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Quantum Optics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program is focused on the behavior of dense and dilute materials submitted to short and high-intensity light radiation fields. Nonlinear optics techniques, with time and spatial resolution, are developed. An important research activity concerns the investigations on the interactions between the photon beams and the inhomogeneous or composite materials, as well as the artificial microstructures. In the processes involving molecular beams and surfaces, the research works on the photophysics of surfaces and the molecule-surface interactions, are included [fr

  15. Carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  16. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  17. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  18. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  19. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  20. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  1. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  2. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  3. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  4. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  5. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  6. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  7. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  8. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  9. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  10. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  11. Israel physical society 1993 annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The publication includes abstracts from several fields of physics: particle and fields, medical physics, astrophysics, condensed matter, plasma, computational physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, lasers and optics

  12. Israel Physical Society annual meeting 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The publication includes abstracts from several fields of physics: particle and fields, medical physics, astrophysics, condensed matter, plasma, computational physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, lasers and optics

  13. Marketing - tool transformation of traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Shinkarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of marketing on the TRANS­formation of a traditional society with its traditional values in a society of consumption. The de­velopment of capitalism inevitably leads to changes in the socio­political order of the whole modern world. This leads to the fact that the disappearance of the traditional elements of culture, crafts, songs and dances, rites, destroyed traditional norms and values, beliefs, moral and ethical values. Instead of the traditional culture is formed by the mass culture, society develops consumption goods and becoming all that you can sell. Marketing is one tool for the formation of a society of consumption, but it also performs other less prominent function transforms the traditional society into a consumer society with its values, mythology, norms and moral principles.

  14. Political repression, civil society and the politics of responding to AIDS in the BRICS nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Harris, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The policy responses to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have played out amid radically different political environments that have shaped state-civil society relations in critical ways. In contrasting these different environments, this article offers the first comparison of the policy response to AIDS in the BRICS nations and seeks to understand the way in which political context matters for conditioning the response to a major epidemic. Using a comparative historical approach, we find that while collaborative state-civil society relations have produced an aggressive response and successful outcomes in Brazil, democratic openness and state-civil society engagement has not necessarily correlated with an aggressive response or better outcomes in the other cases. Response to the epidemic has been worst by far in democratic South Africa, followed by Russia, where in the former, denialism and antagonistic state-civil society relations fuelled a delayed response and proved extremely costly in terms of human lives. In Russia, a lack of civil societal opportunity for mobilization and non-governmental organization (NGO) growth, political centralization and the state's unwillingness to work with NGOs led to an ineffective government response. Top-down bureaucratic rule and a reluctance to fully engage civil society in democratic India substantially delayed the state's efforts to engage in a successful partnership with NGOs. Nevertheless, China has done surprisingly well, in spite of its repressive approach and narrow engagement with civil society. And in all cases, we find the relationship between state and civil society to be evolving over time in important ways. These findings suggest the need for more research on the links between democratic openness, political repression and policy responses to epidemics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in

  15. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km 2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  16. Medical missionaries to China: the Jesuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2011-05-01

    The 15th and 16th centuries saw a religious revival in Europe and an increased interest in church missions. With geographical discoveries supported by strong monarchies in Spain, Portugal and later France, Catholic missions and in particular the Society of Jesus resumed the spread of Christianity to China. Convinced that it was wise policy to address themselves to the most influential upper classes, the Jesuits under the leadership of Father Matteo Ricci became friendly with the aristocrats and the intelligentsia. The Jesuits introduced Western scientific ideas into China and even practised medicine. Between periods of adversity and persecutions, Chinese emperors who valued them for their scientific expertise generally tolerated their missionary activities. Any lasting influence on Chinese culture was limited.

  17. Korean society of mechanical engineers 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This book introduces 60 years of Korean society of mechanical engineers with birth, foundation, development process, change of enforcement regulation and articles of association, important data of this association, 60 years of parts, committee and branch, business of association like academic event, publication, technical development business, supporting research centers, bond Korean society of mechanical engineers and mechanical industry and development of related organizations, development for industrial fields and development direction of Korean society of mechanical engineers.

  18. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  19. Development of Social Building Societies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a genesis of Social Building Societies in Poland starting from National Housing Fund through Workers Housing Estates Society in 1934.1939, announcement of cheap building system in New Housing Order in 1993 to Barbara Blida's and Irena Herbst's legislative initiative leading to establish Social Building Societies in 1995. According to International Permanent Social Building Committee social housing consists in supply houses with fixed minimum standard of comfort and equip...

  20. Kosovar Society through Secularism and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Dritero Arifi; Dr.Sc. Ylber Sela

    2013-01-01

    This paper will analyze the importance and the effects of religion, in Kosovar society. A great part of the paper, will analyze the social and the political relations in Post-War Kosovo. Initially it will elaborate religion and secularism, especially in theoreticall aspect, what impact have these definitions in modern societies. In order to explain what the importance of the religion in Kosovo is, we will focus on analyzing ethnical, social and political relations within Kosovo society. A...